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|Table of Contents|
|List of Illustrations|
|Chapter I - How to Reach Nassa...|
|Chapter II - Discovery of the Bahamas...|
|Chapter III - Aboriginal Inhab...|
|Chapter IV - The Buccaneers|
|Chapter V - Charter and Settlement...|
|Chapter VI - Expulsis Piratis,...|
|Chapter VII - Capture of Nassau...|
|Chapter VIII - Conquest and Settlement...|
|Chapter IX - Nassau During the...|
|Chapter X - Blockade Running|
|Chapter XI - Nassau|
|Chapter XII - Places of Interest...|
|Chapter XIII - The Out Islands|
|Chapter XIV - The Monument Erected...|
|Chapter XV - Description of the...|
|Chapter XVI - The Inhabitants of...|
|Chapter XVII - Negroes and...|
|Chapter XVIII - Government|
|Chapter XIX - Commerce and...|
|Chapter XX - Sponge Fisheries|
|Chapter XXI - Climate - The Bahamas...|
|Chapter XXII - The Geological Formation...|
|Chapter XXIII - Religion and...|
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|Table of Contents|
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Chapter I - How to Reach Nassau
Chapter II - Discovery of the Bahamas by Columbus
Chapter III - Aboriginal Inhabitants
Chapter IV - The Buccaneers
Chapter V - Charter and Settlement of the Bahamas
Chapter VI - Expulsis Piratis, Restituta Commercia
Chapter VII - Capture of Nassau by Commodore Hopkins
Chapter VIII - Conquest and Settlement of the Bahamas by the Loyalists
Chapter IX - Nassau During the Blockade
Chapter X - Blockade Running
Chapter XI - Nassau
Chapter XII - Places of Interest in the Vicinity of Nassau
Chapter XIII - The Out Islands
Chapter XIV - The Monument Erected to Mark the Spot on which Columbus Landed
Chapter XV - Description of the Bahamas in 1783
Chapter XVI - The Inhabitants of the Bahamas, their Manners and Customs.
Chapter XVII - Negroes and Slavery
Chapter XVIII - Government
Chapter XIX - Commerce and Agriculture
Chapter XX - Sponge Fisheries
Chapter XXI - Climate - The Bahamas as a Health Resort
Chapter XXII - The Geological Formation of the Bahamas
Chapter XXIII - Religion and Education
William L. Bryant
CITY AND HARBOR OF NASSAU.
HISTORY AND GUIDE
A DESCRIPTION OF EVERYTHING ON OR ABOUT THE
BAHAMA ISLANDS OF WHICH THE VISITOR OR
RESIDENT MAY DESIRE INFORMATION.
HISTORY, INHABITANTS, CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE,
GEOLOGY, GOVERNMENT AND RESOURCES.
WITH MAPS, ENGRAVINGS AND PHOTO-PRINTS.
JAMES H. STARK.
JAMES H. STARK,
31 MILK STREET,
COPYRIGHT I 91,
JAMES H. STARK.
H. M. PLIMPTON & CO., PRINTERS & BINDERS,
NORWOOD, MASS., U S A.
In the following pages it has been the author's
intention to produce, as the title indicates, a history
and guide to the Bahama Islands. In the perform-
ance of this task every available source of informa-
tion known to him has been drawn upon, the best
authorities have been consulted, such as Bruce's,
McKinnen's, Edwards', and Bacot's histories, from
which much valuable information have been com-
piled, and also from some recent works on the
Bahamas, such as Powles, Ives, Drysdale's and the
The author is under special obligation to His
Excellency, Sir Ambrose Shea, governor of the
Bahamas, Hon. G. C. Camplejohn, judge of the
Court of Common Pleas, Mr. A. E. Moseley,
publisher of the Nassau Guardian and Almanac,
Mr. R. W. Parsons of the Ward Line of steamers,
and Mr. J. F. Coonley for'the many courtesies and
valuable aid extended the author in obtaining mate-
rials for his work.
The illustrations in this work were obtained from
several sources and produced by various methods.
The photo-mechanical prints, which are in effect
like a photograph,were made from negatives taken
by the author. The wood cut illustrations were
kindly loaned by Mr. R. W. Parsons of the Ward
Steamship Co. The half tone engravings were
made direct from photographs furnished by Mr,
J. F. Coonley, the Nassau photographer. The
ancient copper plate engravings and maps were
reproduced from the originals by the Photo Electro-
type Co. of Boston.
In compiling this work it has been the author's
earnest desire to be accurate in every particular,
but even the most painstaking assiduity and the
best intention are insufficient to ensure perfection in
this regard. The reader who detects errors is
requested to communicate with the writer, in order
that the necessary changes may be made in subse-
L/ C/^L^-.i /'^n f
I. THE VOYAGE TO NASSAU, .
II. DISCOVERY OF TIE BAHAMAS BY COLUMBUS, II
III. ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS, 24
IV. THE BUCCANEERS, 36
V. CHARTER AND SETTLEMENT OF THE BAHAMAS, 51
VI. EXPULSIS PIRATES, RESTITUTA COMMERCIAL, 59
VII. CAPTURE OF NASSAU BY COMMODORE HOPKINS, 71
VIII. CONQUEST AND SETTLEMENT OF THE BAHAMAS
BY THE LOYALISTS, 75
IX. NASSAU DURING TIE BLOCKADE, 88
X. BLOCKADE RUNNING, 97
XI. NASSAU, 106
XII. PLACES OF INTEREST IN TIE VICINITY OF NASSAU, 118
XIII. THE OUT ISLANDS, 127
XIV. TIE MONUMENT ERECTED TO MARK TIE SPOT
ON WHICH COLUMBUS LANDED, 162
XV. DESCRIPTION OF TIE BAHAMAS IN 1783, 169
XVI. THE INHABITANTS OF THE BAHAMAS, THEIR
MANNERS AND CUSTOMS, 176
XVII. NEGROES AND SLAVERY, 186
XVIII. GOVERNMENT, 195
XIX. COMMERCE AND AGRICULTURE, 207
XX. SPONGE FISHERIES, 216
XXI. CLIMATE-THE BAHAMAS AS A HEALTH RESORT, 223
XXII. THE GEOLOGICAL FORMATION OF TIE BAHAMAS. 228
XXIII. RELIGION AND EDUCATION, 237
Abaco described, .. 145
Aborigines, description of, .24
Andros, Sir Edmund, Governor of Massachusetts, 131
Andros Island described, 131
Bahamas, Location, .. 2
Discovery of, 11
Occupied by Buccaneers, 37
Charter and Settlement, .51
Lord Proprietors of, .52
Conquered by the Loyalists, 75
Out Islands, .. 127
Description of in 1783, 169
Manners and Customs of Inhabitants at present
Bayleytown described, .151
Bermuda formerly possessed Turks Island, 160
Climate compared with the Bahamas, 2
Berry Island described.. 135
Biminis Islands described, 148
Blake, Governor, account of, 181
Blennerhasset, Harman, resided in the Bahamas, 183
Blockade of Southern States described. 88
Running the, 97
Blue Hills described, 119
Brown, Thomas, of Georgia Loyalist, 83
Boston, Refugees from Eleuthera arrive there, 55
Buccaneers, description of, 36
their exploits, 42
Caicos Islands described, .161
Cat Island described,. .
not San Salvador, .
Caves, description of
Carolinas, Bahamas granted to proprietors of,
Cayos occupied by pirates,. .
Charter granted to the Lord Proprietors,
Cherokee Sound described, .
Chicago Herald Monument on Watling's Island,
Churches in Nassau and vicinity,
Claraco, Spanish Governor of the Bahamas,
Clifton, an old estate near Nassau, described
Climate of the Bahamas, .
Cockburntown described, .
Columbus, description of, .. I1
discovered the Bahamas, 15
Commerce and Agriculture-fruit, sponge and fibre industry, 211
Confederacy, Southern, and Great Britain, .88
Coral Reefs, formation of, .. 229
Crooked Island Group described, .. 155
Current Island, description of 139
Curry House described, o
Davis, Jefferson, complains of Great Britain, 92
Davis, John, buccaneer, captures Granada, .42
Deveaux, Andrew, of South Carolina, loyalist, .76
Dunmoretown described, 136
Education in the Bahamas, 237
Eleuthera described, .. 136
Town, ... 138
Petition of refugees, 143
Esquemeling, John, buccaneer and historian, 38
Exuma, Great and Little, described, 153
Florida climate compared with the Bahamas,
Fort Nassau built, 56
Geological formation of the Bahamas, 228
Glass window described, 137
Government of the Bahamas, described, 195
Meeting of Parliament, 198
Compared with the United States, 204
Grand Bahama Island described, 147
Graves, Admiral, claims the Bahamas, 53
Green Turtle Cay described, 146
Gregorytown described, 140
Guanhani, first land discovered by Columbus, 18
Gulf Stream described,. 2
I arbor Island described, .. 136
Health resort, Bahamas recommended, 223
Ilog Island described, 7
lopetown described, 46
Slopkins, Commodore captured Nassau, 71
Engagement with Frigate Glasgow, 73
Censured and dismissed by Congress, 74
House of Assembly-Governor Maxwell's address, 174
Reply to same, .. 175
Blennethasset, speeches of, 185
Hotels-Royal Victoria, 8
Curry House, 10
Inagua Island described, 58
Indians, Aborigines of the Bahamas, 24
Modern treatment of, .33
Inhabitants in the Bahamas in 1782, 170
I.as Casas, historian of Columbus' voyage, 15
Long Island, description of, 154
Lord Proprietors of the Bahamas, 52
Loyalists, American, capture Nassau,. 75
an account of, .80
Lucayos, Indian name of the Bahamas, 24
Natives of the Bahamas, 27
Extermination of,. 30
Marsh Harbor described, 147
Mayaguana Island described, ..159
Mermaid's Pool, account of, .120
Methodists in the Bahamas, 1o
Morgan, chief of the Buccaneers, 43
Captures Puerto del Principi, 44
Captures Porto Bello, .44
Captures Maracaibo and Gibraltar, 46
Destroys the Spanish fleet, 48
Plunders Panama, 49
Nassau, voyage to, 2
Nassau Pihates expelled, 59
Captured by Commodore Hopkins, 7.
Captured by the loyalists, 75
Captured by the Spaniards, 7
During the Southern blockade, 8
Present appearance of, 106
Vicinity of, .. 118
Negroes, their manners and customs, .. 186
Slave sale, 19
Slavery, .. 192
New Plymouth described, .. 146
New Providence named, 52
Out Islands, general description of, 127
Panama destroyed by Buccaneers, 49
Pirates occupy the Bahamas, 58
Their exploits,. 63
Execution of, 69
Pope Alexander grants the new world to Spain, .27
Porte Bello plundered by Morgan, 44
Puerto del Principi captured by Buccaneers, 43
Ragged Island described, 55
Religion in the Bahamas, 237
Rock Sound described, 142
Rogers, Woodes, commissioned Governor, .58
Expels the pirates, .. ..59
Royal Victoria lotel described, .. 8
Rum Cay described, .. 152
San Salvador discovered by Columbus, 22
description of, 151
Savannah Sound described, .141
Say le, Captain, names New Providence, 51
first describes the Bahamas, 52
Scott, Lewis, buccaneer, captures St. Francis, 42
Shea, Sir Ambrose, introduces the cultivation of sisal fibre, 211
Shirley, William, Governor of the Bahamas, 133
Sioux Indians, Massacre of by United States troops, .34
South Carolina, silver mace of, 79
Spaniards, Buccaneers attack them, 36
Captured Nassau, 75
Expelled the English, 5'
Are driven out by the Loyalists, 75
Spanish Wells, settlement at, 138
Sponge Fisheries, account of, 216
Tarpum Bay, settlement at, 142
Teach, pirate captain, .. .63
Turks Island, description of, 160
Voyage to Nassau described,
Ward Line of Steamers, 4
Watling's Island, the land-fall of Columbus, 23
Waterloo Lake described, .124
Wemys's Bight, settlement at 142
Wilson, Lieutenant, Report on the Bahamas in 1783, 169
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
City and Harbor of Nassau from Victoria Hotel, Frontispiece.
Map showing location of the Bahamas, 3
Nassau Mail Steamer, 5
West View of Royal Victoria Hotel, 7
Bay Street, Nassau, 9
Coast Chart of the Bahama Islands, .
Columbus and his Sons, 13
Landing of Columbus, 17
Royal Palm, Cumberland Street, 27
Natives of the West Indies, 29
The Banyan Tree, *., 4'
Sacking of Puerto del Principe 44
Destruction of. the Admiral's Flagship, 47
View from Fort Charlotte, 55
Visitors on the Road to Fort Montague, 73
Queen Street and Entrance to Harbor, 81
A View at the Eastward, .91
George Street, Harbor and Hog Island, .07
Fort Fincastle, 108
The Queen's Staircase, III
George Street and Government House, 113
The Vendue House, "15
Map of Nassau, I17
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Road to the Blue Hills, 119
The Beach at Fort Montague. 121
Basket Making in a Grantstown Cabin, 123
Waterloo Lake, 125
Map of the Bahama Islands, 127
Map of the Bahama Islands made in 1799, 129
The Glass Window, Eleuthera, 137
A Scene at Grantstown, .. 153
A Ceiba or Silk Cotton Tree, 73
American Consul's Residence, 179
Street Scene in Nassau, 187
A Native African IIut, 189
A Festival in Slavery Days, 191
Nassau Police Force, 193
The Public Buildings, 197
Government House, 201
A Pineapple Field, 209
Sponge Trimmers, 211
A Sisal Plantation, 213
Sponge Fleet, 219
The Sea Gardens, 231
Early Morning in Nassau Market, 235
St. Agnes Church, Grantstown, 239
Nassau Library, 241
Seal of the Bahamas, 243
STARK'S HISTORY AND GUIDE
HOW TO REACH NASSAU.
The Bahama Islands are the nearest tropical country
to New York. For those flying from the rigors of a
northern winter we can imagine no climate offer-
ing greater attractions. There the trees are ever
green, flowers ever bloom, all kinds of tropical fruit
are in abundance, and frost is unknown. The lan-
guage used is English, and life and property are as safe
there as in any part of the world.
Nassau, the principal town and capital of the
Bahama Islands, is a city of twelve thousand inhab-
itants. It is situated on the island of New Providence,
which is about fourteen miles long and five miles
Nassau lies as far south as the lowest part of the
Florida coast, between which and it flows the Gulf
Stream, which makes the climate so much more
equable than that of Florida. It is distant from New
York nine hundred and sixty miles.
There are two ways to reach Nassau. You can go
direct from New York by a Ward Line steamer from
2 STARK'S HISTORY AND GUIDE.
the foot of Wall street, next to the Fulton Ferry, or
by the steamship Antilia," belonging to the Bahama
Steamship Company; but to persons that do not like
a sea voyage, the twelve hours' sail from Miami,
Florida, may prove preferable to the longer trip from
The Ward Line steamers, under the present mail
contract with the Bahama Government, sail from New
York every alternate Thursday, saloon fare one way
$40.00, round trip $70.00. The "Antilia" leaves
New York every four weeks for Nassau. Single fare
$30.00, both ways $50.00.
A winter voyage to the Bahamas from New York
is indeed a wonderful change from the icy and snow-
bound North to the land of perpetual verdure and
After leaving Sandy Hook the course of the steamer
is a little west of south, giving the passengers a good
view of the Highlands, Long Branch, and Cape May.
The next land sighted is in the Bahamas.
The steamer leaves Hatteras fifty miles to the west-
ward, and there is not an island or dangerous obstruc-
tion in the whole distance, and usually the voyage is
smooth and pleasant.
The Ward Line steamers are first-class in every
respect, and can be classed as being among the finest
Besides the comfort now found in all the best
passenger steamers, good fare, electric bells, bath,
piano, and luxurious furnishings of the saloon, -
there is that which makes these vessels doubly com-
fortable the politeness and attentiveness of the
officers and men; passengers can depend on receiving
from them the very best of attention.
The trip from New York by way of Florida is of
course much more expensive, yet it gives the tourist
MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF THE BAHAMAS.
4 S.ARK'S HI'SIORY AND GUIDE.
an opportunity of seeing Washington, Richmond,
Charleston, and Savannah while on the way to Florida.
Reaching Jacksonville, the route is over the East Coast
Railway, a distance of three hundred and sixty-six
miles, to Miami. This railroad, together with the East
Coast Hotel System and steamship line from Miami
to Nassau and Key West, owes its origin and existence
to Henry M. Fiagler, who operates and owns the
The hotels are the finest to be found at any winter
or summer resort in the world, and are the principal
attraction to be seen on the Florida route to Nassau.
Every tourist should spend at least one day at each of
these hotels while en route to Miami. It breaks the
journey and gives the traveller an opportunity of see-
ing the most interesting places on the east coast of
The first place of interest after leaving Jacksonville
is St. Augustine, the most ancient city in the United
States. It was discovered in 1512 by Juan Ponce de
Leon, and permanently settled in 1565 by Don Pedro
Menendez de Aviles. The most interesting attrac-
tions are the old Spanish fort, begun in 1565 by the
first negro slaves brought to America, and finished as
Fort San Marco in 1756; the City Gates; and the
Plaza, containing the old market building, Confederate
monument, and the monument commemorating the
New Spanish Constitution; and the Post-office build-
ing, formerly the residence of the Spanish Governor.
There is also St. Francis Barracks, formerly a mon-
astery, now occupied by United States troops, and the
narrow streets and overhanging balconies, which
make the old city both curious and interesting. Of
the modern attractions, the crowning glory of the
ancient city are the Spanish-Moresque Hotel Palaces,
the Ponce de Leon, Alcazar, and Cordova. They
NASSAU MAIL STEAMER.
6 STARK'S HISTORY AND GUIDE.
consist of palaces, with towers, courts, fountains,
loggias, and cool retreats set amid surroundings
designed to embody the beauties of Spanish architect-
ure, with decorations suggestive of the history of
Florida and St. Augustine, with every detail of con-
struction, adornment, and appointment befitting their
position here in a city whose patent came down three
centuries ago from the sovereign of the proudest
dominion on the globe. Of these hotel palaces the
grandest and most magnificent is the Ponce de Leon,
said to have cost two million dollars, and not equalled
by any building of its kind in the world.
From St. Augustine the railroad extends in a south-
westerly direction through the pine lands, while here
and there are seen the bright green of the sugar-cane,
and at East Palatka the first and only glimpse of the
St. John's River is obtained. From here the line ex-
tends in a southerly direction to Ormond, where the
Hotel Ormond is located. This place is noted for its
wheeling and driving, coupled with a hard beach
where a spin on the bicycle or behind a pair of good
horses is most enjoyable. The drive to Daytona, a
distance of six miles over a beautiful road, and a trip
on the Tomoka River, are well worth taking.
From Ormond to Palm Beach, a distance of two
hundred miles, the railroad for the greater part of the
distance skirts the Indian River, and constantly crosses
creeks and rivers. On approaching Lake Worth
hundreds of acres of pineapples are passed. Here
the train passes over the Lake Worth bridge to the
noted Hotel Royal Poinciana and Palm Beach Inn.
These hotels rank next to the St. Augustine hotels
of the East Coast Hotel System. The Poinciana is on
Lake Worth, and the Inn on the ocean beach. They
are connected by a magnificent avenue of palms.
Along the shore of the lake and through the many
WET V OF ROYAL VICTORIA HOTEL
WEST VIEW OF ROYAL VICTORIA HOTIL.
STARK'S HISTORY AND GUIDE.
cocoanut-shaded avenues are numerous beautiful
cottages, the winter residences of wealthy northern
Some of the attractions at Palm Beach are the
surf bathing and large swimming-pool; the original
Indian trails, now bicycle paths; the Ocean Pier, from
which can be caught a great variety of fish; and sail-
ing on Lake Worth and the ocean. From Lake
Worth to Miami the distance is about seventy miles.
The train crosses numerous streams, which are outlets
of the Everglades. Large acreages of muck land
have been reclaimed, on which are raised tomatoes,
beans, celery, and other vegetables.
Miami, the future metropolis, of South Florida,
although but three years old at the time of writing, has
paved streets, sewers, and all the conveniences ofan old
settled community. It is situated on the site of old
Fort Dallas, where the Miami River enters Biscayne
Bay, a large body of clear salt water, protected from
the ocean by the picturesque Florida Keys. The
Hotel Royal Palm has accommodations for six hun-
dred guests. It is a part of the East Coast Hotel
System, and is very fine in all its appointments. The
grounds are beautifully laid out with beds of tropical
plants and long avenues of cocoanut and palm trees.
The steamship "Miami makes tri-weekly trips
between Miami and Nassau during the winter season.
This vessel was built especially for the service at the
shipyard of the Cramps in Philadelphia. She has
accommodations for one hundred and twenty-five
passengers, and is furnished with a luxury and ele-
gance unequalled by any vessel on the coast.
Therefore it is an easy journey to Nassau. The
voyage is usually made in the night, it taking about
twelve hours' time on a sea that is smooth and land-
locked nearly the entire distance.
8 STARK'S HISTORY AND GUIDE.
The fare from New York to Jacksonville via Miami
is, one way, $50.00, round trip $90.00. The fare
one way from Jacksonville to Nassau is $35.15, round
On a recent trip to Nassau the writer left Miami at
four in the afternoon. After a smooth run during the
night we approached, in the early dawn, a long, low
line of green cays, and soon we saw the graceful
groves of cocoanut and the spires of Nassau in the
gleaming sun now rising in a cloudless sky. The
steamer passed in around Hog Island, a beautiful coral
islet three miles long, which forms a natural break-
water and enables Nassau to claim the best port in
the Bahamas. The steamer then approaches the
landing built of coral limestone next to the custom
house wharf. On landing we found ourselves in the
park, beyond which, close to the summit of the hill, is
the Royal Victoria.
To reach it we walked a short distance through the
park, crossing Bay Street, the principal business
street in the city, then followed Parliament Street up
the hill to the hotel, passing the Houses of Parliament,
Police Station, and Public Library. The street is
lined with almond trees, is white, broad, and smooth,
being cut out of the coral rock of which the island
is formed. In our walk to the hotel we found the
air sweet with the perfume of all the wild flowers of
summer, and the temperature about seventy-seven
It was a charming transition from the glare of the
street to the cool, spacious verandas of the hotel, which
occupies an elevated position commanding a superb
prospect over the city, the harbor, and the ocean
The Royal Victoria Hotel is the finest building on
the island. It was built by the Government in i860, to
k~ -~~-- -
BAY STREET, NASSAU.
10 STARK'S HISTORY AND GUIDE.
meet demands that had grown to be great and press-
ing. Neither pains nor expense were spared in mak-
ing it conform to every requirement conducive to
health and comfort. It was run very successfully for
a number of years by a brother of ex-President
Cleveland, who perished in the steamer that was de-
stroyed by fire off Abaco. It is now a part of the
Florida East Coast Hotel System, and everything
connected with the hotel has recently been renovated,
refurnished, and refitted throughout.
It is built principally of coral limestone, is four
stories high, and has three piazzas ten feetwide sur-
rounding it. As its site at the head of Parliament
Street is ninety feet above tide water, the views from
these piazzas like the air that fans them are ex-
ceptionally fine. Here, for the benefit of those in-
valids who cannot journey about, is a promenade of
one thousand feet.
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