• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 List of principal officials
 Introduction
 Edward D'oyley
 Thomas, seventh baron windsor
 Sir Charles Lyttelton
 Sir Thomas Modyford
 Sir Thomas Lynch
 Sir Henry Morgan
 John, Lord Vaughan
 Charles, Earl of Carlisle
 Sir Hender Molesworth
 Christopher, Second Duke of...
 Sir Francis Watson
 William, Second Earl of Inchiq...
 John White
 John Bourden
 Sir William Beeston
 Index
 Map of Jamaica






Group Title: The governors of Jamaica in the seventeenth century,
Title: The governors of Jamaica in the seventeenth century
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074120/00001
 Material Information
Title: The governors of Jamaica in the seventeenth century
Physical Description: xli, 177 p. : front., illus. (incl. coats of arms) plates, ports., fold. map, plan, facsims. ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cundall, Frank, 1858-1937
Publisher: The West India committee
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1936
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Biography -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Frank Cundall ... With twelve portraits, twenty-four other illustrations and two maps.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074120
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000303926
oclc - 24674251
notis - ABT0494

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Frontispiece
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Dedication
        Page v
        Page vi
    Preface
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    List of principal officials
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
    Introduction
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxii(a)
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
        Page xxxii
        Page xxxii(b)
        Page xxxiii
        Page xxxiv
        Page xxxv
        Page xxxvi
        Page xxxvii
        Page xxxviii
        Page xxxix
        Page xl
        Page xli
    Edward D'oyley
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 4a
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Thomas, seventh baron windsor
        Page 10
        Page 10a
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Sir Charles Lyttelton
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 18a
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Sir Thomas Modyford
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Sir Thomas Lynch
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 38a
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Sir Henry Morgan
        Page 56
        Page 56a
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    John, Lord Vaughan
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Charles, Earl of Carlisle
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Sir Hender Molesworth
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Christopher, Second Duke of Albemarle
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Sir Francis Watson
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    William, Second Earl of Inchiquin
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    John White
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 134a
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    John Bourden
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Sir William Beeston
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 148a
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Index
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Map of Jamaica
        Page 178
Full Text







THE
GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
IN THE
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY




















) --l


Af


THOMAS, LORD WINDSOR.


a






THE


GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA

IN THE

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY





BY

FRANK CUNDALL,
O.B.E., Officier d'Acadimie (France), F.S.A., F.R.Hist.S., Honorary Corresponding
Member of the Institut Historique et Heraldique de France, the American
Antiquarian Society, the American Jewish Historical Society, the
Hispanic Society of America, the Ontario Historical Society,
Secretary and Librarian of the Institute of
Jamaica.





WITH
TWELVE PORTRAITS. TWENTY-FOUR
OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS
AND TWO MAPS








THE WEST INDIA COMMITTEE
LONDON
1936














. 377


LAI;f.
AMERIC4







ALL RIGHTS RESEBVBD


Made and Printed in Great Britain by
Hazell, Watson & Viney Ltd., London and Aylesbury












TO THE MEMORY OF

SIR ALEXANDER SWETTENHAM

GOVERNOR OF JAMAICA IN 1904-7

AND TO HIS EXCELLENCY

SIR EDWARD DENHAM, G.C.M.G.,

THE PRESENT GOVERNOR OF THE COLONY

FOR THE INTEREST TAKEN BY EACH OF THEM

IN THE WORK OF THE AUTHOR

THIS BOOK IS RESPECTFULLY

DEDICATED










PREFACE


MuCH of the material of this work has already appeared in the West
India Review as "Jamaica under Commissioners," and in the West
India Committee Circular in the form of a series of biographies of The
Governors of Jamaica."
The treatment of the subject biographically has, in the case of Lynch
and Morgan, who held office at intervals, necessitated a certain amount
of repetition, but this has been reduced to a minimum.
Portraits of all the governors and their wives, of whom portraits
could be found, are given.
Thanks are due to Mr. Francis R. Hart of Boston, to the Directors
of Messrs. Elder & Fyffes, Ltd., of London, to Mr. Rudolph Henriques,
and Mr. George Jackson of Jamaica, for kind financial assistance in the
publication of this work ; also to Miss H. W. Morris, Miss V. Nash, of
the Institute of Jamaica, and Miss B. Eliott Lockhart of London, for
assistance in historical research.
F. C.
February, z936.











CONTENTS
PAGE
PREFACE ii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xi

CHRONOLOGICAL EVENT xiii

LIST OF PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS xvii

INTRODUCTION xix
Jamaica under Commissioners-General Robert
Venables; Admiral Sir William Penn; Major-
General Richard Fortescue; Vice-Admiral William
Goodson; Captain Gregory Butler; Major-General
Robert Sedgwick; William Aylesbury; Luke Stokes;
Major-General William Brayne

I. EDWARD D'YLEY .

II. THOMAS, SEVENTH BARON WINDSOR IO

III. SIR CHARLES LYTTELTON 16

IV. SIR THOMAS MODYFORD 21

V. SIR THOMAS LYNCH 31

VI. Sm HENRY MORGAN 56

VII. JOHN, LORD VAUGHAN 77

VIII. CHARLES, EARL OF CARLISLE 86

IX. SIR HENDER MOLSWORTH 95

X. CHRISTOPHER, SECOND DUKE OF ALBEMARLE .09

XI. SIR FRANCIS WATSON 119
ix






CONTENTS

XII. WILLIAM, SECOND EARL OF INCHIQUIN

XIII. JOHN WHITE .

XIV. JOHN BOUDEN .

XV. SIR WILLIAM BEESTON

INDE .


PAGI
. 124

131

S140

.* 43

66










ILLUSTRATIONS


PORTRAIT OF LORD WINDSOR. From the contemporary painting in
the possession of David Minlore, Esq. Frontispiece
PAG3
PORTRAIT OF GENERAL ROBERT VENABLES. From the painting at
Wincham facing xxii
PORTRAIT OF SIR WILLIAM PENN. From the painting by Sir Peter
Lely in the Painted Hall, Greenwich facing xxii
PASSAGE FORT. From a drawing by Mrs. Lionel Lee .,, xxii
Rio NUEvo. From a photograph by Gick. ,, 4
PROCLAMATION BY CROMWELL. From a copy in the Bodleian
Library facing xxxii
CARLISLE BAY. From a drawing by Mrs. Lionel Lee .,, 4
ARMS OF EDWARD D'OYLEY 9
PROCLAMATION BY CHARLES II. From a copy in the History
Gallery of the Institute of Jamaica .facing Io
ARMS OF LORD WINDSOR 14
SEAL AND ARMS OF JAMAICA. From the drawing at Heralds'
College facing 12
PORTRAIT OF SIR CHARLES LYTTELTON. From an engraving by
P. W. Thomkinson, of a drawing by S. Harding facing 18
ARMS OF Sm CHARLES LYTELTON. .
ARMS OF SIR THOMAS MODYFORD 29
PORTRAIT OF LADY LYNCH. From a painting on the monument in
the old Parish Church at Esher facing 18
ARMS OF Sm THOMAS LYNCH 31
PORTRAIT OF SIR HENRY MORGAN. From an engraving in Esqueme-
ling's Buccaneers of America" facing 56
PORTRAIT OF SIR HENRY MORGAN. From a painting in the
possession of F. C. Williams, Esq. facing 56
SEAL OF COLONEL EDWARD MORGAN 57
xi





ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGK
TORTOISESHELL COMB AND CASE. In the History Gallery of
the Institute of Jamaica facing 38
SEAL OF SIR HENRY MORGAN. From an impression attached
to his will in the Public Record Office facing 38
CHANCERY RECORD OF A CASE CONCERNING SIR HENRY
MORGAN. In the Vice-Admiralty and Chancery Records,
Kingston facing 68

PORTRAIT OF JOHN, LORD VAUGHAN. From an engraving by J.
Simon, after a painting by Sir Godfrey Kneller facing 18
ARMS OF LORD VAUGHAN 77

PORTRAIT OF CHARLES, EARL OF CARLISLE. From an engraving by
Abraham Blotling .facing 12
ARMS OF THE EARL OF CARLISLE .91
ARMS OF SIR HENDER MOLESWORTH I07

PORTRAIT OF CHRISTOPHER, SECOND DUKE OF ALBEMARLE. From
an engraving by W. Sherwin. facing 56
MEDAL STRUCK IN HONOUR OF THE WRECK 113
ARMS OF THE DUKE OF ALBEMARLE 117

PORTRAIT OF THE DUCHESS OF ALBEMARLE. From a miniature by
Lawrence Crosse, at Welbeck Abbey facing 56

PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM, SECOND EARL OF INCHIQUIN. From a
painting by Michael Dahl in the possession of David
Minlore, Esq. facing z1
ARMS OF THE SECOND EARL OF INCHIQUIN 129
EARTHQUAKE OF 1692. From a broadside in the British
Museum facing 134
ARMS OF JOHN BURDEN 142
ARMS OF SIR WILLIAM BEESTON 143
PLAN OF KINGSTON, by Christian Lilly facing 148

MAP OF JAMAICA at end





CHRONOLOGICAL EVENTS
CHRONOLOGICAL EVENTS


BRITISH COMMISSIONERS.


r655









x656





0656-71
1657


-. z66o





1661


x662


663 -


EVENTS IN JAMAICA.


General Robert Venables,
Admiral William Penn,.
Captain Gregory Butler.
General Richard Fortescue,.
Vice-Admiral William
Goodson. J
Fortescue, Goodson, Major-
General Robert Sedgwick.
Goodson, Sedgwick,
Colonel Edward D'oyley. I
Goodson, D'oyley.
General William Brayne,
Goodson. I



Brayne.
D'oyley (with Government
by court martial).






BRITISH GOVERNORS.
Gen. EDWARD D'OYLEY.


THOMAS, Lord WINDSOR.




Sir Charles Lyttelton, Dep.
Governor.


EVENTS ABROAD.


Penn and Venables with 38 ships landed (May
ro) with 8,000 troops. Spaniards capitulated
(May Ix). Christoval Arnoldo de Ysassi
succeeded Ramirez as Commander of Spanish
troops.
Penn left (June 25).
Venables left (July 4).
Sedgwick arrived (Oct. I).
Fortescue died (Oct. 21).
Sedgwick died (May 24).
Brayne arrived (Dec. 14) with x,ooo troops.
Luke Stokes, Governor of Nevis, came towards
end of year and settled with x,6oo men,
women, and children. Ysassi received ap-
pointment as Spanish Governor (dated Oct.
Goodson left (Jan. 30).
Brayne died (Sept. 2).
D'oyley defeated the Spaniards at Ocho Rio.
D'oyley defeated Ysassi at Rio Nuevo (June
27).
Col. illiam Beeston arrived (April 27).
News of Restoration reached Jamaica (Aug.
I5).
Ysassi finally left Jamaica (May 9).


Commission (dated Feb. 8) arrived (June I) for
D'oyley to be Governor, with the advice of
an Elected Council.
Windsor arrived (Aug. zI) and published (Dec.
14) a proclamation from the King that all
born in Jamaica of British subjects should
be citizens of England.
D'oyley left (Sept. o1).
Myngs took St. Jago de Cuba (Oct. 2).
Windsor left (Oct. a8), having disbanded army
and established five regiments of militia.
Census 4,205.
Juan de Bolas appointed Colonel of black
regiment (Jan. 30).
Lands granted to the Maroons (the African
slaves) left by the Spaniards.
Jamaica fleet sacked Campeche (Feb.).


BRITISH RULERS.


Cromwell issued (Oct. xo) proclamation en-
couraging immigration to Jamaica.






WAR declared by England against Spain
(Oct. 23).





DuParquet sold Grenada to the Comte de
Cerrillac for 30,000 crowns.
Cromwell died (Sept. 23). Expulsion of Jews
from Portugal.
French and English made Treaty of Peace with
Caribs (March 31), whereby Caribs were to
have St. Vincent and Dominica. The Eng-
lish colonies on the American Continent con-
tained about 77,000 white persons. A
Committee of the Privy Council to deal with
Foreign Plantations formed.
Charles II knighted 13 gentlemen of Barbados.
Charles II issued proclamation giving benefits
of subjects of England to such as should go
to Jamaica and their children.
Guiana granted to Lord Willoughby by Charles
II.
African Company formed.


Third African Company incorporated (surren-
dered its charter in 1672).
Proprietary rights passed to the Crown in Bar-
bados and Caribbee Islands.
Lord Willoughby founded settlement at Sur-


inam.

I Up till 1752, the civil, ecclesiastical and legal year had for many years begun on the 25th of March, the historical year commencing on the Ist of
January. The ist of January became by law the commencement of the legal year in 1753. Before that date the double notation for the first quarter
of the year is used in all official documents in Jamaica.


CROMWELL




















RESTORATION
CHARLES II May
a9)


I I --I--------------





CHRONOLOGICAL EVENTS--continued


1663-4

t664






1665
1665
1666
1667


z672 -


EVENTS IN JAMAICA.


BRITISH GOVERNORS.




Col. Thomas Lynch, Pres.
Col. Edward Morgan, Dep.
Governor.
Sir THOMAS MODYFORD, Bt.


























Sir Thomas Lynch, Lieut.-
Governor.


EVrNTs ABROAD.


First House of Assembly met (Jan. so) at St.
Jago de la Vega, consisting of so members
representing 13 constituencies.
Lyttelton left (May 2).
Edward Morgan arrived (May 21).

Modyford arrived (June 4) from Barbados,
bringing 1,ooa settlers with him. Council
appointed by Crown.
Island divided into seven parishes.
Modyford's View of Jamaica" sent home.
A number of Quakers transported to Jamaica.
Royal African Company's factor first came to
Jamaica (Feb. 7) to settle their negro trade.






Coins of Spain made currency.







amaica ceded to England (July 8).
Storm (Oct. 7).
Island divided into is parishes.
Modyford's commission revoked (Dec.) be-
cause he sent privateers against Spanish
vessels.
Immigrants from Surinam reached Jamaica
(March).
Lynch arrived (June as).
Modyford sent home a prisoner (Aug. as).
George Fox visited Jamaica "travelling up
and down through the Island."
First Defciency Law (i white man to to
negroes).
First hurricane recorded.


Compagn des Inds Occdentals formed by
Colbert, and acquired Martinique, Guade-
loupe, St. Kitts, St. Croix, etc.
French took Montserrat and Turks Island.





England declared wAt against Netherlands
(Second Dutch war) (March).
de Ruijter repulsed at Barbados (April 30).
French joined Dutch against English.
Bahamas (New Providence) settled by British.
Surinam taken by Dutch (Feb.).
TREATY of Breda (July 21): New Nether-
lands (New York) conferred to England;
Surinam to Holland; Antigua declared
British, and St. Lucia, French.
Henry Morgan sacked Porto Bello (July).
Committee of Privy Council for Trade and
Plantations re-formed.
Montserrat restored to England.
Dominica surrendered by Caribe to British.
Men from Barbados joined expedition to
found South Carolina.
Division of British Windward and Leeward
Islands.
Morgan burnt Panama. Treaty of Madrid
(July 8): Spain recognized British con-
quests in West Indies.
Charles II granted to proprietors of the Caro-
linas charter to govern the Bahamas.
St. Thomas occupied by Danes.
Danish West India and Guinea Company
formed (March it).


Capt. John Wentworth, Governor of the
Bahamas. England and France declared
wan against Holland (March) (Third Dutch
War).
Virgin Islands captured by British.
Arrival of Iverson, fiAt Governor of Danish
West Indies.
Charter of incorporation to Royal African
Company (Sept. 27) (fourth of its kind).


BaITISH RULaRS.


--'-D---`




I r


1673

0674-5







1676




r 676


Sir Henry Morgan, Lieut.-
Governor.




Sir THOMAS LYNCH.



Col. Hender Molesworth,
Lleut.-Governor.


EVENTS IN JAMAICA.


BRITISH GovRaMoas.




Sir Henry Morgan, Lieut.-
Governor.






JoHN, Lord VAUGHAN.


EVENTS ABROAD.


Census. Population 17,272. Parish of Vere
formed. Invasion by Dutch and Spanish
feared.
Lynch demitted government to Morgan (March
7).






Vaughan arrived (March 13).
Lynch left (May 24).
1,2oo Surinam settlers arrived (Sept. ) and
started sugar planting on land in St. Eliza-
beth (now part of Westmorland).
Proclamation issued against breaking the
peace with Spain (Dec. 15).
Proclamation with reference to observance of
Slave Laws.
Parishes of St. Thomas-in-ye-Vale and St.
Dorothy formed.




Vaughan left (March 14).
Carlisle arrived (July 19).
Chaplain to House of Assembly appointed
(Sept. 3).
Carlisle left (May 27), having failed in his
attempt to force upon Jamaica the form of
legislature prescribed for Ireland by Poyn-
ings's law. English troops disbanded.


Lynch arrived (May 14).
Sir Henry Morgan and Col. Byndloss sus-
pended from Council and all commands
(Oct. Is). A post-office for foreign letters
and also an inland post founded (Oct. 1).
Lynch died (Aug. 24). Colonization of St. John by Danes.

News arrived (April 13) of death of Charles II. Brandenburg Company formed to trade with
Commission signed for Sir Phillip Howard to Danish Colonies (Nov. 24).
be Governor of Jamaica (Oct. 28) but he
never came.


Committee of Privy Council of Trade and
Plantations formed.


PiACZ (Westminster) concluded between
England and Holland (March 25). Status
quo ante bllum established. (New Dutch
West India Company formed.
Coampgnis des Ins 0 dissolved,
and colonies placed under the French
Crown (Dec.). St. Lucia was made depend-
ent on Martinique.
Hurricane at Barbados (Aug. I).







Consulado of Seville undertook Asslento.
WAR with France. French raided Trinidad.
Committee of Privy Council for Trade and
Plantations supplanted Council for Trade
and Plantations.
Turks Islands settled by British; Bermu-
dians erected Salt Works. Peace of Nime-
guen.

Spaniards laid waste British settlement in the
Bahamas.

Hurricanes at Antigua and St. Kitts (Aug. 27).
Elector of Brandenburg formed company to
trade in slaves.


1677--8 Sir Henry Morgan, Lieut.-
Governor.
1678 CnARLas, Earl of CAMLISLt.


BRITISH RULaRS.


JAMIS II (Feb. 6)


z68o


1681

1682
1683


1684
j684-5
l615


I _





CHRONOLOGICAL EVENTS-continued


BRITISH GOVERNORS. EVENTS IN JAMAICA.


1685 Convicts of Monmouth's and Argyle's rebellion
sent to Jamaica to serve for ten years.
Mosquitto Indians came under suzerainty of
1687 Jamaica.
CHRIsTOPHER, Duke of ALBE- Albemarle arrived (Dec. 20); with Sir Hans
MARLE. Sloane, as his private physician, who col-
lected, in 15 months, 8oo plants, mostly
1688 new species.
Sir Francis Watson, Pres. Albemarle died (Oct. 6), his body being sent
home for interment.
1689 First Assiento Company established for
supplyg Spanish West Indies with negroes
from Jamaica.
169o Inchiqun arrived (May 31).
WILLIAM, Earl of INCHNQUIN


691 -
x691-2 John White, Pres.
1692 -


1692-3 John Bourden, Pres.
1692-3 Sir William Beeston, Lieut.-
Governor.

1693
694 -


Sir WILLIAM BEESTON, Gov-
ernor.


Inchiquin died (Jan. 16).
Earthquake destroyed Port Royal (June 7),
when about 2,800 houses were thrown down.
This led to the settlement of Kingston.
White died (Aug. 21).
Beeston landed and sworn in (Mar. 9).
Col. Peter Beckford appointed agent to solicit
Jamaica affairs in England.
Parish of Kingston formed.
About I,5oo French troops, under DuCasse,
who came with 3 men-of-war and 23 trans-
ports, defeated at Carlisle Bay (July 23) by
Jamaica Militia.
Wlmot and Lillingston attacked St. Domingo
from Jamaica.
duPointis, with French squadron, threatened
to attack Jamaica.






Population, 47,365 (negroes about 40,0oo).


Proclamation forbidding Jamaica to trade
with Scots at Darien (April 9).
Commission as Governor received (April 8).


EVENTS ABROAD.


Proclamation by James II offering pardon to
buccaneers who would give up their calling.

Proclamation by French Government offering
pardon to buccaneers.
WAR declared by England against France.
Royal African Company abolished.
Trinidad raided by French.
First paper currency in British Empire (in
Massachusetts).
Barbados appointed agents in England.











Darien Company formed (June 26).
Board of Trade and Plantations (May x5) re-
placed Committee of Privy Council.
duPointis took and sacked Carthagena (May
3) ; booty amounted to 2,500,ooo.
TREATY of Ryswick (Sept. 20) (news of it
reached Jamaica Dec. Ii). Spain ceded to
France western part of San Domingo.
French portion of St. Kitts given back to
France.
Establishment of squadron of five ships for
protection of British West Indies.
Scots settlement at Darien (Nov. 4).
Population of Canada, 13,353.
Scots abandon Darien (June 20), some coming
to Jamaica.

Assiento granted to French Company (Aug.
27). Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel in foreign parts incorporated.


BRITISH RULERS.


WILLIAM AND MARY
(Feb. 13).











WILLIAM III (Dec. 28)


III












LIST OF PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS


PRESIDENTS OF THE COUNCIL AS A
LEGISLATIVE BODY
1661. GeneralEdwardD'oyley,Governor
and President.
x662. Lord Windsor, Governor and
President.
1664. Colonel Thomas Lynch.
167x. Major-General James Bannister.
1674. Colonel Hender Molesworth
(afterwards Baronet).
1688. Sir Francis Watson.
1691. John White.
1692. John Bourden.


SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY


1664.
1664.
x67I.
167I-2.
1672-3.
1677-9.
168o-8.
1686-8.
i688.
1688.
i688.
i691-2.
1693.
1694-5.
1698.



i66i.
1661.
x663.
1664-5.
1667-8.
1671-2.
x674.
I675.
1678-9.

1679.


Robert Freeman.
Sir Thomas Whitstones.
Captain Samuel Long.
Major John Colebeck (pro ter.)
Captain Samuel Long.
Lieut.-Col. William Beeston.
Samuel Bernard.
George Nedham (pro ter.)
Roger Hope Elletson.
Thomas Rives.
John Peake.
Thomas Sutton.
Andrew Langley.
James Bradshaw.
Thomas Sutton.


CHIEF JUSTICES
Philip Ward.
Samuel Barry.
William Mitchell.
Sir Thomas Lynch.
Sir James Modyford.
John White.
Samuel Long.
Sir Thomas Modyford.
Samuel Long (removed by Car-
lisle).
Robert Byndloss.


i682. Samuel Long.
1685. Samuel Bernard.
1687. Roger Elletson.
1688. Samuel Bernard.
x688. Robert Noell.
1689. Roger Elletson.
x689. Thomas Bernard.
1689. Richard Lloyd.
1692. Thomas Bernard.
x695-8. Richard Lloyd.
1698-1703. Nicholas Lawes.


ATTORNEY-GENERALS

167x-6. Edmund Ducke (d. I683).
1679. Wright (d. in September 1679).
1679. Roger Elletson.
1686-8. Simon Musgrave.
1688. Sir Richard Dereham.
1688-91. Simon Musgrave.
1693-8. William Brodrick.
x698-x703. Thomas Barrow.


NAVAL COMANDES-IN-CHIE

1655. Sir William Penn, Admiral and
General-at-Sea.
x655-7. Vice-Admiral William Good-
son.
1657. Vice-Admiral Christopher Myngs.
1662. Colonel Mitchell, Chief over the
sea-officers.
I662-4. Vice-Admiral Christopher Myngs.
1663. Sir Thomas Whitstones com-
manded a fleet at Jamaica.
i669. Henry Morgan," Commander-in-
Chief of all the ships of war of
Jamaica (Commission from
Governor).
1671. Colonel Cary, Captain of the
Fleet."
1676. The Duke of York, Admiral of
Jamaica and all other of His
Majesty's Plantations and
Dominions.


xvii






LIST OF PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS


1689. Captain Lawrence Wright, com-
manded West India Fleet.
1692. Commodore Wrenn, commanded
in the West Indies.
1692. Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Wheeler,
commanded in the West Indies.
1695. Robert Wilmot, Commodore.

AGENTS FOR JAMAICA IN GREAT
BRrTAIN
1664-6. Sir James Modyford.
1676-7. Sir John Griffith.
1676. John Bindloss.


x682. Sir Charles Lyttelton.
Colonel William Beeston.
SSir Charles Lyttelton.
1683. Lieut.-Col. Beeston.
SFrancis Hanson.
x688. Ralph Knight.
162. William Beeston.
169"2. Gilbert Heathcote.
SGilbert Heathcote.
1693. Bartholomew Gracedieu.
John Tutt.
S69 3 Sir Gilbert Heathcote.
1698-1713. Sir Bartholomew Gracedieu.


xvii1
olo
wtll










INTRODUCTION


JAMAICA UNDER COMMISSIONERS
THE objects which Cromwell had in view in obtaining an Establish-
ment in the West Indies which is possessed by the Spaniards were
varied, partly religious, partly commercial. Though the expedition
which he sent out under Penn and Venables was not so successful as
he had hoped, yet it laid the foundation of the policy of the expansion of
the British Empire, as foreshadowed by the Act for the Advancing
and Regulating of the Trade of this Commonwealth passed in 1650.
Though some Scotsmen came to the island during the Commonwealth,
they in the main preferred Barbados, and it was later that they came to
Jamaica in large numbers, and played a prominent part in the develop-
ment of the colony. Seven years passed after the conquest before a
Civil Government was established.
The following brief accounts of the various Commissioners who
controlled the affairs of the infant colony during that period show the
nature of men they were.
The fact that the expedition sent by Cromwell was under a dual
command resulted-as has happened before and since-in stupid
blundering, which was not lessened by the fact that Venables was
named first in the preamble to the commission, and Penn first in the
body of the document. Penn was also named first in the instructions
to the Commissioners. Each was jealous of the other; and the bitterness
continued even when they were fellow-prisoners in the Tower, of their
committal to which it had probably been one of the main causes.
Of the Military Commissioners who controlled affairs in Jamaica
before a regular Government was set up Venables, Penn and Butler
went home as early as they could in self-interest : Goodson did his best
before he left, but Fortescue, Sedgwick, Aylesbury and Brayne lost
their lives in their endeavour to do their duty by the unfortunate
colony.
The fifth Commissioner sent by Cromwell, Edward Winslow, who
had had considerable experience as the Governor of New Plymouth,
and would probably have proved of a great value to the enterprise,
unfortunately died off the island of Navassa," likened to a small bowling
greene," just before Jamaica was reached, and so needs no further
mention here. Nor does the sixth Commissioner, Daniel Searle,
Governor of Barbados, as he did not accompany the expedition at all.
The time came when vacancies caused by death and return to






THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA

England left the remaining Commissioners in an unsettled state, and to
aid them in their deliberations, Aylesbury and Stokes seem to have
been co-opted without direct authority from home.
The combination of naval and military command had its origin in
conquest. When once the island was acquired, the control grew more
and more into the hands of the commanders of the land forces. Thus
Sedgwick and Brayne were de facto governors ; until at last D'oyley's
military command was turned into a civil governorship.
On the 9th of December, 1654, Cromwell issued a Commission :

A COPPY OF YE COMISSIONaS COMMISSION x654.
To our right trusty and welbeloved Generall Robert Venables
and Generall William Penn and to our Trustie and beloved Edward
Winslowe Esq". Daniell Searle Esq". Governor of our Island of
Barbadeos Gregory Butler Esq"."
It states that :
Wee having taken into our serious Consideracon the State and Condicon of the
English Plantations and Colonies in the western part of the world called America, and
the opportunity and means which God hath betrusted us, and this Comonwealth with
both for the secureing the interest wee already have in those Countries, which nowe lye
open and exposed to the will and power of the King of Spaine (whoe claims the same
by Colour of a Donation of the Pope) at any time when hee shall have leisure to looke
that way; and also for getting ground & gaining uppon the Dominions and territories
of the said Kinge there; Whereunto Wee also hold ourself Obliged in Justice to the
People of these Nations for ye Cruelties wrongs and Iniuries done and exercised uppon
them by the Spaniards in those parts. Haveing a respect likewise in this our under-
takeing to the Miserable Thraldome and Bondage both Sperituall and Civill w. the
natives and others in ye Dominions of the said King in America are subiected to and lye
under by means of the Popishe and cruell Inquisition and otherwise from w* if it shall
please God to make us instrumental in any measure to deliver them and uppon this
occasion to make way for the bringing in ye light of the Gospell and power of true
Religion and Godlines into those parts, Wee shall esteeme it the best and most Glorious
part of any Successe, or Acquisition it shall please God to blesse us with, And Wee
having upon these and other ConsideraEons raised and sett forth Land and Sea forces
to send into the Parts aforesaid for the ends and purposes before expressed, And con-
sidering how necessarie it is that Persons of known prudence wisdom and fidelitie
should bee authorized and Commissionated by us, for the better ordering and managing
so great affaires uppon all occasions as things may emerge, and fall out for the best
Advantage of the State and for the improvement of this whole design; And Reposeing
trust and Confidence in the abilitie Circumspeccon and fidelitie of you Generall William
Penn Generall Rob' Venables, Edward Winslowe, Daniell Searle, Gregory Butler, Wee
have made constituted and appointed and by this presents doe make constitute and
appoint you the said Generall Rob' Venables, Generall W" Penn Edward Winslowe
Daniell Searle, Gregory Butler to be our Commissioners for the ordering managing and
Governeing the Affaires aforesaid according to the Instructions herewith delivered unto
you, and such others as you shall from time to time receive from us, And therefore wee
doe hereby Strictly charge and require you that you doe intend the said Service and use
your utmost dilligence and endeavours for the Carrying on and promoting the same and
'A copy is in the Additional Manuscripts in the British Museum, 11,410, f. 47.
xx






INTRODUCTION


observe and keepe, and cause to bee observed and kept, all and singuler the said Instruc-
tions and such others as you shall here after from time to time receive from us, And wee
doe also Streightlie charge and Comand all others home it may concern to bee
ayding & assisting to you, and every of you in the execution of ye premisses and to be
obedient to your Comands therein as becomes, as they and every of them will answer
the Contrarie at their Perills. This Comission power and aucthoritie to continewe in
force until wee shall otherwise order."

When Cromwell knew of the success at Jamaica, he issued the
following Proclamation giving Encouragement to such as shall trans-
plant themselves to Jamaica :1
Whereas the Island of Jamaica in America, is by the Providence of God in the
hands and possession of this State the enemy which was found upon it, being fled into
the mountains with an intention to escape into other parties save such of them as do daily
render themselves to our Comaunder in Cheife there to be disposed of by him and Wee
being satisfied of the goodness fertility and commodiousness for trade and commerce of
that Island have resolved by the blessing of God to use our best endeavors to secure and
plant the same for which end and purpose Wee have thought it necessary to publish and
make known unto the people of this Comonwealth and especially to those of the English
Islands Plantacons and Colonies in America Our Resolutions and intencons on that
behalf as also to declare unto them the encourage" which Wee have thought fitt to
give unto such as shall remove themselves and their habitations into the aforesaid Island
of Jamaica within the time menconed and expressed in these presents."
It promised that those who transplanted themselves there should have land to the
proportion of Twenty acres besides lakes and rivers for every male of twelve years old
and upwards and ten acres for every other male or female." That they should have
libertie for the space of seven years to hunt take and dispose of to their owne use such
horses and other cattle as are or shalbe upon the said Island." That they" should should
and enioy all and singular mines of copper iron tinn and other minerals whatsoever (except-
ing gould and silver mines) and all mines of quaries, coale, stone allum or other mines what-
soever (except as aforesaid) within the circuit meetes or bounds of the said severalle
respective proportions of land and also all fishing and piscaries whatsoever upon or
within any of the lakes streams or rivers within their meetes and bounds and also full
power and authorities to man and send forth to sea and unto any the coasts and shares
roades harbors and creekes within or neere the said Island any shipps boates or other
vessels to fish for find out or take any pearles, precious stones or jewells therein being
and to enjoy the same to his or their owne use or uses rendering and paying to the
Governor of the said Island for the tyme being or to such other person or persons for
the tyme being as His Highnes shall authorize to receive the same to His Highnes use
the full fift part only and noe more of all such pearles precious stones and jewels as
shalbe gost found and taken as aforesaid and also one tenth part of all such mettall as
shalbe had found and gianed in the mines granted hereby to the aforesaid planters."
It also promised that no customer excise should be imposed on any of them for the
space of three years; that they should have power to build wales and raise bulwarks
and castles upon their owne land and
That all and every person and persons that shall hereafter happen to be borne
within the said Island shalbe and shalbe deemed and accounted to be free denizens of
England and shall have and enioy all and every such benefitte privileges advantages and
imunities whatsoever as any the natives or people of England borne in England now have
and enjoy in England."
1 C. P. Domestic Interregnum, 25/76, p. 152.






THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA


GENERAL ROBERT VENABLES
General Robert Venables was the son of Robert Venables of Antro-
bus, and Ellen, daughter of Richard Simcox, of Rudheath, Cheshire.
Born in that county about 1613, he entered the Parliamentary army on
the outbreak of the Civil War, and served in Yorkshire and Lancashire,
being wounded at the siege of Chester. From 1649 to 1654 he did
good service with the Cromwellian forces in Ireland. In the latter year
he was appointed general of the forces sent to attack the Spaniards in the
West Indies.?
After the failure of the original object of the expedition, the capture
of Hispaniola, the Commissioners (Penn, Venables, Winslow and
Butler), judging it needful to try to raise the soldiers by some success
in a small exploit, resolved to attempt some other plantation, and at last
Jamaica was pitched on to be the place." Of this island, the expedition
took possession on the loth of May, x655.
There were thirty-eight ships in the three squadrons, and about
seven thousand troops, without counting the sea regiment, which
numbered nearly one thousand more.
The troops, both English and colonial, were admittedly none of
the best, some of them being described by one of their number as
" Hectors and Knights of the blade, with common Cheats, Theeves,
Cutpurses, and such like lewd persons who had long time lived by the
slight of hand and dexterity of wit, and were now making a fair progress
unto Newgate, from whence they were to proceed towards Tiborn .
some sloathful and thievish servants like wise (to avoid the punishment
I The principal sources of information concerning Penn and Venables's expedition are: (i)
" A Narrative, by General Venables, of his Expedition to the Island of Jamaica," of which two MS.
copies exist in the British Museum, and which is printed in Interesting Tracts relating to the
Island of Jamaica (St. Jago de la Vega, 18oo), in which Venables answers charges brought in
I. S.'s pamphlet mentioned below; this narrative," with an appendix of papers relating to the
expedition to the West Indies and the conquest of Jamaica, 1654-1655," was edited for the Royal
Historical Society by Professor C. H. Firth, MA., in Igoo; (ii) A Journal of Admiral Penn's
Expedition to the West Indies in 1654-55," by Henry Whistler, reprinted in the Journal of the
Institute of Jamaica," Vol. I (Kingston, z894); (iii) A Brief and Perfect Journal of the English
Army in the West Indies in 1655, by I. S. (London, z655), reprinted in the Journal of the Institute
of Jamaica," Vol. II (Kingston, x899) ; (iv) Memorials of the Professional Life and Times of Sir
William Penn from x644 to 167o," by Granville Penn (London, 1833); (v) Memoir of
Colonel Robert Venables," prefaced to an edition of The Experienced Angler "(London, 1825);
(vi) An Account of the Jamaica Expedition," by Colonel Francis Barrington, printed in the 7th
Report of the Historical Manuscripts Commission; (vii) A series of five anonymous letters in the
Rawlinson MSS. in the Bodleian Library, reprinted in the appendix to Firth's edition of Venables's
Narrative ; (viii) Some Account of General Venables of Antrobus (with the diary ofhiswife, from
the original MS. in the possession of Lee P. Townshend, Esq., in The Miscellanies," Vol. IV of
the Chetham Society, 1871; (ix) a brief account by an officer of Colonel Fortescue's regiment
(thought by Professor Firth to have probably been Major Thomas White of that regiment), printed
in the third volume of the Clarke Papers "; (x) The English Conquest of Jamaica, translated
from the Spanish by Captain Julian de Castilla (of which a transcript is in the West India Reference
Library in the Institute of Jamaica) in the Archives at Seville and edited by Miss Irene A. Wright,
in the Camden Miscellany," Vol. XIII, s924-the only Spanish account of the Conquest extant;
(xi) Relacion de la Vitoria que han tenido las Armas de Su Magestad ... en la ciudad de S.
Domingo," by the Conde de Penalva (x655), as well as Thurloe, and the Calendar of State Papers."
xxii
























































GENERAL ROBERT VENABLFS.


ADMIRAL SIR WILLIAM PENN.


PASSAGE FORT.


--~'-- -C `~


rs~a~ ces; ,

1. i5, :
=5






INTRODUCTION


of the Law, and coveting a yet more idle life) followed after in the same
path."
The English soldiers were all personally unknown to the general,
who had in vain requested that men from the Irish army should be
sent. One of the expedition was of opinion that there were not above
one thousand old soldiers in the army. Venables's privately-expressed
opinion of the army was unruly raw soldiers, the major part ignorant,
lazy, dull--officers that have a large portion of pride, but not of wit,
valour, or activity." They had, moreover, been on half rations since
they had left Barbados, owing to insufficiency in the supplies. Venables
said : I was promised ten months' provision for ten thousand men,
but instead of having it put on board with me it was sent to London to
the store ships, in pretence for want of room, and yet the officers of
the Navy took in commodities to trade with at Barbadoes." In
addition to this, the number of arms and ammunition supplied was
inadequate. On reaching Jamaica-having been sighted by two fisher-
men off Port Morant who, paddling their canoes quickly had just
reached Caguaya (now Passage Fort) in time to give the alarm l-the
ships came to an anchor in fifty fathoms of water, and Penn, fearing, as
Captain Butler tells us, after the experience of Hispaniola, to trust the
conduct of the attack to the army, ordered the Martin galley-one of
the smallest of the fleet, carrying but twelve guns and sixty men-to run
up into the harbour as far as she could, supported by all the small ships
which could follow her. This was done. The Martin anchored
within shot of the principal breastwork (or fort), and exchanged a hot
fire with it, but with little result on either side : a musket fire being kept
up by two smaller breastworks. Penn and Venables hastened up in a
boat and boarded the Martin, which was soon surrounded by boats
filled with troops ready to land at Caguaya, at the mouth of the Caguaya
River, which gives its name to the port.' Castilla's account tells us
that" this invasion occurred at a time when most of the residents of the
town were away, on their cattle ranches, or attending to the grinding on
their sugar plantations, or to other tasks upon their farms and in their
cacao groves. The governor went down to the beach of the port,
where there were some breastworks with five iron cannon and a
hundred and eighty men, who assembled with their arms and flags."
1 From the account of the attack on Hispaniola which the Governor sent home, we learn that on
the withdrawal of the English he had sent a warning to Jamaica, as he had learnt from English
prisoners that that island was to be the next attacked.
2 Until recently all historians have assumed that the Spanish Cagua was Port Royal, but in the
"Brief Description of the Island of Jamaica," given in A Book of the Continuation of Forreign
Passages," published in London in 1657, reference is made to Caguaya which serves to the town
of St. Jago de la Vega or St. James of the Plains from which it is about two leagues distant." In the
treaty, which was signed by the English and Spaniards on the x7th of May, Spanish Town is
alluded to as the town of Caguaya." And in Jamaica Under the Spaniards," published in g199,
it was shown that the river now known as the Rio Cobre was called Caguaya and the harbour was
also called Caguaya.
xxiii





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA


Penn then ordered Vessey, the commander of the Martin, to run
her ashore as near the breastwork as he could ; the troops at the same
time to follow in their boats.
A few shots fired into the fort from the Martin, and the landing of
the troops, seem to have sufficed to disperse the Spaniards, whose best
soldier, a major, had been disabled by a shot. They left three guns
mounted in the fort.1 Venables, instead of leading the troops, was,
Whistler tells us, walking aboard of the 'Martin' wrapped up in a
cloak, with his hat over his eyes, looking as if he had been studying of
physics more than like a general of an army." It is a little difficult to
reconcile this with the testimony of Captain Daniel How, who says that
Venables carried himself like a godly, valiant, discreet general, expos-
ing himself to the greatest danger "; or with that of other of his
officers, or, indeed, with the letter of Penn and the Commissioners
describing the attempt on Hispaniola. In excuse for any backwardness
on his part at Jamaica, it may be said that Venables was suffering from
ill-health consequent on the fatigues of the attempt at Hispaniola, and
from mortification at the ill-result, added to lack of faith in his soldiers
and fear for the safety of his newly-married second wife, who was with
him on the Paragon.
The troops did not take advantage of this success and follow the
Spaniards, but drew up in battle array ; and when Venables landed, at
three o'clock in the afternoon, he decided (with his usual disregard for
the opinion of his military advisers), in spite of the decision to the con-
trary of a council specially held, to encamp there for the night, and the
next day St. Jago de la Vega, six miles distant, was entered without
opposition, Venables occupying the town-hall and his officers other
buildings in the town.
Under plea of considering the terms of peace imposed by Venables,
the Spaniards gained time in which to transport such riches as they
possessed to the north side of the island ; and so, in spite of having
signed the agreement forfeiting all their belongings, they got away,
taking all that they could with them.
Thus Jamaica was captured by a wretched army without the loss of
a man. The articles of peace were signed on behalf of England by
Fortescue, Goodson, Holdipp and D'oyley; the Spanish Com-
missioners were Ysassi and Duarte de Acosta.
In all histories and accounts of Jamaica published, until Jamaica
I Another account says fourteen guns.
2 Richard Holdipp was Lieutenant-Colonel of Fortescue's regiment, and had (with Butler and
Captain Blagge of the Marston Moor) raised a seventh regiment in St. Kitts and the Leeward
Islands while the main force was at Barbados. He was an ambitious man of whom Butler had a
poor opinion. Having been a Governor of Surinam he had the support of the West India merchants
of London. Venables made him Colonel of Haine's, or Heane's, regiment on that officer's death.
D'oyley, the last of the military commissioners, will be dealt with as the first of the Civil
Governors.
xxiv






INTRODUCTION


Under the Spaniards was issued in 1920, Ysassi (called Sasi) has been
given as the Governor of Jamaica at the time of the English conquest.
From recent research in the Archives at Seville we learn that the governor
at that time was Juan Ramirez de Orellana; and that Francisco de
Proenza (who had five years earlier acted as governor) was the leading
military officer. Ramirez, who was in bad health, was sent by the
English to Campeche, but died on the voyage. On account of his own
failing sight, Proenza appointed to take command Cristoval Arnoldo de
Ysassi, a native of Jamaica, a planter descended from a good family of
the Basque Provinces, and a brother to the Bishop of Puerto Rico, and of
the Lieutenant-Governor of Cuba.
After the departure of Penn on the 25th of June, Venables followed
in the Marston Moor on the 4th of July, prompted evidently by a desire
not to be forestalled by Penn in his account of the expedition, especially
the failure at Hispaniola. His own ill health-for he very nearly died
in Jamaica-and the necessity for representing the needs of the army
were, however, his ostensible reasons. He reached Portsmouth on the
9th of September ; appeared before the Council on the 2oth, and was
immediately, in common with Penn, committed to the Tower for
leaving his command without permission. On the 3oth of October he
was released on surrendering his general's commission and his command
in Ireland, which had been kept for him while he was away in the West
Indies. He was never again employed by Cromwell, and in 1659 he
was won over to the Royalist cause ; but there is no good reason to
believe in the truth of the tradition that he had intended four years
earlier to use his West Indian army in favour of the exiled king. He
was appointed, by Monck, Governor of Chester in 1660, but he obtained
nothing at the Restoration. He died in 1687.
He was twice married. His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of
Thomas Rudyard, of Rudyard, Staffordshire. By her he had four sons
-Thomas, Robert, John and Peter-none of whom left children;
and four daughters-Mary, married Richard Venables, of Agden,
Cheshire ; Anne, married Thomas Parker, of Weston Coney, Stafford-
shire; Frances, married Thomas Lee, of Darnhall, Cheshire. His
second wife, whom he married in 1654, was Elizabeth, widow of Thomas
Lee, of Darnhall, and daughter of Samuel Aldersey, a merchant of
London. By accompanying him on his voyage to the West Indies, she
gave rise to unpleasant criticism on her husband and to sarcasm on the
part of Hickeringill. But Venables when he started evidently had it in
mind to settle in the West Indies.
His wife kept a journal of the voyage, published in the Chatham
"Miscellanies" (1871). Venables, in 1662, published The Experienced
Angler or Angling Improved," to which a letter by Izaac Walton is
prefaced.
xxV





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
He bore Arms, Azure, 2 bars argent, 2 mullets in chief, and a
smaller one in centre, of the second. Crest, a wivern passant gules
issuing from a weir argent.
In the History Gallery of the Institute of Jamaica is a photographic
copy of a contemporary portrait, by an unknown artist, at Wincham
Hall, Cheshire, which property Robert Venables purchased.
On the back is written :
General Venables. Robert Venables of Antrobus and Win-
cham, Lieut.-General in Oliver Cromwell's army, commanded the
army in Ireland and the expedition against Hispaniola which took
Jamaica."


ADMIRAL SIR WILLIAM PENN
Sir William Penn, Admiral and General-at-sea, was born at Bristol
in 1621. He was educated for the sea, and served at first in the mer-
chant service. About 1639 he married Margaret Jasper, of Rotterdam.
His first recorded command in the Navy was in 1644, when he was
appointed to the Fellowship (28 guns) of the Irish Fleet, used in the
defence of the western ports of England and of the Protestant interests
in Ireland, in which fleet he continued until i650, rising to the rank of
Vice-Admiral of Ireland. In I650-51 he commanded a squadron of
eight ships on service in the Mediterranean (the first English fleet of
war that had penetrated as far as Malta since the times of the Crusades)
in search of Prince Rupert, which, however, proved fruitless. In
1652-3 he was Vice-Admiral of England and Admiral in command, first
of the blue squadron and then of the white, under three landsmen,
Monck, Blake and Deane, in the war with the Dutch, in which fighting
in line superseded the old board and board method. In the fight
of the znd/3rd of June, 1653, Penn was engaged with Tromp, who was
only saved by the assistance of De Witt and De Ruyter. In December
of the same year, Penn was associated with Blake, Monck and Dis-
browe, as General-of-the-Fleet in the place of Deane, who was killed.
Penn was the only sailor who ever held this office. Now that the war
with Holland was ended, his allegiance to the exiled king asserted itself,
and he offered Charles to take to any port he might name the fleet
destined for the West Indies, which he shortly after was appointed to
command. In December 1654, Charles, however, thinking the occasion
inopportune, directed him to proceed on his voyage.
Penn's ship in which he sailed to the West Indies (a second-rater
with 64 guns) was the second Swiftsure in the Royal Navy. She was
built at Deptford in 1621. Length of keel, 18 feet, breadth of beam,
37 feet. In 1659 she appears in the List of the Fleets as now
xxvi





INTRODUCTION


refitting and victualling at Woolwich." She was taken by the Dutch on
the 2nd of June, i666.1
Soon after the capture of Jamaica, Penn left for England on the 25th
of June, reaching Spithead on the 3 st of August. He was committed to
the Tower, ostensibly for coming home without leave, but probably
because of the lack of hearty co-operation between himself and Venables,
and Cromwell's disappointment at the poor result of the expedition when
compared with what had been anticipated. On submission, he was
released, but dismissed the service; he retired to Ireland, where he
plotted with the Royalists for the Restoration. In 1660, he sat in the
Convention Parliament for Weymouth : he went with Montague in the
Naseby to fetch Charles II from Scheveningen, where he was knighted
by the King on the occasion of his rechristening the Naseby the Royal
Charles, and appointed Commissioner for the Navy, and the Governor
of the castle and fort of Kinsale. He sat in the next parliament: he
was much associated with Pepys, who, however, in his Diary is by
no means complimentary to him-rogue being one of the mildest of the
epithets applied to him by that worthy. In 1665 he was Great Captain
Commander (afterwards called Captain of the Fleet) on the Duke of
York's ship Royal Charles in the Dutch war, in the conduct of which he
played a principal part. When the Duke of York gave up his com-
mand, Penn left the sea also. In 1667-8 he was Master of the Trinity
House. He died in 167o. His eldest son, William Penn, the founder
of Pennsylvania, by becoming a Quaker, ruined his father's chance of a
peerage, which had been promised to him.
There are two portraits of Penn, both by Sir Peter Lely ; of the one
in Greenwich Hospital an engraving by W. Finden forms the frontis-
piece to Granville Penn's Memorials of him. The other was
engraved in mezzotint by R. Earlom.


MAJOR-GENERAL RICHARD FORTESCUE
Of Richard Fortescue's early life nothing is known. At the com-
mencement of the Campaign of 1644 he was a Lieutenant-Colonel in the
parliamentary army under Essex. He was a Colonel in the New Model,
and his regiment was one of those sent to the relief of Taunton. He
later took part in the storming of Bridgwater, Bristol and Dartmouth;
and Pendennis Castle surrendered to him. Siding with parliament
against the army in 1647, he lost his commission, and was not employed
I The first Swtuftsre was built at Deptford in z573; served at Portugal in 1589-90; in z6ox
flagship to Sir George Somers, when he attacked some Spanish ships off Kinsale; changed to
Spee drl in z607; wrecked in z6a4. There was a third swifts ue (Captain Lowder) that left
Jamaia in April 1675. The name is one of the compound Elizabethan names Sawftsuer, ie. Swift
purxver.
xxvii





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA

until 1654, when he was given the command of a regiment under
Venables in the expedition to the West Indies. By the death of Major-
General Heane at Hispaniola, he became Major-General, and on the
24th of June, 1655, succeeded Venables as Commander-in-Chief. The
following is his Commission:
The Commissioners appointed by his highness the lord protector of the common-
wealth of England, Scotland, Ireland, and the dominions of the same, with advice of
his council for managing affairs in America. To major general Richard Fortescue,
commander in chief of all the English forces in the island of Jamaica.
Whereas it hath pleased Almighty God at present to visit general Venables our
fellow commissioner, with sickness, the issue whereof is only known to his divine
majesty; and we, according to our duty and his highness's commands, taking into
consideration what effects might follow thereupon amongst the army, in case it should
please God to take him away, none being nominated or authorised to succeed him in point
of command. And we having good experience of, and being well satisfied as to your
wisdom, vigilancy, fidelity, fitness, to manage and supply the said place and trust, do by
virtue of a power derived to us from his highness commission and instructions, elect,
nominate, authorize and appoint you the said major general Fortescue, to be commander
in chief of his highness's army now in the island of Jamaica, and the same to command
and govern in as full and ample manner (and do all things else in reference to the said
army) as the said General Robert Venables did or might have done by virtue of his place
and charge, for the advancement of his highness's service in America, till his pleasure be
further known and certified touching the same. Hereby desiring, and (in his highness's
name) requiring all colonels, lieutenant colonels, majors, captains, lieutenants and
officers whatsoever, together with all subordinate officers and soldiers, to take notice of,
observe, and obey you accordingly. And yourself to adhere to the advice of his high-
ness's commissioners aforesaid, or such of them as shall be present with you upon the
place, or in their absence to your council of war, in all things tending to the good of the
service and design, for which this army was set forth, according to his highness's instruc-
tions given the said general Venables. The force of this commission to commence
immediately after the death of the present general (if God please to dispose before his
highness can otherwise order) and continue till his said highness shall further provide
on that behalf. Given under our hands and seals this z4th of June at Jamaica above said.
i665. W-. Penn.

In this capacity he did good work. He was a good officer, popular
with the army, of pious disposition, and true to his trust. Cromwell
wrote to him :
I do command, in the midst of others' miscarriages, your constancy and faithful-
ness to your trust in every situation where you are, and your 'taking care of a' company
of poor sheep left by their shepherd and be assured that, as that which you have done
hath been good in itself, and becoming an honest man, so it hath a very good savour
here with all good Christians and all true Englishmen, and will not be forgotten by me as
opportunity shall serve."

It was decided at a Council of War, held at St. Jago de la Vega in
June, that Fortescue should if he pleased go to England to represent
the condition of the army, but he did not leave. In July he wrote to
1 Fortescue's own words.
xxviii






INTRODUCTION


Thurloe, praying that his wife might have some of his arrears of pay,
and stating in reference to Butler's refusal to agree in this and Goodson's
appointment that he was acting without booke."
He died in Jamaica in October 1655, a few days after Sedgwick's
arrival, but there is no stone to mark the place of his burial. He left a
widow, Mary, who petitioned that two plantations in Jamaica which
Fortescue had stocked at great charges might be granted to herself
and her child.
The Scoutmaster Berkenhead, writing to Thurloe from Barbados,
said of him," None knows him in our armie, fleet, or island, but honour
him." Fortescue wrote to a friend of the name of Taylor, Minister of
the Gospel in Bell Alley, Coleman Street, London :
Consider and revolve God's word and the present work : and let none stand still
that be helpful and serviceable in God's work. Had I 5ooo lives, 1ooo sons, all should
be offered up to it. I bles his name, that hath made me soe willing amongst many
unwilling, who though they... wish and express their desires to be in Egypt
again. I trust God will spirit men for this work, and give them other hearts : men of
ordinary spirit are not fitt for extraordinary achievements. What a desirable and joy-
full thing would it be, to see many godly men flock and flow in hither, there is accumo-
dation work for them ? Here they may serve God, their country, and themselves. I
dare say, he that cumes on such accounts, shall not have cause to repent his voyage:
many there are that came out with us vauntinge, as if they would have carryed the
Indies, bigg with expectation of gold and silver ready told up in baggs not finding that,
but, meeting with some difficulties and hardships, wherewith God uses to try and exercise
his people, they fret, fume, and grow impatient, and with that they were at their onyons,
etc. Several of such, according to their desires and discontents, we have dismist, and
may return with shame enough. We expect in their owne defence they will disparage
the place and service; but I hope wise and sober men will not give much credit to
them."

Goodson, in writing to the Council, on the 7th of November, 1655,
said, The Army is in a deplorable condition by the death of Major-
General Fortescue."
From a pamphlet published in 1655, entitled Perfect Proceedings
of State Affaires. In England, Scotland and Ireland, with the Tran-
sactions of other Nations. From Thursday 13 Septm., to Thursday
the 20 of September, 1655," the following appears:
Saturday i9 September.
His Highnesse the Lord Protector rid out this day to take the air, and came back
again to Whitehall. By letters from General Fortescue, Commander in chief of all the
Forces in lamaica Island in America, an account was given of the present posture of our
Forces there, and of the Consultations of the Officer, and upon the whole there was much
Satisfaction given of future hopes, of a good account to be given of that business."


xxix





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA


CAPTAIN GREGORY BUTLER
Of the early life of Captain Gregory Butler little is known. He
served under Essex, Sir William Waller and Major-General Massey
until Massey's forces were disbanded in 1646. He apparently later
emigrated to the West Indies and acquired local knowledge, which led
to his appointment as a Commissioner in the American Enterprise.
He took a prominent part in recruiting in the Leeward Islands, being
sent, it was suggested, to get him out of Barbados ; but in the capacity
of a Commissioner he did not cover himself with glory. Winslow
thought him honest but of little use; Barrington thought him honest
but lacking in control of temper ; Fortescue, in writing to Thurloe, was
more outspoken, and said," He is the unfittest man for a Commissioner
I ever knew employed," and Venables called him a drunken sot, appar-
ently not without cause. Though needed in Jamaica, he persisted, in
spite of Fortescue's protests, on returning to England ; refusing to take
part in the nomination of a Commander-in-Chief in place of Venables.
When he appealed to the Council of State for redress for his losses
on the expedition, he applied to be made Governor of Tortuga.


VICE-ADMIRAL WILLIAM GOODSON
William Goodson is supposed to have originally belonged to Yar-
mouth. His name was spelt by Thurloe and others as Goodsonn.
About 1634 he lived for some time in Cartagena," and he gained
a certain amount of familiarity with other Spanish settlements, both
on the mainland and on the islands. He entered the service of the
State in 1694, but his first actual connexion with the Navy took place in
January I652-3, when he became Captain of the Entrance, being two
months later Rear-Admiral, and receiving with other officers a gold
chain and medal for services in the fight off Portland.
He was made in 1654 Vice-Admiral of the squadron under
Penn for the West Indies, being appointed a Commissioner with the
right to succeed Penn as Commander-in-Chief. At Barbados he was
appointed Colonel of a regiment of seamen for service on shore, which
did what it could to redeem the disgrace of the attempt of Hispaniola.
When Penn left Jamaica on the zist of June, 1655, Goodson succeeded
him as Admiral and Commander-in-Chief, with his flag on the Torring-
ton, at the same time that Fortescue was appointed to succeed Venables,
Fortescue's commission being dated the 24th of June and Goodson's a
day later.
On the 3ist of July he went with the fleet of nine ships and sacked
Santa Marta, which consisted of two small forts and two hundred
XXX






INTRODUCTION


houses, but did not feel himself strong enough to attempt Cartagena.
In April the next year he went south again, sacked Rio de la Hacha, but
again feared to attempt Cartagena.
In January 1657 he sailed in the Mathias for England, which he
reached on the i8th of April. He later served as Vice-Admiral under
Sir George Ayscue in Penn's old ship the Swiftsure and under General
Montagu. He was still living in 1680. He was a staunch Puritan. He
had at one time bought five hundred acres of land in the South Level
fenland. He mentions a wife, but no children, but there is reason to
believe that John Goodson, the first English physician to go to Penn-
sylvania under Penn's charter, was his son.


MAJOR-GENERAL ROBERT SEDGWICK
Of Robert Sedgwick, the first to hold, though even for a few days,
the reins of government in Jamaica, little is recorded. He escaped the
widespread net of the Dictionary of National Biography at its first
cast, but appears in the first supplement. The chief sources of in-
formation are the Calendar of State Papers," the Collection of
State Papers of John Thurloe, and an article by Henry Dwight
Sedgwick in Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts."
Research, both in England and America, where some of his direct
descendants reside to-day, has failed to discover a portrait of him.
Cromwell early foresaw the need which would arise for reinforce-
ments for Penn and Venables in their colonizing venture, and selected
for the purpose Sedgwick, who had recently proved his value as a
soldier and a colonizer in New England and Nova Scotia ; but Parkman,
in his Old Regime in Canada," is in error in stating that he had
served in the Civil War as a major-general of Cromwell." He belonged
to the Wisbeach branch of the family, which was, as early as the four-
teenth century, established in the West Riding of Yorkshire ; and he
probably bore arms-or a cross gules with five bells or; the motto,
Confido in Domino." The son of William Sedgwick of London, and
brother of William Sedgwick, the puritan and mystic, he was born at
Woburn, in Bedfordshire, in 1611. He emigrated to America at the
age of twenty-four, at the same time as Kearns and Winthrop, the first
Governors of Massachusetts, and settled in Charlestown as a merchant.
Whilst there he was influential in its affairs and active in promoting
the public weal." He later removed to Boston, where he became
Captain of the Ancient and Honourable Artillery Company, Com-
mander of the Castle, and in 1652 Major-General of the Colony. He
built ships, warehouses and wharves, and was enterprising in trade,
useful in the town, and popular with the citizens."
c xxxi





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA


While on a visit to England he was sent by Cromwell to drive the
Dutch from the New Netherlands, but, on peace with Holland being
declared, he went, by way of Massachusetts, where he enlisted recruits,
to Nova Scotia ; and in July 1654 he captured the forts of St. John's and
Port Royal from the French, and thus secured Nova Scotia, or Acadia,
as it was then known. It was on his return to England from this victory
that he was appointed Commissioner in the civil affairs of Jamaica.
On the rIth of July, 1655, Sedgwick sailed from Plymouth on board
the Marmaduke with his squadron of ships and a regiment of eight
hundred men under Colonel Humphrey. He reached Barbados on the
27th of August, after a successful voyage without the loss of any of the
troops. After learning of Penn and Venables's failure at Hispaniola
and departure for Jamaica, and after taking in victuals, he left on the
7th of September, and, sailing by way of St. Christopher and Hispaniola,
reached Jamaica on the ist of October, having lost about a score of
soldiers of a disease which he thought had been contracted at Barbados.
The rest arrived in very good health, lusty, and with the soldiers
fitter to fight than when they first came on board."
He evidently held a high ideal of the manner in which empire building
should be conducted, and had sufficient courage to tell the Protector
what he thought. He wrote :
This kind of marooning cruising West India trade of plundering and burning of
towns, though it hath been long practised in these parts, yet is not honourable for a
princely navy, neither was it, I think, the work designed, though perhaps it may be
tolerated at present."
And yet it formed part of Cromwell's western design to vex the Spaniards.
Sedgwick could not resist having a shot at Penn and Venables, by
pointing out that, on seeing the city of San Domingo, he felt sure that
it could be taken with a far less number than some little time before
were near unto it."
While Sedgwick was at sea, Cromwell issued a proclamation to the
Governors and inhabitants of New England, inviting those driven from
the land of their birth to that dessert and barren wilderness to
remove to a land of plenty, Jamaica ; and a little later arrangements
were made for the transference of settlers from Long Island to Jamaica,
and Sedgwick, so far as he was able, did what he could to further Crom-
well's design for the colonization of Jamaica both from the northern
colonies and the other West India islands.
In March 1656, Daniel Gookin, the friend of the American Indians,
was commissioned by Cromwell to return to New England and to
arrange for the settling of a colony of New Englanders in Jamaica, to
whom transportation was offered and a sufficient proportion of land
to them and their heirs forever near some good harbour in the said
island."
xxxii













T70 4?.) If d-i CONCERN, i the S&iW
T'emwrim pNuiise4ft4b VNITED COLONIF,
,.. .;o 2Eugl&ad.


IT is hereby declared, Thua his Highnefs the Lord Prote&dorof
the Comrnon wealth of ngland &c: hath Commiflioned and imr
poweredM# Doel 9e--s dw aliogt C brd in the Maffachunfe, o
make ageemo mdb y aniemt number of the Englifh in te Colonis
of New- aglaod, who haUll &Cire to remove tbemfelves or families into
~aic in the We4-ndi' w inpoffeM on of the State of England
Afk 7 rgialnii ueouragemeon His Highneft (bearing a speciall af,
fda e tohe pfep l of New England, and being very derous to hat
the (aid plae abitedd by a ftck of fuch as know the LORD, and
walk in his Fear,) will graun-them, Shipsfor tranfportado; a ufficieut
p of Land to them and their beires for ever near foe good
s in athe aid Ilaid; Protctioa (by Gods blefling) fromall ene-
snis; a fhae of ll the oare, Cade and other beats, widand came upon
the place freely, Togeur with other Priviledges and Immunirtie, the
particulars wherof may be known by thole who hdi lee cafe to addreli
themflves tothe raid DWaul /ookja (or fch as be fhall defire to be
bdpfll herein, wboe naes are underneath exprefsed in writing) who
will be ready to mrke full agpement with them according to his Highnefs
oftniaiom, ad take their reciprocal Ingagements and Subfcriptios to
remove accordingly. Farther it is desired that fuch as incline the
Defign aforefaid, do make known thenmfelves without delay, it being his
Highon Plcafare that the work of Tranr boring frauld bo-begun before
the and of Scpmuber amet.
Dtted this 25 of t arcb 6 5 6


PROCLAMATION BY CROMWIELL.






INTRODUCTION


Gookin did not leave England until November. Though not having
much faith in the undertaking, he did his best with the inhabitants of
the New England colonies.
He wrote that, though he had no good report of the island chiefly
by reason of the number of deaths there and of the lack of enterprise of
the colonists, he suggested that if it were either Cuba or Hispaniola,
immigrants could be found more readily. He sent some New Eng-
landers to inspect Jamaica for themselves, but their report was not
satisfactory, and in June 1657, he finally reported that the venture was
a failure.
On his arrival in Jamaica, surprised to find Penn, Venables and
Butler gone, Sedgwick seemed to have allied himself with Goodson,
upon whose frigate, the Torrington, he held a conference with him and
Fortescue. He found them both willing to do anything to help either
fleet or army in any way possible After some days of debate and some
hot discussion as to the value of their respective commissions, it was at
last agreed that they should act together jointly to be serviceable to
the good of the whole."
Fortescue, unfortunately, died a few days after; Sedgwick and
Goodson formed a standing Council for the management of the Affairs
of the Army of which D'oyley was made President, after Holdipp 2
had acted during D'oyley's temporary illness. So long as strength
remained to him, Sedgwick worked hard for the amelioration of the
army and of the island generally. He, however, met with little encour-
agement from the army officers, who, besides quarrelling amongst them-
selves, did all they could to thwart his scheme of colonization, and
Sedgwick more than once invoked the aid of the sailors to do the work
of the soldiers.
He found the fleet in reasonably good health and condition, but he
could not refrain from again telling Cromwell (in allusion to the sacking
of Santa Marta) that in my judgment it is not so honourable, that
your highness's fleet should follow this old trade of West-India Cruisers
and privateers, to ruin and plunder poor towns, and so leave them."
The army he found in a sad and deplorable and distracted condition,
some commanders having left their charge, some dead and some in
indifferent health; of the soldiery, many dead, their carcases lying
unburied on the highways, and many of those that were alive walking
about like ghosts or lying like dead men groaning and crying out,
I A copy of the handbill he issued setting forth the advantages of Jamaica is in the Bodleian
Library : a facsimile is in the Institute of Jamaica. A full account of the venture will be found in
" Daniel Gookin," by Frederick William Gookin, Chicago, 1912.
2 Richard Holdipp, who had been Governor of Surinam, was Lieutenant-Colonel of Fortescue's
regiment. Butler said of him he thought that he might have the command of a regiment who
indeed never merited a company." He however succeeded Heane in command of his regiment.
He proved himself the best and most forward planter," but was cashiered for dishonesty and
returned to England.
xxxiii





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA


" bread for the Lord's sake." He found the shore, presumably at
Passage Fort, littered with casks, puncheons, chests, and the like, with
clothing, arms, armour, and tools lying without any shelter, exposed to
all the damage which rain or sun could do, and to theft by either soldiers
or strangers. All the little bread they had, about thirty thousand loaves,
was kept in casks in the open, and was much damaged by weather. The
people, he said, were in daily expectation of a supply of provisions, but
had not made the least preparation for receiving it. Having four mer-
chant ships to unload with nearly a thousand tons of provisions in them,
he, after distributing their share amongst the ships, caused the seamen,
with the help of Admiral Goodson, to build a storehouse at the landing-
place. Within sixteen days he had erected a building ioo feet in length
and 25 feet broad, and had all the goods housed and in good condition,
" with little or no help from the army, they being a people in such
condition, as they had rather die than work."
As soon as the provisions were landed, he allotted to every soldier
half a pound of bread, a quarter of a pint of oatmeal or a quarter of a
pint of peas or a quarter of a pound of flour a day ; and this allowance he
estimated would last for five or six months.
The military officers were then in a sad state; he had landed, he
said, eight hundred and thirty-one men of Colonel Humphrey's regi-
ment, lusty, healthy and gallant, who had encouraged the whole army,
but there were now fifty of them dead, including a Captain, a Lieuten-
ant, and two Ensigns; the Colonel himself was very weak and the
Lieutenant-Colonel at death's door. Of the army of occupation the
officers were little better, Colonel D'oyley had fallen sick again, Colonel
Carter' was very weak and also divers other field officers. Soldiers
died daily, about one hundred and forty a week. He says :
It is strange to see young, lusty men, in appearance well, and in three or four days
in the grave, snatched away in a moment with fevers, agues, fluxes and dropsies, a
confluence of many diseases. The truth is God is angry, and the plague is begun, and
we have none to stand in the gap. God goeth on in destroying to destroy us, and tells us
He will take no delight in us by His ways and outgoings towards us ; and there hath been,
I fear, in all this design nothing but wrath and heavy displeasure. I would not grieve,
but my heart and soul grieveth, when I think of the Hispaniola business; one or two
negroes to make 500 Englishmen fling down their arms and run away. Oh tell it not
in Gath, nor publish it in Askelon, lest the uncircumcised rejoice. The truth is sir, you
cannot conceive us so bad as we are, broken and scattered. God rending us in pieces, a
senseless-hearted people, not affected with His dealing with us."
Of the island itself, Sedgwick wrote :
It seems to present itself desirable, capable of producing any kind of merchandizes
that other islands do, full of several sorts of cattle. It is thought our English have since
they came hither killed twenty thousand ; and they are now grown so wild, that it is not
1 Andrew Carter, the Colonel of the Fifth Regiment, had been Lieutenant-Colonel of Lambert's
foot-regiment when Cromwell invaded Scotland. He died about the same time.
xxxiv






INTRODUCTION


easy to kill any of them, which were all before kept by Spaniards, both horses and cows,
under command, and by keepers ; and our soldiers have destroyed all sorts of fruits and
provisions and cattle. Nothing but ruin attends them wheresoever they go.
Our harbour is good, as I think any in the Indies; lyeth in the midst of all the
Spaniards' plantations, and may be convenient in many respects."
The soldiers would not do much planting, although urged to do so.
Sedgwick and Goodson made a common plantation for the fleet, sent to
New England for masts, and made offers of shipping for any would-be
immigrants; the ships being instructed to return via Nevis and
Barbados, with similar offers to those and the neighboring islands.
Sedgwick wrote later (in April), We have sometime since sent
letters to all the English collonies of our health and welfare, being un-
willing to omit anything, that might encourage this worke" and before
the letter was despatched he received from brave old Luke Stokes of
Nevis a letter saying that he and upwards of a thousand settlers would
come to Jamaica when transport was provided.
With regard to the negroes in the island, Sedgwick said they had no
certain intelligence, but he knew they lived separately from the Spani-
ards, scattered in the woods and mountains, some of them, they believed,
very near the English quarters, and they were so bold they fired a house
in the town (Spanish Town). He complained that the soldiery were
very careless, and allowed themselves to be cut off by marauding bands
of negroes.
Goodson's intended attempt on San Jago de Cuba was hindered by
Sedgwick's arrival, the more especially as since Fortescue's death Sedg-
wick needed his advice, but he ultimately went; and his absence
probably added greatly to Sedgwick's troubles.
Sedgwick was evidently far from well when he landed. He says:
Pardon my prolix and rude expressions. I am apt sometimes to think I shall write
no more. I am sometimes sick and think I may fall among the rest of my countrymen ;
and durst do no more than plainly to let your highness know our state and condition."

He made two small requests, one that Cromwell would be pleased
to let him return to England, the other that he would look after his
" dear and religious wife" and his five children to me dear and
precious ; and for his wife he also invoked the good offices of Thurloe
in case she should be in need of money. Possibly this lack of confidence
in himself on Sedgwick's part led Cromwell to appoint Brayne in May
1656 Commander-in-Chief to act by himself or with the Com-
missioners soon after he had sent a similar Commission to Sedgwick.
In March 1655-6 Sedgwick and Goodson, writing to the Protector,
reported that Colonel D'oyley, being established Commander-in-Chief
of the Army, they had in the first place jointly ordered that a fort begun
on the Careening Point at the entrance to the harbour should be finished
xxxv





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
with all expedition ; that the men of Humphrey's regiment had proved
useless for the purpose ; that their place had been taken by seamen, and
that it was supplied with ordnances amongst which were battering pieces
of brass sent over with the first fleet. In the next month Sedgwick
reported our grand fort is finished." They reported that the condi-
tion of the army was, God be praised, much mended since they last
wrote, the soldiers were much more healthful, but they were reduced
to so small a number (for they were not above 2,500) that all that could
be expected of them was the defence of the island and the expelling
and reducing of the remnant of the inhabitants, without which there
could be no security for the planters, who they hoped would come and
settle. They regretted the attitude of both soldiers and officers alike,
a disinclination to work and a desire to return to England. The fleet
on the contrary, consisting of twenty-three frigates, ships, and victu-
allers, was not only in a prosperous condition, but ready to embrace any
action which might be decided, and they murmured in fact if they were
kept too long inactive. Of the ships available, one always lay to wind-
ward for protection, one was used for trade with New England, another
to carry mails to England, another to do coastal service--" surround the
island," as Sedgwick called it-another went to Chiemanas for
turtle.
In order to allay the jealousy which existed, Sedgwick and Goodson,
as Cromwell's Commissioners, appointed a meeting on board the
Torrington, and summoned to their council twelve of the principal
commanders of fleet and army, six of each. They told them that the
object of the meeting was to acquaint them with the orders received
from the Protector with regard to the settlement of the island and the
" annoying and infesting the enemy." As a result it was resolved that
in order to encourage the soldiers thirty acres should be allotted to every
man, room being left for new-comers, and that when it should be found
possible the bulk of the ships should go to sea under the Admiral, six
ships meanwhile being sent out to spy abroad to bring intelligence of the
Spanish Armada, and to prevent the succours expected by the enemy
from Cartagena.
Shortly after the fleet had sailed Sedgwick received news that he had
been endowed by Cromwell with supreme command of the army. He
withheld the fact from D'oyley in Goodson's absence at sea, to the
annoyance of the former, who wrote for an explanation. He wrote to
D'oyley on the 12th of May from Careening Pointe :
Yours this day I received from the hands of our friend, Major Smith, and I know
you cannot but expect an answer thereof. It is true, according to your apprehensions,
his highness hath been pleased to give me to understand in his letter to me, that there is a
commission sent over by their ships concerning the command of the annie, and as in
reference to myself, but being not so full satisfied therein, as I conceive there wil be
occasion, when Admiral Goodson's letters are opened and perused, I thought it not so
xxxvi






INTRODUCTION
necessarie to speaker of it at your last being heere ; and being something troubled in my
spirit about it, was the cause I did not shew you his highness letter to me at that tyme,
which otherwise I should have done with much freeness and opennes of heart."

Aylesbury wrote home1 that Sedgwick was much troubled over a
consignment of clothes brought for the fleet. He adds:
I assure you he ought not to receive any discouragement, for he hath burthen enough
upon him here by his employment; besides he is a person of that integrity, that it
cannot be imagined he would disowne an act of his own."

But worn out by worries and climate, Sedgwick died about twelve
days after receiving his commission, on the 24th of May, 1656.
The following account of his death is given by Aylesbury, writing
to Thurloe on the 25th of June, 1656 :
I came hither as Mr. Blackborne, secretary to the commissioners of the admiralty
can informed you, with major general Sedgwick whose favor, which I enjoyed in a large
degree, was as great an honor to me, as his death was an unhappiness. I may truly say,
never man had a more real friend, nor a greater losse. Yet I do not so much bewaile
myself as the publique, to which he was exceeding useful, being generally belovd and
esteemed by all sorts of people. He dyed upon the 24th of May not of any visible great
distemper, only a little feaverish ; and the very morning it pleased God to take him from
us, I as little apprehended his death, as at any time since our departure from England.
But his disease was inward; he never enjoyed himself since the last letters arrived, but,
as was apparent to al men, from that time lost much of his freedom and cheerfulness.
When he had perused his letters having bin private about two hours, he called me to
him; and when I came into the roome, perceiving a great alteration in his countenance,
I asked him, what was the matter. He replyed, Ah Mr. Aylesbury, I have not since we
were together concealed any thing from you, that most concern me ; and I think never
shal. I am utterly undon. I have had the greatest conflict in my spirit, that ever man
had, and find I am not able to beare what is layd upon me. Sir, sayd I again, what is the
matter ? Peruse those letters, he replyed and you wil see: whereupon the letters
lying upon the table, I read one from his highnes, another from your self, and three
from his brother, Mr. William Sedgwick; after the perusal whereof, Sir, sayd I, there
is nothing contained in these, that ought to afflict you. His highnes hath made choise
of you to command his army, and both he and Mr. secretary have expressed so great an
esteeme of you that on the contrary you have great cause to rejoice your endeavors have
bin so wel accepted, and to be thankful to God for it. Ah Mr. Asleybury, said he again,
it is that which undoes me. There is so much expected of me, and I conscious of my
own disabilities, having besides so untoward a people to deale with, am able to perform
soe little that I shall never overcome it, it wil break my heart ; and so notwithstanding
al arguments I could use in several private discourses afterwards, I verily believe it
did. He was a truly religious man, and of the most innocent conversation I ever accom-
panyed ."

At the same time Aylesbury wrote:
I must not omit to let you understand, that the reason, why this ship has been so
long detained after the major general's death, was the unexpected proceedings in the
1 The date given in Thurloe is 29th June, x656, but that is obviously wrong as Sedgwick was
then dead.
xxxvii





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA


army, and the due consideration of Capt. Blake's business, being it was thought convenient
that the three ships for the Windward Islands and this should goe together in company
from hence ; and the arrival of the Nevis gentlemen and their entertainment and business
took some part of the time.
It is omitted in the admiral's letter, that at the business of Hispaniola some of our
men being taken prisoners, about 30 have remained there in a condition bad enough;
some being close prisoners, others constrained to work ; but we are informed, they are
now to be sent for Spain. What else is not sett down capt. Bunn wil be able to discourse
to you at large, who truly understands this place, and the nature and condition of our
people."

Sedgwick evidently lived as much as possible on ship-board, his
partiality for this form of residence being strengthened by the fact that
the sailors enjoyed much better health than the soldiers.
Captain William Godfrey, of the Marmaduke, writing to the Com-
missioners of the Admiralty on the 3oth of April, 1656, says that he
remained in harbour ever since he arrived, conceiving it is merely for
the accommodation of Commissioner Sedgwick who hath continued
always on board.
Vice-Admiral Goodson, writing to the Admiralty on the 24th of
June, stated, that he arrived in Jamaica on the 23rd of May, 1656, and
found Major-General Sedgwick very sick, and he died the next day;
he truly feared God, was of singular use in his work, and generally
beloved by the soldiery."
D'oyley, who was evidently jealous of Sedgwick's being appointed
to the command of the army over him, says, in a letter of the 20th of
June to the Protector telling of Sedgwick's death, and asking to be
appointed Governor :
He sent immediately upon the receipt of his commission to me, but told me nothing
of the commission; but by his looks shewd unusual dumpishness and confusion. I
tooke my leave of him and sent to know the truth of him, who returned me the copy I
have herewith sent. I doubt he provoked God by his distrust of Providence in not
coming ashoare, where his business lay for feare of infection."

It would appear that Sedgwick died on shipboard, and he may have
been buried either at the Careening Point under the shadow of our
grand fort," or more probably alongside Fortescue at Spanish Town;
but no trace of his burial-place can be found to-day. His widow,
Johanna, was, in September 1656, voted by the Council of State a
pension of Ioo a year.
Sedgwick was evidently an honest Christian gentleman, and did his
best for the infant colony under very difficult conditions as regards his
own health, the unwillingness of many of the inhabitants, the jealousy
between the army and navy, and the scarcity of provisions. It remained
for D'oyley, Jamaica's first civil governor, a man of tougher fibre, to
carry out much of the work which he had begun.
xxxviii






INTRODUCTION


WILLIAM AYLESBURY
William Aylesbury, the son of Sir Thomas Aylesbury, the patron of
mathematical learning, was born in 1615. He is best known for his
translation from the Italian of Davila's History of the French Civil
Wars," which was dedicated to Charles I, and as brother-in-law of
Clarendon. A gentleman-commoner at Christ Church, Oxford, he
graduated at the age of sixteen. He was governor to the Duke of
Buckingham, in whose service he later continued. During the
Commonwealth he lived in retirement near Oxford.
In 1656 he was, as mentioned above, appointed Secretary to Sedg-
wick on his going as Commissioner to Jamaica, where he was made a
Commissioner, but he died on the 24th of August of the same year.
A writer from Jamaica (given in Thurloe), whose name is unrecorded,
says of him :
A man very well versed in the weighty affairs of State, who in his counsels and
advice, both to army and fleet, was very useful; for the want of which we shall have more
and more cause to grieve."
The copy of The Commission of the Commissioners for the West
Indian Expedition," in the Additional Manuscripts in the British
Museum (11410, f. 47) and printed in Firth's Venables," is signed
" This is a true copy, Will. Aylesbury, Secret."


LUKE STOKES
Of those to whom Cromwell appealed, either directly or indirectly,
to help colonize Jamaica, none responded so effectually as did old Luke
Stokes, the Governor of Nevis. As it is not to be wondered at, and as
Brayne had realized, most colonial governors wished to keep their
colonists to themselves, but Stokes removed himself and his family and
about a thousand colonists to Jamaica and settled in the neighbourhood
of Morant, where the memory of him still lingers round Stokes Hall,
one of the finest old houses in the island, and Stokesfield.
On the 12th of March, 1655-6, Stokes wrote from Nevis to Sedgwick,
who received the letter a few weeks before his death :
His highness undeserved and unexpected favours he hath bin pleased to throw
some of them up on my self wherein hee hath in some particulars declared his highnes
design concerning Jamaica and made mee an instrument to declare it to the people of
this colloni; so likewise I have declared it to my adjacent nighbours, and caused his
proclamations to bee published; and I find in this island the greatest part of the In-
habitants, with their wives, children and servants, are willing and ready to accept his
highnes terms, laid down in his highnes proclamation."
xxxix





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA


Ships were sent for them, and they reached Jamaica at about the
same time as Brayne. But about the end of February 1656-7 Stokes
and his wife died, leaving three sons, the eldest of whom was not more
than fifteen years old. The Governor was, Long tells us, advanced in
age when he left Nevis; and his fortune was much impaired by his
removal. Nearly two-thirds of the settlers followed Stokes to the
grave by March, but the remainder by 1671 had developed into upwards
of sixty settlements.
Of Luke Stokes, research has failed to reveal any particulars, either
as to place of origin, family, or personal accomplishments. He seems
to have been a simple-minded man who did the best he could for the
Empire. He may have been a brother of Stephen Stokes, who was one
of the Council of St. Kitts in 1630.


MAJOR-GENERAL WILLIAM BRAYNE
Of the early life of William Brayne, the son of Thomas Brayne, little
is recorded. In 1653 he was lieutenant-colonel of a regiment of foot
commanded by Colonel Daniel, which formed part of the army of
occupation of Scotland. He was made Governor of Inverlochy, which
he defended against the royalist rising of a year later, in which
capacity he earned the reputation of ane excellent wyse man."
In the summer of 1656 Cromwell sent him with reinforcements to
Jamaica with the title of Commander-in-Chief of the land forces, with
an allowance of 3 a day. He was instructed to say that, judging from
the reports of Major-General Sedgwick and Vice-Admiral Goodson,
the state of the army and fleet give great cause of being humble before
the Lord, who hath in such legible characters made known his dis-
pleasure." He was to take all the forces into his charge, and the
true state of affairs into his consideration."
He had power to trade with the Creolians and to grant letters of
reprisal against the Spaniards. Finally, he was empowered to act by
himself or with the Commissioners.
He arrived in December, bringing with him I,zoo men, 500oo of whom
were out of Scotland and the rest from Ireland, the best men that ever
came to Jamaica," the author of the Present State of Jamaica "
(1683) tells us.
He immediately set to work to establish a colony, encouraging
planting and the development of trade.
On the 29th of January, 1656, he wrote that, by the time he had
been there a year, neither his body nor his purse would be able to hold
out longer ; and he begged that a successor might be appointed.
In March he wrote that nearly a third of the soldiery that had come






INTRODUCTION


with him were dead and many of the rest sick. He attempted to draw
recruits from Bermuda, Barbados, Nevis and St. Kitts, but he realized
that the interest of their governors was to keep the inhabitants in those
colonies. He made a fort at Port Morant and mounted ten whole
culverins.
On the 12th of March, 1656-7, he wrote to the Protector : Since
Colonel Stoak's death, I have been forced to act alone in all those things,
wherein your highness commissioners and myself were equally im-
powered."
In July he wrote one of the earliest references to Port Royal:
" There is the faire beginning of a towne upon the poynt of this harbour,
which with a little charge will be made past the Spaniards gaining."
At the same time he wrote :
I beseech your honour to send me an order of indempnitie for acting alone in the
absence and death of the commissioners, as also what shall be done for the future ; for
I act in a perpetual feare, least I ruine myself in endeevouring to serve his highnes and
the publique faithfully. If the old way of commissioners be resolved on, I shall
humbly begge, that I may have libertie to return for England ; for in the small experi-
ence that I have had, I finde there will nothing be done but bandying of factions, and
spending the time in debates."

In August Brayne wrote that his abode in Jamaica might be called
one continual sickness.
His health failed him, and he died on the 2nd of September, 1657.
No stone marks his burial. In accordance with instructions in case of
Brayne's death, D'oyley then assumed the command of the forces.
Brayne was infinitely lamented, being a wise man and perfectly
qualified for the command and design as the author of the" Present
State says.
His father and executor in March 1657-8 prayed for relief on account
of the expenses his son had incurred in preparing for the western
expedition. The Committee for America assessed the sum due as
,772.










GOVERNORS


EDWARD D'OYLEY
IN the reign of William the Conqueror, one of his knights, Robert
D'oilli, a member of a family which owned large estates in Normandy,
was granted an estate at Hook Norton, in Oxfordshire (with twenty-
seven other lordships in that county), on a curious condition. In return
for the lands he had to make tender of a linen Tablecloth, worth three
English shillings, every year at the feast of St. Michaels to his King.
As they were exclusively used by the Royal Family, the ladies of the
D'oyley family took especial care in embroidering these linen cloths,
then known as quit rent cloths." They were later known as D'oyley
linen.
Edward D'oyley, who was born in 1617, was the second son of John
D'oyley, of Albourne, Wiltshire, by his wife Lucy, daughter of Robert
Nicholas, a relation of Sir Edward Nicholas, Secretary of State to
Charles I and Charles II--" good old Secretary Nicholas." The
Albourne branch of the family was an off-shoot of the D'oyleys of
Chiselhampton, Oxfordshire, with which county the family had long
been associated; Robert de Oyly having, in 1129, founded the Abbey
of Oseney.
From a letter which he wrote to Cromwell, on Sedgwick's death, in
May 1656, we learn that Edward D'oyley was of no inconsiderable
family, but persecuted these many years for the cause of religion ;
that he was educated at the Inns of Court ; that he had had continual
imployments, not mean ones, in civil and Martiall affairs these fower-
teene years past," and that he had quitted a good employment in
Ireland at the Commonwealth, prepared to live and dye in Crom-
well's interest. He fought on the Parliament side in the Civil War,
first in Wiltshire, afterwards in Ireland.
Samuel Long, a relative of D'oyley, came out with him as Secretary
to the Commissioners who superintended the expedition to the West
Indies; he was a lieutenant in the regiment to which D'oyley was
appointed in Barbados: and the Major, John Coape (or Cope), "a
Quaker and ancient rebel," later a member of the Council of Jamaica,
with whom D'oyley was connected in an illegal purchase of negroes
from Dutchmen in 1661, was a relation of D'oyley s great-grandfather,
Sir Anthony Cope.
In the army that Venables brought over, D'oyley started as Lieu-
tenant-Colonel to the Commander-in-Chief, but at Barbados Colonel





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
Lewis Morris, a planter, who had helped to raise a regiment and was
appointed Colonel, declined to go unless his debts were paid, and
Venables gave the command to D'oyley. He did not play any very
important part in the attack on Hispaniola, nor in the very early
occurrences in Jamaica. On the death of Fortescue, in October 1655,
D'oyley was joined to Goodson and Sedgwick as Commissioner; on
the death of Sedgwick, in May 1656, he acted with Goodson, being,
as he said, commander-in-chief, commissioner, judge, advocate and
treasurer "; in December Brayne arrived and took command, with
Goodson and D'oyley under him; in January 1656-7, Goodson
left. On the 27th of August, 1657, Brayne gave D'oyley an appoint-
ment to be Commander-in-Chief, both by sea and land, in these parts
of America," which was handed to him after Brayne's death on the 2nd
of September. This was written from Cagway, as Port Royal was then
called by the English, who in error supposed that that was the spot
which the Spaniards called Caguaya, although they might have learnt
better from the wording of the treaty of surrender. The Spanish
Caguaya was, as we have seen, at Passage Fort, and they called Kingston
Harbour the port of Caguaya. On Brayne's death, D'oyley was left in
supreme command. From that date he acted as Governor by court-
martial till June 1661, when he received his commission from Charles
II to be the Civil Governor of the colony.
In March 1655-6, he wrote home to Thurloe, whom he only knew
by correspondence, that their condition was very good, considering
where we are, and that our soldiers drink nothing but water "; the
soldiers were busy, fortifying, planting, or guarding, of which they liked
planting least. He complained much of being importuned by officers
for leave to return to England, which he withheld till he heard from the
Protector. He shows in this letter, what often appears in his corres-
pondence, a jealousy of the Navy, when they had to purchase supplies
"at treble rates." Writing again in April, he alludes to the soldiers'
unwillingness to plant, and to the difficulty of their situation with the
" continual clamour of home, home," but he said that he was not
borne for myself but for my nation." He had just repressed a revolt
in Colonel Buller's regiment, three of the ringleaders being executed.
In June the army yet consists of neare seven and twenty hundred,
but begin to fall sick." In October he wrote that for upwards of eight
months they had received no letter from England, and even his bold
heart allowed him to say we are almost afraid we are forgott." In
April of 1657 he told Thurloe that the Governors of the other British
West India Islands (except, of course, Nevis, whence many settlers had
come over under their Governor Stokes) were opposed to the settling
of Jamaica.
In writing to the Protector he calls it a burthen indeed, too






EDWARD D'OYLEY
heavy for me to beare," and speaks of the difficulty of commanding an
army without pay. He, however, had the advantage of the affection
of the people beyond any that yet ever commanded." Nevertheless,
he begs to be relieved of the charge, and to be allowed to return home to
settle some business which his long absence had discomposed," and
he suggests that Colonel Barrington should act in his place.
In I657 a letter from Bayona, the Governor of Cuba, to a certain
Spanish sergeant-major in Jamaica, making arrangements for an attack
on Jamaica, to be aided by the whilom Spanish slaves in the island, was
intercepted. Immediate steps were taken by the resourceful D'oyley
against Ysassi, who was then in military command, and had received
the appointment of Spanish Governor. After Jamaica had been yielded
up to Penn and Venables, he had retired to the north side, and for five
years-aided from time to time with support from Mexico (the Viceroy
of which, Albuquerque, directed affairs in all the Spanish colonies of
Central America and the West Indies), Carthagena, Hispaniola, Cuba
(grudgingly), and Porto Rico-tried his best to maintain Jamaica for the
Spanish crown : coming at times into the neighbourhood of the capital
to harry the English. In October 1657 he was signally defeated by
D'oyley in person at Ocho Rios, whither the latter had sailed round
from Passage Fort ; but Ysassi was deserted by some of his officers and
men, of whom the principal was Captain Juan de los Reyes, a prote6g of
Bayona, who was never friendly towards Ysassi.
D'oyley himself gave to Cromwell an account of the expedition in
"A narrative of the Great Success God hath been pleased to give
his Highness' Forces in Jamaica, against the King of Spain's Forces.
. As it was communicated in a Letter from the Governor
of Jamaica. Published by His Highness' Special Command.
London. I658."1 The English had only four men killed and
about ten wounded.
In spite of the fact that he felt aggrieved at having been twice super-
seded by Cromwell in military command (by Sedgwick and by Brayne,
both avowed followers of Cromwell), and not being appointed actual
Governor, and showed his resentment by asking to be allowed to return
home, he loyally did his best for the infant colony, which Fate had
more than once entrusted to his care ; and it was owing to the wise and
prompt methods he pursued that the last serious attempt made by the
Spaniards to retake Jamaica was frustrated. In February 1657-8, he
acknowledged the supplies received, and it was high time "; he also
writes of an apprehended attack by the Spaniards and of an increase of
population of about two hundred and fifty, mostly women and children,
from Bermuda. He said, There are some people lately come hither,
SA copy is in the West India Reference Library. An earlier edition, with a slightly different
title, appeared in 1657.





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA

called Quakers, who have brought letters of credit, and do dispense
books amongst us."
In the May of 1658 reinforcements of troops from Spain, consisting
of thirty small companies, making in all about one thousand men,
landed at the mouth of the Rio Nuevo in St. Mary, where they erected a
fort of some strength on a rocky eminence near the sea, and not far
from the west bank of the river.
D'oyley, again, fortunately wrote a complete account of the engage-
ment, which is given in Thurloe. On the I th of June he, with seven
hundred and fifty officers and men, sailed from Cagway. He had
difficulty in beating round Point Morant, and the Nevis settlers there
quartered four hundred of his men for a week. Eleven days later he
landed at Rio Nuevo, in spite of the opposition of the Spaniards. D'oyley
summoned Ysassi to surrender. Ysassi promptly declined. The
English thereupon forded the river, scaled the heights, and drove out
the Spaniards, killing about three hundred persons and taking about
one hundred prisoners. The English losses were five officers and
twenty-three men killed, and thirty-four wounded. William Burough,
the Steward-General, wrote home :
Has seen a great deal of bloody work in his time, both by land and sea, but never
saw any action carried on with so much cheerfulness as this was, the Commander-in-
Chief, Colonel D'oyley, telling the soldiers that a great deal of England's glory lay at
stake, and therefore hoped they would consider it and carry themselves accordingly,
going himself from party to party, and following the rear of the forlorn in a very signal
habit. His gallant behaviour was answered both by officers and soldiers with a silent
cheerful obedience, and through God's gracious goodness there was found such a joint
unanimous willingness to the work that the truth is it was of God and it hath exceedingly
endeared us one to another since we came here."
Ysassi wrote home to the King :
In fine, Sir, on this 27th of June the enemy defeated me with the loss of 300 men
although his loss so far as troops are concerned was greater. In two days I mustered the
troops that had gone into the mountains and divided them into three parts so that they
might the better feed themselves seeing the poverty of these mountains and the scanty
supplies from Governor Don Pedro de Bayona. I am obliged in virtue of a Council of
War to send the troops to Cuba to stay there until your Majesty reinforces me with your
royal fleet for without it, it is impossible even with the greatest means to restore the
island.. "
Hickeringill tells us that D'oyley, at Rio Nuevo, made amends for the
loss of British honour at Hispaniola:
To whom our nation in some measures stands indebted for the Reprizal of the
Honour at Rio Novo which was so shamefully Lost under the Debauch'd conduct of
General Venables in Hispaniola : the Spaniards till then having so mean and despicable
Thoughts of English Courage, that upon the Onset at Rio Novo they upraided our Men
with the opprobrious mention of Sancto Domingo, till the repeated Assay of their
Valour, disciplined them in to better manners."
I Now spelt Rio Novo.


















*jjS&~Aj~


CARLISLE BAY.


Rio NuEvo.






EDWARD D'OYLEY


In June 1659, D'oyley suspended and sent to England Myngs, of the
Marston Moor, who had brought in an abundance of wealth from the
Spanish main, for plundering a prize of Iz,ooo pieces of eight, but
Myngs managed to clear himself of the charge.
In the beginning of the year 1660, Long tells us, D'oyley was
informed by the friendly negroes that his old opponent Ysassi, un-
willing to resign his pretensions to the Government so long as he could
maintain the least party or show of authority, was lying perdu on the
north side of the island. D'oyley ordered out a detachment under the
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Tyson, consisting of eighty officers
and soldiers, and twenty-one of the revolted Spanish blacks; which,
after a tedious march across the mountains, found Ysassi in a swampy
place, part of what is now Shaw Park, with one hundred and thirty-
three men. Ysassi himself was then somewhat infirm, but his second
in command, Raspuru, was an experienced soldier, who had served
in Spain, and had engaged in this new service in consideration of
double pay and a promise of succeeding to the chief command after
the Governor's death.
The English advanced upon them with intrepidity, and at the first
onset the Spanish Lieutenant-General received a lance wound, of
which he died in two hours. On the loss of this able leader, upon whom
all their hopes had been fixed, the whole of the little army was panic-
stricken. Ysassi was one of the first to retreat, and ran so nimbly as to
save himself from being taken." Several, however, were made
prisoners, and about fifty officers and soldiers slain on the part of the
Spaniards, without any loss to the victorious side. They finally left
the island on the 9th of May from Runaway Bay for Cuba, whence
Ysassi wrote to the King in August. He recognized that, while the
English were masters of the surrounding seas, it was useless to strive
against them. In May I658 he had written to Albuquerque:
To disabuse your Excellency's mind, I also say that s, long as ships of force do not
come that can give trouble to the enemy on sea the island cannot be restored because
although I might press him by land, as master of the sea he will throw troops on me as he
does, wherever it may suit him, hindering me from getting the reliefs that can come to
me by sea for the sustenance of my infantry."

Thus ended any pretence of Spanish influence in Jamaica.
In August I66o, D'oyley was met by internal rebellion, got up by
Colonel Raymond, who persuaded the gallant Colonel Tyson to partici-
pate in it.
Of Raymond little is known beyond that Beeston calls him a
discontented reformed officer," and Long a factious officer." Tyson,
we know, was not one of those who came out with Venables, but arrived
a year later. Leslie tells us that they were two gentlemen who
5






THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
adhered to the Protector and had a mighty influence on the soldiers."
In the face of contradictory evidence it is a little difficult to discover the
real origin of the outbreak. Some writers have considered it a Cavalier
and Roundhead affair; others, that the rebels wished for a simple life
in preference to military control, while against this D'oyley is himself
said to have favoured planting ; finally, dislike of D'oyley as a martinet
may have in part prompted the outbreak. D'oyley acted promptly, and
bringing up reinforcements, persuaded the soldiers to give up their
leaders, and Tyson and Raymond were shot at Spanish Town the next
morning.
Cornelius Burough had written home in January i66 :
We are here just like you at home ; when we heard of the Lord Protector's death
we proclaimed his son, when we heard of his being turned out we proclaimed a Parliament,
and now own a Committee of Safety."

The news of the Restoration arrived at Jamaica on the 15th of
August, I66o, but direct communication from the King did not reach
the anxious colonists, who were ignorant whether Jamaica was to be
handed back to Spain or not, till the ist of June in the following year
(Jamaica's birthday as a British colony with a duly qualified civil
Governor), when D'oyley received his commission (dated the 8th of
February) as Governor.
Although Blagrove and Waite, regicides, and others of their way of
thinking, had settled in the island, and there were many adherents of
Cromwell here, yet at the Restoration the young colonists, as Bryan
Edwards puts it, caught the reviving flame of loyalty "; and the
King, anxious to conciliate their affections, confirmed their favourite
general in command and even appointed him Governor of the island.
In his instructions as Governor, which accompanied his com-
mission, D'oyley was ordered to release the army, to create courts of
justice, and govern with the advice of the council-elected by the
people, not chosen by the Governor. This was thus the forerunner
of the House of Assembly, rather than of the Council which was formed
a few years later. As a rule, this Council met once a month at Point
Cagway. By the well-thought-out instructions, D'oyley was also
required to suppress drunkenness, to encourage the Protestant religion,
to complete the fortifications at Cagway, to encourage the people to
plant, to make a survey of the island, to require those claiming lands to
plant a proportionate part within a limited time, to encourage merchants
and traders, and to employ ships that could be spared from the defence
of the island, in fetching planters from other colonies.
Thus a beginning was made of getting rid of military control, under
which England herself had suffered too much during the Common-
wealth.






EDWARD D'OYLEY


Amongst the principal men of the island at the time were Richard
Povey, the first island secretary (whose commission from Charles II was
earlier than D'oyley's), Thomas Lynch, the Provost-Marshal and future
Lieutenant-Governor, and John Man, Surveyor-General, who was also
commander at Cagway, the fortification of which occupied much of the
attention of the authorities both here and at home.
In March 1661, D'oyley wrote home to his kinsman Nicholas that he
had, by proclaiming peace with Spain, sufficiently enraged the popu-
lacy who live only on spoil and depredation" ; yet there is evidence that
he himself was not unwilling to share unduly in such spoil and depreda-
tion.
In June I661, the full Council met at Point Cagway. Of the
members, Samuel Barry and Thomas Ballard later became best known
in history. Three courts of justice were arranged for-Point Cagway,
St. Jago de la Vega (as the English called the Spanish capital, called by
the Spaniards at first Villa de la Vega-later St. Jago de la Vega), and
Port Morant. The killing of wild horses and wild cattle was prohibited ;
the price of sugar was fixed at 25s. per cwt.; cocoa at 4d. per lb.; and
tobacco at 4d. per lb. Captured horses were to be sold in overt
market at not less than 4os. a head.
The Council then proceeded to draw up Jamaica's first Budget, as
follows :
6oo pipes of wine imported per annum at 2 ,2oo
zo,ooo galls. brandy, at 6d. 250
1oo tons beer, at 100oo
zo ships (say), at is. per ton . oo
L,65o

This was to be disposed of as follows: To the Governor, 800 ;
for a prison, 2oo; for judges, zoo ; store-house, etc., 80 ; for a
church and courthouse, 150; for contingencies, 150; for a court-
house and prison at Port Morant, 60.
In this same month D'oyley wrote home to the Admiralty, sending
the Chestnut frigate home, and begged that the captain might be
returned in a better : he expected more from him than from the
wonder-going captain of the Marston Moor [Myngs] "
During the next two years many useful laws were passed, dealing
with the social, moral and commercial conditions of the island ; for
creating roads and bridges, for maintaining ministers of religion and
religious observances, regulating hunters in order to see that the wild
horses and cattle were not killed wastefully, encouraging agriculture and
manufacture, dividing the island into parishes, for the management of
slaves, for raising revenue, and for the settling of the militia.





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
The laws regulating the conduct of servants were stringent, render-
ing their position very little better than that of the negro slaves. It was
arranged that a market should be held every Saturday at Colonel
Barry's store-house by Lygenee, which was probably somewhere near
where the Marescaux road now runs.
D'oyley quarrelled with his Council through his high-handed
action in purchasing, contrary to British law, a load of negroes from a
Dutch ship, in order to make a personal profit ; he telling the Council
that he could not forget he had been a general, though it was for the
rebels," and that he was not answerable to them, but to the King.
Although he had-as we have seen-on the 8th of February,
1660-1, signed a commission for D'oyley to be Governor of Jamaica,
Charles II soon found an opportunity to supplant him. In July he,
" understanding that Colonel D'oyley is pressed by private affairs to
leave the island," appointed Lord Windsor Governor, and on the and
of August, 1661, he signed his commission.
D'oyley left Jamaica on the ioth of September, 1662. He appar-
ently had a trying voyage home, for Sir Thomas Lynch, writing in
January 1672-3, says he hopes Sir Thomas Modyford arrived
without so tedious a voyage as Col. D'oyley had."
In the following April D'oyley petitioned the King for a grant of
pardon for all reasons, murders felonies and misdemeanours committed
from the time petitioner was made Governor until I June, 1661, when
he received his Majesty's lawful commission: he having been com-
pelled to suppress mutinous and seditious persons in order to prevent
anarchy after Cromwell's death "; which was granted.
His later years were spent chiefly in St. Martin-in-the-Fields,
London. He died in 1675.
Distrusted at first by Cromwell on account of his royalist proclivities,
albeit he did his duty loyally and well as head of a troublesome army,
and possibly disgusted with things in general, D'oyley was, if we may
believe the records of the Privy Council of England, relieved of his
office at his own request.
Long gives the following testimony of his worth :
By his personal bravery and wise conduct in defeating every attempt of the Spani-
ards to retake the island, as well as by the spirit of industry he excited among the troops
and other inhabitants, without relaxing their military discipline too much; he gained
more honour than either Penn or Venables by their invasion of it. If to this we add,
that he appears not to have sought advantage to himself by the monopoly of land, which
undoubtedly was within his power, or by practising any extortion or oppression on the
subjects abandoned to his entire command, but on the contrary, manifested a firm and
persevering zeal in maintaining good order among men disheartened and averse to
settlement; improving and establishing it by humane, vigorous, and prudent measures,
while in its infancy, and finally, delivering it out of his hands to the nation a well-peopled
and thriving colony, we shall see cause to applaud him as an excellent officer, a dis-






EDWARD D'OYLEY


interested patriot, a wise Governor, a brave and upright man; and must lament, that
although it is to his good conduct alone we owe the possession of Jamaica, he received no
other reward for his many eminent services than the appro-
bations of his own heart."

A perusal of all available documents tends to
confirm Long's opinion. It is to be regretted
that search has failed to discover any portrait
of D'oyley. His arms were: Or, two bends
azure. His crest a demi-dragon.
In his will, made in March 1674, he be-
queathed to his godson Cholmley D'oyley (eldest
son of John D'oyley of Chiselhampton, Bart.)
his great Bible, his plate, his pedigree, his
picture, and his vellum map of the island of
Jamaica. Where are the picture and the map
now ? He left the residue of his property to his
elder brother, Dr. Oliver D'oyley of Cambridge,
A.M., LL.D., the last heir male of his family.
He died, without issue, aged about fifty-seven,
and his will was proved in May 1675 at Can- ARs OF
terbury. EDWARD D'OYLEY.
In 1845 there was printed by John Bowyer
Nichols and son, of 25 Parliament Street, London, A Biographical,
Historical, Genealogical, and Heraldic Account of the House of
D'oyley. By William D'oyley Bayley," a most elaborate work.









THOMAS, SEVENTH BARON WINDSOR
THOMAS WINDSOR, seventh Baron Windsor, was the son of Dixie
Hickman, of Kew, Surrey, by his wife Elizabeth, elder sister and co-heir
of Thomas Windsor, sixth Baron Windsor of Stanwell, who claimed
descent from Walter Fitz-Other, who, in the eleventh century, was
castellan of Windsor Castle-whence the title. Henry VIII compelled
the first Baron Windsor to exchange the Manor of Stanwell for Bordesley
Abbey, Worcestershire.
Thomas Windsor was born about 1627. Though but little more
than fifteen at the outbreak of the Civil War, he is said to have been a
Captain of Horse in the Royalist army in 1642, and he rose to be Lieu-
tenant-Colonel three years later.
In consequence of a threatened duel in Flanders, he was in 1651
summoned before the Council of State, and had to give a bond not to do
anything prejudicial to the existing Government. During the Common-
wealth he lived for the most part quietly in England, interesting himself
in the navigation of the river Salwarpe for the good of the Droitwich
salt trade. In May 1656, he married Anne, daughter of Sir William
Saville, Bart. By her-she died in 1666-7-he had a daughter Elizabeth
and a son Other, styled Lord Windsor from 1682 till his death in 1684.
By his second wife, Ursula, daughter and co-heir of Sir Thomas
Widdrington, whom he married in 1668, Windsor had two sons and one
daughter. After the Restoration the abeyance of the barony was
removed in his favour, and in June 1660, he took his seat in the House
of Lords as Baron Windsor, and in the same year he was made Lord-
Lieutenant of Worcestershire.
On the 2oth of July, 1661, the King, giving up his idea of sending
Sir Edward Massey, appointed Windsor Governor of Jamaica with a
yearly salary of 2,ooo, payable by the British Exchequer.
The Council for Foreign Plantations recommended that in any
proclamation for the encouragement of settlers in Jamaica, that it be
stated that they would be governed by the laws of England, but when
on the I4th of December, 1661, the King published a proclamation (of
which a reproduction is given on one of two impressions of different
settings in the History Gallery of the Institute of Jamaica), it will be
seen that no reference was made to the laws of England.
Windsor did not leave England until April 1662; but he seems to
have spent the intervening period in a wise study of the government
of colonies. Sir Charles Lyttelton, writing to Christopher, Viscount
Hatton, from Hagley, in August 1661, says, in reference to his going
to Jamaica with Lord Windsor:

















By the King.

PROCLAMATION
For the encOna ofPlaZntes in His Maietics 1and of
Sin he Wi-Adier.
CHARLES R.
ktliMfUllr a great sbtbAt uzraub 2aJ to tmg a pirfwt mLmutft
Eas rt mo RWUtt CtnMurimlpfst aberagsin6gwttuiSbIrdt, abtib
obemdgan, atSs a pemsl men l allnsabtcs to WheIraSsm tL.
fKSeta5- uaaablmuunitbtlCaob, alU sttmr tttaU trni dbies stW, ao lBife af lta tK, Dasto bwdrane o ib aOir gko
tan i st EpU)W |M t b 2irtr amtstof mpbtrtl SLet Uall tbe
un all tatrt to etitT ulan, 9( O flnmale, king tnerlbs ag d a r u.
3e ~ tn lB, MO tM n m b O I mrt eantung, el*U obe upon tde flb
lant, a. t mo t tbm fai easlib ltta tn bt)rt0m a nCamnril aItueinfi
atm tt n *nft lbet in i Ltti bltibe t r planter o planters, o br iof
tbU, ta bitlf t totgStirn o Rhi ras (ala{appomnt in tm t bmtlf, figm-
fl atogt nilatl.6nm l1at tent, an t tantat to bon tt pula. anmtaflt bri a
notgtIe rtboitin ti toct mt tbm n l r a otmtn iMUe n boil, anre to
>t15SS5Bmutijntlnt~atns Ml w.t.mbtanil, 5 ano fte
i tog m ltT tas a a ato it a in ,t ab tiS (btap er, bp lu ani
Es tnuotas is inb n b utna to be ~to
ktestMpmspno ,aptm ob; -ntvattait

mas qle ltpuam nt be ltares antW thltls as b thr Kaint.
t 2- 0 a tbat I fon anG pit aobitll oprct b, n lms, aoU.
1si I(S toCW t ( Ibts ttiltiSr amob*bs? )atur t o ctbv
nsintfE ti*dW, Jttmica fpatd ttrmtietr ftl t berupe to b, bmb MeOrI
tea gr on s of Eg ,d 8hJm c $all (1tCi tmt(ABt nILlP0tt M$ to a nfute iit. 4 BnaY
_ ftmo libnal l d, an6wOebU ba e 49 (I P9sbdeges to aU i mn j pure as
fr fr pbrn obneerta f Engand; 2Mb StuS di ga edlbnl list, g bs lrtp Initls mee-r
r)fg~ U w iemfeben mos tints famifeth mo aotin or b MM vt (imp atdpn &nip
mama) any Orlin modni"nt m tofr thtefr* o ti30SDaui Joamauia. M
t t1mt allm mU plumtas, WWilT, sob tiat tte (aI 3Kn, to cb o
totlar b c lx anmnts o r or ftg mCam 1l=ne Thimiri nL Wlnmoa,
Oftr kur imfrat Ie.l4a14n,4 atls Otar 8terasritbm tWrao their king,
auter aea itf r satb laare, moo Itrab peomltlIeanmp be tai Snreups
Givtn at Our Court at Wbked, this ForawmBh day afDDarrr, in dhe Thirecnrh
year of Our Reign.

God favetheKing.

L ON D 0 N, Prinmd by 7fad B&I and Cbraophr &rker, Printcn
to th6 KINGS munr Excdknt MJi ty, 166i.


PROCLAMATION BY CHARLES II.






THOMAS, SEVENTH BARON WINDSOR
My lord having got his pension settled, will delay his going so long as he can, and
that he says, he hopes will be till spring, vainely imagine, as I conceive, that he shall
receive it-though he tarry here."
On his leaving for Jamaica, Windsor, though accompanied by
Lyttelton, as Chancellor, apparently had to leave his wife in England :
she was in poor health shortly before he sailed.
Passage was arranged for him to bring with him forty planters, and
Lyttelton twenty ; twenty were to be sent by the Lord Chancellor, and
there were to be five ministers, with fifteen persons in their families.
Windsor arrived at Barbados in July, and published his proclama-
tion for the encouragement of settlers in Jamaica. It provided that
justice would be duly administered agreeably to the laws of England or
such laws not repugnant thereto as might be enacted by consent of the
freemen of the island, and that commerce with foreigners would be
allowed, that all children of any of the natural-born subjects of England
to be born in Jamaica shall from their respective birth be reputed to be,
and shall be, free denizens of England, and shall have the same privileges
to all intents and purposes as free-born subjects of England. But it did
not state that the laws of England would be enforced in the colony;
and the legal authorities in England always afterwards objected to any
attempt on the part of the local legislature to make them so.
At the request of Lord Windsor the proclamation was published
by beat of drum in St. Michael's Town, and in all the parish churches
and in the several courts of common pleas. Barbados promised all
assistance in her power. Some debtors, it is said, successfully evaded
the precautions taken by the Barbadians, and sought fresh woods in
Jamaica, Windsor apparently turning a blind eye.
Leaving Barbados on the Ist of August, Windsor reached Jamaica
on the i th. As his instructions formed the basis of the subsequent
government of the colony, they are of importance. He was instructed
to publish his commission as soon as he landed, to constitute the Coun-
cil, and to administer the oaths; to settle judicatories for council affairs
and for the Admiralty ; and to commission, under the public seal of the
island, judges, justices, sheriffs, and other officers with fit salaries. He
was given power to pass grants of the little islands adjacent to Jamaica,
as Salt Island, Good [Goat ?] Island, Pigeon Island, and others, and to
raise forts there ; to grant commissions and erect Courts of Admiralty ;
to promulgate the King's licence for transporting planters from the
neighboring plantations to Jamaica, with liberty to trade with the
Spanish plantations for the benefit of Jamaica ; and he was to order an
exact survey of all harbours and landing-places and erect necessary
fortifications, and as well for the bearing of suchlike expenses as for a
mark of our sovereignty in and over the said islands to set out 400,000
acres for a Royal demesne, ioo,ooo acres in each quarter of the island,






THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA


to be preserved and improved to the best advantage for the use of the
King and his successors ; also to order a survey of the whole island, and
a register of the plantations to be sent home as soon as possible. All
planters and Christian servants were to be provided with arms, and
mustered and trained ; and he was given power, in case of insurrection
or invasion, to proclaim martial law. He also had power to grant
lands and ratify former grants to the planters and their heirs for ever,
with reservation of quit rents to the King, and to grant to himself and
his heirs for ever lands not already granted to the extent of 50,ooo acres.
He was to take care that drunkenness should be discountenanced and
punished, and none admitted to public trust or employment whose ill
conversation might bring scandal thereupon, and to give the best en-
couragement to orthodox ministers. He was to encourage trade and
suppress the engrossing of commodities. All goods exported were to be
free for seven years, and afterwards a duty of 5 per cent. was to be paid.
He was to appoint markets and fairs, and take care that the wild cattle,
horses, hogs and sheep were preserved, licensing or prohibiting the
hunters as he thought fit. He was instructed to direct the improve-
ment of the cocoa-walks and the repair of the houses in St. Jago de la
Vega. Power was given to him to search ships suspected of trade with
the Spaniards, or of carrying ammunition or other commodities to
Spanish territory, and to adjudicate on the same in the Admiralty
Court. He was to so contrive that the plantations should be near
together, and the sea-coast first planted, the better to prevent
invasion; Lord Willoughby, Governor of Barbados, was to assist him,
in case of any considerable attempt being made by the Spaniards against
Jamaica.
For the better encouragement of intending planters, no one was to
enjoy more than one office at a time, or to execute the same by deputy;
and all officers, both civil and military, on misbehaviour to be suspended
and discharged. He was instructed to send accounts of increase of
planters, the defects and wants of the place, its chief products and im-
provements, and the advantages to be obtained by trade. He had
power to constitute corporations and grant manors and royalties,
provided that no manor or lordship contained less than 500 acres. He
was instructed to call Assemblies, levy moneys, and make laws, such
laws not to be repugnant to the laws of England and to be only
in force for two years, unless confirmed by the King. He
had power to ratify to every person the number of acres he was
lawfully possessed of, to him, his heirs and assigns for ever, and to grant
30 acres for every servant transported thither, and at the end of his
service of four years 30 acres each to such servants. Lastly, he was
given power to act for the advantage and improvement of the island in
all things not particularized in his instructions.
12





















f.Rna'ica, ..rimh1f :v na,,,lJ A" -

e 2 -
vm /h A it"


SEAL AND ARMS OF JAMAICA.


EARL OF INCHIQUIN.


EARL OF CARLISLE.






THOMAS, SEVENTH BARON WINDSOR
An additional instruction required him to endeavour to obtain and
preserve good correspondence and free commerce with the plantations
belonging to the King of Spain, but if the Spanish Governors refused,
he was to endeavour to settle such trade by force. He was further
instructed to disband the officers and soldiers in the island, leaving
four hundred foot and one hundred and fifty horse, and distribute three
hundred negroes that were undertaken to be delivered in ten months by
the Royal African Company.
Finally, in May 1662, he was instructed that as, after he had estab-
lished the Government of Jamaica, he might find it necessary to inform
his Majesty in person of the grounds and probabilities of future designs
for the advancement of the colony and to take directions thereon, he was
granted licence to repair to England, leaving a Deputy fit to govern in
his absence.
Probably because it was thought that it would be an encroachment
of the royal prerogative in later years, the Lords of Trade and Plantations
consistently refused until 1728 to sanction any law declaring the laws of
England to be in force in the colony.
Windsor, apparently assuming that the phrase," the same privileges
to all intents and purposes as are freeborn subjects of England,"
implied government by the common law of England, added in his
proclamation the statement to that effect.
In April 1663, the Solicitor-General was instructed to prepare a Bill
containing a grant to Lord Windsor of all that point of land next to Fort
Charles, containing about 4co acres, with all privileges, moneys, etc.,
and also the ferry over the harbour and all its rights, to be holden in
free soccage, as of the manor of East Greenwich in Kent."
Windsor brought with him a seal and a mace, which was long sup-
posed to be the bauble which Cromwell had turned out of the
House of Commons ; but which is now supposed to be still there as the
present mace refashioned.
It was thought by some that Windsor's mace perished in the earth-
quake of Port Royal of 1692, but there is evidence of its repair just
afterwards. What became of it after that is a mystery. It is possible
that it was refashioned, and is the basis of the mace with the plate
mark of the year 1753 in the History Gallery of the Institute of
Jamaica.
Windsor gave a royal donative to the disbanded troops, and in their
place a militia, divided into five regiments, was formed, which in varying
degree has existed ever since. He called in all commissions granted by
D'oyley to buccaneers and reduced them to certain orderly rules,
giving them commissions to take Spaniards and bring them into
Jamaica." He made general patents of land, and in this case kissing
seems to have gone by favour-Major Hope, of the army of occupation,





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA


Colonel Archbould, Sir William Beeston and Sir Thomas Lynch
getting the lion's share. John Man was appointed Chief Surveyor.
One of Windsor's most popular actions was a declaration of war with
Spain and an attack on St. Jago de Cuba, because the Spaniards there
declined to trade with Jamaica.
On the victorious return of the expedition, Windsor, who does not
seem to have cared for life in Jamaica, being verie sick and uneesie,"
sailed for England on the 2oth of October, 1662, after a residence of little
more than ten weeks' duration, leaving Lyttelton as his Deputy-Governor,
a fit and worthy person, to the great content of the inhabitants," and
his brother-in-law, Colonel William Mitchell, head of naval affairs.
Mitchell, who died about March 1664, had married Mariana Hunloke,
elder sister of Lord
Windsor, and widow
of Sir Henry Hun-
loke, Bart.
Although one of
the proclamations
which Windsor
-issued alludes to
S" the Governor and
Council having
thought fit," there
+ is no record of
Windsor having pre-
3 sided at a Council
meeting.
Pepys speaks of
ARMS OF LORD WnDSOR. "my lord Windsor's
being come home
from Jamaica, unlocked for, which makes us think that these young lords
are not fit to do any service abroad." Windsor was then about thirty-five
years of age, and had certainly proved himself a man of some force of
character. He came home poorer by near 2,ooo than I was when I
sett to sea."
For some reason unknown to Windsor, Lyttelton seems to have
taken offence. Windsor wrote to Hatton in March 1664-5, asking him,
if he could, to find out the cause. A letter from Lyttelton to Hatton of
two years earlier seems to suggest that it was Windsor who had behaved
with lack of consideration to Lyttelton's wife, who had then recently
died in Jamaica.
The King, in 1664, contemplated the appointment of the Earl of
Marlborough as successor to Windsor at Jamaica, but the Governorship
was ultimately given to Sir Thomas Modyford.





THOMAS, SEVENTH BARON WINDSOR
In 1671 Windsor, then Lord-Lieutenant of Worcestershire, got into
trouble through challenging Lord Berkeley, Lord-Lieutenant of
Ireland, who informed the King, thus causing Windsor to be confined
for a time in the Tower.
In 1676 he was made Master of the Horse to the Duke of York and
Governor of Portsmouth. In 1682 he was made Governor of Hull and
was created Earl of Plymouth. He died in 1687.
A portrait of him, a copy in oils, by John L. Reilly, of the contempor-
ary portrait by an unknown artist, in the possession of the Earl of
Plymouth at Hewell Grange, is in the History Gallery of the Institute
of Jamaica. Another portrait, formerly in the possession of the Dash-
wood family with which the Windsors intermarried, is now the property
of David Minlore, Esquire. On it the arms appear-gules, a saltire
argent between thirty-six cross-crosslets or. Supporters, two unicorns
argent, armed maned tufted and unguled or. Motto, Domino Confido,
the present form of which is Je me fie en Dieu.
In the map which is given in Blome's "Present State of His
Majesty's Isles and Territories in America (1687), are given the Arms
of the first four Governors of Jamaica, and Lord Windsor's appear as :
Party per pale indented, argent and azure. But on the portrait of him
at Hewell Grange it is given as in the 2nd and 4th quarters of the present
Earl of Plymouth's arms, a saltire argent between twelve cross-crosslets
or.
1 See Conway Letters," by Marjorie Hope Nicolson, London, 1930.










SIR CHARLES LYTTELTON


CHARLES LYTTELTON came of a Worcestershire family, the name of
which occurs in the thirteenth century under the forms Littelton,
Luttelton, etc., and probably took its name from Littleton in the vale
of Evesham.' He was a younger son of Sir Thomas Lyttelton, first
Baronet of Frankley, in Worcestershire, who fought and suffered as a
Royalist. He was descended "from Thomas
S Westcote (alias Heuster as described in a deed of
1436, quoted by The Genealogist ") of Lichfield,
who married Elizabeth Littleton, the sole heiress of
Thomas de Littleton, of Frankley, Esquire of the
body to Richard II, Henry IV, and Henry V.
She had covenanted with her husband that their
1- eldest son, born in 1402, who afterwards became
Sir Thomas Lyttelton, the celebrated judge and
Legal author, should bear the name of Littleton,
which he did, and assumed his mother's Arms
instead of his father's, though the rest of the family
retained that of Westcote-argent a bend cotis6
sable within a bordure engrailed gules bezant6e.
Charles Lyttelton was born in 1629, and, while
still a boy, took arms, and was in Colchester during
ARMS OF SIR CHALS s6c
LYTTrLTON. the siege in 1648. After its surrender he escaped
to France, and was soon after appointed cupbearer
to Charles II. He returned to England about 1659, and took part in Sir
George Booth's Cheshire rising, when he was made prisoner. Being set
at liberty, he joined Charles in Holland, and was employed in the secret
negotiations with the King's friends in England. After the Restoration
he was appointed, in 1661, Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica; in the
following year he accompanied Lord Windsor to that island as Chan-
cellor, being knighted shortly before he started. It is interesting to
note that his ancestor, Thomas Luttelton, was an esquire in the retinue
of William de Windsor in the French wars in 1380-1. In September
Sir Charles Lyttelton was sworn Keeper of the Great Seal. His
brother, Constantine Lyttelton, was made a Justice of the Peace, and
sworn of the Council; he was also made captain in his brother's regi-
ment, but he died soon afterwards.
On Windsor's departure in October 1662, after ten weeks' govern-
1 The Pedigree of the Family of Lyttelton is given in The Genealogist," New Series, vol.
xxxvii, Pt. I (July 1920).






SIR CHARLES LYTTELTON


ment, Lyttelton succeeded him as Deputy-Governor. Some months
before he started Lyttelton had married Catherine, daughter of Sir
William Fairfax, of Steeton, in Yorkshire, who had previously been
married to Sir Martin Lister, son of Sir William Lister, of Thornton,
also in Yorkshire. She was the first chatelaine of King's House, then at
Port Royal.
On the lith of January, 1662, Lyttelton wrote Hatton : My poor
wife has bine, as it were by miracle, raised to life twice with Sir W.
Rawleigh's cordiall, when given over by her phizitians and all her
friends, and is now thanke God, in a probable way to recover."
The following letter addressed to Lord Hatton, the first existing
from a Governor's wife in Jamaica, is worth recording:
JAMAICA,
Sept. 3rd. 1662.
DER FRIEND,
I thought I should not bee able to write a word to you, wch. was a great trouble
to mee, for I am very weak, and accidentally I begunn other letters before yours, and,
by that time they weer done, I was soe ill I was not able to write another ; but, now the
ships are staid longer then I thought, I have recovered a little strength to tell you I am
alive, though not well at all, being troubled with all the simtones and pains of a consum-
tion, wch I feard before I went from England. Yett I have a pritty little boy, and if you
saw him make faces you would swear hee weer legitimate, besides blew eyes. I know
not whether Charles bee able to write to you, for hee is very ill; but I hope the worst is
past wth. him; but the disease of the country, wch is a gripeing of the guts, has made
him very weak. Hee told you all hee could from Barbados, and I have little more to say
but that wee are heer, and that the towne of St. Jago is very pleasantly situated, but the
country is much in disorder and looks wild, but in time may bee made a good place.
Our greatest want is good company; but I am soe dull wth. being continually sick,
that I think I could hardly divert myself with any thing. You cannot expect therefore any
account from mee of any thing of any description, for I have seene little since I came
hither ; yett, for as much as I have seene, I cannot wish you should bee at the trouble of
such a journey to come hither, though it would bee the greatest joy to mee that can come
to see a freind I love soe well before I dye ; but I cannot beg so much for myself, when
I consider the inconvenience it will bee to you; but I will not plead against myself.
The truth is, I can say noe more of any thing for I am already soe weary I know not
what to doe. Therfor adieu, dear freind.
I am,
Yr. Most affectionat
freind and servant,
K. LYTTELTON."

On the z6th of January she died, the infant following her on the Ist
of February. They both lie buried in Spanish Town Cathedral, but
the only memorial is to Sir Thomas himself. On the 26th of February,
Lyttelton wrote home to Hatton, with reference to the loss of his wife,
" yourself and mee, having both lost a friend." He says that he has
much reason to hate somebody that I have bine necessiteated (I
confess basely enough) to acknowledge to the world myself most
obliged," and was one I was forced to depend on on account of un-





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
heard-of pride and inhumane discourtesy to a lady of her merit," and
he adds that, had this mischiefe and inconvenience bine prevented,
she might at this day have bine a healthful and truly a happy woman."
We learn from correspondence in the Hatton Papers that Lyttelton
had taken offence at Lord Windsor for some unknown cause, and it
would seem that Windsor's treatment of his wife may have been that
cause.
Poor Lady Lyttelton's Jamaica experience can have been any-
thing but a happy one. On her arriving, with her few-days'-old baby,
she must have found conditions of life in the recently acquired colony
anything but congenial to an English cultured lady. Besides her maid,
she probably saw few white female faces-a few planters' wives and
their maids. In those days, too, the house provided for her must have
compared but ill with the stately homes of England to which she had
been accustomed. For some years Governors lived in a hired house,
often in want of repair, and at times lodged even with some member of
the Council.
In February 1663, Lyttelton issued a proclamation to the effect that
the Maroons who had surrendered, or should surrender within fourteen
days, should have patents of land and liberties and privileges as English-
men; and land was given out to them. Juan de Bolas, sometimes
called Luyola, chief among them, was made colonel of a black regiment
of militia. Lyttelton confirmed to the officers of the late army the
cocoa-walks which had been given to them. Planting and pen-
keeping (as cattle-farming was called) were persevered in with success.
The cost of tame hog was fixed at 6d. per lb.; by October of the
following year it had become so plentiful that it fell to ad. per lb.
In June a short-lived British settlement was set up at Little Goave,
in Hispaniola.
In August Lyttelton represented that he had been left to act as
Governor without salary ; that the expenses of his table were heavy,
and the perquisites of office small; and he begged that he might pay
himself, out of the prize money, 1,ooo per annum, which was granted.
By October he had received the King's commands not to continue to
try to trade with the Spaniards by force. He, at that time, asked that
he might demit office. The port at Cagua was three-parts finished, but
would need 2,ooo to complete it. It was a time of success for the
buccaneers, and Port Royal grew rich.
In November the Council gave orders for writs to be drawn up for
electing an assembly of twenty persons by the precincts, eleven to be an
authentic Assembly."
This, the first, Assembly met at St. Jago de la Vega on the 2oth of
January, 1663-4. It consisted of twenty members, representing thirteen
districts. Cagua (Port Royal) sent three; Yakallah (Yallowes), St.
18









































SIR CHARLES LYTTELTON.


LADY LYNCH.


LORD VAUGHAN.





SIR CHARLES LYTTELTON-


Jago, Old Harbour, Guanaboa (St. John's) and Liguania two each;
and Angells, Seven Plantations, Withywood (Vere), Morant, Dry River,
Port Morant and the North Side one each, all of whom were present.
It sat till the I2th of February, and passed forty-five laws dealing with
all subjects that then seemed to demand attention, including five Money
Bills-the dividing of the island into parishes and precincts; the
regulating of hunting and planting, for preventing idling and drinking
and cursing ; for the maintenance of ministers and of courts of justice,
and all that pertains thereto.
By means of the Money Bills funds were to be raised for the use of
the public service of the island," such funds to be controlled by the
Treasurer to be appointed by the Assembly.
Samuel Long 1 was made Treasurer by the Assembly in 1664, and
on one occasion he refused to give Lyttelton 20 until the consent of the
Assembly was obtained.
The Assembly parted with all kindness and feasting."
On the i3th of February, 1664, the King issued a warrant for Sir
Thomas Modyford to be appointed Governor of Jamaica, and in March
he sent Lyttelton leave to return home.
Lyttelton sailed for England on the 2nd of May, 1664, in the St.
John's Head, and Colonel Thomas Lynch, President of the Council,
assumed command. Lyttelton thus did not receive the letter sent to
him from Barbados by the new Governor, Sir Thomas Modyford, by
his Deputy-General, Colonel Edward Morgan, who only took command
on May 2zst.
During his term of office Lyttelton complained of the insolences of
the Spaniards and of the French at Tortuga and Hispaniola; but the
King did not encourage reprisals, except by men-of-war, as, whatever
the results, they would tend to weaken the island and distract the
attention of the planters from planting. He repaired the one church at
Spanish Town spared by the soldiery--the present cathedral.
Lynch wrote home that, under Lyttelton's administration, the
people have become obedient and industrious. They have many hope-
ful plantations if supplied with negroes, but the inhabitants do not
number more than 5,0oo at the most. Good store of provisions, and
not one person sick in the whole island." Lyttelton himself said:
" The people are generally easy to be governed, yet rather by persuasion
than seventy." He pointed out the great strategic value of the island,
as between the east end and Hispaniola all the Spanish trade from
Santa Domingo, Porto Rico, and Caracas to Havana had to pass, and
between Cuba and Cape Catoche, where the British men-of-war plied,
1 Samuel Long, Secretary to the Commissioners appointed by Cromwell for the attack on the
West Indies, was later Speaker of Assembly and Chief Justice, but he is best known for his success-
ful vindication of the political rights of the colony when they were assailed during the governorship
of the Earl of Carlisle.





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
was the passage for the galleons from Peru to their rendezvous at
Havana, previous to their departure for Spain. On his return he
proposed to the King that His Majesty should settle a plantation-" a
great sugar work "-in the island, at a cost of about 4,ooo, as it would
be an encouragement to the planters. Cocoa-walks could be planted to
advantage, and with these could be combined indigo and tobacco.
In November 1664, he was made Major, and in the following July
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Lord Admiral's regiment-the precursor of
the Royal Marines. He was later Governor of Harwich and Land-
guard Fort, and afterwards of Sheerness. He resigned all his appoint-
ments on the Revolution on account of the oaths.
In October 1682, Lyttelton wrote to Lord Hatton:
I have had a very sore losse at Jamaica, my good friend Mr. Long being dead, it
having broke all my designed of settling a plantation there, for Sir T. Lynch advises mee
to withdraw ye little stock I have sent thither in order to it, and I have accordingly desired
him to make returns of it as he can. I had a fair prospect, as I thought, of making a
provision for my younger children from thence; but now they must depend upon
Providence, which will be more sure."

Lynch was then Governor of Jamaica. Lyttelton finally rose to the
rank of a Brigadier-General under James II, and sat in the Parliament
of 1685 for Bewdley, Worcestershire. His second wife was Anne,
daughter of Thomas Temple, of Frankton, in Warwickshire, eldest
sister of the fourth wife of Sir Nicholas Lawes (later Governor of
Jamaica) and maid of honour to the Duchess of York. By her Lyttelton
had a large family. She is one of the characters in Grammont's
" Memoirs," wherein she figures as a dupe in a silly intrigue with
Rochester. Lyttelton also appears in the same pages with the epithet
of s&rieux. Evelyn calls him an honest gentleman and soldierr"
His friendship with Hatton, begun in youth, was only ended by
death. He was a most diligent correspondent. His letters-some of
which are reprinted in Correspondence of the Family of Hatton,"
edited by Sir Edward Maunde Thompson in 1878-fill three thick
volumes. From Lord Browncker, with whom he had established a
friendship at the siege of Colchester forty years before, Lyttelton
received the house and estate of Sheene, near Richmond, in 1688.
Here Evelyn visited him.
On the death of his brother, the second baronet, in 1693, Lyttelton
succeeded to the baronetcy and the estates. When James II abdicated
he refused to take the oath of allegiance to William and removed to
Hagley, in Staffordshire, where he spent the remainder of his life. He
died there in May 1716, at the advanced age of eighty-seven.










SIR THOMAS MODYFORD


WHEN Lyttelton sailed from Port Royal on the 2nd of March, 1664, he
left Thomas Lynch, the President of the Council, to act as Governor
until the arrival of the new Governor. Sir Thomas Modyford (or
Muddiford) was the eldest of five sons of John Modyford, alder-
man and mayor of Exeter, and his wife Marie, daughter of Thomas
Walker, an Exeter alderman. He is said to have been born in 1620.
As, when in 16z5 his father made his will, there were four brothers
younger than he, his six sisters must have been his seniors.
He was a cousin, or kinsman, of the first Duke of Albemarle, also a
man of Devon, and the connexion stood him in good stead on more than
one occasion. A barrister by profession, Modyford served on the
Royalist side in the Civil War. In 1647 he sailed for Barbados, where
he purchased of Major Hilliard, for 7,ooo (or about 25,ooo in present
value), half an estate, which consisted of about 500 acres, of which 200
was in sugar-cane, with smaller amounts in tobacco, ginger and cotton,
and is described by Lygon as a typical sugar estate. Here he played a
prominent part for many years. At first he sided with the Royalists,
and opposed Ayscue, the Commissioner sent out by Parliament; but
later he, with other moderate men who had estates in the island, threw
in his lot with the Parliamentary side, and he was one of the four
Commissioners who drew up the Articles of Capitulation of the colony
by Willoughby to Ayscue, in January 1652, but in the following year
Searle, the Governor, complained that he was a restless spirit."
He was much before his time in suggesting that Barbados should
be represented in the British Parliament. On the i6th of July, 1660, he
received a commission from the Council of State as Governor of the
colony, and he addressed the Assembly as Dear Friends and Fellow
Planters"; but on the 17th of December he resigned on hearing
that Walrond, on Lord Willoughby's nomination, had been appointed
Governor, although some of his friends thought that he, "full of
justice and ability," might be continued in office, and they
petitioned the Crown to that effect. He then became Speaker of
the Assembly-thanks to Albemarle's influence--and he held this post
till he was appointed Governor of Jamaica in 1663-4, his commission
being dated February I5th. He was instructed to take with him as
many settlers as might be willing to accompany him, and to promise
them as much land as they could plant. He sent his deputy, Colonel
Edward Morgan, in advance, and followed in the Westergate (Captain
Stokes), with the Marmaduke and Swallow. A few settlers went with
Morgan, and nearly I,ooo followed with Modyford. The former






THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
arrived at Jamaica on May 21st, the latter on June 4th. He was
empowered to choose a standing Council of twelve persons, or to
continue that already established, and to make laws by the advice of five
of them. He had power to summon assemblies for the making of laws.
By his instructions he was to prohibit the granting of letters of marque,
and to encourage trade, especially with the Spaniards. The allotment
of 400,000 royal acres was to be suspended in order to encourage
planters. All planters and servants were to be provided with arms, and
trained in their use. No duties were to be exacted either on exports or
imports, for twenty-one years. Plantations were to be on the sea coast,
and near to each other, for the sake of protection. Even as early as
those days the excellent rule was enunciated-to be broken most
flagrantly-that no one was to be admitted to more than one office. He
was instructed to do all things for the encouragement of the Royal
African Company, the affairs of which he had managed to their interest
while residing in Barbados.
Modyford said that Barbados could supply i,ooo emigrants for
Jamaica yearly, but that the passage would have to be free as they are
generally so poor they cannot pay their passage," and recommended the
use of merchantmen, instead of vessels-of-war, as being cheaper. He
advised the King to be prodigal in granting the first I,ooo,ooo acres-
30 per head to white or black. He suggested that the great men of
England should be obliged to settle plantations ; that the Royal African
Company should be obliged to furnish negroes on easy terms to the
poorer planters ; and that encouragement be given to Germans, now
oppressed by the Turk, and to all other nations, by making them as free
as the English." He tells us, incidentally, that the Spaniards called
Jamaica the navel of the Indies." He sent Commissions to treat with
the Governor of San Domingo touching a good correspondence
and commerce."
Modyford found Jamaica very healthful and pleasant. He was
received with the utmost kindness, and soon made a tour of his new
domain. His own private family and retinue consisted of eighty
persons, even before Lady Modyford joined him from Barbados. In
a letter dated June 21st (1664), addressed to his younger brother, Sir
James Modyford, he writes that he is "just despatching Jack to Bar-
bados to fetch his mother." In 1668 Jack was given up for lost, sup-
posed to have been carried into slavery by the Moors.
Sir James was one of thirteen Barbadians made baronets in i66o-i.
He went to Jamaica and sent home a survey and description of the
island. He was appointed judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court in 1664,
and was later made a member of the Council while on a visit to England,
during which time he acted as agent for the colony. In November
1666, he was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the Island of Provi-






SIR THOMAS MODYFORD


dence, but when he reached Jamaica in July 1667, he found that his
domain had been captured by the Spaniards. He was made Governor
of Port Royal and Lieutenant-General of Jamaica.
Sir Thomas, on his arrival, transferred the residence of the Governor
from The Point (Port Royal) to St. Jago de la Vega, to the general
contentment of the people," and he had a census taken, which showed
the population to be 4,205. In an early report on the condition of the
island, dated October Ist, 1664, he informed the King that
" sugar, ginger, indigo, cotton, tobacco, dyeing woods and cocoa may be had, and are
produced as well as anywhere; but pimento, china roots, aloes, rhubarb, sarsaparilla,
tamarinds, cassia, vaignillios, hides and tallow are the proper commodities. There is
the best building timber and stone in the whole world and great plenty of corn, cassada,
potatoes, yams, plantains, bananas, peas, hogs, fowls, cattle, horses, asincoes, sheep,
fish and turtle and pasturage. In fine, nothing wanting but more hands and cows.
The low, valley grounds are feverish and aguish from June to Christmas and the
rainy weather; but the uplands and hills are as healthful as Cotsall in England."
He later added that the wanton slaughtering of cattle had resulted in
there being only 2,ooo head upon pastures which would feed ,ooo,ooo.
In July 1664, Sir Thomas issued writs for the election of a General
Assembly, the number of districts being reduced to nine-namely, St.
Andrew, Port Royal, North Side, St. John, St. David, St. Catherine,
Clarendon, Bluefields, and St. Thomas. The deliberations of the new
Assembly were not so harmonious as those of the first. One of the
results was that Captain Butler, of the Assembly, was killed at a State
dinner by Major Ivy, of the Council.
Articles of impeachment were, in March 1664-5, preferred by Sir
Thomas Whitstones, Speaker, against Colonel Samuel Long (after-
wards Chief Justice), that he had
" caused himself to be elected Speaker at a meeting at Port Royal of members of the
Assembly whose authority, by the departure of Sir Charles Lyttelton, had ceased, and
passed certain orders and votes, with intention to grasp the legislative power into his own
hands, and traitorously and impudently refused to take notice of the Deputy Governor
Colonel Edward Morgan's dissolution of the meeting, .. ."
On his being brought before the House in custody," the charges
were remitted to the next general session in order to give Long time to
prepare his defence, but the Assembly never again met during Mody-
ford's administration. The Assembly soon asserted its sole right to
levy money within the island and appoint the collectors ; the money to
be expended as it directed. It feared that the King might wish to
impose what taxes he pleased. The quarrel continued until 1728,
when the right of taxation was allowed, but not the appointment of
the collectors.1
1 Cf. The Constitutional Development of Jamaica," by A. M. Whiton, p. 24. Manchester
(1929).





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
In June I664, the King wrote to Modyford that he could not
sufficiently express his dissatisfaction at the daily complaints of depreda-
tions done by ships said to belong to Jamaica, which had been sent out
by Sir Charles Lyttelton, who, Modyford said, was a weak man, and
much led by mean fellows here." Thomas Kendall, a Barbados
planter then in England, and husband of Modyford's sister Grace,
advised that Modyford should be allowed to call them in, and encourage
them to sell off and plant in Jamaica; otherwise they would drift to the
French at Tortuga.
The Assembly met in October 1664, and promptly declared all the
Acts of Lyttelton's Assembly null and void. They subsequently
re-enacted the Revenue Acts, the only differences being that the
money was granted to the King, and the administration of the revenue
was transferred to the Governor. Twenty-seven laws in all were passed,
including the first of the many laws declaring the laws of England in
force." These laws were never confirmed by the Crown, but, on the
expiration of the two-year period they were (there being no further
meetings of the Assembly) continued from year to year by proclama-
tion of the Governor in Council. In October 1665, it was ordered
that the Assembly now in being be dissolved, and that a new one
be chosen when need require." Modyford saw to it that need did not
require for the five years of his governorship. The subject of conten-
tion was the desire of the Assembly to exclude the King's name from
the money bills.
On the 6th of February, 1665, about fourteen pirates were tried
and condemned to death under the statute of Henry VIII.
On the 15th of April Lieut.-Colonel Morgan sailed against the Dutch
at Eustatia, Saba and Curacao, the strongest Dutch fort in the Indies,"
with ten ships and six hundred and fifty men, chiefly reformed priva-
teers, scarce a planter amongst them." Modyford's durst not write
before they were well on their way is suggestive of the precautions
of modern warfare. At St. Eustatius Lieut.-Colonel Morgan died,
during the progress of the capture. Saba was taken, but the attempt on
Curacao was given up. In November Modyford, however, wrote home
that he guessed the name of the Dutch will, ere three months expire,
be forgotten in the Indies. When Willoughby claimed these islands
as being within his government, those who took them said they were
acting for Modyford and would own no other, and at Tobago they
wrecked what they could not sell.
In November seasons were fixed for the return of ships from
Jamaica to England, in order that they should mutually protect one
another-i.e. the 24th of March, the 24th of June, and the 24th of
September-and one of the commanders was to be appointed admiral
for the voyage.





SIR THOMAS MODYFORD


Modyford, who had made his eldest son, John, Major of the island,
but feared, as we have seen, that he was lost going down to Barbados to
fetch his mother, begged that the office might be given to his second
son, Thomas. He suggested that the office of Deputy-Governor should
be dispensed with, but Sir James Modyford was appointed to the office.
The old army officers, he says, from strict saints are turned the most
debauched devils."
In February 1665-6, Modyford and the Council decided that the
granting of letters of marque against the Spaniards did extraordinarily
conduce to the strengthening, preservation, enriching and advancing
the settlement of this island." Amongst other reasons which they gave
were that it furnished the island with the necessary commodities at low
rates; it helped the poorer planters by sales to the ships; it induced
many to come to the island who afterwards became planters; it kept
the buccaneers of Hispaniola and Cuba friendly; it was of service as
intercepting Spanish news; it was a source of revenue to the King and the
Duke of York, through their fifteenths and tenths; it employed labour
at Port Royal; it kept up the military spirit of the island; and it seems
to be the only means to force the Spaniards in time to a free trade."
About this time the privateers chose Edward Mansfield as their
admiral.
In June 1666, elaborate precautions were taken by the Council
against invasion.
In December 1667, Modyford appointed his son Charles as his
attorney. He found but one court of Common Pleas ; he divided the
island into six precincts, with a county court in each, and a supreme
court of whom, for want of a better lawyer, himself is chief."
In February 1668, he wrote that, in sending to Barbados it will be
at least four months before it can come to his hands, the coming hence
thither being by way of New England, the constant eastern winds
obstructing all direct commerce with Barbados."
It was during Modyford's government that Jamaica witnessed
Morgan's triumphant return from Porto Bello in August 1668.
One of the earliest arrangements for the constant naval protection
of the island was the sending of the Oxford fifth-rate frigate thither, the
colony undertaking to provide victuals and wages. She arrived at
Jamaica in October 1668.
In October Modyford wrote home excusing himself that the priva-
teers had attacked towns instead of ships only, on the grounds that the
Spaniards had full intention of attempting Jamaica; we shall never
be secure until the King of Spain acknowledges this island to be his
Majesty's, and so includes it by name in the capitulations." This was
done by the Treaty of Madrid two years later.
In January I668-9, the Spanish Ambassador contended that





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
Modyford should be punished for the attack on Porto Bello. His
defence was that he did, at his first coming to Jamaica, call off the
privateers, but that afterwards he was obliged to let them go on for fear
that they would join the French buccaneers ; that in May 1665 he was
given discretion in the matter of granting letters of marque, but these
only allowed the taking of ships and not of towns.
In November 1669, he wrote home that most of the privateers had
turned merchants, or had gone hunting in Cuba, or some of the rich had
turned planters.
In June 1670, the Spaniards landed both on the south and on the
north side, and burnt many houses and took prisoners. Privateers
were called in, and on the 29th of June, learning that the Spaniards were
preparing to attack them, the Governor and Council commissioned
Morgan to be Admiral in charge of all vessels with some 1,500 men, and
to attack the Spaniards-as Modyford himself calls it, a fond, rash
action for a petty Governor without money to make war with the richest
and, not long since, the powerfullest, Prince of Europe."
In August Modyford wrote home that he hoped to send soon a
survey of the island, which was so thinly inhabited till the end of the
Dutch war that he was both afraid and ashamed to send it, lest it might
fall into the enemy's hands." In September the survey, which gave an
estimate of the population, parish by parish, and a total of 15,198, was
sent home. There were fifty-seven sugar works, forty-seven cocoa
walks, forty indigo works and three salt ponds.
In September Quakers at Port Royal were excused from personal
guard duty at night on payment for three able and efficient soldiers.
In 1670 Alderman Sir Thomas Beckford, one of the first of absentee
proprietors, and the ancestor of the richest of all absentee proprietors,
William Beckford, of Fonthill, was getting 2,ooo per annum from his
Jamaica property clear of all charges."
In September 1670, Modyford referred to his twenty-four years'
experience in Barbados.
He wrote home that he had never suffered any Indians to be sold in
Jamaica for slaves, except the Caribbees of St. Vincent, with whom
Lord Willoughby was at war; so that many Indians lived very con-
tentedly amongst them. These may have been from the Mosquito
Shore or from neighboring islands, or possibly from North America,
the native Jamaica Arawiks having been exterminated by the Spaniards.
On hearing of the peace with Spain, Modyford sent a despatch to
Morgan, who, having started on the 14th of August, was on his way to
Panama ; the vessel returned, having missed him at his old rendezvous,
but was sent out again. Modyford points out to Arlington how great a
safeguard to Jamaica the buccaneers were; the logwood cutters, with
twenty small vessels, being a good reserve.






SIR THOMAS MODYFORD


On the 31st of December, 1670, Sir Thomas Lynch was appointed
Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica, with a revocation of Sir Thomas
Modyford's commission, but his commission and the revocation were
not dated till a month later.
As Modyford had, contrary to the King's express commands,
made many depredations and hostilities against the subjects of His
Majesty's good brother the Catholic King," Lynch was empowered to
arrest him and send him home a prisoner. There is no doubt that
Modyford had been encouraged to permit buccaneering by the King,
who shared in the profits, and he was made a scapegoat when Spanish
complaints became too insistent and Albemarle was no longer living to
protect him.
On the i2th of March, 167o-1, Modyford received Major James
Banister, and a first batch of settlers from Surinam, which was being
handed over to the Dutch in exchange for New York.1
On the I6th of May Charles Modyford was arrested and lodged in
the Tower. Writing thence in June 1671, he stated that his father, Sir
Thomas, was in Europe a debtor," there being due to him for salary
6,250, and advanced for fortifications 2,500, and i,xoo for other
purposes.
Both Sir James Modyford, his brother, and Thomas Modyford, his
son, remained in the Council after Sir Thomas was suspended from the
Governorship.
Modyford had the unanimous support of his Council. He relied
on his power to use extraordinary remedies in extraordinary cases. He
pointed out that, if he waited till he got leave from home to take up any
offensive arms," results might possibly be fatal, and that the man on the
spot clearly sees what cannot be imagined by much wiser men at so
great a distance." It was urged against him that he first introduced a
law that all the laws in force in England are in force here, too, "a
thing ridiculous in itself."
No money was in the Treasury when Lynch arrived, a dry season
having blasted all the cocoa and sugar.
The revenue collected from rents of land, fines and escheats,
taxation on ale-houses, and imposts on liquor and tonnage never yet
held out to pay all." Those few who had salaries allotted them
(Governors, Lieutenant-Governors, Major-Generals and judges) and
the Receiver-General and the Commissioner of Impost paid themselves
out of what they collected.
At a Council meeting held on the i5th of August, 1671, the King's
instructions for the sending home of Modyford were read. These
anticipated refusal on Modyford's part. Lynch, fearing to arrest him
1 An account of The Migration frn Surinam to Jamaica," by the present writer, appears in
" Timehri." British Guiana (x919).






THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
in Spanish Town, induced Modyford to follow him and some of the
Council on board the Assistance, when he told him of his instructions to
send him home a prisoner. Thence he transferred him to the Jamaica
Merchant (Joseph Knapman, captain). When Modyford was detained
on board, feeling was so strong in his favour that Lynch was unable
to let him go ashore to visit his dying son. The Jamaica Merchant
sailed on the 22nd of August.
Modyford, who spent the years 1672-4 in the Tower, returned to
Jamaica in 1675, with Sir Henry Morgan, when Lord Vaughan came as
Governor. After being feted at Port Royal, the Governor was treated
to a most splendid dinner at Spanish Town by Modyford. Mody-
ford was appointed Chief Justice by Vaughan, who soon afterwards
quarrelled with him and dismissed him.
Nevil,1 writing to the Earl of Carlisle, speaks of Modyford's
" declared and avowed anti-monarchical principles," and adds, He is
the openest atheist and most perfect immoral liver in the world ";
but his account is obviously prejudiced, as he wrote to Lord Carlisle,
" I am confident it would be necessary for your lordship, not only to be
careful to avoid mixing with him, but likewise to get some particular
instruction to call him to account for his former actions." Oldmixon
says of him : He was very serviceable to the young planters by his
instruction and government." Leslie says: Sir Thomas Modyford
was one of the best Governors that ever Jamaica had; he perfectly
understood the way of managing the new colony ; he encouraged build-
ing trade, but likewise promoted new settlements "; and Poyer gives
evidence to the same effect.
Writing of Anatta, Dampier says : I did never see any made but
at a place called the Angels in Jamaica, at Sir Thomas Muddiford's
Plantations, about 20 Years since; but was grubb'd up while I was
there, and the Ground otherwise employed. I do believe there is none
anywhere else on Jamaica : and even this probably was owing to the
Spaniards, when they had that Island."
Modyford appears to have been successful in ingratiating himself
with a number of those over whom he exercised control. In Barbados,
in 1661, the inhabitants petitioned that his services might be continued,
and in the autumn of 1670, when rumour had evidently reached Jamaica
that Modyford was no longer in favour, a petition was sent home for his
retention in office. It was signed by Henry Morgan, Theodore Cary,
1 In Interesting Tracts," published at St. Jago de la Vega in 18oo, from documents which have
since disappeared, occurs The present State of Jamaica in a letter from Mr. Nevil to the Earl
of Carlisle." Nevil is not mentioned in the Council Minutes, the Journals of the Assembly or
by Roby or Feurtado, whose works are a mine of biographical information about Jamaica; or by
any other writer. From the Council Minutes one gathers that he was a friend of Byndloss. In a
pamphlet, "Modesty Triumphing over Impudence, Or Some Notes upon a late Romance, Pub-
lished by Elizabeth Cellier," x68o, it is stated, that Mr. Henry Nevil, alias Paynepthe conspirator
and author who flourished 1672-1710, visited Jamaica. He is possibly the writer of this letter.
28






SIR THOMAS MODYFORD


John Cope, Robert Byndloss, Thomas Ballard, William Ivy and others,
and was presented by a covering petition of merchants and freeholders
of Jamaica residing in London, of whom the best-known signatures are
those of Thomas Ducke, Andrew Orgill, Samuel Bernard and Richard
Beckford.
The Jamaica petitioners stated that they had for several years lived
in the island in a very poor and unsettled estate, till it pleased the King
to send for their Governor, Sir Thomas Modyford, who, by the great
encouragement he gave to planting, more especially by his own example,
induced petitioners to partake themselves to a planting and settled
condition, that he had passed many wholesome laws, with a free and
unbiased administration of justice, the petition concluding: Now
Petitioners, being jealous (by reason of various reports) that his Majesty
may be persuaded to remove so good a Governor, pray him to continue
Sir Thomas Modyford as Governor unless his Majesty shall find very
pregnant reasons to the contrary."
It is interesting to relate that the petition is
endorsed, Read in Council, November 9th,
1670, and rejected." o s
Modyford died on the Ist of September, -
1679, and was buried in the Church of St.
Catherine,1 within the communion rails, "the
Soule and Life of all Jamaica, who first made it
what it now is the best and longest
Governour, the most considerable planter, the I J
ablest and most upright Judge this Island ever
injoyed."
His arms, as given on his tombstone, were OF SIR
11 ARAs oF SIR
Ermine on a bend azure, a mullet argent between THOMAS MODYFORD.
two garbs, or, on a canton, a baronet's badge,
impaling argent a chevron between three palmer's scrips sable ; crest,
a garb or erect.
There is, unfortunately, no portrait of him known to exist.
His wife Elizabeth, daughter of Lewin Palmer, of Devonshire, who
belonged to the Palmers of Kent, lies under a neighboring stone :
Her life was pure, as clear her fame
None e'er thought evill of this Dame."
The parish of St. Elizabeth was probably named in her honour.
His son, Sir Thomas Modyford, junr., Baronet, only survived his
father five weeks, dying on the 9th of October, I679. He also was
buried in the cathedral. His only daughter, Elizabeth, married first,
on Christmas Day, I676, Colonel Samuel Barry (son of the original
SCreated a Cathedral in x843.
29





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
settler of that name), and secondly, Sir Nicholas Lawes (later Governor
of Jamaica), and died in 1694 ; she also lies in the cathedral.
Sir Thomas, the second Baronet, was succeeded by his brother, Sir
Charles (member of Council under Sir Thomas Lynch), who died in
1687 ; and, in his turn, was succeeded by his son, Sir Norton (whose
mother was Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Norton, Bart., of Coventry),
who died in 1690, to be succeeded by his brother, Sir Thomas, who was
member of the Jamaica Assembly for St. George, and afterwards a
member of the Council. He married, in 1698, Jane, only surviving
daughter of Sir William Beeston. He died in July 1702, and with his
death the baronetcy became extinct in the third generation.
The five baronets were buried in St. Catherine, but there are only
memorials to the first two to be seen, and these were removed from the
church to the churchyard, probably when the church was enlarged.
The first Sir Tkomas's younger brother, Sir James Modyford, was
buried at Half-Way-Tree, St. Andrew, in 1672-3, but there is no monu-
ment. His baronetcy became extinct with the death, in 1678, of his
son, Sir John Modyford, who was buried in the Cloister of Westminster
Abbey. His third daughter married, in 1681-2, as her second husband,
Colonel Peter Heywood, later Governor of Jamaica.
1 In 1684 a law was passed regulating the sale of salt by Sir Charles Modyford from his salt
ponds to the parishes of St. Catherine, St. Thomas-in-the-Vale and St. Dorothy.










SIR THOMAS LYNCH


SIR THOMAS LYNCH was the son of Theophilus Lynch, fourth son of
William Lynch, of Cranbrook, in Kent, and his wife Judith, daughter of
John Aylmer, Bishop of London. He was thus a relative of Colonel
Whitgift Aylmer, of Guanaboa, Jamaica. His mother was Elizabeth,
daughter of Thomas Rixton and co-heiress of her brother, Thomas
Rixton, of the Pele, otherwise Rixton Hall, in the village of Great
Sankey, in the parish of Prescott in Lancashire,
and he quartered with his own arms (sable
three lynxes rampant argent) the arms of Rixton
(argent on a bend sable three covered cups or).
They appear on the map accompanying Blome's
" History of Jamaica," published in 1672. The
lynxes are also termed lioncels, or leopards.
Lynch, who was baptized at Warrington in
1633, was admitted to Gray's Inn on the Izth
of December, 1654. He apparently came out to
Jamaica in 1655 as an officer in Venables's army,
but his name does not occur in the lists of those
taking part in the expedition. In 1660 he was
in England. In the November of that year he
(as Captain Thomas Lynch) and one Captain
Epenetus Crosse petitioned the Privy Council
for passage to Jamaica in one of the King's ships,
they having done what they could for the
public concernments of Jamaica." Later in AnMS oF
the legal and civil year-January 1660-1- To Ly .
Lynch was made Provost-Marshal of Jamaica for life.
In April i662, a suit, in which Captain Lynch had obtained a verdict
against a Mr. Dallyson, came up before the Council on appeal, but
Dallyson, upon consideration," agreed to pay the fine. D'oyley, in
giving his decision, said he was ignorant of the law."
In December I662, Lynch was made Colonel of the fifth of the five
regiments of militia raised by Windsor-that stationed at Yallowes and
Morant," the richest settlement "-and he received considerable grants
of land from Windsor. In April 1663, he was made a member of the
Council.
On the 2nd of May, 1664, he assumed control of the Government,
and was also commander of the forces and judge of the courts, on the
departure of the Deputy-Governor, Lyttelton, he having been





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
previously chosen President of the Council. But he demitted office on
the arrival of Colonel Edward Morgan, Modyford's deputy, on the 21st
of May. In August 1664, Modyford, in writing to his brother, called
Lynch, a pretty, understanding gentleman, and very useful here; he
has an estate, and would be very well beloved were he sheriff instead of
marshall." 1
In 1664-5 Lynch wrote home complaining that the Governor,
Modyford, had dismissed him from the Council and his office of Chief
Justice, either, Lynch suggested, because he objected to plain speaking,
or had been prejudiced against him by D'oyley, or that he would have
none to shine in his hemisphere but himself and his son." He accord-
ingly decided to return home instead of following out his intention to
marry and make this his England." Ten years of sufferings and
hazards had endeared Jamaica to him, but he resolved never to return,
though he had apparently still the sympathy and support of the Gover-
nor. He decided to go home by way of Havana and New England, and
then to go to Spain to obtain permission to purchase cattle at Cuba and
Hispaniola. He estimated that the cattle will only cost 4s. each, and
will produce better rents than any in England."
In October 1665, he was at Bristol, and he apparently resided in
England for the next five years. Sir Charles Lyttelton appears to have
acted as his agent in Jamaica.
At this time he was in possession of the Pele, the family mansion of
the Sankeys in Great Sankey on the Mersey, in Cheshire.
In March 1670, Sir James Modyford wrote from Jamaica to Lynch
in England, saying, in reference to threatened Spanish attacks on the
island," I wish you had your plantation with you, and it were not too big
to be sold ; mine, if possible, I'll dispose of, and leave this warm sun for
your God's blessing." And in August he learnt from Edward Stanton
that his plantation was threatened by Revera, the Spanish Admiral.
In September of that year Lynch was appointed Lieutenant-
Governor of Jamaica, and was knighted at Whitehall on the 3rd of
December, being described as of Rixton Hall, in Great Sankey." A
few days later he married Vere, daughter of Sir Edward Herbert, of
Weybridge, Surrey, who had been Attorney-General in the reign of
Charles I and sister of Arthur, Earl of Torrington.
In December 1,oo0 was voted for his equipage and expenses in
going to Jamaica," and he received his instructions. He was to publish
the Treaty of Madrid for establishing peace in America, within eight
1 In The State of Jamaica ", which forms the introduction to The Laws of Jamaica"
(London, 1684) we read:
The Provost Marshal General is the executive Officer of Justice, he and his Deputies are the
Officers that attend the Goverour, Courts and Assemblies, execute all Writs and Orders, and do
what High Sheriffs, Ushers of the Black Rod, Sergeants, Goalers, &c. do in England."
The Laws are silent as to the functions of the Sheriff and probably no such officer existed in
Jamaica.





SIR THOMAS LYNCH


months, if he could agree with the Spanish Governors for a certain day,
and to call in the privateers.
On the 13th of January Lynch was appointed, by the Duke of York,
Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's ships in and about Jamaica,"
but he was not to interfere with the Admiral of any fleet sent from
home.
Jamaica's commodities were no longer (the five years being expired)
to be admitted duty free in England.
Lynch left for Jamaica, with his bride, on the 5th of January,
1670-I. On the 7th of June he wrote home to Arlington from Bar-
bados, Abundance here designing for Jamaica, and people from
Antigua making inquiries." From Barbados he went with Wheeler, the
Governor of the Leeward Islands, to Dominica, Montserrat and Nevis
(where he left Wheeler), and then on to Jamaica, where he arrived on
the 25th of June. From that time to the Izth of August Lynch and
his family lived under Modyford's roof, and received all the assistance
he could give."
In March 167o-7z, Lynch was charged, with Sir Charles Wheeler,
to come to amicable terms with French Generals and Governors in
the West Indies. The King also instructed the Duke of York that
Captain Hubbart, of the frigate which would transport Lynch thither,
in case of opposition by Modyford's friends, was to assist Lynch
" with his utmost force, by annoying by all ways the island, and par-
ticularly by destroying the privateers."
At the peace with Spain, July 1671, it was agreed with the Governor
of Carthagena that Spanish slaves in Jamaica should be sold to him
at 80 pieces of 8 (or 20 doubloons) if over 12 years, and for the half
if under.
In July Lynch wrote to Arlington that he had kept his bed four days
out of the seven he had been here, and was now writing on it, the cause
being gout. He sent cocoa and vanilla to Sir Charles Lyttelton, and
some chocolate to Arlington.
In August he sent Modyford home a prisoner. At the same time
he sent a detailed Present State of the Government of Jamaica." In
October he wrote home much concerned because he had received
" never a syllable," and was uneasy about the log-wood cutters at
Campeachy.
He complained of the manner Modyford had granted land-
" ioo,ooo acres without a farthing of rent to the King or a foot planted."
Bond, in The Quit Rent System," says that Jamaica was the only
colony in which the Crown permitted the quit rent to pass under local
control. On the 26th of that month Lynch's son and heir Charles
(possibly named after Sir Charles Lyttelton) was baptized.
In order to prevent confusion from the ignorance and multiplicity





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA

of surveyors, he appointed nine surveyors who were to make a more
exact description of the island than ever was yet." They were not to
charge more than three-halfpence per acre. Port Royal, he said, was
rendered unhealthy by want of streets and public commodities, nor
are there hardly any landing-places left, and there is neither house,
land, nor conveniency for the King and his ministers." He bought a
house dear, and had to give 15s. per acre for poor land, seven miles off,
for a provision plantation. He took great care to see that the bounds
of parishes and properties were duly recorded.
At this time, too, the Commissioners for the north side laid out
two towns-probably Montego Bay and Falmouth. It was a fort-
night or three weeks' going from Spanish Town-the ways were so
difficult.
At a Council Meeting held on the 31st of October, 1671, it was
decided :
Whereas there is nothing can give more satisfaction to Strangers abroad than an
inquisitive of the Nature and Conveniences and Situation of this Island, as also be of so
great use to the present Planters in it, as that a most exact particular Map should be
drawn up of the whole Island, and therein all the Mountains, Vallies, Rivers, and Settle-
ments, be perfectly described ; And Whereas by the Order of the Governor and Council,
there are now only nine surveyors allowed of, and to each of them particular precincts
and parishes appointed and allotted ; it is therefore ordered by and with the Consent of
His Majesty's Council; That for the better drawing of the General Maps, each Surveyor
first make an exact description of his own Division, which may afterwards be reduced into
a larger scale ; and to the end that the said Surveyors may more effectually perform the
said work, and not be discouraged for want of any reasonable assistance ; It is therefore
hereby ordered, That if the said Surveyors shall want any help to open their Way for the
tracing of Rivers, Gullies, and other Places, that in such Cases, they apply themselves to
two of the next Justices of Peace, who are likewise hereby ordered and required to give the
said Surveyors all the Assistance they can, and to furnish them with as many hands as
may be necessary, who are to be paid out of the Parish Stock."

Following on this, at a Council Meeting held on the 2nd of July,
1672, it was
ordered that Col. Vassal and Mordecai Rogers immediately undertake the drawing of a
most exact, large, and particular map of the whole island, perfectly describing all the
mountains, rivers, valleys, settlements, creeks, and harbours; and if they finish the
whole work in four months' time, that they receive zol. per mensem, and so proportion-
ably for what time they shall spend more ; and the surveyors in every parish are ordered
to use their utmost endeavours to assist them."

The month of September 1671 saw the beginnings of a post-office.
The Marshal was ordered to go on board every incoming ship and
receive all letters, and to set up a list at Spanish Town and Port Royal,
receiving 3d. per letter. Posting between Passage Fort and the capital
was put under regulation, the charge being 2s. one way, with 4s. for a
side-saddle or a double horse pillionn)."
34






SIR THOMAS LYNCH


In November, under fear of Spanish invasion, martial law was
declared ; and every precaution was taken, but Lynch rendered himself
unpopular by deciding on defensive measures only, he being told that
" it will check these people mightily to know they must fight like baited
beasts within the length of their chain." He suggested that he might
have power to offend the enemy.
At a Council of War, held on the gth of November, 1671, it was
resolved that :
" on consideration of the advices come of preparations by the Spaniards to invade the
island, and that divers ignorant and malicious persons have refused to obey their military
officers on pretence that the Act of Militia is not of force it is hereby declared that said
Act is and shall be of force, and all persons are commanded to take notice thereof at their
peril. Ordered, whereas nothing can be more for the safety of the island than that the
regiment of horse be well armed and mounted, and for that since the Act of Militia the
price of horses is much raised, whatsoever trooper shall appear on an exercising day with a
horse under the value of iol., shall be subject to the penalties the Act mentions, as if the
horse were not worth 51. Order to call a regimental court-martial, and put in execution
the Act of Militia, ordain places of rendezvous and times of exercise, and in case of
invasion publish and put in execution all the Articles of War, and in fine order within the
precincts of the regiment what shall be for his Majesty's service, and the safety of the
island. Ordered, that the appearance of five ships make an alarm, and Colonel Thos.
Freeman take care to give it from Windward to the Point; that the chief officer at Port
Royal, on pain of death, send it on to Lygonee and St. Jago ; and that it be carried from
town to Major-General Bannister, who is to give it to Major Collier, and he to carry it on to
Lieutenant-Colonel Ivey. Ordered, that on the landing of any enemy, the chief officer
residing in every quarter, be fully empowered to act at his own discretion till he receive
orders from his superior officer. Ordered, that the chief officer residing in Port Royal
have, in case of invasion, full power to burn or pull down any house, press ships and do
anything for the preservation of the place, and be indemnified by this order."

In December, in consequence of loss of life from the privateers and
other causes, the King ordered that ships were to be allowed to be sent
back from Jamaica only three times a year-24th of March, June and
September. Lynch's comment was that if not allowed to sail in
December none would come.
In the same month Lynch wrote at length to Arlington. He said
that the Spaniards could only ruin Port Royal, it being absolutely
impossible "for them to retake the island. He had applications against
the Jews, but considered them and the Hollanders most profitable
subjects, especially as traders. War carries away all freemen,
labourers and planters of provisions, which makes work and victuals
dear and scarce. Privateering enriches the worst sort of people."
He expressed the hope that there might be peace in the West Indies
even if war broke out in Europe, as it seems to be feared "-a reversal
of the Cromwellian policy. He had made Beeston Captain of the
Assistance vice Wilgress, whom he had turned out for drunkenness. He
would send Morgan home in six weeks.





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
Lynch, writing home to Arlington on the i7th of December, 1671,
said of Morgan :
And was afraid the sending home Morgan might make all the privateers apprehend
they should be so dealt with, notwithstanding the King's proclamation of pardon.
However shall send him home so as he shall not be much disgusted, yet the order obeyed,
and the Spaniards satisfied. Could not do it now, for he is sick and there is no oppor-
tunity, but hopes the Welcome will be ready to bring him in six weeks. To speak the
truth of him, he's an honest brave fellow, and had both Sir T. M. and the Council's
commission and instructions, which they thought he obeyed and followed so well that
they gave him public thanks, which is recorded in the Council books. However, it must
be confessed that the privateers did divers barbarous acts, which they lay to his Vice-
Admiral's charge."

Writing in the same month, Lynch said :
Two great ships arrived from Barbadoes, and one at Port Morant with a Dutchman
from Surinam and Curagoa, who is naturalized, and has now brought many negroes,
Esquire Pierce from Barbadoes, and Capt. Rendar from Surinam, came to see the island,
and are going away mightily satisfied. Hear of abundance coming from divers parts, so
that certain of peace and good government, in a small time the island will be strong,
populous, and profitable without draining the nation or drawing anything more from the
King's treasury."

He said that what fell heaviest on them was the blasting of the cocoa;
"fear most of the old trees will die, as in San Domingo and Cuba."
He hoped to send to the King some vanilla off his own land. At this
time he begged that the Assistance might not be sent away till another
frigate was sent, "or they will be exposed to the piracies of little
privateers, and be insulted by their neighbours."
In January 1671-2, he reported that the Commissioners had returned
from settling the government of the north side. All the Surinamers
on the south side are well settled, and there is but one dead." Every
week almost comes a ship from London this way."
Knows not what people write, but here they seem mightily
satisfied ; the government and trade are more settled and infinitely
more flourishing than ever, so that he dare aver that in a very few years
by peace and easy government this island will be worth all the King has
in America. Three days ago 400 negroes were bought at 221. per head,
believes 1,500 would have sold."
In February 1671 the first convict transported to Jamaica for theft
arrived in the person of the notorious German Princess. In that year
was published in London, signed M.C. (Mary Carleton), News
from Jamaica in a Letter from Port Royal written by the Germane
Princess to her fellow Colligiates and Friends in New-Gate," of which
a copy is in the West India Reference Library. She returned to
England the following year and was hanged at Tyburn for returning
from transportation.






SIR THOMAS LYNCH


Lynch frequently asked for instruction about the cutting of logwood
at Campeachy, which he thought he could arrange for without irritating
the Spaniards. Sir William Godolphin advised that the cutting of the
wood alone, and in places remote from Spanish towns, might be con-
nived at, though not authorized, whereas the English settled there for
months at a time. In July 1672, the Council for Plantations advised
the King that encouragement should be given to Jews, Dutch and other
nations to settle there (allowed); logwood cutting to be permitted on
land not occupied by Spaniards; that a fourth-rate frigate be yearly
sent out under the command of the Governor of Jamaica for the time
being.
In March 1671-2, Lynch sent to the King and Lord Arlington
cocoa, vanilla and tobacco, and Lady Lynch sent to Lady Arlington
" 400 lb. of the best white sugar from Barbados, and a tortoise-
shell box from here with combs and some vanillas." She (Lady
Lynch) was acting as nurse, housekeeper, and paintress," which
makes her as busy as if she had all the affairs of the new world
on her."
If it were not for the fact that it contains only one comb and not
combs, one might think that the case referred to is that now in the
Institute of Jamaica, bearing date 1671.
It cannot refer to the case in the Victoria and Albert Museum which
contains combs because that is of a later date, 1673 : but all three cases
were probably made by the same man and owe their origin to the
" nurse, housekeeper, and paintress."
A digression may be made for a moment in favour of this comb and
case which was in 1923 acquired by some of the members of the West
India Committee in London and presented by them to the Institute of
Jamaica. It is one of the earliest art objects made in the British West
Indies, displaying European influence.
The case, which measures 91 in. long, 51 in. wide and J in. in depth,
is engraved on the obverse with a vase containing flowers; above it is
the word Jamaica," and below is the date 1671. On the reverse is a
coat of arms surmounted with an esquire's helmet. Both sides are
richly decorated with borders of a floriated design with tulips introduced.
The comb is similarly ornamented. They are in an almost perfect
condition-only a small flap is missing from the case, as the remains of a
hinge and fastening, which still exist, testify.
The case in the Victoria and Albert Museum is somewhat smaller,
71 in. by 4j in. On the front are the arms of Jamaica with name
" Jamaica" and the date 1673. At the back are engraved a coco-nut
palm, a cotton tree and some sugar cane.
The Arms appearing on the case in the Institute, are, in fact, those
registered to the family of Buerton of Co. Chester, viz.: Argent, a






THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
chevron sable between three bucks' heads caboshed gules, i.e. on the
assumption that it was intended to indicate the Sable tincture by the
cross-hatching on the chevron.
Similar arms were impaled by Robert Byndloss, who died in 1687 and
was buried at Spanish Town, as those of his wife Anne Petronella
daughter of Edward Morgan cousin of Sir Henry Morgan; and so the
comb and case was at first thought to have belonged to the buccaneer-
governor, but the above evidence points more conclusively to Lady
Lynch as its originator. Even if it be granted that the arms are those of
Morgan, it is known that Charles Morgan, uncle of Sir Henry, was a
kinsman of Lady Lynch, and she may have had the comb and case
made for him.1
A similar comb is depicted in the portrait of Elizabeth Vernon,
Countess of Southampton, at Boughton House, which is reproduced in
the Cambridge Midsummer Night's Dream."
At the same time (March 1671-2) Lynch wrote to Lyttelton that it
had cost him I,700 to come out, and he had already contracted debts
to the extent of 2,500 to settle himself-which he would not be free of
for three years. He said that what Modyford represented-that he had
promised him security of life and fortune "-was a damned un-
truth." Were he at Whitehall is sure nothing could be objected
against him, for those who envy or hate him most must confess the
King's authority is now established, people all seem satisfied, trade is
increased, the revenue something improved, planting advanced, the
militia better settled and disciplined, almost all the English privateers
reduced, peace perfectly established, and the Spaniards so entirely
satisfied that they compliment Lynch as if he were the greatest person
in the world. And if the Lords of the Treasury, the Secretaries of
State, Council, and Master of the Ordnance have the state of the
Government, accounts of revenue and ammunition, and full answers to
all inquired after, and his Majesty have Sir Th. M. in the Tower
without any expense or trouble, surely he has not served ill when with
no money, a narrow title,2 and sick and wanting everything. Prays
him to endeavour to give his Majesty a true sense of these his services.
He evidently looked to Lyttelton to put him right with those in
authority.
In February 1672, Lynch's first Assembly met, and appropriated
to the Island's use all the Quit Rents, and then promptly refused to
vote any money for the repair of the fortifications at Port Royal, on the
grounds that it was the duty of the Crown to provide for the defence of
the Colony.
1 An account of these Combs and Cases is given in The Connoisseur for July 1925, by the
present writer.
2 He was evidently sore because he was only Lieutenant-Governor.
38
































































SEAL OF SIR HENRY MORGAN.


TORTOISESHELL COMB AND CASE.






SIR THOMAS LYNCH


In May an open conference was held between the Council and
Assembly, the Governor presiding, to settle what should be done to
fortify the island in view of the warning sent by the King, who expected
that what was necessary should be done at our own charge." The
Council unanimously decided to strengthen Port Royal, but the
Assembly declined to vote the funds.
In June 1672 a numerously signed petition from Port Royal against
the Jews was presented to the Governor: they were charged with
underselling the petitioners, because of their own penurious way
of living." But Lynch was in favour of the Jews. He said "His
Majesty cannot have more profitable subjects than they and the
Hollanders."
In July Lynch wrote to Williamson: Our Council has now at
least ioo sheets of papers of his before them, but not even from the
meanest of their clerks has he had a syllable."
In the same month Thomas Bromhall, junr., wrote Sir Joseph
Williamson thanking him for his recommendation to Sir Thomas
Lynch and begging his patronage for "A Description, History, and
present State of this Island," almost perfected, and in which he has had
the encouragement and assistance of Sir Thomas Lynch. He had
casually become acquainted with Williamson's brother, the lieutenant of
the Assistance, and, as far as his short knowledge goes, the lieutenant
has "behind his back been rendered ill here by such of whose good
humour no man gives testimony," and, granting him allowance of
youth, he may be encouraged without danger of disparagement to
his friends." If his honour will mention Bromhall's name once more
to Sir Thomas Lynch it will be of great advantage to him.
The next we hear of Bromhall is in the following month, when the
Council resolved :
Whereas Thomas Bromhall, attorney, having presented a kind of petition in the
nature of an impeachment of John White, Chief Judge of the island, for bribery, partiality,
and other offences, and his own witnesses, vizt. Capt. Rich. Brayne, John Mirfield, and
Sam. Conyers, on their oaths approved the integrity, learning, and justice of said Mr.
White ; and whereas Mr. Bromhall has likewise published defamatory papers to several
persons before presented to the Governor and Council and to the end that others may be
deterred from the like, Ordered, that said Mr. Bromhall be committed to the custody of
the Marshal till the next Grand Court day, and then stand for quarter of an hour on a
pillory on the parade, with his mouth gagged and his thumbs tied, and a paper pinned on
his back signifying the offence; and that he suffer the like punishment at Port Royal on
the next Court day following; and then be remanded to prison till he give security of
2,oool. for his future good behaviour and better bearingg"
And so that descriptive history was never published.
In 1672, some of the Assembly subscribed a gratuity to John Gad-
bury, the Astronomer of London, for giving the island and them so
great a character in his scheme erected in his Almanack in 1671."






THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA

Though no copy of this work is known to exist there are copies in
the British Museum Library of Gadbury's Almanacs of Jamaica
for 1673 (published in 1672) and a West India one for 1674 and
two for 1675.
The following is the title-page :
The
Jamaica Almanack
or, an
Astrological Diary
For the Year of our Lord God, 1673.
Calculated Particularly for the Noble Island of Jamaica ; But is of use to those that
inhabit the Barbado's, and other adjacent Islands in the West Indies, under the Dominion
of His Majesty of Great Britain.
With an Astrological Discourse touching the growing Greatness of that Excellent,
Temperate, and Fruitful Island : grounded upon its Nativity, or the first Moment of
Time, wherein the Valiant English became Masters thereof.

By John Gadbury
Student in Astrology and Physicks

God sometimes imparteth his Light, not only to the unlearned, and to the holy
Prophets, but also to those that are versed in Judicial Astrology, making that Instrumental
for the confirmation of his inspired Truths. Vide, Apologie for Nostradamus, Cap. 6.

London, Printed by John Darby, for the Company of Stationers, x672.

The frontispiece is a portrait of Gadbury, engraved by W. Sherwin.
It is dedicated : -
To the truly Honourable, Valiant, and Successful Gentleman, Sir Thomas Lynch,
Knight, Governour of Jamaica; and the Honourable Sir James Modyford, Col. Cope,
Col. Whitfield, Col. Freeman, Col. Modyford, and the rest of the Magistrates, Coun-
sellours, and officers there, as well Military as Civil."

The following is an abstract of the dedication :
Without ingratitude it is impossible to make this Astrological Judgement on the Noble
Island of Jamaica with any dedication but to your generous Patronage.
When in 1671 I made some observations on your happy Country, you were a little
suspicious of Disturbance and though you wished it, could scarcely credit my reassuring
predictions. Time has acquitted you of those fears and secured you in quiet possession
of one of the most fruitful Islands of the World.
Once so populous, Jamaica lost 60,000 people, when possessed by the Spaniards.
It would have been otherwise if Fortune had favoured Sir Anthony Shirley in 1596.
Designed by God Almighty that this Noble Country be taken, Possessed, Inhabited
and Improved by the English. Only by a Superiour Warrant of God and Nature can
this Island have been twice subdued by English Valour, considering the distance from
England and the Indies.







SIR THOMAS LYNCH


I firmly believe that you will make good the Prediction of Sir Christopher Heydon
who wrote 6o years since that the Spaniards should be utterly beaten out of the Indies and
that the Gospel should be propagated unto the Southern parts of the World. Already the
Island famous for one Peter Martyr, may there be many more and may your Honoured
Selves be prosperous.
The advancement of the English interest in general is the prayer and confidence of
him who implores your acceptance of these trivial Papers &c. &c.
To my ever Honoured and Ingenious Mathematical Friends, in the noble Island of
Jamaica, Colonel Robert Freeman, Major William Beeston, Mr. Samuel Bernard, Capt.
William Ryues, Capt. Hender Molesworth, and Mr. Thomas Ryues; with all other my
worthy Friends there, yet unknown to mee.
Invite you to supply the defects of this my short Essay by your more curious Obser-
vations. I humbly conceive that it be worth an Enquiry whether Saturn doth not move
the Eastern Winds, and Jupiter the Western in the Indies, as in England ? I would
wish you take notice, although the Winds be generally Easterly with you, whether they
be not more constantly so ? and whether (though the greatest Rains fall from May to
November) they be not then most violent ? and if upon the Aspects of the Sun, Jupiter
and Venus, they be not more gentle and refreshing, and what conjunction induces
moisture.
Beseech you to take notice of these matters as also of the Effects of your Vernal
Ingresses, (which I intend once a Year to present you with) and pray you observe the
Conjunctions of the Planets that they may be preserved not only for Science but to the
advantage of yourselves and Country.
Wishing you acquaintance with the Diamonds of Heaven as well as with the Treasure
of the Indies which (St. Paul says Rom. i. 19) will lead you to the Immortal Treasure in
Heaven. I remain &c. and to the Truths of Astrologie
a Real Servant, whilst John Gadbury.
Brick Court by
Dean's Yard Westminster.


Here follows a Table showing the times of sunrise and sunset for
every five days of the year, occupying one page.
The next three pages give the Table of Houses or A Domifying Table
for x6 degrees of Latitude serving Port Royal in Jamaica.
Then follow twelve pages, one for each month,

shewing the Planets daily Motion, Lunar Aspects and Mutual Aspects for every day,
shewing saints days and week days as well as days of the month, and other details.
Some brief Observations on the Nativity of the Island considered Astronomically and
Astrologically, various calculations are set out and reference to his Ephemeridos for ten
years to come, lately published. A Table of Diagrams, styled the Figure of Heaven
then follows, and four pages of explanation, stating that according to Natural Causes, the
Inhabitants of the Island will flourish and exhibit the qualities of Justice, Goodness,
Prudence and Equity; & after the first days of Conquering and Settling, Religion will
shine most gloriously. The Island already honored with the Person and learning of one
of the most eminent Fathers of the Church, Peter Martyr. Religious Professors without
fortune in England may enjoy both natural and divine supplies in this happy Island, if
they be industrious.
It is a scandal that so few people travel or go out of the Smoak of their Mother's
Chimney." Had all been so timorous, we should not have had a Drake or Portugal a






THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
Cabot. Though not born to honour his nation at home it may be done (like them)
abroad. Every man is not born to be rich by his Father's fireside." Joseph came to be
a Lord by being sold into Egypt. Many can scarcely live out of a prison at home by
reason of laziness or a fear of adventuring abroad. The same God that preserves us
in these Northern parts can protect us also in the remotest places. Possibly God will
not suffer us to increase in riches here that he may try our Activity and Courage, and
prove us to the utmost, whether we dare to trust to his power and goodness in Forraign
Parts.
The Sons of this gallant Island will prove an undaunted warlike people & like
Gideon's soldiers make those around tremble at their approach."
Not only Justice and Courage will be eminent in this fruitful Country but it will be
blessed with fertility, pleasures and delights.
The influence of Venus will be apparent in the production of their annual crops of
Cocao, Sugar, Indico &c as well as in an increase in Human Kind. They will be a
people both ingenious and industrious, promoters of Art and science and mercurial
inventions, great merchants and many will be made happy by trafficking with them.
This curious country will prove subject to but few sicknesses and those few only
occasioned by excess of pleasure and plenty ; otherwise they will be strong and healthful.
The present Government may not long remain but the country will certainly con-
tinue in obedience to the Crown of England much longer than Mercury's great years,
which are near an hundred.
Let those who have the Charge of this fortunate Island as also the inferior officers be
but vigilant and careful to keep peace within themselves, then they will be masters and
governors for ages yet to come.

A Table of Directions from 1655 unto 1835 here follows-of three
pages, with one page of comments and another of advertisements.
The next Almanack is entitled, The West India or Jamaica
Almanack, 1674." It is dedicated to Sir Thomas Modyford. In his
Dedication to the Reader he says:
To the objection of the climate I answer that the heat is purely
natural and preserving, the equality of days and nights counteracts the
sunshine, the constant breezes and showers most refreshing, and
the great fruitfulness of the land is a proof that it is not over-
powering.
To the risk of sickness which people allege who travel there, there is
no more than in other countries. If a man's constitution be but firm
and good, and he keep but temperate and fly debauchery and vice, all
countries are the same to him.
To those who urge the danger of the sea, the only reply is that God
Almighty can preserve them on the waters as well as on land.
Many again fear being made slaves if they go there without means,
but in this the world is mistaken and the planters falsely abused. Those
English who are termed slaves are better off than apprentices at home.
After four years' service, they are given a plantation and for good be-
haviour receive divers other encouragements.
Scripture tells us, there should be no beggar in Israel; I will assure
thee there are no beggars in Jamaica, and therefore no thieves.







SIR THOMAS LYNCH


The West Indies has been blessed with many noble knights, see that
learned work by the Honourable Elias Ashmol entitledd" The Institu-
tion Laws and Ceremonies of the Most Noble Order of the Garter."
In the second part of the Almanack are :

Astrological Observations on the year x674. For the noble Island of Jamaica.
A Diagram occupies the first page. Success and honour is foretold. The dry
years are passed, Cocao may, as formerly, yield I5oo or 2000ooo weight of nuts yearly to the
acre. Sugar yields 4 or 5000 weight yearly per acre, and indigo as formerly; if indigo
yielded 12 or 14 yearly per acre, for every negro slave that works, it is now likely to
yield i6, 17 or x8 or possibly more per annum per acre. Captain Ryves tells him
that the Comet was seen on 5th, 6th, and 7th March 1671, and he has seen it almost
every night since. Two pages deal with the effect of comets on the atmosphere and
tempers of the human race; the learned Richardson is quoted, and reference to his own
discourse on Comets written in 1664 and 1665 is given & how his prophecies became
true.
However the noble Jamaican and generous inhabitant of Barbados need have no
fear in spite of the difficulties of trading with the neighboring nations, now prevalent,
their enemies will shortly be glad to petition for a resumption of trade facilities. Alludes
to the way in which Major William Beeston was treated in 167x as regards provisions and
doubts not that these very same people will soon sue to the English for a supply of necessi-
ties and plead hardships.

Pages 14-16 deal with the Commodities as follows:
Cattle-in plenty, 7000 head at least in 1672. Muttons, daily increasing and Lamb
at seasonable times. A great store of Goats, Kids and both wild and tame Hogs;
Rabbits thrive very well; there are a few Deer so it is hoped that Venison will be plenti-
ful.
Excellent Horses, Asses and Mules at very reasonable rates and Dogs of several
kinds both for service and pleasure.
Fowl-Turkeys, and Dunghill Fowl of several breeds, Geese, Peacocks and tame
Pigeons, wondrous fat and good.
Wild fowl are Geese, Duck of several sorts, viz., the grey white-bellyed, the
Whistling Duck and Bald-pates, Teal Plover and Snipe in abundance. Island & Moun-
tain Pigeons, Turtle Doves and Cocao Birds, Guinea hens, and a number of fine singing
birds and Parrots and Parakitas as also Maccaws, Cormorants, Passflemingoes, Caryon
Crows and Pellicans.
Fish-Green Turtle, Logger-head, Manatee alias Sea Cow, Snappas, Snouts as
large as Salmon, Gropers, Spanish Muckbirt, a small but sweet fish. Mullets, silver
Eels but their Mud fish are somewhat luscious. Curious Lobsters without claws,
shrimps, oysters, prawns, crawfish. Land Turtle and Allegators, which last only eaten
by Negroes.
Bread & Drink-A shrub called Cassani makes excellent bread, and the root makes
a cooling drink called Perino.
Other roots are potato, yeavoy, edye, limes, pease, beans, asparagus, cabidge,
pumpkin &c. Pine-apple, turkey head, prickle pears, musk melons, water melons,
squashes, musk cod, Indian corn, guinney corn, pistachio purple beans, bonavista,
vinillios, oranges and lemons are the chief fruits.






THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA


The third Almanack is entitled:
"Diarium Astronomicum
or, a
West India Almanack
for the Year of our Lord
1675
Principally designed for the service of
those Noble Islands
Jamaica 1
and
Barbadoes J
But is of use to divers other places of the
West Indies
And to the Ingenious Sons of Art
in all parts of the World.

By John Gadbury, Student
in Physick and Astrologie

Magna opera Jehovae, exposita Omnibus qui
delectantur illis. Psal. III. vers. 3

London.
Printed by Ja: Cotterel, for the Company
of Stationers. x675."

It is dedicated to Henry Morgan, Esq., "out of gratitude for
Civilities received."
The second part of the Almanack for the year 1675 commences with
a full-page Diagram and then the Astrological Observations in which is
predicted fortune and success to the honourable and industrious
inhabitants, and stating that "nothing can prevent the growing greatness
of this excellent country, the Governour of which, as well as sundry of
the nobles will be courted and caressed and advance in riches and
esteem and possibly receive certain titles of honour. The Law will
flourish, Indian barbarity will give place to English civility, some School
of Arts or Sciences may be established, and Jamaica become famous all
over the world for piety as for martial prowess (see Jamaica Nativity,"
printed 1673)."
It contains a list of trees growing in Jamaica, 1675, received from
Sir Thomas Modyford.
An advertisement states that" Colonel J. Vassall and Mr. Mordecai
Rogers have been appointed by Sir Thomas Lynch to make a Survey of
the Island, all maps hitherto very imperfect, and in many things
defective."






SIR THOMAS LYNCH


To return to Lynch, after this digression caused by Gadbury's
Almanacks, we find that he, who was always worried about the logwood
cutting on the Spanish Main, sent home in November 1672 an account
of the state of affairs :
Depositions of William and John Coxen, Philip Osborne, John Mitchell, James
Smith, and James Risby, all captains of ships, sworn before Sir Thomas Lynch, Governor
of Jamaica. They have used the trade of logwood cutting for about 21 or 3 years on the
coast of Yucatan, from Boca Couil to Cape Catoche, and thence to Cozumel, and during
that time the English have had and now have huts and people to the number of zoo or
zoo there resident; have never seen any Spaniards or Indians, nor heard of any Indians
nearer than 12 or 14 leagues, or Spaniards nearer than Rio Lagartos, 18 leagues off,
where there are guards or look-outs, and have never met with any interruption until the
pirate Yallahs came about eight months since and took divers vessels. One has also cut
wood at Beef Island and Sumasanta, 35 leagues to the westward of Campeachy; the
proprietor of Beef Island, who comes there at certain seasons to make hides, has always
given leave to the English to cut wood ; and the Indians there resident are not subject to
the Spaniards."

Lynch was given permission to have logwood cut in desolate and
uninhabited places," and to endeavour to prevent complaints by the
Spaniards. When the Spaniards took the British logwood cutters' ships,
Lynch did not dare retake them.
In August the Council drew up rules for the more seemly burials in
the parish church at St. Jago de la Vega. At the same time it was
decided that patents of land which were not taken up within twelve
months should become void.
In the same month it was decided that ships should be sent as
Lynch determined, and the Governor of New Providence, Bahamas,
wrote for assistance to the Governor of Jamaica, the rock whence
their first government and order was hewn." He hoped to be
adjoined by the King as a branch of the Government of Jamaica.
Lynch replied that he was unable to help them beyond sending some
powder and shot, and renewing Modyford's commission. He had
applied to the Council of Plantations in the matter. Arms here are
very dear, and stores the King has none, every planter buying for him-
self." Mrs. Guy and other Bermudians have had great success in
Jamaica."
Lynch's plantation, which is the most eastward, and open to the
sea," suffered by the hurricane of I672, which, in the Caribbees, was
" the cruellest that ever was. It has reached this island, which none
ever did before."
He dismissed Colonel Modyford from the Council for acquitting
Peter Johnson, a Dutch pirate. Lynch himself sat at the new trial.
1 Possibly a relation of Captain Richard Guy, Member of the Assembly successively for North-
side, St. Ann and St. James. Sir Norton Modyford, the fourth baronet, married a Miss Guy of
Barbados.





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
In October 1672, the Earl of Shaftesbury, with some other partners,
who had received from the King a property in some islands not lying
far from Jamaica," wrote and asked Lynch for cocoa trees and Jamaica
pepper.
In November, the Council of Plantations wrote to Lynch that
they feared that the Dutch meditated an attack on Jamaica, and he was
to protect himself as he best could ; later it was decided to send two
frigates to cruise about the seas. On the 5th of November he wrote home
that he had received a letter from the Council of Plantations of the 23rd
of July-the only letter he had received since his arrival !
In December, there was a rumour in London that the Earl of
Winchilsea was going over as Governor of Jamaica.
At that time trade improved. That of 1672 was three times as
great as that of the previous year. By the Treaty of Madrid of the 8th
of July, I670, it was provided that all injuries which the people of Great
Britain and Spain have suffered by each other in America be buried in
oblivion.
The author of The Present State of Jamaica (1683) tells us that
when Lynch came to Spanish Town it was almost quite deserted,"
but that in his time about forty houses were built. He increased the
cattle so much that the price fell from 12 to 4 a head.
In April 1673, Lynch wrote that the people were apt to be over-
secure than fearful, and suggested that if this surplusage of the people
in the Caribbee Islands were directed to Jamaica his Majesty's
lordship would become a kingdom." His account of the island is the
first ever taken, that of Sir Thomas Modyford being made by guess."
He gave it as his opinion that" young colonies, like tender plants, should
be cherished and dealt easily with, it being better to put soil to their
roots than to pluck too early fruit."
In the same month he wrote that he was pleased at the idea of being
superseded-his expenses increasing at home, and his estate not doing
so in Jamaica. Here is a vast country to be kept by a few men ; a
port to be defended with no ships; a town without fortifications,
ammunition, guns, carriages, fireships, platforms, etc.; to be had or
made without money." He excuses himself for not giving detailed
information about the plants of the island, as being one who is illiter-
ate, and has been always brought up in the noise and tumults of war."
In July a second son, Thomas, was baptized. In August Lynch urged
on the Assembly the advisability of having someone in England to
" solicit for them, but it was at the moment as ill-approved as the
building of fortifications."
In 1682 he had the satisfaction of giving assent to a law for that
purpose, and Sir Charles Lyttelton and Colonel William Beeston (one
former and one future Governor) were asked to become Agents.





SIR THOMAS LYNCH


In May 1673
"the Speaker and Assembly having been sent for, the Lieutenant-Governor in a
speech to the whole House recommended the raising of money to complete fortifica-
tions at Port Royal, showing his Majesty and the Council's letters advising of the
danger the island was in, and how suddenly it might be attacked, and praying them to
consider speedily of the best means to preserve it. But the Assembly, having spent divers
days in unnecessary questions and disputes, and at last bound themselves not to raise
money for fortifications or any public uses, his Excellency, considering it necessary that
the several officers should with all speed repair to their respective commands, with the
advice of the Council sent for the Speaker and Assembly on the x6th inst. and declared
them dissolved."
As early as March 1673-4, it was proposed to appoint the Earl of
Carlisle Governor of Jamaica. A draft commission was then drawn up,
but Lord Vaughan's name was later inserted. On the 23rd of March, 1674,
draft instructions were prepared for Colonel Morgan (Henry Morgan,
of Panama fame), Deputy-Governor of Jamaica, to repair thither with
all convenient speed, as an avant courier of the Governor. His appoint-
ment alarmed the Spaniards, and made them fortify the South Sea.
On the 3rd of November, 1674, Lynch's commission as Lieutenant-
Governor was revoked, Lord Vaughan having been appointed Governor
on the 3rd of April, and a letter, dated the zoth of November, directed
Lynch, after he had handed over to Vaughan, to return and give an
account of his stewardship.
Lynch did not think it was to the interest of England that any but
the Spaniards should have the Indies, for their pride and laziness do
but make them their industrious neighbours mineros.' In Novem-
ber 1674, he wrote home that he had treated with all respect possible
the Marquis de Maintenon, nephew of the Duchess Montansier and the
Comtesse d'Alonne, the Captain of a French man-of-war, which twice
brought prizes to Jamaica which Lynch would not let him sell. Just
before he left Lynch summoned his third Assembly to re-enact certain
unconfirmed laws, the two-year period of which had nearly expired.
This Assembly seized the opportunity of passing a Bill for the sup-
pression of lawyers. When this Bill was rejected by the Council, the
Assembly retaliated by tacking it to a money bill-apparently the first
recorded instance of the use of this tactic in Jamaica The Council
had perforce to accept it. At the suggestion of Lynch this Assembly
passed an Act fixing the number of their Members at thirty-two, thus
abolishing the Governor's power to issue a writ for any number he
liked. He wrote on the eve of his departure :
The island has improved these last three years to a marvel, and the people are as
contented as English can be. Many wish his continuance, but not himself. None can
come to this Government with so much joy as he shall quit it, for the discountenance he
has had in England has not only disheartened him, but disabled him from serving the
King as he would and ought."





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
On the 7th of March Lynch demitted office to Morgan. Vaughan,
on his arrival six days later, was entertained by Sir Thomas Lynch and
Sir Thomas Modyford, to both of whom he shows great respect."
There was trouble between Lynch and Vaughan over the 4,ooo
received on account of a negro prize vessel, which was condemned to
the King, Lynch being charged with appropriating the money. But in
a letter to Sir Joseph Williamson, Vaughan alludes to their friend Sir
Thomas Lynch," with whose prudent government and conduct of
affairs he was well satisfied, and he recommended him as Deputy-
Governor, being already disgusted with Morgan.
One of Lynch's last acts in Jamaica was to draw up an interesting
account of the state of the Church in the island. He left Jamaica in
1675, and took up his residence in a house in Leicester Fields, London.
While in England he placed his experience at the disposal of the Lords
of Trade and Plantations, and he frequently attended their meetings
when the affairs of Jamaica were discussed. In 1679-80 he purchased
the manor of Esher, hard by the former home of his wife at Weybridge.
He submitted Reflections on the State of the Spaniards, and the
Island of Jamaica ":
It is to the English interest that the Spaniards be preserved in the possession of
what they have in the West Indies, for their colonies are large and thin of people, so they
cannot take from the English anything that they hold. The Spaniards have great wealth
and no industry, so the English that trade to Spain and in the West Indies may get suffi-
ciently by them, which they cannot by any other nation. It is as much against the
interest of England to have any more colonies in America as it is for it to have those they
now possess peopled and fortified, especially Jamaica, which would then do more against
the Spaniards than all the power of England. Reasons why war and privateering obstructs
the planting and peopling of Jamaica. To check the Spaniards, and show the King's
resentment of any affronts done his Majesty, suggests that the King give the new Governor
of Jamaica the title of Viceroy of Jamaica, New England, or America, and that, if the King
assumes the power of placing Governors in New England, they may have an appearance
of depending upon Jamaica, and have the powers and advantages which are set forth."

The news-letter, dated from Jamaica July i8th, 1677, in the Record
Office, printed in the Calendar of State Papers," is probably not by
Sir Thomas Lynch. It is unsigned. It is probably an extract (possibly
in his handwriting) of a letter received by him from Jamaica, and by
him submitted to the Board for its information. It tells of the taking
of Santa Marta by Coxon and other buccaneers.
In October 1677, Morgan and Byndloss were accused by Vaughan
of corresponding with privateers. At the same time Lynch submitted
(presumably to the Lords of Trade and Plantations) proposals about
settling the government of Jamaica. He said the present Lieutenant-
Governor (Morgan) was incapable of such a trust, being governed by
his brother-in-law, Colonel Byndlosse, a very ill man."
48






SIR THOMAS LYNCH


In December 1679, Sir Thomas Lynch, Lord Vaughan and Sir
Francis Watson attended the Lords of Trade and Plantations. Lynch
then reported A Brief Account of the Government of Jamaica Since
His Majesty's Restauration."
In the same month, in addition to Lynch, Jamaica merchants (C.
Modyford, Waterhouse, Duck, Orgill, Potts, Beck and Sir F. Chaplin)
were consulted by the Lords of Trade and Plantation.
In May 1681, a draft commission as Governor of Jamaica (as
successor to the Earl of Carlisle, Morgan having been Deputy-Governor
in the meanwhile) and instructions to Lynch were considered by the
Lords of Trade and Plantations, and in August the Commission was
issued.
After consultation it was decided to make Lynch a real Governor,
he agreeing to accept the title with no allowance from the Exchequer
by reason of the title," a somewhat mean performance, which we shall
find repeated in the case of Beeston.
Amongst a number of letters written to Sir Henry Goodricke,
British Ambassador at Madrid, about the year I682, speaking of
Reprisals upon the Spaniards in the West Indies, is one which goes on
to say:
I must not forget to tell you that His Ma' presentations have gone so high against
S' H. Morgan as to name Sr Thos. Lynch to be Lt. Govr. in his place, the Span* Ambd
hath given his thanks with great solemnity for this mark of his friendship to the King of
Spain, and he hath complimented the ministers likewise upon this occasion and it is
certain, that as he is satisfied S" T. Lincke [sic] will be a good Gov- for the satisfaction
of the Spand so he will be a nursing Father for the improvement of that Plantation."

On the Ist of November Lynch was lying at Plymouth waiting for
the ships, owing to foul weather. On the zoth of December he wrote
that he had been at Plymouth eight weeks. He sailed in the Sweep-
stakes. He was sixteen or eighteen weeks wind-bound. His wife fell
ill at Madeira, so that after a month or five weeks he was forced to leave
her behind with half his family. She and their son Charles died at
Madeira, and their bodies were returned for interment at Esher. A
monument to their memory, with a portrait of Lady Lynch, is in the
chancel of the old church, recently restored. It is painted on a panel.
The following is the inscription on the monument:
Sacred to the immortal memory of Vere late Lady Lynch who with Charles her son
and Thomas Salisbury Cotton, son of Thomas Cotton Esquire and Philadelphia his wife
lye buried underneath
and
Opposite under the Manor seats of Esher are interred the bodies of William and
Henry Salisbury Cotton, sons, and of Edward Clegg Esq. nephew to the said Thomas
and Philadelphia. A.D. 1703."





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
A photographic copy of the monument is in the Jamaica History
Gallery in the Institute of Jamaica.
There is also on a wooden tablet of Charitable Gifts to the Parish
of Esher," the following inscription :
His Excellency Sir Thomas Lynch, Knight, late Governor of Jamaica, the sum of
one hundred pounds, the third part of the Interest of which to the Minister for preaching
an annual sermon in commendation of Vere his first Lady on the 3oth day of September
for ever. Five shillings to the clerk, and the rest to the poor of the Parish.
Four acres two roods and twenty one perches of land in a certain common field
called' The Great Clays towards the repairs of the Church."

This land was subsequently sold for 1z,ooo to Sandown Park
Race Course, from which amount an interest of 300 is derived for
expenses of the Parish Church.
Lynch left Madeira on the 6th of April. On entering the tropics
he fell ill, and was ill for some days after he landed in Jamaica on the
14th of May. Both of the King's houses at Spanish Town and the
Point being out of repair, he stayed at Colonel Molesworth's. The
revenue appeared to be so poor that he said I am like to live here, as
I am come, at my own charge." In August he was still sick. He wrote:
The people are well enough disposed, but by letters from England and evil designs
here have been spirited into extraordinary distrusts and jealousies."
Much cotton, sugar, indigo, &c., is made in the island, and there are hopes of vast
quantities of cacao in a few years."

He thought that cacao would yield cent. per cent. Trading ships
were built in the island-twenty in number-from 15 to 45 tons,
admirable sailers. They were, however, on the main, undersold by
" great Dutch ships."
An Order of Council dated the i9th of January, 1682, authorizes
the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of
England :
To provide passage, together with provision of victuals as shall be necessary, for
forty-two French Protestants, whose names are to be certified unto them by the Right
Reverend Father in God the Lord Bishop of London, to be transplanted to his Majesty's
Island of Jamaica, with the first conveniency they can, and the Right Honourable, Mr.
Secretary Jenkins is to send letters recommending the said persons to the favourable
reception of Sir Thomas Lynch, Governor of His Majesty's said Island, they intending to
plant and settle there."

When Lynch met the Assembly on the 21st of September, 1682, he
said to them :
I call God to record, I knew of no design to injure or invade your just Liberties,
nor have I other Instructions than to do right, and govern according to the Laws of
England and this Island. I appeal to you all, if you do not know I did not so, to the best
of my understanding, when I had the honour to command here before. I must tell you,






SIR THOMAS LYNCH
it's my opinion, it was that Consideration and your Satisfaction, made the King and his
Ministers to send me again, that all those Passions that have so long agitated you, might
be calmed, and every thing that gave you ombrage removed."
Bernard, the Speaker, in his speech, alluded to the fact that:
It can never be reasonably imagined that we had any other design but to continue
under our old form of government, which his Majesty had been pleased to constitute at
first, as near that of his realm of England as of so great a volume could be compassed in so
small an epitome."
The difficulty of the Assembly tacking Bills to the Revenue Bill
was discussed at some length. In October 1682, Lynch sent to
the Bishop of London a full and sympathetic account of the churches
and clergy in the island. In November, in a letter concerning piracy,
he said : This fishing for wrecks draws all kinds of dissolute fellows
to Providence." He also alluded to the frequently mentioned need of
naval protection. The want of a frigate here has made pirates to
increase in number and impudence." He wrote in February 1683 :
" We are fed by provisions from New England, New York, and Ireland,
and have fishermen at the South Cays ; all these routes were interrupted
and dangerous." With regard to the privateers, he wrote: You
cannot blame me for being the historian of these rogues for this year,
for I have business with few else." H.M.S. Ruby was sent out to
protect Jamaica. Lynch later sent her to help St. Kitts against the
Indians and privates. The Guernsey, Ruby and Bonito were King's
ships protecting trade and putting down piracy. The Ruby was too big
for shoal waters to follow periagoes ; the Guernsey evidently did for
this. The Bonito crushed the little rogues before they grew bigger."
Lynch, who had instructions to suppress the buccaneers, pleaded for
full power of Admiralty. With this I dare answer for everything;
without it I hold myself accountable for nothing." In November Lynch
complained that the French pirates of Hispaniola damaged the Jamaica
trade, and was told to make reprisals.
In a conciliatory speech to the Assembly, on convening them, on the
21st of September, I682, he told them that God hath been pleased to
give me a moderate estate, and the King a competent salary, that I am
sure to be paid here or in England, and I neither need nor desire any-
thing from you." This speech, together with that with which he
prorogued the Assembly, is printed in A Narrative of Affairs Lately
Received from His Majesty's Island of Jamaica London, 1683 "-
a rare book, a copy of which is in the West India Library in the Institute
of Jamaica.
In October x682, the Lords of Trade and Plantations considered the
laws sent home by Morgan. The tacking of other laws on to the
Revenue Act and the desire of the Assembly to meet annually irrespec-





THE GOVERNORS OF JAMAICA
tive of the King's summons met with the strongest disapproval. Lynch
was asked to get a Revenue Act passed on the lines of the Act sent
to Morgan. He succeeded in getting a seven-year Revenue Act of
which they approved, and at the same time confirmed for seven years
the majority of Morgan's acts, while one or two were sent back for
amendment-the greater part of which proposed amendments were
in due course accepted by the Assembly.
On the 13th of December, 1682, Charles II issued a Proclamation
regulating the hiring of Servants for His Majesty's Plantations in
America, requiring that such Servants shall be taken by Indenture, to
be executed in the presence of a Magistrate and a Record kept by the
Clerk of the Peace. Further, that no person under the age of fourteen
shall be carried on Shipboard unless his Parents shall be present and
give their consent.
It commences:
Whereas it has been Represented to His Majesty, That by reason of the frequent
Abuses of a lewd sort of People called Spirits, in Seducing many of His Majesties
Subjects to go on Shipboard, where they have been Seized and Carried by Force, to His
Majesties Plantations in America; and that many idle persons who have Listed them-
selves Voluntarily to be Transported thither, and have received Money upon their
entering into service for that purpose, have afterwards pretended they were Betrayed, and
Carried away against their Wills, and procured their Friends to Prosecute the Merchants
who Transported them."

Lynch at times suffered much from the gout. In May 1683, he
wrote to the Lord President of the Council:
I have heard from Sir Charles Lyttelton of your lordship's infinite kindness in
favouring our petition to the King and passing our laws."
I am not likely to get any salary, but am indebted to hire of war vessels, building
of ships, and repairing of King's houses."

In June 1683, he wrote home urging that a dormant commission
should be given to Colonel Molesworth-" an intelligent, loyal and
virtuous gentleman, who will serve the King and country." He was a
free trader. In his speech to the Assembly he said : It's against the
reason and nature of commerce to put a perpetual or standing price on
goods we need, for trade ought to have all liberty and encouragement.
We see, therefore, in those places where it is freest, there it is greatest."
On the 15th of August, 1683, Lynch wrote to the King respecting
Captain Churchill's search for a wrecked treasure ship, and the taking
of La Vera Cruz by the pirates :
May it please y' Ma'Y- Two dayes ago aryved here y' Mat- frig' Falcon, yester-
day Cap" Churchil shewed me yf Mat" Instructions, I perceyve he has don his utmost to
follow y", but despayres of success, and n'h great season for neyther Undertaker Pylot or
Dyevers can perform w* they promise, and I have bin told abt 14 year ago one Esmit in a




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