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The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s. From Negritude to Natty Dread: An Introduction

The Ro e of the Caribbean in B ack
Intellectual Movements, 1940s-
1970s.
Part 1: From Negritude to Natty
Dread: An Introduction.
1R'
y^
A
W.E.B. Dubois in Haiti, 1940s.


Plan of Presentation
Background to Caribbean connections with North
America and Intellectual Movements.
Historical example of the Haitian Revolution.
Caribbean Movement(s) and Intellectual
Movements.
Intellectual Movements and Caribbean
Connections.
Conclusions.
FEEL FREE TO ASK QUESTIONS AT ANY TIME.


The Caribbean
FLORIDA
FLORIDA KEYS
CANCUN&
COZUMEL ^^

CAYMAN
ISLANDS

^ BELIZE
GUATEMALA fitli
hondSB^

nicaragua
V i:
COSTA ^
RICA
V
BRTHSH VIRGIN ISLANDS-

BERMUDA -^
ST. MARHN
U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS SABA
ANGUIUA
/ ST. BAKTS
/ STEUSTATIUS
'' ^ .^ANnGUA&
e^^ BARBUDA
GUADELOUPE
^-^ BAHAMAS
ST. KHTS & NEVIS / < -
CUBA
JAMAICA
^ ^ TURKS AND
-^ CAICOS ISLANDS
MARTINIQUE-%
ST LUCIA
ST. VINCENT AND
THE GRENADINES

'<:i
HAITI DOMINICAN
.REPUBUC
PUERTO'
RICO
GRENADA -^
ARUBA CURACAO
<5b /
o



a
f
^^,
PANAMA
BARBADOS
TRINIDAD &
TOBAGO


The Haitian Revolution as Example of
Caribbean Connections
TO TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE Whether the whistlina Rustic tend his
louah Within thv hearina. or thv head be now Pillowed in some
deeo dunaeon's earless den: O miserable Oiieftalnl where and
when Wilt thou find oatience? Yet die not: do thou Wear rather in
thv bonds a cheerful brow: Thouah fallen thvself. never to rise
aaain. Live, and take comfort. Thou hast left behind Powers that will
work for thee: air. earth, and skies: There's not a breathina of the
common wind That will foraet thee: thou hast areat allies: Th
lends are eaatltatlons. aaonies. And love, and man's unconauerable
mind

^William Wordsworth
iTG^'iDA
"^rfi'
:: .7:1 .
... :!i

': i
.'...... ...71*1.
sj^fV:
c
i.......________________
i.?
A
HtiPUilLIu


Caribbean Migration as a factor in
Intellectual Exchange

n':^


i -r
11821-1830 1841-1858 1861-1878 1881-1890 1981-1918 1921-1938 1941-1958 1961-1978 1981-1990
Source: Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics, 2003 Yearbook of
Immigration Statistics (September 2004).


Sonne Caribbean Intellectual
Movennents
-> Garveyism
->Negritude/Negrismo
-> Noirisme
->IVIarxism
-> Blacl< Nationalism
->Anti-Colonialism
-> Democratic Socialism
-> Rastafari


Garveyism
-Black Nationalism based on the
teachings and
philosophies of Marcus Garvey,
fronn Jannaica.

-The UNIA (United Negro
Innprovennent Association) was
Dased in Harlenn, NYanc
Had over 1,000 chapters in
40 countries.
-The height of Garveyisnn was
1930s but the nnovennent would i £
nave enduring innpact. ^


1930s-1940s:Negritude/Negrismo
Black cultural nnovennent that
began in Paris in the 1920s anc
spread in the 1930s annong French
colonial students.
Was heavily influenced by the
Harlenn Renaissance.
Involved a celebration of Black
aesthetics and culture in art,
poetry, writing, and intellectual
thought.
Negritude influenced the Cuban
variant, Negrisnno in the 1930s.
For French and Spanish Caribbean
intellectuals it was the defining
black consciousness nnovennent of
the interwar years.


1930S-1940S
(Indigenous
^H^.
^ V
9
Jean Price-Mars
: Indigenisme
Movt Haiti)
l' ANNUr: N- 3
Stlt'TEMHIfk- lixn.
L Liii AnT* ET La Vtiz

PH.-T."Hoiiv-MAUCi-:ijx
,- K- Rm-UFH

J. Koi'MAlX
A. Vrri-x
Pti.-TJioiiv-Micri i.iv
IJaNIEI. llEI'ltTKI.OC
soM>rAinK
L.*.\nfco.- l4jivitf>*iJ Ittiilv^titfl
A ll^vnilMWil ItmHrri^i

Krril. 7ir d** I'I-Ilaii fTXtri*il r


L^ liervs t*ite-|^ iVmailG ttnsiii }
ISk^lflt*?!

l^ l*r^^4ii-W' KAlil li^bi-aini
II. Hnr.Movif
le I'AcsMleiui^ PrMn^aiT^c
CAaiL lllNIIIAtlU

Pi[. TariBV MikRCtLiK
fr^liAXC'i^ dr 3d tuxAJb Slifte
AstTmvro Vif:i-Y

Tnl. |mj- JaCQL'CS RQIT^AtN'
fHAMIKI. IlKUVTCLOr, ^^lt.K:

TrJ- pur SSaux Acs
.m
UPRIMBICIE -.KjbEl.fl
I <. Ans* dn Ruc>Cfnrbc& Mrjrjaa

JRT.AI--JBLSCE. r HAITI i


1940s-1970s: Marxisnn
Since the period of the Great Depression
Marxist ideas took firm root in Caribbean
radical politics. The influences were from the
U.S. (CPUSA) as well as U.S.S.R.
After WWII the Marxist movement expanded
and influenced party politics, especially in
Cuba, Jamaica, and Haiti.


Marxisnn Cuba
1920s-1950s
Fornned in 1920s.
Had strong connections with
U.S.S.R
Suppressed by various
governnnents.

1950s onward
Influenced the revolutionary
nnovennent in Cuba that led to
the Castro Revolution of 1959.
Becanne the guiding ideology in
Cuba fronn 1960s to present.
Had a MAJOR influence on
connnnunist nnovennents
elsewhere in the Caribbean.
1 fc. 1311
di r/iM;^

mfy^m ^ :_..
Socialist Party Headquarters, Havana.


Marxism -Jamaica
1940s-1950s
Marxisnn in JA begins with Party fornnation in
the early 1940s.
The early Marxists were expelled during the
Cold War pressures of the 1950s.

1960s-1970s
Marxisnn grows annong radical youth.
They are influenced by the radical
nnovennents in Cuba following the
Revolution
and the radical nnovennents in the U.S. in the
1960s.
Several nnovennents are created by Marxist
Youth including: Young Socialist League;
Workers liberation League; and Workers
Party of Jannaica.
1^' IM
radio JAMAICA" HJ
^m^EiRNE -tSe'


Democratic Socialism
Launched by the PNP Government in Jamaica in 1974
as a response to the global crisis caused by recession
in the early seventies.
Had earlier roots; Norman Manley drated a plan for
democratic socialism in the 1960s. Built on the PNP's
reputation as being left from centre.
Incorporated several of the ideas of contemporary
currents --Marxism in particular, as well as Black
Nationalism and anti-Colonialism.


Black Nationalism
Drew heavily fronn the Civil Rights and Black Power in the U.S.
Many of that era had Caribbean links, such as Stokely Carnnichael/Kwanne Ture,
who was fronn Trinidad.
P!V,^(S*i^
:>^
'.v<-
r^/v
M-
E-ii
m
:Al^k


Black Power in the Caribbean
Walter Rodney, (Guyanese intellectual )1969:
"Black Power in the West Indies nneans these
three closely related things:
l)The break with innperialisnn which is
historically white racist.
2)The assunnption of power by the black
nnasses of the islands.
3)The cultural reconstruction of the society in
the innage of the blacks.

These are the areas with which we as black
people nnust concern ourselves hereafter."
THE RISE OF
BLACK POWER JIN
THE WEST INDIES
b W u R d


m.
'^
Rastafari
M
1^
%
\ ^.
.'
fl
V '
z.%.
4^1
t
^.'
J \
Movennent brings together nnany of the currents of the previous
decades: Garveyisnn; Negritude; Black Nationalisnn; Black Power; Anti-
colonialisnn.


Conclusions
The Caribbean has always been integrated with other
countries in the Americas, particularly the U.S.
In the twentieth century these connections tightened
as a result of increased movement across the region.
As the Caribbean entered a transformative phase,
1940s-1970s, it drew heavily on currents coming from
North America, and in turn influenced these very
currents. This influence guided the development of a
complex interchange of movements and ideas across
the region.


Further Reading
Evelyne Stephens & John Stephens, Democratic Socialism in
Jamaica
Matthew J. Smith, Red and Black in Haiti
Selwyn Ryan, Race & Nationalism in Trinidad and Tobago
Elizabeth Thomas Hope, Caribbean Migration
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey
Magdaline Shannon, Jean Price Mars, the Haitian elite and the
American Occupation
J Michael Dash, Literature and Ideology in Haiti
Sam Farber, Origins of the Cuban Revolution Reconsidered.
Brian Meeks, Radical Caribbean
Barry Chevannes, Rastafari: Roots and Ideology


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00000277/00001

Material Information

Title: The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s. From Negritude to Natty Dread: An Introduction Presentation Slides and Video
Series Title: Teacher Training Workshop: Caribbean Leaders' Contributions to Black Intellectual Movements (2010)
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Smith, Matthew J.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Caribbean Studies, dLOC Presentation

Notes

Abstract: Part of: Teacher Training Workshop: Caribbean Leaders' Contributions to Black Intellectual Movements (2010). Professional development workshop for primary and secondary teachers positions the Caribbean as a site for the transference, interpretation and promotion of larger movements and provides an overview of various Caribbean leaders and their ties to black intellectual movements, while highlighting motivating factors for engagement and diversity among some of the more influential, and also infamous figures. Led by Matthew J. Smith, Ph.D., Department of History and Archaeology, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Sponsored by the Latin American and Caribbean Center at FIU, in partnership with Miami Dade County Public Schools. The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s. From Negritude to Natty Dread: An Introduction From Garvey to Marley: A Look at Caribbean Leadership.
Abstract: Caribbean Studies Scholarly presentation sponsored by dLOC.
Funding: Support for the development of the technical infrastructure and partner training provided by the United States Department of Education TICFIA program.

Record Information

Source Institution: Florida International University ( SOBEK page | external link )
Holding Location: Florida International University ( SOBEK page | external link )
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: IR00000277:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00000277/00001

Material Information

Title: The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s. From Negritude to Natty Dread: An Introduction Presentation Slides and Video
Series Title: Teacher Training Workshop: Caribbean Leaders' Contributions to Black Intellectual Movements (2010)
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Smith, Matthew J.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Caribbean Studies, dLOC Presentation

Notes

Abstract: Part of: Teacher Training Workshop: Caribbean Leaders' Contributions to Black Intellectual Movements (2010). Professional development workshop for primary and secondary teachers positions the Caribbean as a site for the transference, interpretation and promotion of larger movements and provides an overview of various Caribbean leaders and their ties to black intellectual movements, while highlighting motivating factors for engagement and diversity among some of the more influential, and also infamous figures. Led by Matthew J. Smith, Ph.D., Department of History and Archaeology, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Sponsored by the Latin American and Caribbean Center at FIU, in partnership with Miami Dade County Public Schools. The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s. From Negritude to Natty Dread: An Introduction From Garvey to Marley: A Look at Caribbean Leadership.
Abstract: Caribbean Studies Scholarly presentation sponsored by dLOC.
Funding: Support for the development of the technical infrastructure and partner training provided by the United States Department of Education TICFIA program.

Record Information

Source Institution: Florida International University ( SOBEK page | external link )
Holding Location: Florida International University ( SOBEK page | external link )
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: IR00000277:00001

Full Text
The Ro e of the Caribbean in B ack
Intellectual Movements, 1940s-
1970s.
Part 1: From Negritude to Natty
Dread: An Introduction.
1R'
y^
A
W.E.B. Dubois in Haiti, 1940s.


Plan of Presentation
Background to Caribbean connections with North
America and Intellectual Movements.
Historical example of the Haitian Revolution.
Caribbean Movement(s) and Intellectual
Movements.
Intellectual Movements and Caribbean
Connections.
Conclusions.
FEEL FREE TO ASK QUESTIONS AT ANY TIME.


The Caribbean
FLORIDA
FLORIDA KEYS
CANCUN&
COZUMEL ^^

CAYMAN
ISLANDS

^ BELIZE
GUATEMALA fitli
hondSB^

nicaragua
V i:
COSTA ^
RICA
V
BRTHSH VIRGIN ISLANDS-

BERMUDA -^
ST. MARHN
U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS SABA
ANGUIUA
/ ST. BAKTS
/ STEUSTATIUS
'' ^ .^ANnGUA&
e^^ BARBUDA
GUADELOUPE
^-^ BAHAMAS
ST. KHTS & NEVIS / < -
CUBA
JAMAICA
^ ^ TURKS AND
-^ CAICOS ISLANDS
MARTINIQUE-%
ST LUCIA
ST. VINCENT AND
THE GRENADINES

'<:i
HAITI DOMINICAN
.REPUBUC
PUERTO'
RICO
GRENADA -^
ARUBA CURACAO
<5b /
o



a
f
^^,
PANAMA
BARBADOS
TRINIDAD &
TOBAGO


The Haitian Revolution as Example of
Caribbean Connections
TO TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE Whether the whistlina Rustic tend his
louah Within thv hearina. or thv head be now Pillowed in some
deeo dunaeon's earless den: O miserable Oiieftalnl where and
when Wilt thou find oatience? Yet die not: do thou Wear rather in
thv bonds a cheerful brow: Thouah fallen thvself. never to rise
aaain. Live, and take comfort. Thou hast left behind Powers that will
work for thee: air. earth, and skies: There's not a breathina of the
common wind That will foraet thee: thou hast areat allies: Th
lends are eaatltatlons. aaonies. And love, and man's unconauerable
mind

^William Wordsworth
iTG^'iDA
"^rfi'
:: .7:1 .
... :!i

': i
.'...... ...71*1.
sj^fV:
c
i.......________________
i.?
A
HtiPUilLIu


Caribbean Migration as a factor in
Intellectual Exchange

n':^


i -r
11821-1830 1841-1858 1861-1878 1881-1890 1981-1918 1921-1938 1941-1958 1961-1978 1981-1990
Source: Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics, 2003 Yearbook of
Immigration Statistics (September 2004).


Sonne Caribbean Intellectual
Movennents
-> Garveyism
->Negritude/Negrismo
-> Noirisme
->IVIarxism
-> Blacl< Nationalism
->Anti-Colonialism
-> Democratic Socialism
-> Rastafari


Garveyism
-Black Nationalism based on the
teachings and
philosophies of Marcus Garvey,
fronn Jannaica.

-The UNIA (United Negro
Innprovennent Association) was
Dased in Harlenn, NYanc
Had over 1,000 chapters in
40 countries.
-The height of Garveyisnn was
1930s but the nnovennent would i £
nave enduring innpact. ^


1930s-1940s:Negritude/Negrismo
Black cultural nnovennent that
began in Paris in the 1920s anc
spread in the 1930s annong French
colonial students.
Was heavily influenced by the
Harlenn Renaissance.
Involved a celebration of Black
aesthetics and culture in art,
poetry, writing, and intellectual
thought.
Negritude influenced the Cuban
variant, Negrisnno in the 1930s.
For French and Spanish Caribbean
intellectuals it was the defining
black consciousness nnovennent of
the interwar years.


1930S-1940S
(Indigenous
^H^.
^ V
9
Jean Price-Mars
: Indigenisme
Movt Haiti)
l' ANNUr: N- 3
Stlt'TEMHIfk- lixn.
L Liii AnT* ET La Vtiz

PH.-T."Hoiiv-MAUCi-:ijx
,- K- Rm-UFH

J. Koi'MAlX
A. Vrri-x
Pti.-TJioiiv-Micri i.iv
IJaNIEI. llEI'ltTKI.OC
soM>rAinK
L.*.\nfco.- l4jivitf>*iJ Ittiilv^titfl
A ll^vnilMWil ItmHrri^i

Krril. 7ir d** I'I-Ilaii fTXtri*il r


L^ liervs t*ite-|^ iVmailG ttnsiii }
ISk^lflt*?!

l^ l*r^^4ii-W' KAlil li^bi-aini
II. Hnr.Movif
le I'AcsMleiui^ PrMn^aiT^c
CAaiL lllNIIIAtlU

Pi[. TariBV MikRCtLiK
fr^liAXC'i^ dr 3d tuxAJb Slifte
AstTmvro Vif:i-Y

Tnl. |mj- JaCQL'CS RQIT^AtN'
fHAMIKI. IlKUVTCLOr, ^^lt.K:

TrJ- pur SSaux Acs
.m
UPRIMBICIE -.KjbEl.fl
I <. Ans* dn Ruc>Cfnrbc& Mrjrjaa

JRT.AI--JBLSCE. r HAITI i


1940s-1970s: Marxisnn
Since the period of the Great Depression
Marxist ideas took firm root in Caribbean
radical politics. The influences were from the
U.S. (CPUSA) as well as U.S.S.R.
After WWII the Marxist movement expanded
and influenced party politics, especially in
Cuba, Jamaica, and Haiti.


Marxisnn Cuba
1920s-1950s
Fornned in 1920s.
Had strong connections with
U.S.S.R
Suppressed by various
governnnents.

1950s onward
Influenced the revolutionary
nnovennent in Cuba that led to
the Castro Revolution of 1959.
Becanne the guiding ideology in
Cuba fronn 1960s to present.
Had a MAJOR influence on
connnnunist nnovennents
elsewhere in the Caribbean.
1 fc. 1311
di r/iM;^

mfy^m ^ :_..
Socialist Party Headquarters, Havana.


Marxism -Jamaica
1940s-1950s
Marxisnn in JA begins with Party fornnation in
the early 1940s.
The early Marxists were expelled during the
Cold War pressures of the 1950s.

1960s-1970s
Marxisnn grows annong radical youth.
They are influenced by the radical
nnovennents in Cuba following the
Revolution
and the radical nnovennents in the U.S. in the
1960s.
Several nnovennents are created by Marxist
Youth including: Young Socialist League;
Workers liberation League; and Workers
Party of Jannaica.
1^' IM
radio JAMAICA" HJ
^m^EiRNE -tSe'


Democratic Socialism
Launched by the PNP Government in Jamaica in 1974
as a response to the global crisis caused by recession
in the early seventies.
Had earlier roots; Norman Manley drated a plan for
democratic socialism in the 1960s. Built on the PNP's
reputation as being left from centre.
Incorporated several of the ideas of contemporary
currents --Marxism in particular, as well as Black
Nationalism and anti-Colonialism.


Black Nationalism
Drew heavily fronn the Civil Rights and Black Power in the U.S.
Many of that era had Caribbean links, such as Stokely Carnnichael/Kwanne Ture,
who was fronn Trinidad.
P!V,^(S*i^
:>^
'.v<-
r^/v
M-
E-ii
m
:Al^k


Black Power in the Caribbean
Walter Rodney, (Guyanese intellectual )1969:
"Black Power in the West Indies nneans these
three closely related things:
l)The break with innperialisnn which is
historically white racist.
2)The assunnption of power by the black
nnasses of the islands.
3)The cultural reconstruction of the society in
the innage of the blacks.

These are the areas with which we as black
people nnust concern ourselves hereafter."
THE RISE OF
BLACK POWER JIN
THE WEST INDIES
b W u R d


m.
'^
Rastafari
M
1^
%
\ ^.
.'
fl
V '
z.%.
4^1
t
^.'
J \
Movennent brings together nnany of the currents of the previous
decades: Garveyisnn; Negritude; Black Nationalisnn; Black Power; Anti-
colonialisnn.


Conclusions
The Caribbean has always been integrated with other
countries in the Americas, particularly the U.S.
In the twentieth century these connections tightened
as a result of increased movement across the region.
As the Caribbean entered a transformative phase,
1940s-1970s, it drew heavily on currents coming from
North America, and in turn influenced these very
currents. This influence guided the development of a
complex interchange of movements and ideas across
the region.


Further Reading
Evelyne Stephens & John Stephens, Democratic Socialism in
Jamaica
Matthew J. Smith, Red and Black in Haiti
Selwyn Ryan, Race & Nationalism in Trinidad and Tobago
Elizabeth Thomas Hope, Caribbean Migration
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey
Magdaline Shannon, Jean Price Mars, the Haitian elite and the
American Occupation
J Michael Dash, Literature and Ideology in Haiti
Sam Farber, Origins of the Cuban Revolution Reconsidered.
Brian Meeks, Radical Caribbean
Barry Chevannes, Rastafari: Roots and Ideology


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