• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Frontispiece
 Le drapeau national - The national...
 History d'Haiti - History...
 Les chefs d'etat Haitiens - Rules...
 La citadelle laferriere - The laferriere...
 Palais sans-souci - Palaces...
 Les chefs d'etat Haitiens - Rulers...
 Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave
 Geographie - Geography
 Instruction publique - Public...
 Commerce et industrie - Commerce...
 Douanes - Custom house
 Departement sanitaire - Sanitary...
 Transportation et communication...
 Travaux publics - Public works
 Gendarmerie d'Haiti - Armed forces...
 Geologie, mineraux et mines - Geology,...
 Agriculture
 Faune - Fauna
 Flore - Flora
 Le gouvernement actuel - The present...
 Port-au-Prince
 Port de Paix
 Saint Marc
 Miragoane
 Anse a veau
 La Ville de Jeremie
 Dumas
 Aux Cayes
 Jacmel














Haïti, 1919-1920, livre bleu d'Haïti, blue book of Hayti
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077042/00001
 Material Information
Title: Haïti, 1919-1920, livre bleu d'Haïti, blue book of Hayti revue illustrée de la république d'Haïti, contenant des articles spéciaux concernant histoire, gouvernement, géographie, commerce et ressources naturelles ... a pictorial review of the republic of Hayti, including special articles on history, government, geography, commerce and natural resources
Added title page title: Blue book of Hayti
Physical Description: 4 p. l., 260 p. : illus. (incl. ports.) port., col. pl. ; 31 cm.
Language: French
Creator: Compagnie biographique
Publisher: Printed by the Klebold Press
Place of Publication: New York City
Publication Date: 1919?
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Haiti   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Haiti
 Notes
General Note: French and English in parallel columns.
General Note: Compiled and published by the Compagnie biographique.
General Note: Advertising matter: p. 241-260.
Statement of Responsibility: Comp. under government supervision.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 13516897
lccn - gs 20000224
System ID: UF00077042:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Table of Contents 3
        Table of Contents 4
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece 1
        Frontispiece 2
    Le drapeau national - The national flag
        Page i
    History d'Haiti - History of Haiti
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Les chefs d'etat Haitiens - Rules of Haiti
        Page 6
    La citadelle laferriere - The laferriere citadel
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Palais sans-souci - Palaces sans-souci
        Page 9
    Les chefs d'etat Haitiens - Rulers of Haiti
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Geographie - Geography
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Instruction publique - Public instruction
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Commerce et industrie - Commerce and industry
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Douanes - Custom house
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Departement sanitaire - Sanitary department
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Transportation et communication - Transportation and communication
        Page 37
    Travaux publics - Public works
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Gendarmerie d'Haiti - Armed forces of Haiti
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Geologie, mineraux et mines - Geology, mineral and mines
        Page 48
    Agriculture
        Page 49
    Faune - Fauna
        Page 50
    Flore - Flora
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Le gouvernement actuel - The present government
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Port-au-Prince
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
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        Page 157
    Port de Paix
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    Saint Marc
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
    Miragoane
        Page 184
    Anse a veau
        Page 185
        Page 186
    La Ville de Jeremie
        Page 187
        Page 188
    Dumas
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Aux Cayes
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    Jacmel
        Page 207
        Page 208
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Full Text





















d









&ILUImN rcI*

BLEBO
























UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY


THE GIFT OF


Mr. & Mrs. J. Stryker
in memory of their son Frank
A ....


I- 1, 111 1 Ikl I I I I I I






















LIVRE BLEU D'HAITI.
BLUE BOOK OF HAYTI
1919















Compilee et Pubiice par la Compiled and Published by the

COMPAGNIE BIOGRAPHIQUE
Grant COL. J. BASCOM JONES Manager








Imprimee et executee Printed and Executed by the

KLEBOLD PRESS

137-139 East 25th Street

New York City








Agent de Vente et Distributeur General General Sales Agent and Distributer

The West Indies Trading Company
President E. P. PAWLEY President
PORT-AU-PRINCE
HAITI















HAITI


1919-1920








N I%-;N U-






LIVRE BLEU D'HAITI

BLUE BOOK OF HAYTI


Revue illustr6e de la R6publique
d'Haiti, contenant des articles
sp6ciaux concernant Histoire,
Gouvernement, G6ographie, Com-
merce et Ressources Naturelles.

Compile sous la Supervision du
Gouvernement.


A Pictorial Review of the Republic
of Hayti, including special articles
on History, Government, Geog-
raphy, Commerce and Natural
Resources.

Compiled under Government
Supervision.


9













Table de Matieres -General Index


Agriculture ............................................. .
Aux Cayes..... ......................................
Anse A Veau..........................................
Chefs D 'Etat Haitiens............... ................. ....
Citadelle Laferriere.......... ...... .. ..
C om m erce ......... .. ..... ............... ... ... ..
Com m unication... ...... .... .... .. ..
Dartiguenave- Sudre .................. .....
D um as ................................. ... ...
Douanes............... .. .... .. ....................
Faune........................................ .....
Flore ..... ... ........... ....... ... .. ....
Gouvernement Actuel................ ............
Gendarmerie d'Haiti. .................. . .. .........
Geologie et M ines.. .... ............. .
G6ographie. ..... .................. ..................
Histoire................ ..............................
Instruction Publique ....................................
Industrie................... ......... .................
Jacmel............................... .. .............
J6rem ie.. .... .................
S .. . . . . . . . . .
Palais Sans-Souci .... . . . . .
Port-au-Prince ..... ... . ..... ......... .....
P ort de P aix ................. .......... .. ....... ..
Sanitaire d'Haiti (D6partement).................. ........
Saint Marc..... ....................................
T ravaux Publics ...........................................
Transportation.................................... ..........


A griculture.................................... ...........
Armed Forces ............... ..........................
Aux Cayes ........... ................................
Anse A Veau ...................... ..................
Custom House ........
Com m unication ................... ..... .. .. .......
Com m erce........... ..... .......
Citadel Laferribre............................ .. ....
Dartiguenave- Sudre ..... ................ ......
Dumas ...................... ..................... ...
Fauna..................... .................. .........
F lora .... ..................
(overnment.................... ...............
Geology and Minerals............. ............
G geography ........................
H isto ry .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .... .. .. .
Industry ... ........................... ....... .. ....
Jacmel ..................... ..............
Jeremie.. ....................... ...................
Miragoane............................................
Public Works. ...... ......................
P public Instruction .................... ...................
Palace Sans-Souci ............... ...................
Port-au-Prince. .. .............. .. ....................
P ort d e P aix .................................... .......
Rulers of Haiti........................................
Sanitary D epartm ent............................. .......
Saint Marc..........................................
Transportation ..........................................


Table de Matieres Speciales-Special Index


Port-au-Prince
Arm and, D r. F ....................... : ..... ........
Adam B. D .............. ............................
A ux A rm es de Paris .. ............................. ....
Alexis, P. J .... ......... .... ................
A rm our & C o ............... .............................
A uxila, P. E .................. ... .. ... ...... .... ...
A udain Freres. ................ ...... .. .. ....... ..... ..
Abraham Fr&res............... .. .. . ..
Assad, J. A ................... .......
Ascencio, D ........ ................ ..
Banque Nationale d'Haiti .......... ..... .......
Baussan, Georges ............
Baker, Th6odore .............. ......... ...
Bellegarde, Dant6s. ..........................
Benoit, Constantin ............. ... .. ... .
Bencomo, C .......... .. .. ........... .... .. ..
B orno, L ouis. ............... ....... ..... ...... .......
Bourraine, J........ ... ........ .... .. ..
Bacha, A .... ....... ...............
Barrau, Mme. J .... ........ .................
B erne, M arius................................... .........
Burke, Thos...................... .......... .. .......
Berret, Antoine ............. ................... ......
B ig io I J .. ...... .. ... .. .. ... .. .. ... .. .. ... .
Barbancourt, Vve.............................. ..........
Brisson, Emile ...........................................
Brisson, H enri........................... ...... ....... .
B ouzi, V .................... ............. ........... .
Brutus, Antoine.................... .....................
Bouchereau, Dr. V ....................................... .
B o lt6 A ......... . . . .. . . . . . ....
Carr6, Joseph............. ...............................
Cam ille, D r. L ............................. .........
Catholic Church in Haiti................... ...............
C ine, V ariet6s........ .. .. .. ..... ..... ......
Chevallier, A F .......... ... ..... ........... .... .........
Chemaly & Co., S. P ...................................
C halom et F ils, A .................. ................ .......
Clinique Medico, Chirurgicale. ................... .............
Coicou, D r. Felix .. ......................................
Cooke, Alfred N.. ............ ........... .....
C ourrier du Soir ............... ...........................
Dartiguenave, Barnave ...................................
Daniel, Dr. S. E. A ........................................
Dalencour, Gaston................ .................... ....


D asq ue, C ................................................
Dejean, Leon.................................. ..........
Degand & Co., E........................ ..............
Deslandes, Emile ........................................
Dufort, J. L... ........................ ................
Dorsinville, Luc ......................................
E steve & C o., E d ........................................
E thwart, L C ........................... ..............
Faine, Jules... ................. ...... .. .........
Fadoul & Co., J ................... ..... .............
F6quikre, Fleury................ .... .......
Fraenckcl, Joseph .................................. ..
Francis, Georges ...................................
Gazette des Tribunaux .............
G aetjens & C o ..... ..... .... ............ ..............
G ervais, V ..... ....... .....................
G eorges, D r. J...... ..................
(ros, Ludovic ......................... .........
G uerin A L .. ............. ....... ......... ... ........
H akim e, Elie............................ .............
Haynes, A ................... ... ...............
H6tel Bellevue .... ........... .................
H 6tel de F rance................................. ...
Haiti Commerciale, Industrielle, etc ..... .......
Jeanseme, Georges..................................... .
Jolibois Fils, Mme. J .....................................
Jean, Venance ............................. .... ........
Laforest, Antoine ................... ...............
Laforest, Astrel ................ ................
L eger, A bel N ..................................... ....
L am y F 6lix ................................... .
Lam ay Paul ..........................................
L'6glise Catholique en Haiti ............................
Leon, Camille.................... .......................
Letellier, F............ .................
L'Informateur H aitien...............................
Lund, O. A .............................................
Le Nouvelliste.............. ........................
Le Matin.............................................
M ayard, Constantin.................................... .
M axim ilien, J. E .......................................
M axw ell, J D ............................................
Mevs, Fred...........................................
Mevs & Co., Chas ......................................
M evs & Co., Louis....... ...............................
Miller, A. D...........................................
M ercier, E .............................................









Table de Matieres Speciales (continu6e)-Special Index (continued)


Port-au-Prince

M artin, G R ............... ................... ..........
M artin del Rio, B ........................................
M cIntosh, W .............................................
M urad & F ils, H ............... ..........................
Maklouf, V. G ............ ................................
Mansour & Co., E. A. ....................................
M angones, V. .................. ......... ............
M orel, E m m anuel. .......... ........... ............. ... .
M oliere, P L C ........... .. ............... ..
M illery P ................................... ...... .....
M onsanto, M ax.................................. ..........
M onsanto, Etesse ..........................................
N em ours, L ..................................... .........
Oriol, Edmond ..... ......... .................... ...
Pawley, E. P................................. ............
Payne, Geo. E. ............... ................. ...
Parisot, L................................... ........
Pradel, Seymour............ .......... ..... ...............
P igniat, P .. ............. ...................................
Pierre, G. E ............. ...... .....................
Preetzmaan-Aggerholm, L .......................... .......
P ressoir, H ......................................... .
P6toia, G. B ............. .................... ... ......
Price, Thos............ .......................... .. ....
Polynice & Co., S. .......................................
Poujol, Alexandre.................... .................
Raven, Chas. A. ................ .................
Roy, Louis............ ........... .... ............
Rouzier, Dr. V. ................................ .......
Russo, C..................................... ......... .
Roberts, D utton & Co............... ........ ....
R oberts & C o., A ................................. ........
Richardson & Co., J. M ....................................
Richard Fils ...................................... .. .
Saint L6ger Perrier, D r.....................................
Saint Louis de Gonzague....................................
Sada & Co., B. & N ........................................
Sarthou, P ................................. .. .........
Salom on, J........................... ....... ........ .
Salam6 Freres, A. .............................. ......
S6journ6, Pharmacie....... .......................... ....
Shemtob & Co. ................................... .. ....
S ilv era H ........ .. .. .. . .. ... .. .. . .. ...
Societe Cor Hollandaise Trans. ................... ........
Soci6te Com m erciale d'Haiti.................................
Steffan, Am en. ................................... .........
Sm ith, T H ........................ .......... ....
See Woo & Co ...... ............ .............
Stark, Henry .................................. .
Trans Ocean Trading Co. ................... .. ..
T hom as, J ......... .......... ..... .. .
Tuitt, J. P ................. .............. .. .. .....
T orres, P ablo ......................... ...... ......
Tesserot Fils, A. ........................ ..... .....
T alam as, A M oussa........................................
Talamas et Frere, H ................... ..... ..
T hybulle, J. D ...... .......................... ........
United Fruit Co................................ ......
Urbina, Antoine. ........................... .....
Vilm enay, Thos. A ......................... .. ........
Vilmenay, Louis ...................................... ...
Villejoint, A ....... ............................ ......
Viard, M me. J ......... ......... ........... ......
Vieux, Alfred ........... ........ ............. .........
V ieux, Sim on .. ........................... ... .
Velten, M ...............................................
Volel, E.................................................
West Indies Trading Co., The..............................


Cape Haitien

A ltieri, F M ................. ............. ...............
Bloncourt, E ................. .............
Barrella, N .............................. .............
D urand Freres....... .............................. ....
Durand, Antoine .................. ........... ........
Frangois, Dorcely .............. ....... .. ..
Giordani S. M ichel........... ...
H6tel New York......... ... .. ...... .
Lucchesi, A. F ............
M astroti, B L ..................
M enuan, Chas......................
Montreuil, D ..........
M oral s, Rosita .......................
Nazon, Eugene F.............. ...
Nicolas, E.............
Prosperi, Paul ................... ... ...
Penzo & Co., M ..... .. . --..
R iot, E ..........................
Santelli & Co., A ........ ....... .... .. .
Samson, Arthur... ......... ...
Schettini, A ............. ......... ..-
Soci&t6 Commerciale d'Haiti...... ......
Stephens & Co., T ................ .. -. .
Woolard, C. C.. ......


Giordani & Co., 'I.


Ft. Libert



Port de Paix


Commune...........
Haguenot & Co., A.......
Laraque, P. E ... .....
Lucas, MI ... .
M aurasse, F............
Maurasse, Marquez & Co.
Villanueva & Co., J. L...


Gonaives
Acascas, A.. .. ... ..
Batroni, P .... ....
Blum er, D .............
Bourgain & Co., L........ . ..
Constantine & Co., J....
Jacques, O. D...... .
Jacques, P. D ............
Lain & Co., R. M. de ..... ..
Louis Fils... ........
Latortue, E .... .
McGuffie & Co., A....
Pelissier, F ....
Silvera, S.... .......
Shemtob & Co..
Soci6et Commerciale d'Haiti......
Th6baud, L. R.....
W oel, I. W ............ .


Saint Marc


. 156



158
. 160
. 163
157
162
162
161


...... 171
. .. 171
..... 170
.. .. 166
169
. ... 167

170
171
.. 114

170

165

171
115


Commune ......
Cazeau, Pharmacie.
Clesca, Ed......
Dorsinville, Louis .....
Delattre, Paul..... .
Estime Jeune ..... .
Elias & Co., Assad.....
Lanier, Dr. C............
Madiou & Co., M .......
Meza, P. D...............


.................








Table de Matieres Sp6ciales (continu6e)-Special Index (continued)


Saint Marc
Metropolitan Aerated Water Co. ........................ ..
Nahoume, Elias..................... .. ......... ......
Nahoum e, Antoine........................ .. .........
Pasquet, Dasny........... .... .. ..................... ..
Saieh, Michel A.......................... ..............
Senice & Co., A ................. .. .... ...........
W illiam s, Q uintin.............................. ..........

Petite Riviere
Julien, H1 rard .............................................

Petit Goave
Bombace, D .......... ... .......................... ...
Blaise, Th6obold. ................... ............. .......
Baudin, A .... ...... .............. .............. .....
Brignolle, D. D........... ........... .. ............ ...
Cassy, C. M .............................................
Dam breville, G .................................... .....
Napol6oni & Co., M ................. ................... .
Placide, G.................... ...........................
Rigaud, Dr. L .................. .......................


Miragoane
Commune .................. ...........................
Clorissaint, E .............. ................... .........
Duval, S ......... ............................. .........
Doret, J.......... .......................
G ousse, F ...................................... ... .......
Tovar & Co. ................. ...........................

Jernimie
Blanchet & W iener................................ ..... ..
Brierre, Edgar ................. .........................
Commune. ................. .............................
Cazeau, Elie .........................................
Cl&rie, Syriaque. .............. .........................
Ch&ron, J. N................... ............... ........
Chassagne, N ................. .........................
Desquiron, M ........ ...... ............ ....... .......
Drouin, Mme. G ..........................................
Garoute, A .......... ......................... .........
Gaveau, G. .................................. .. ........ ....
J orome, L. V ... ............................ ... .......


American Foreign Banking Corporation ....... ........ .. .
Aron & Co., Inc., J........................ .......... .
Achille, Starace & Co.................... .................
Bartram Bros ................................. .........
Babbitt, B. T. .............. .......... .............. .
Behrens & Co., A........................................
Bohme & Son ................... ....... ...... ........
Botzow, H. E............................. ..........
Brinley, S. L................ ................... ........ .
Cisneros, J. Louis .............. ................... ....
Claflins, Inc. ................. ..........................
Coccaro & Co., A. J .......................... .. ......
Everett, Heaney & Co....................................
General Export & Commission Co. ..........................
Hecker-Jones-Jewell Milling Co...... ......................
Holtrans Co., Inc. .................................. .
Huttlinger & Struller................................... ....
Hartmann Pacific Co. (N. Y. Pacific Com. Co.)...............
Lanman & Kemp ..........................................


175 L stage A T ..........................................
178 Lestage, Jerome & Co ......................................
179 Martineau, B ...........................................
114 Paret, T .............................. ................
175 R ouzier, R oger.....................................
179 Roumer, L. A ..................................
175

Aux Cayes
Abouzeide, R ............................. ...............
138 Bonnefil Freres .........................................
Blanchard, Dr. E ..........................................
C om m une ..............................................
S D 'Ennery, C ................................... ..........
180 Fougere & Co., S. A. .....................................
182 Ferrandini, M m e. V ........................................
183 G uillou D ..............................................
H18 tel International...................................
183 Janini & C o., A .......................... ...............
181 Javerne & C o ...........................................
182
182 L abastille .................................................
183 Neptune, P. N........................................
Pressoir, M........ .................................
P ierre P aul, A ...........................................
Sicard, McDonald H .....................................
4 Sicard, Laurent H ............... ........................
184 Saliba, Elias. ........................ ................
185
186
185 Jacmel
186
185 Alexandre, R ... .....................................
B oucard & C o ...........................................
Bellande, M m e. F .......................................
B ellande, G .................................. ..........
190 Brun, P. A........ .................................
191 C raft, B ................................. .............
187 Commune............................................
196 Danies, B.............................................
196 Doug6 & Co., C. S ...................................
195 Lauture, Justin........................................
193 L anauze, P .................... ...............
192 Madsen, C. F.............. .......................
196 Pierre Louis, D ... ....................................
195 Poggi, J ......................... ....................
192 Simmonds Fr6res .......................................
194 V ital, J. B ......... ................................... .


ew York

241 Lyon & C o .......... .... ...................... ......
247 M ann & Co., H ......................
236 Maurer & Co., E ................ .....................
235 McKesson & Robbins ................................
236 M urray & Lanman .....................................
258 M rn-en, Geo....................................
249 Neuss, Hesslein & Co., Inc. .............................
259 Oliver Bros. ...........................................
259 Panam a S. S. Line ......................................
258 Rahway M killing Co.........................................
233 Raphel & Co., Ed. M ....................................
239 Royal Bank of Canada...................................
248 Royal Dutch W est India M ail............................
246 Schall & Co., W .............................
255 Sm ith, R Lawrence................... ..........
253 Seaboard Trading Co.....................................
238 Stanard-Tilton Milling Co..................................
250 V ital & Co., C D ........................................
250 W ilton M fg. Co..........................................










i


UNION FAIT LA FORCE-


Son Excellence le Pr&sident d'Haiti, Monsieur Sudre Dartiguenave
His Excellency the President of Haiti. Honorable Sudre Dartiguenave


N r ')








TE


Le Drapeau National


Drapeau National fut cr66 d'un geste tout A


Sla fois original et dramatique, par Jean-
Jacques Dessalines, Fondateur de l'Ind6pen-
dance d'Haiti.
Le 18 Mai 1803, dans sa march triomphale suc
Port au Prince, et parvenu au bourg de l'Arcahaie,
A la tite de ses h6roiques 16gions d'esclaves et d'af-
franchis r6volt6s, il vit flotter encore les trois
couleurs frangaises dans les rangs indigenes. Avec
sa vivacity d'esprit de preux, il en prit occasion
pour enflammer I'ardeur de ses phalanges guer-
rieres. I1 empoigna done le drapeau tricolore, en
arracha brutalement le blanc, et en fit le bicolore
haitien, proclamant que, d6sormais, le bleu et le
rouge devaient constituer l'union des noirs et des
mulatres, freres d'armes, combattant c6te A c6te
pour la liberty, en brisant les chaines de l'esclavage
qu'ils portaient depuis deux si&cles d'oppression.
Les deux couleurs sont places horizontalement,
le bleu au dessus du rouge.
C'est l'illustre Pr6sident Alexandre P6tion, Fon-
dateur de la R6publique d'Haiti, qui congut et en
dessina les armes, lesquelles se composent du pal-
mier, au milieu d'un faisceau d'armes, et surmonte
du bonnet phrygien, avec la 16gende: (L'Union
fait la Force)
II doit etre rappel6, ici, que ce drapeau a glori-
eusement flott6, au V6n6zu6la, dans les braves
contingents Haitiens, partis des Caves avec l'im-
mortel Simon Bolivar, que le Pr6sident P6tion
entoura de toute sa g6n6reuse et patriotique pro-
tection, en lui donnant aide et assistance, tant en
hommes qu'en ravitaillement alimentaires.
A ce titre, l'Illustre Chef d'Etat Haitien peut
etre consid6r6 comme un des Fondateurs des R&-
publiques latines d'Am6rique.
Et, tout r6cemment encore, A la declaration de
guerre de la R6publique d'Haiti A l'Empire d'Alle-
magne, toute la press indigene, fortement sou-
tenue, d'ailleurs, par l'opinion publique, r6clama
avec v6h6mence, que les deux couleurs haitiennes
flottassent sur le front occidental, meles aux
6tendards des grandes puissances Alli6es.
Les emblemes de la R6publique d'Haiti ont donc
leur histoire et peuvent figure parmi ceux de
toutes les Nations civilis6es.


7.2-9 4-4
5-3


. fte HE National flag was created in a manner
both original and dramatic by Jean Jacques
Dessalines, founder of the Independence of
Haiti.
Arriving at the borough of Arcahaie on May 18.
1803, during his triumphal march on Port-au-
Prince, he saw floating in the native ranks, the tri-
color of France. Conceiving an opportunity to
further inflame the ardor of his heroic lJ tins of
revolted slaves and freemen, he took the tri-
colored flag and brutally tore out the white. From
then on, he proclaimed, the Haitian fLa would be
bi-colored, the blue and the red signifying the
union of the blacks and the mulattos, brothers in
arms, fighting side by side for liberty-to break
the chains of slavery which they had been enduring
for two centuries of tyrannic rule.
The two colors of the flag run hiriz,,nta:lly, the
blue above the red.
It was the illustrious President. Alexander
Petion, who conceived and had placed on the flag
the coat of arms, which is c',mp,.seid of a palm
bordered by armor and surmounted by the phry-
gian cap. Underneath appears the legend. "In
union there is strength."
It should be remembered that this same rlag has
gloriously floated in Venezuela and in the brave
Haitian (o, tin g~, t -. It also was rk.'.n, on his de-
parture from Aux Cayes, by the immortal Simon
Bolivar, whom President Petion induled with his
generous and patriotic pr.,ittctiion, giving him help
and assistance in men and in victuals.

The illustrious Haitian Ciici of State may well
be considered one of the founders of the American
Latin republics.
Recently, when the Republic declared war on
the German Empire, the declaration was strongly
supported by the native press, voicing the public
sentiment. It was vehemently asserted that the
bi-color of Haiti should wave on the occidental
front along with the banners of the great allied
powers.
The emblem of the Republic '.f Haiti has had its
history and may rightfully figure among those of
all civilized nations.


The National Flag







Histoire d' Haiti

L E 6 D&cembre 1492, 1'Ile d'Haiti alors Quisqueya,
fut d6couverte par Christophe Colombe, qui en pris
possession au nom de ses Majest6s Catholique
les Rois d'Espagne.
A l'epoque que Colombe d6couvrait l'ile, une race simple,
des sauvages de couleur cuivr6, d'un beau type, bien fait
de corps ayant des longs cheveux noirs habitat 'ile. Ces
indigines appelait le pays "Quisqueya" (mere patrie) et la
parties ouest o6 Colombe d6barquait d'abord s'appelait
"Haiti" (Pays montagneux). L'Ile 6tait divis6e en cinq
provinces ou royaumes, gouvern6es chacune par un chef ou
"Cacique" qui etait roi et grand pretre.
Ces indigines d6diquirent leur vie a la peche et a la chasse
oi aussi i une primitive culture de leurs champs. Ils
adoraient la nature en general, mais d6pendaient de leurs
chefs pour le choix de leurs Dieux ou divinit6s: parfois c'6tait
le soleil, parfois la lune et peut-6tre aussi un arbre oi une
source particuliire.
Le premier d6barquement deColombe eut lieu A l'extr6mit6
Nord-Ouest de 1'Ile; a cette baie il donna le nom de "Saint
Nicolas" qui aujourd'hui est la Mole St. Nicolas un des
meilleurs ports d'Haiti. Colombe d6nomma l'Ile, Hispanola
(Nouvelle Espagne) et etablis sa premiere colonie du


History of Haiti

ON the 6th of December, 1492, the Island of Haiti, or
Quisqueya, was discovered by Christopher Columbus,
who took possession in the name of their catholic
majesties the kings of Spain.
At the time of discovery, the Island was inhabited by a
simple race of copper colored savages, with well made
bodies, long black hair and fine features. These natives
called the island Quisqueya (.I. their land) and the western
portion, where Columbus first landed was called Haiti
(mountainous land). They had the Island divided into five
Provinces or Kingdoms, each ruled by a chief or "Cacique,"
who was both king and high priest.
The lives of these people were passed in hunting and
fishing or attending to their very primitive agriculture.
They worshipped nature in general and selected their Gods
or Divinities according to the vagaries of their Chiefs: some-
times it was the Sun, sometimes the moon or possibly a
peculiar spring or tree.
Columbus made his first landing at the extreme north-
western point of the Island, this bay he named "Saint
Nicolas" and which is to-day known as "M61e St.
Nicolas," one of Haiti's best harbors. Columbus named the
island Hispanola (New Spain) and made his first settlement


JEAN JAQUES DESSALINES
Premier Empereur D' Haiti
sous le titre de
JACQUES er
1804 A 1806


nouveau monde dans un fort qu'il appela Fort Nativit6,
y laissant une garnison de 39 hommes et alors repartit pour
l'Espagne pour faire un rapport de ses grandes d6couvertes.
Quand il retournait I'ann6e suivante il trouva que sa
premiere colonies avait 6t0 d6truite et la garnison massacre
et alors il continue a la c6te du Nord et fonda une second
colonie a Isabella, aujourd'hui connu sous le nom de
Monte Christi, un des ports important de la R6publique
Dominicaine.
La premiere colonie r6elle dans le territoire qui est
actuellement connu comme la R6publique d'Haiti a et&
cr6er par les Boucaniers ou Pirates franqais qui ont recherche
un endroit prot6g6 pour servir de cachette et base de ravi-
taillement.
Ces pirates ont pris possession de l'Ile de la Tortue et y
fonderent une colonie, qu'ils appelaient Port Margot et plus
tard ils vinrent s'6tablir sur l'ile a 1'endroit o6 se trouve
aujourd'hui Port de Paix, pour y s&cher et fumer leur viande
de boeuf sauvage tu6 sur l'ile. Ce boeuf fume 6tait connu
sous le nom de "Boucan", don't ils obtenaient graduelle-
ment leur nom de "Boucaniers."
Peu h peu ces hommes sans loi de la mer devenaient des
agriculteurs et des proprietaires de plantations et apris
avoir extermin6s les travailleurs indigenes ils 6taient obliger
d'ammener des travailleurs blancs pour leur travaux
agricoles, lesquels d'ann6e en ann6e devenaient plus impor-
tants et representaient plus de valeur.


JEAN JAQUES DESSALINES
First Emperor of Haiti
under the title of
JAQUESI
1804 to I806


of the New World in a fort he calledj"Fort Nativity" which
he garrisoned with 39 men and returned to Spain, to report
his great discoveries.
On his return, the following year, Columbus found that
his first settlement had been destroyed and the garrison all
killed, so he went farther along the North coast and made his
next settlement at "Isabella" now known as Monte Cristo,
an important port of the Dominican Republic.
The first real settlement located in what is now the
Republic of Haiti, was made by French Bucaneers or
Pirates, in search of a safe hiding place and base of supplies.
They first took possession of Turtle Island and founded
the settlement they called Port Margot, and later they made
a settlement on the mainland, which is to-day Port de Paix,
for the purpose of drying and smoking their beef, secured
from the slaughter of the wild cattle on the mainland.
This "Barbecued" or smoked beef was known as "Boucan,"
from which they gradually received their name "Bucaneers"
(Boucaniers).
By degrees, these outlaws of the sea, became farmers and
plantation owners, who, after exterminating the native
Indian laborers secured white contract labor for their agri-
cultural works, which were yearly becoming more important
and valuable.
This Western portion of the Island was governed by a
Chief, selected by the Bucaneers, from among themselves,
the most famous of these being the great pirate "Levasseur"






Histoire d' Haiti

Cette portion de l'Ouest de l'ile 6tait gouvern6e par un
chef, choisi par les Boucaniers parmi eux et le plus fameux
parmi eux 6tait le grand pirate "Levasseur", qui toujours
6tait le commandant dans les combats continues de ses
accolytes qui s'itaient 6tablis dans la parties Ouest de l'Ile
et les Espagnols places dans la parties Est appel6e Saint
Domingue.
Le premier Gourverneur nomm& par le roi de France 6tait
Bertrand d'Ogeron qui organisait la colonie et y ammena des
femmes francaises pour encourager les colonistes d'y cr6er
des families. On lui fait aussi l'honneur comme fondateur
de la ville du Cap Haitien, qui devenait tellement riche et
florissant qu'on l'appela le Paris de Saint Domingue.
En 1697 le trait de Rynswick mettait fin aux hostilit6s
entire les Frangais et les Espagnols, puisque c'est par ce traits
que la parties Ouest de l'ile fut donni h la France et 80 ans
plus tard le trait d'Aranjuez (en 1777) d6termina les
fronti6res, entire les colonies frangaises et espagnoles.
Toute contravention de la loi et du bon ordre fut jug6
devant une court martiale,'presidee par le Gourverneur de


History of Haiti


who held his own, in the continual fighting between his
followers, who had settled in the Western part of the Island
and the Spanish who had settled in the eastern part called
Santo Domingo.
The first Governor appointed by the King of France was
Bertrand d'Ogeron, who organized the Colony and brought
French women to encourage the settlers to create families.
He is also credited with founding the present city of Cape
Haitian which became so rich and prosperous that it was
known as the Paris of Saint Domingue.
In 1697 the treaty of Rynswick put an end to the hostil-
ities between the French and Spanish as by this treaty the
western part of the Island was given to France and 80 years
later the treaty of Aranjuez (1777) fixed the boundaries
between the French and Spanish colonies.
All offenders against the law and order were tried before
a military court, presided over by the Governor of this
Colony, until M. de Bussy organized and established
regular courts, which he called "Senechaussees." There
were four of these lower courts, in different sections of the


Tableau historic a Gonaives,commem-
orative de la D1claration de 1' Indepen-
deuce d' Haiti, 1804











la Colonie jusqu'au jour, que Monsieur de Bussy organisait
et 6tablissait des tribunaux reguliers, lesquels il appela
"Senechauss6es." II y avait quatre tribunaux ordinaires
dans les diff6rentes sections de la colonie avec un tribunal
supreme, le siege duquel 6tait i Leogane, don't fut promulg6
en 1685 le fameux "Code noir" ou les lois gouvernant les
esclaves.
On blame les Espagnols d'avoir ameni en Amerique les
esclaves africaines pour remplacer les travailleurs indigenes
d6jh extermines par la cruaute et le mauvais traitement.
Les colonistes frangais 6tait plus industrieux que les
espagnols et s'enrichirent bient6t de leurs grandes planta-
tions ou des milliers d'escalves peinaient et perdaient leurs
vies.
Cet 6tat de choses augmentait consid6rablement le march
des esclaves, le travail desquels en 1780 produisait la some
6norme de $70,000,000 chaque ann6e pour les colonistes.
Parmi les autres lois de la Colonie il y en avait une, qui
permettait les affranchis, ce qui veut dire que sous des
certaines conditions un esclave pourrait acheter oi obtenir
sa liberty co un enfant d'une mulatresse, quarteron ou
octoron d'un pere blanc pourrait obtenir sa liberty si le
pere le desirait oi reconnaisait l'enfant.
Ces "affranchis" ont commence en 1790 en Haiti les
tumultes revolutionnaires en reclamant des droits 6gaux
avec les colonistes blancs, des droits qui leur avait ete
promise et apres refuses.
Dans le Nord aux environs du Cap Haitiens les forces
des affranchis ont &t6 d6faites et leurs chefs, Og6 et
Chavannes furent captures et ex6cutes mais dans


... An Historica P:-.in=. in Go-nsi
C Declarations of
I-'- .;-" .: 1 ,Haiti. I80.











Colony, with a Supreme court, whose seat was at Lee..:ar e
and from which was promulgated, in 1685. the famous
"Black Code" or laws governing the negro slaves.
The Spaniards are blamed with bringing the African
slaves to America, to replace the native labor, already
exterminated by cruelty and misuse.
The French colonists were much more industrious than
the Spaniards and rapidly became very rich. from their great
plantations, where thousands of negro slaves toiled their
lives away.
This state of things led to a continual increase in the pur-
chase of slaves, whose labor was producing, in 1780. the
enormous sum of $70,000,000 each year for the colonists.
Among other laws of the Colony was one that permitted
"Freedmen," which meant that under certain condition a
slave could purchase, or be given. his freedom, or a ch 1l1
born of a negress mulatto, Quadron or Octoroon, of a white
father could be given his freedom, if the father so desired.
and cared to recognize it.
These "Freedmen" began the revolutionary turmoils of
Haiti, in 1790, by claiming full and equal rights with tae
white colonists, rights that had been promised them and
then refused.
In the North, around Cape Haitien, the forces of tie
freedmen were defeated and their leaders, Oge and
Chavannes were captured and executed. but in the district
around Port au Prince the freedmen. led by the mulatto.
Beauvais, won quite a victory over the colonists and this
success emboldened the slaves to join in a general revolt,
which meant the destroying of plantations and the killi ig


)F"






Histoire d' Haiti


1'arrondissement de Port au Prince, les affranchis conduits
par le mulattre Beauvais furent victorieux sur les colonistes
et c'6tait ce succes qui encouragaient les esclaves d'entre-
prendre une r6volte g6n6rale ce qui signifia la destruction
des plantations et le massacre des blancs ou on pouvait les
trouver, c'est comme ca que commenca la lutte de
l'oppress6 contre l'oppresseur.
La colonie espagnole de Saint Domingue qui occupait
la parties orientale et en meme temps la plus grande parties
de l'ile avait toujours regard avec d6dain la manimre des
frangais de traiter leurs esclaves et sp6cialement les
espagnols s'alarmaient quand on faisait la concession aux
"affranchis", ce qui cr6ait une nouvelle et mixte race, ni
blanc ni noir, mais qui 6tait un peu instruite et avait l'ardent
d6sir d'obtenir liberty r6elle et 6galit6.
L'Espagne ayant 1'esperance de devenir encore une fois
le seul maitre de l'ile entire donnait des concours aux
revolutionnaires noires dans leur tentative de massacrer
tous les blancs et il n'existe aucun doute que les autorites
dominicaines seulement attendaient le moment ou les
colonistes frangais seront extermines et qu'une disharmonie
existe entire les esclaves noirs et les affranchis pour reprendre
la parties occidentale et soumettre la population mixte
come des esclaves r6elles sans condition ou distinction de
couleur, mais ce reve ne se r6alisait pas quand les Com-
missionnaires frangais, Polverel et Sonthonax proclamerent
solemnellement la liberty g6ndrale des esclaves en Avril
1790.
Par ce manoeuvre diplomatique imm6diatement la France
obtenait le concours de tous les esclaves et affranchis,
surtout celui du grand Chef des negres, Toussaint Louver-
ture, qui avait 6t6 gagn6 par les Espagnols mais qui main-
tenant retournait aux couleurs frangaises.
Ce Toussaint Louverture 6tait le petit-fils d'un des chefs
du tribute d'Aradas et il 6tait un homme de medicine ou
docteur tris fameux A cause de sa profonde connaissance
des plants m6dicinales du Pays et en plus il 6tait un chef
intelligent et un genie pour dominer les gens.
L'Angleterre et l'Espagne 6tant en guerre avec la France
et comptant sur les conditions anormales existant en Haiti
ils firent des arrangements pour envahir le pays et de le
conquerir, mais ce fut alors que toute la colonie, blancs,
affranchis et les esclaves r6cemment lib6rs, tous se re-
unisserent contre les enemies communs et sous Toussaint
comme chef dans le centre et le Nord d'Haiti et le mulattre
Rigaud dans le Sud ils forcerent les forces envahissantes de
se retire de tout le territoire Haitien et ils retablirent
l'autorit6 frangaise et pour leurs services rendues Toussaint
et Rigaud furent nomm6s Gendraux de Brigade par d6cret
du roi de France.
En 1796 Toussaint fut nomm6 G6n&ral de Division et
l'ann6e suivante a la suite du succes de sa champagne contre
les Anglais il fut 6lev6 au grade de Commandant en chef de
l'Armee de la Colonie en recompense de ses services et
aussi pour lui faire refuser l'offre du G6n&ral anglais,
Maitland, qui lui avait promise de le proclamer Roi d'Haiti
en &change de certaines concessions commercials.
Toussaint a 6t& le vra Gouverneur de l'ile entire depuisi
1795, quand il entra victorieusement en Saint Domingue
ou il reorganisa administration entire et d6clara que tous
les esclaves 6taient lib&6rs; il choisit des jeunes negres
et mulattres pour les envoyer en France pour leurs educations
pour compete de la Colonie, 6tablissait des &coles pour les
esclaves lib6res et forma une arm6e de 15000 troupes,
promulga des lois rurales pour forcer les gens de cultiver
leurs champs, adapta une constitution sans le consentement
de la France par quelle measure il exclura la m&re patrie de
promulger ou d6cr6ter aucune loi concernant la Colonie et
cette meme constitution d6clara Toussaint comme Gouver-
neur A vie de la colonies avec le droit de nommer son suc-
cesseur.
Au commencement de ces divers actes d'ind6pendance le
Gouvernement frangais suspectait Toussaint de ne pas
&tre loyal A la France et pour le soumettre les Frangais


History of Haiti


of white men, wherever found; so began the struggle of the
oppressed against oppressor.
The Spanish Colony of Santo Domingo, occupying the
eastern and larger part of the Island had always looked
with disfavour upon the lenient manner the French ruled
their slaves, and especially were they disgusted and alarmed
at the "Freedmen" concessions, by which they had made,
and fostered, a new and mixed race, neither white or black
but with some education and a great desire for real freedom
and equality.
Spain in the hope of again becoming owner of the entire
Island, assisted the negro revolutionists in their effort to
kill off all the whites and there is no doubt but that the
Dominican authorities only awaited the moment, when the
French colonists would be exterminated and the negro
slaves and Freedmen in discord, to retake the Western part
of the Island and subjugate the mixed populace into real
slaves, without distinction of color or condition but this
dream was shattered when the French Commissioners,
Polverel and Sonthonax, solemnly proclaimed the general
freedom of the slaves, in April of 1790.
By this diplomatic stroke France received at once the co-
operation of all slaves and freedmen, especially the great
negro leader Toussaint Louverture, who had been won
over to the Spaniards, but who now returned to the French
colors.
This Toussaint Louverture was a grandson of one of the
Chiefs of the tribe of Aradas, and was a "medicine man,"
or doctor, of great repute, on account of his knowledge of
medicinal herbs of the country, in addition to being a
sagacious leader and a genius for managing his people.
England and Spain, being at war with France, and know-
ing of the unsettled conditions of Haiti arranged to invade
and capture it, but the entire colony-whites, "Freedmen"
and the newly freed slaves-all joined forces against the
common enemies, and under the leadership of Toussaint,
in Central and Northern Haiti and the Mulatto, Rigaud in
the South, they forced the combined invading forces to
retire from all Haitian territory thereby re-establishing the
French authority, for which services both Toussaint and
Rigaud were made Brigadier Generals, by appointment of
the French king.
In 1796 Toussaint was made Divisional General and the
following year, after the successful operations against the
English, he was made Commander in Chief of the army of
the Colony, in return for his services as well as to offset the
offer of the English General Maitland, who offered to
recognize him as King of Haiti, in exchange for certain
commercial concessions.
Toussaint had been the real ruler of the entire Island since
his successful entry into Santo Domingo in 1795, where he
reorganized the entire administration and declared that all
slaves were freed, selected young negroes and mulattoes to
be sent to France for their education, at the expense of the
Colony, established schools for the freed slaves and formed
an army of 15,000 troops, promulgated rural laws to force
the people to cultivate the lands, adopted a Constitution
without the consent of France, thereby excluding the mother
country from the framing or administrating of any laws per-
taining to the Colony, and which constitution made him
(Toussaint) Governor of the Colony for life with the right
to appoint his own successor.
At the beginning of these various acts of independence
the French Government had become suspicious of Tous-
saint's loyalty to France, and in order to subjugate him the
French loaned their influence to the mulatto, Brigadier
General Rigaud, who, with the Generals Petion and Boyer
tried to secure control of the Colony, but Toussaint aided
by his Generals, Dessalines and Christophe was entirely
victorious in the civil war that followed.
This state of affairs was brought to the notice of Napoleon
Bonaparte, who at once sent a force of 25,000 white French







Histoire d' Haiti

preterent leur influence au mulattre Rigaud, qui enseinble
avec les generaux Petion et Boyer faisait une tentative pour
prendre contr61e de la colonie, mais Toussaint, aid6 par ses
Generaux Dessalines et Christophe 6tait victorieux dans la
guerre civil qui suivit.
Cet 6tat de choses fut rapport t Napoleon Bonaparte,
lequel immediatement envoya une force de 25000 soldats
frangais (blancs) sur 76 transports, sous les ordres de son
beau frere G6neral Leclerc avec des ordres de soumettre
Toussaint et r6tablir l'esclavage.
La flotte francaise arriva devant le Cap Haitien, le l er
Fevrier i; '' et General Leclerc passa des ordres au G6n6ral
Christophe qui command les forces de Toussaint au Nord
de rendre la ville en 24 heures. Christophe refusa de se
rendre et menaca de brfler la ville si les Frangais faisaient
une tentative de d6barquer, et le lendemain quand les
Francais commencirent le d6barquement Christophe fit
bon sa menace en mettant le feu premierement a sa propre
maison; c'est ainsi que fut d6truite la fameuse premiere
"Ville Francaise des Am6riques."
Le General Leclerc s6para ses forces et attaqua simul-
taneament de tout les cot6s et malgre la resistance
h6roique un point apres l'autre tomba entire ses mains.










TA.I ,,. ...r.ri ..1 ,, .. ;Gonaives.
I. .I re~. ,'- ". I I, .. ,cl.r I,... | I00 L too me
anniversaire de l'Ind6pendance d'Haiti *l
en 1904.









Les forces du Gen6ral Lamartiniere furent d6faites A
Port au Prince, celles de General Maurepas furent d6faites
pros de Port de Paix et Toussaint lui-meme fut vaincu
pres d'un endroit connu comme "la Ravine des coulevres"
et apres un long siege le fameux fort "La Crete h Pierrot"
command par Dessalines, Magny, Lamartiniere et Marie
Jeanne (la femme de Lamartiniere) fut capture et c'est
comme ca que terminait la premiere tentative pour obtenir
ind6pendance complete; mais on doit rendre justice A
ces ex-esclaves pour la fagon admirable don't ils avaient
essayer de lutter pour la liberty centre les veterans, des
soldats bien organisms de l'arm6e franqaise de Napoleon.
Apres avoir d6faite toutes les troupes negres et se croyant
assure dans sa position de Gouverneur militaire, le General
Leclerc restaura l'esclavage sur l'ancienne base et instuisit
un regime de terreur parmi les noirs en faisant de nombreuse
executions et par une ruse il s'empara des personnel des
deux grands G6neraux Toussain et Rigaud et les envoya en
France oui il mourirent dans une prison humide.
Entre temps les debris de l'armee de Toussaint qui
s'6taient refugies dans les montagnes se diviserent en
plusieurs bandes et commencaient une guerre de guerilla en
attaquant des voyageurs, des plantations et ils d6truisaient
meme des petites villes malgr6 que le G6neral Leclerc
augmenta ses punitions et executions y inclusant meme des
femmes, cette guerre de guerilla continue et devenait encore
plus terrible surtout apres que les grands Chefs-Dessalines
et Petion-accepterent de commander ces forces.


History of Haiti

soldiers in 76 transports, under the Command of his brother-
in-law, General [Leclerc, with orders to subdue Toussaint
and re-establish slavery.
The French fleet arrived off Cape Haitian on February
1st, 1802, and General Leclerc ordered General Cl-ri;-tiphe,
who was in command of the Toussaint forces of the North
to surrender the city within 24 hours. Christophe refused to
surrender and threatened to burn the city if any attempt
was made, by the French, to land. and the following day,
when the French began to land. Christophe made good his
threat by setting fire to his own house. thus was destroyed
the famous first "French City of the Americas."
General Leclerc separated his forces and attacked
simultaneously from all sides and notwithstanding the
heroic resistance one point after another fell into his hands.
General Lamartiniere was defeated in Port au Prince,
General Maurepas was defeated near Port de Paix, Tous-
saint himself was defeated at a point known as the "Ravines
A coulivre" and after a memorable siege. the famous fort of
"La Crete a Pierrot," commanded by Dessalines, Magny,
Lamartini&re and Marie Jeanne (wife of Lamartinibre) was
captured, thus bringing to a close the first struggle for










the
i -. :.- r :
,- in










complete Independence, but due credit must be T. -n these
ex-slaves for the wonderful fight they urged for their inde-
pendence, against the well ,r.tniz;c,-. veterans of the
Napoleonic French Army.
After defeating all organized negro troops and feeling
secure in his position of military Governor. General
Leclerc restored slavery to its old basis and instituted
a regime of terror among the blacks, by numerous execu-
tions (shooting, hanging and drowning and by strategy
succeeded in taking the two great leaders. Toussaint and
Rigaud, to be deported to France and there to die miser-
ably in a cold damp prison.
In the meantime the remnants of Toussaint's armies,
who had escaped to the mountains, formed into bands and
made a continuous guerilla warfare on travelers. plan-
tations and even destroying small towns. and although
General Leclerc increased punishment and executions. ever
including women, the guerilla war continued and became
worse, especially after the two great chieftains IDe- :-l nt-
and Petion agreed to command them.
From this union of Blacks and Mulattoes was founded th(
hope of an independent Haiti. and in May, 1803, these
mountain bands met in Arcahaie and solemnly proclaimed






Histoire d' Haiti
De cette union de n6gres et mulattres on esperait obtenir
l'ind6pendance pour Haiti et en Mai 1803, ces bandes des
montagnes se sont r6unis a l'Arcahaie et y proclamrnrent
solemnellement Dessalines comme Commandant en chef
de l'arm&e Haitienne.
Dessalines 6tait n6 comme chef et avec sa petite arm6e
de montagnards, presqu'entierement nus, il commenca une
guerre d'extermination et il paraissait avoir la faculty
d'etre a tous les endroits au meme moment et comme nul
pardon fut fait ni h lui oil a ses soldats lui aussi ne faisait
pas pardon.
En 1802 le G6enral Leclerc mourut et c'6tait alors le
general Rochambeau qui devint commandant des forces
frangaises; il continue la lutte sauvage centre les soldats
indigenes qui de jour en jour devinrent plus forts et plus
disciplines. Dans les d6partements du Nord et de
l'Artibonite, Dessalines, Petion, Christophe et Clervaux
montrerent une grande activity, et au Sud, Laurent, Perin et
Nicolas Geffrard capturerent les villes des Cayes et Jeremie.
Plus tard Port au Prince se rendit A Dessalines, Petion et
Gabart qui ont fait le si&ge de la ville avec 10000 hommes
pendant que le G6n6ral Rochambeau concentrait le reste
de ses troupes pour un dernier effort pres du Cap Haitien
pursuit par Dessalines enthousiasm6 de la victoire.
Dans la matinee du 18 Novembre 1803. la derni6re bataille
entire les forces Francaises et Haitiennes commenca pres du
CapHaitien; les Frangais occuperent la ville qui etait cern~e
par les Haitiens. Cette bataille fut terrible; les Francais
tuerent des centaines des demi-nus Haitiens mais il 6tait
impossible d'arreter leur d6sir fanatic pour obtenir l'inde-
pendance et ils conquerirent un point apris l'autre jusqu'h
ce que Rochambeau ce decida A capituler et de retourner en
France avec les restes de ses forces; de cette facon prit fin
le long, terrible et sanguinaire guerre d'ind6pendance et
Haiti devint une nation libre selon la proclamation de
l'ind6pendance aux Gonaives, (le port duquel Toussaint
avait 6t6 d6port6) par Dessalines et son armee victorieuse,
le ler Janvier 1804.
Le suivant est le texte de la declaration de l'ind6pendance
comme redig6e par Boisrond Tonnerre, secr6taire du
Commandant en chef de l'arm6e Haitienne:
Aujourd'hui le premier jour de Janvier 1804, le general
en chef de 1'armee indigine en assemble special avec ses
officers convoqu6s a l'effet pour prendre les measures neces-
saires pour le bien du pays,
Apres avoir fait connaitre aux g6n6raux presents ses in-
tentions r6elles pour garantir aux indigenes d'Haiti pour
toujours un Gouvernement stable, son plus ardent desir, ce
qu'il a achev& par une adresse pour faire connaitre aux
pouvoirs strangers la resolution de rendre le pays ind&-
pendant et de jouir de la liberty consacr6 par le sang de la
nation de cette ile et apris l'appel en conformity avec l'age
de tous les gen6raux presents, il demand chaque g6enral
present de prononcer son serment de renoncer A jamais A la
France, de pr6efrer plut6t la mort que de continue de vivre
sous sa domination et de lutter jusqu'au dernier soupir pour
l'ind6pendance.
Les G6neraux impresses de ces principles sacr6s apres
avoir donn6 par unanimity leur consentement pour ce
project bien propose de l'ind6pendance ont prte6 le serment
de renoncer a jamais A la France et de mourir plut6t que de
vivre sous sa domination.
Donne aux Gonaives le premier de Janvier 1804 et le
premier jour de l'ind6pendance.
Sign: Dessalines, G6enral en chef; Christophe, Petion,
Clerveaux, Geffrard, Vernet, Gabart, G6n6raux de Divison;
P. Romain, E. Gerin, F. Capois, Dacet, Jean Louis
Francois, Perin L. Bazelais, Magloire Ambroise, J. H.
Herne, Toussaint Brave, Yayou, G6enraux de Brigade;
Bonnet, F. Papalier, Morelly, Chevallier, Marion, Adjutant
G6neraux; Magny, Roux, Commandant de Brigade;
Chareron, B. Loret, Quenez Macajoux, Dupuy, Carbonne,
Diaquoi, Raphael Malet, Derenoncourt, Officiers de l'Arm6e
et Boisrond Tonnerre, Secr6taire.
Pour effacer toutes les traces d'une domination detestable
e nom original d' "Haiti" est redonn6 A l'Ile.


History of Haiti
Dessalines as Commander in Chief of the Haitian Army.
Dessalines was a natural born leader and with his almost
naked mountain army he began a war of extermination and
seemed to have a faculty of being everywhere at the same
time and as no quarter was given him or his soldiers, he
gave no quarter.
In October, 1802, General Leclerc died and command of
the French troops passed to General Rochambeau who con-
tinued the savage struggle against the native soldiers of
Independence, who were daily becoming stronger and
better organized. In the North and Artibonite districts
Dessalines, Petion, Christophe and Clerveaux were very
active while in the South, Laurent, Perin and Nicolas
Geffrard were meeting with success by capturing the cities
of Aux Cayes and Jeremie.
Later Port au Prince surrendered to Dessalines, Petion
and Gabart, who besieged the city with 10,000 troops,
while General Rochambeau, with the remains of his French
forces concentrated for a last stand, in Cape Haitian,
followed by Dessalines, enthused with the taste of victory.
The morning of November 18, 1803, saw the beginning
of the last battle between the French and Haitian troops at
Cape Haitian, the French occupying the town and the
Haitians surrounding it. The battle was fierce and bloody,
the French grape shot mowing down the half naked Haitians
by the hundred but their fanatic desire for Independence
could not be checked and they gained one point after an-
other until Rochambeau decided to capitulate and return,
with the remnants of his forces, to France, thus ended the
long, bloody war of Independence and Haiti became a free
Nation, being so acclaimed in Gonaives (the Port from
which Toussaint was deported) by Dessalines and his
victorious army, on January 1, 1804.
The following being the Declaration of Independence as
read by Boisrond Tonnerre, secretary to the Commander-
in-Chief of the Haitian Army:
To-day, this first day of January, 1804, The General-
in-Chief of the Native Army, in special meeting with his
officers, convoked to the effect to take necessary measures
for the welfare of the Country,
After having made known to the Generals present his
real intentions to guarantee the Natives of Haiti for ever
and always a stable Government, his most ardent desire,
which he has achieved by the delivery of a speech which
makes known to the Foreign Powers the resolution to render
the Country independent and to enjoy of the freedom con-
secrated by the blood of the nation of this Island and after
the summons in accordance with the age of all the Generals
present he requested that everyone of the Generals present
pronounces the oath to renounce for ever to France, to
prefer rather death than to continue to live under her
dominion and to fight to the last breath for Independence.
The Generals, impressed of these sacred principles, after
having given unanimously their consent to this well pro-
posed project of Independence, have taken the oath,
vowing to prosperity and the entire world to renounce
France forever and rather to die than to live under its
dominion.
Given at Gonaives, this First of January, 1804, and the
First day of Independence.
Signed: Dessalines, General-in-Chief; Christophe, Petion,
Cherveaux, Geffrard, Vernet, Gabart, Generals of Division;
P. Romain, E. Gerin, F. Capois, Dacet, Jean Louis
Francois, Perin Cange, L. Bazelais, Magloire Ambroise;
J. J. Herne, Toussaint Brave, Yayou, Brigadier Generals,
Bonnet, F. Papalier, Morelly, Chevallier, Marion, Ad-
jutants-Gen.; Magny, Roux, Brigade-Commanders;
Chareron, B. Loret, Quenez, Macejoux, Dupuy, Carbonne,
Diaquoiain6, Raphael Malet, Derenoncourt, Army Officers
and Boisrond Tonnerre, Secretary.
In order to blot out all traces of a detestable domination,
the original name, "Haiti," is given back to the Island.






Les Chefs D'Etat Haitiens

JEAN JACQUES DESSALINES: 1804-1806, Fond-
ateur de 1'Independance d'Haiti. L'Assembl6e des
Generaux et Officiers de 1'Arm~e indigene en r6ponse
des &minents services rendus par lui, A la noble cause de
la conqu&te de la Libert6, le proclamerent Gouverneur A
Vie de L'Etat Haitien.
Huit mois plus tard, Septembre 1804, Dessalines, se
fit couronner Empereur, pregnant le titre de Jacques ler.,
et se reservant le droit de designer son successeur.
Constitution imp6riale (Mai, 1805), redig6e par ses deux
principaux Secr6taires: Boisrond Tonnerre et Juste
Chanlatte, sans avis aux autres g6neraux et Officiers de la
Revolution. M&contentement de ceux-ci, et soulevement
insurrectionnel dans les D6partements du Sud et de l'Ouest,
aboutissant au guet-apens du "Pont-Rouge," situe aux
portes de Port au Prince, ou p6rit le heros de l'Indepen-
dance, dans la matinee du 17 Octobre 1806.

CHRISTOPHE-1806-1820. Un des Chefs des guerres
de l'Ind6pendance. N'ayant pas accept par mefiance, le
vote que le Senat, r6uni A Port au Prince, venait le 28
Decembre, 1806, de lui accorder, en le nommant Pr6sident,
il se retira dans le Nord don't il fit un Gouvernement
independent. En Juin, 1811, Christophe fut proclame
Roi, sous le titre de Henri ler.
Sa cour fut luxueuse, et quoique tyranique, son Adminis-
tration fut un Gouvernement de progris. Il s'attacha
particulierement A introduire l'6elment Anglo-Saxon dans
son royaume: ce qui le fit promouvoir de beaucoup.
D&veloppement de l'Agriculture et de l'Industrie. Instruc-
tion primaire et pratique, tellement r6pandue que tous ses
sujets savaient lire et 6crire. Armee dressee A l'europeenne,
et 6quip6e par les manufactures de son propre royaume.
Construction du Palais de Sans-Souci, au bourg de Milot
et de la fameuse Citadelle Laferriere juch6e sur un pic
culminant du Morne Bonnet A l'Eveque, et don't on peut,
encore aujourd'hui, admirer les imposantes ruines.
Abandonn6 de son armee, au course d'une insurrection
qui &clata a Saint Marc, Christophe se logea une balle au
coeur, dans la nuit du 8 Octobre, 1820. Son cadavre fut
inhume A la Citadelle, sous une 6paisse couche de chaux,
II 6tait, dejA, frappe d'apop!6xie, depuis la date du 15 Aout
de la meme annee, au moment ou il assistant a l'office divin,
A l'Eglise de Limonade, et il en eut une parties du corps
paralys6e.

ALEXANDRE PETION-1807-1818. G6enral des
guerres de l'independance. Fils de M. Sabes, un colon
frangais. Elu Pr6sident le 7 Mars, 1807, a l'Age de 37 ans.
Fondateur de la R6publique d'Haiti, don't il dessina les
armes.
Au contraire de Christophe:-bon et doux. D6veloppe-
ment du Commerce et diffusion de l'Instruction publique.
Foundation du Lyc6e P&tion et du Pensionnat des
Demoiselles.
La recompense qu'il accord a ses freres d'armes, en leur
distribuant les terres du domaine national, lui acquit l'affec-
tion du people.
II d6joua ensemble avec Christophe, les machinations
d'une mission frangaise compose de Dauxion Lavaysse,
Dravermann et France de Medina, arrive en Haiti en 1814,
dans le but d'etudier secretement, les moyens de retablir
l'ancienne colonie de Saint Domingue.
Le plus grand titre de Petion A la post6rit6, c'est d'avoir
accueilli et secouru Bolivar, en armes, munitions, argent et
hommes, lors de son expedition parties des Cayes (Haiti)
pour l'affranchissement des colonies espagnoles de
l'Amerique.
Consume de chagrins profonds, Petion mourut le 29
Mars, 1818, laissant cette renommee imperissable: qu'il ne
fit couler de larmes qu'a la mort.


Rulers of Haiti

JEAN JACQUES DESSALINES (1804-1806)-
Creator of the Haitian Independence. He was ap-
pointed by the Assembly of Generals and Officers of
the native army to be Governor for life of the Haitian State
as reward for the eminent services he rendered to the cause
of liberty.
Eight months later, in September, 1804, Dessalines pro-
claimed himself Emperor, accepting the title Jacques I.
with the right to designate afterwards his successor.
In May, 1805, his two principal Secretaries of State,
Boisrond-Tonnerre and Juste Chanlatte drew up an
Imperial constitution without notifying the other Generals
and Officers of the Revolution. This procedure caused
anger and dissatisfaction amongst those officers, causing
finally an Insurrection in the Departments of the South and
West which ended finally in the trap laid at the "Pont
Rouge" (Red Bridge), situated near the entrance of Port au
Prince, in which event the hero of the Independence was
killed on the morning of October 17, 1806.

CHRISTOPHE-(1806-1820)-One of the War Chiefs
of the Independence War. Having been elected President
by the Senate meeting in Port au Prince on December 28,
1806, he had no confidence in such election for which reason
he retired to the North where he established an inlk-rpndtnt
Government. In June. 1811, Christophe was proclaimed
King, with the name of Henry I.
His court indulged in luxury, and, although tyrannical,
his Administration proved to be one of progress. He had
particular interest in introducing into his Kinrli'mrn the
Anglo-Saxon element: which proved to be a success.
especially in the development of Africultur- and Industry,
He also took particular interest in Public Instruction so that
all of his subjects were able to read and write. The uniforms
of the Army were made in European style and the equip-
ment made by a factory in his own kingdom.
He constructed Sans-Souci castle, situated near the N illage
Milot, and upon one of the highest points of the mountain
Bonnet A l'Eveque he had built the famous fortress
Laferriere, the imposing ruins of which can still be admired
to-day.
Being abandoned by his army in the midst of an insur-
rection which started in Saint Marc. Christophe shot him-
self through the heart in the night of October 8, 1.2li. He
was buried in his Citadel beneath an enormous pile of lime-
stones. Since August 15th of the same year he was s-uffrin_:
from apoplexy, which happened as he was assisting the
church services at Limonade, which resulted in a partial
paralysis of his body.

ALEXANDRE PETION-(1807-1815 -General of the
Independence War. Son of Mr. Sabes. a French planter.
He was elected President on March 7th, 1,i'. being then
thirty-seven years of age. Founder of the Haitian Rrpul'li:
of which he designed the colors.
Contrary to his predecessor, Christophe. he was a man .i
gentle character. Remarkable for having ,l ..pi-d the
commerce of the country and taken particular interest in
public instruction. He established the College Petion and a
Girl's Boarding School.
He obtained the people's sympathy through .i.-rribu:t:n
Government land to his brethren in arms as a r, wa-r.] for
their services.
Together with Christophe he discovered the plot of a
French Mission composed of Dauxion Lavaysse. Draver-
mann and France de Medina, who came to Haiti in 1914
with the object to make secret studies in order to restore the
former Colony of Santo Domingo.
But the most salient feature in Petion's life is that of
having protected Bolivar and assisted him with arms,
ammunition, money and men when he departed ir,,m
Cayes (Haiti), organizing an expedition to South America
for the enfranchisement of the Spanish Colonies.


-'I






La Citadelle Laferriere

La plus forte et en meme temps la plus unique des fortifications des
Ameriques, construite par le fameux chef negre "Christrophe" qui se
proclama roi du Nord d'Haiti, sous le titre de "Henry ler", et reignait
de 1806 a 1820, quand il se tua d'un coup d'un revolver special avec
une balle en or, pr6par6 avec cet intention. Son tombeau est dans la
forteresse.
Seulement une route tres 6troite montait a cette merveilleuse for-


Vues varies


The Laferriere Citadel

The strongest, and at the same time the most unique fortification of
the Americas, built by the famous negro chief "Christophe," who made
himself king of Northern Haiti, under the title of "Henry the First,"
and reigned from 1806 to 1820, when he shot himself with a special
revolver and a gold bullet, prepared for that purpose, and lays buried
within his fortress.
Only one very narrow road approached this wonderful Fortress, and


Various views


teresse. Cette route 6tait couverte par des centaines de gros canons,
la rendant absolument imprenable, aussi longtemps que la garnison
restait loyale. Une grande source d'eau glac6e fournissait ce pr6cieux
fluide au fort et les entrep6t souterrain immense 6taient toujours bien
garni pour un long si6ge.
On dit que "Christophe" avait ordonn6 l'assassination de l'Archi-
tecte Belge et de tous les ouvriers expert, qui avait asiste A la con-
struction de la forteresse, pour que personnel que luiseul puisse
connaitre les secrets de la citadelle.


this road was covered by hundreds of immense cannon, making it ab-
solutely impregnable, as long as the garrison was true.
An immense spring of coldest water gave an unlimited supply of that
precious fluid and the vast subterranean store houses were always well
stocked for a long siege.
It is said that "Christophe" had the Belgian Architect and all skilled
mechanics, who assisted in building the fortress, assassinated, in order
that no one outside himself could know the secrets of this wonderfu
Citadel.






Les Chefs D'Etat Haitiens

JEAN PIERRE BOYER, 1818-1843. Succ6da A
P&tion. Elev6 en France, il fut &clair& et intigre, quoique
autoritaire. A la suite du suicide de Christophe, il r6tablit
l'union du Nord et de l'Ouest, plus rallia les Dominicains
aux Haitiens sous un meme Gouvernement, etablissant,
de ce fait, I'Unit6 de l'ile.
Le 17 Avril, 1825, la France reconnut l'ind6pendance
d'Haiti. Le Gouvernement Haitien pour d6dommager les
anciens colons de la perte de leurs biens, s'engagea A payer
une indemnit6s de 150,000,000 de francs ou 30,000,000 de
dollars. Cette dette dite de 1'Ind6pendance, fut reduite a
60,000,000 de Francs.
Le 7 Mai, 1842, a quatre heures de l'apris midi, un
effroyable tremblement de terre detruisit la ville du Cap
Haitien, oi p6rit 10,000 personnel sous les ruines.
Renvers6 du Pouvoir par l'arm6e populaire du Sud,
Boyer s'embarqua, le 13 Mars, 1843, pour la Jamaique, d'oA
il se transport A Paris, ou il mourut-Les restes reposent
au "Pere Lachaise "

RIVIERE HE-.ARD, 4 Janvier, 1844-3 Mai, 1844.
Institution du Jury pour affaires criminelles et delits
politiques et de Presse.
Separation des habitants de l'est de l'Ile, les Dominicains,
27 fivrier 1844, qui constituirent la Ripublique Domini-
caine.
H&rard tomba du Pouvoir, le 3 mai de la meme annie.

PHILIPPE GUERRIER, 1844-1845, Proclam6 Pr6si-
dent, le 8 Mai, 1844. Sous son gouvernement, un counsel
d'Etat, ayant la capacity legislative, tint la place du Senat
et de la Chambre.
Premiere tentative d'organisation d'une Eglise d'Haiti
par l'abb& Tisserant, envoy du Saint Siege, lequel ne put
s'accorder avec le gouvernement, refusant A celui-ci tous
droits de control sur l'autorit6 ecclesiastique.
Guerrier mourut le 15 Avril, 1845, en sa residence A
Saint-Marc, ou il s'&tait refugi6.

JEAN LOUIS PIERROT:-1845-1846. Elu le 16 Avril,
1845, au lendemain de la mort de Guerrier.
II fut le Cincinnatus des Chefs d'Etat Haitiens, vivant
presqu'6tranger aux affaires et leurs pr&firant les travaux des
champs auxquels il se livrait avec bonheur. Pierrot fut
renverse en fivrier 1846.
RICHE.-1846-1847. Proclami le ler. Mars, 1846.
Sous son administration, une nouvelle Constitution r6-
institua les deux branches du Pouvoir 16gislatif; la Chambre
des repr6sentants et le Senat de la R6publique.
II fit une guerre acharn6e au Culte du Vaudoux, vestige
des superstitions africaines. Riche etait borgne, du fait
d'une balle qu'il recut A l'oeil dans un engagement, en 1802,
Ala fameuse bataille de la Crete A Pierrot, centre la division
franqaise Hardy.
Il mourut subitement, le 27 fevrier 1847.

SOULOUQUE: 1847-1849 (Pr6sident), 1849-1859
(Empereur), Proclamn Pr6sident en Mars, 1847, il se fit
Empereur, en Aout 1849 sous le titre de Faustin ler
Massacre a Port au Prince, du 16 Avril, 1848, un dimanche.
Beaucoup de citoyens remarquables et des gens honnetes et
paisibles furent impitoyablement sacrifice.
Soulouque 6tait compl6tement illettr6 et fruste d'esprit et
de temperament.
Les deux campagnes qu'il entreprit centre les Dominicains
-la premiere en Mars, 1849, et la second, en 1855,
6chouerent toutes deux.
Un movement insurrectionnel, 6clata aux Gonaies, sous
la direction de Fabre Geffrard, ayant prononc6 sa dech&ance,
Soulouque dut se resigner a signer son abdication, le 15
Janvier, 1859.


Rulers of Haiti

Discontented and melancholic, Petion died on March
29th, 1818, leaving the imperishable reputation behind him
that "the country only shed tears the day of his death."
JEAN PIERRE BOYER-(1818-1843)-succeeded Pet-
ion. He was educated in France, and, even while being of
an authoritative nature, he was upright and intelligent.
Subsequent to the suicide of Christophe he re-established
the Union between the Departments of the North and West
and furthermore rallied the Dominicans with the Haitians
under the same Government, thereby establishing one sole
Unity on the Island.
On April 17, 1825, France recognized the Independence
of Haiti. The Haitian Government, anxious to grant the
former colonists damages for the losses of their properties,
promised to pay an indemnity of 150,000,000 francs or
30,000,000 dollars. This debt, known as "the Indepen-
dence Debt" was finally reduced to 60,000,000 francs.
On May 7, 1842, at four o'clock in the afternoon, a
terrible earthquake destroyed entirely the City of Cape
Haitian in which 10,000 persons lost their lives.
Boyer's Government being overthrown by the popular
Army of the South, he embarked on March 13. 1843. and
went to Jamaica. From there he went to Paris. He died
in Paris, and was buried in the Cemetery "Pere Lachaise."
RIVIERE HERARD--January 4, 1844-May 3. 1844)-
Remarkable in his administration was the institution of a
Jury for criminal and political offences and the separation
from the Island of the people living in the Eastern Depart-
ment, the Dominicans, causing thereby the proclamation
of the Dominican Republic (February 27. 1844.
Herard's Government was overthrown the same year on
AM.1: 3rd.
PHILIPPE GUERRIER-(1844-1845)-He was elected
President on May 8th, 1844. During his Administration
the Congress (Chambers of Deputies and Senate was re-
placed by a State Council with full legislative powers.
Under Guerrier a first attempt was made to organize a
Church of Haiti by Abbe Tisserant. Special Envoy of His
Holiness the Pope, but he and the Government could not
agree, as he refused to let the Government exercise any
control over the church authorities.
Guerrier died in his residence at Saint Marc, on April
15, 1845, where he had gone to seek refuge.
JEAN LOUIS PIERROT-(1845-1846)-Elected Prr- -
dent on April 16, 1845, the day following the death of
Guerrier.
He was the Cincinnatus of Haitian State leaders, takin?
almost no interest whatever in State .i.jir-. but dedicating
his time in preference to agricultural enterprises. Pierrot's
Government was overthrown in February 1846.
RICHE--(1846-1847 )-Elected on March 1. 1846. He
reinstated the Congress (Chamber of Deputies and Senate
in accordance with a new constitution.
He made an eager campaign against "\Voodooism. a
vestige of African superstitions. Richt was one-eyed.
due to a bullet-wound he received in 1802 during an en-
gagement in the famous battle of Cr&te A Pierrot against
the French division Hardy.
Riche died suddenly on February 27. 1847.
SOULOUQUE-President from 1847-1849; Emperor from
1849-1- '". Elected President in March 1847. he pro-
claimed himself Emperor Faustin I in August *4'.
During his reign a terrible massacre occurred at PI.
au Prince on Sunday, April 16. 1848. Many remarkable.
honest and peaceable citizens were pitilessly sacrificed on
that day.
Soulouque was a complete illiterate and very brutal.
He made two campaigns against the Dominicans: one in
March 1849 and the other in 1855. both unsucceful.
An insurrectional movement, which started in Gonaives
under the direction of Fabre (.- rr.rI' forced Soulouque to
resign and he finally abdicated on January 15. 1859.






Palais Sans-Souci

Au pied de la grande montagne, couverte par la citadelle Laferriere,
"Christophe" s'6tait construit un Palais Merveilleux, of il tenait son
fameux "tribunal noir" sous le grand arbre Caimita, connu come
"l'Arbre de Justice"-parce que beaucoup de prisoners condamne
sous cet arbre etaient monto sur la citadelle et jeter des murs, en bas
d'un grand precipice, profound de plusieurs centaines de pieds.


Vues varies


Palace of Sans-Souci

At the foot of the great mountain, capped by the Citadel of Laferribre
"Christophe" built himself a most wonderful Palace, where he held his
famous "Black Court" under the great spreading Caimita tree-known
as the "Tree of Justice"-as many prisoners sentenced under this tree
were carried up to the fortress and thrown from the walls-down a
straight precipice of several hundred feet.


Various views


Noter les ruines de ce Palais merveilleux et la grande salle de Bal,
les escaliers terrass6 et les portails particuliers, la chapelle Royale
et les quarters des domestiques. La Vall6e conduisant A ce point
merveilleux est fortement peuple et bien habit. A travers de cette
valle, il-y-avait une route Royale 100 pieds de large, laquelle conduisait
du Palais jusqu'A Port au Prince.


Note the remains of this wonderful Palace, and the great Ball Room;
the terraced stairways and most peculiar entrance gates, the Royal
Chapel and servants quarters, while the valley leading to this most
wonderful spot is thickly settled on each side of a great level highway
which extended from the Palace to the Port of Cape Hayti; this Royal
Road was more than 100 feet wide.


14rc BKI
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ulj
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r






Les Chefs D'Etat Haitiens

FABRE GEFFRARD, 1859-1867, Elu le 20 Janvier, 5
jours apres le depart de Soulouque qu'il venait de vaincre.
Assassinat par les conjures de la conspiration Prophite, de
sa fille Cora, mariee a M. Blanfort. Les assassins furent
passes par les armes.
Geffrard intervint et sauva la Republique dominicaine,
du peril don't elle 6tait menace par le traitre Pedro Santana,
son President, qui courtisait le plan de l'annexer A
1'Espagne.
Bien que le prix de cette g6nereuse intervention fut une
indemnity de 200,000 dollars, payee quelques temps apres
par le Gouvernement haitien, sur un ultimatum de l'amiral
espagnol Rubalvava, le geste de Geffrard trouva la sym-
pathie g6enrale et tout particuli&rement, la reconnaissance
du people dominicain.
Geffrard vulgarisa l'instruction, en multipliant les ecoles
primaires de Droit, de Dessin, de Musique, reorganisa le
Lyc6e P&tion ou Lyc6e National, ainsi que l'Ecole de
M6decine et de Pharmacie. Il institua 6galement des
bourses, permettant aux jeunes haitiens de faire leurs
6tudes en France.
Premier bateau A vapeur arrive dans le pays (1861) "Le
Geffrard", Inauguration du service Hydrauliques dans
plusieurs villes de la R6publique, et erection de fontaines
monumentales, don't on peut encore voir quelques unes, a
Port au Prince, au Cap Haitien, A Jeremie et Aux Cayes.
Organisation parfaite de l'Arm6e, et notamment la Garde
National, Mission Militaire d'Instruction frangaise.
Concordat signed entire Rome et Haiti. Premier
Archeveque, Festard Ducosquer. Le Gouvernement de
Geffrard fut incontestablement, le plus progressiste d'Haiti.
Geffrard quitta le Pouvoir, le 13 Mars, 1867, et s'embarqua
pour la Jamaique, ou il mourut vers 1879.

SALNAVE, 1867-1870. Gouvernement institu6 le 14
Juin, 1867, constamment tourmente par des insurrections,
notamment les grandes luttes qui dur6rent 2 ans, entire les
Piquets (partisans de Salnave et les Cacos. Les derniers
finirent par vaincre et faisaient sauter le Palais National,
le 19 Decembre, 1869, par le bombardment du croiseur
"La Terreur", quelques instant apres que Salnave l'avait
abandonne.
Salnave, tout en se battant h6roiquement avec le petit
contingent d'hommes d6voues qui 1'avaient suivi dans sa
fuite, centre les forces lances A sa poursuite, cherchait A
gagner la Dominicanie; mais arrive & la frontiere, il fut
arrft6 par le General Dominicain Cabral qui le remit aux
autorites haitiennes. Le Samedi, 15 Janvier, 1870, il fut
fusill6 sur les ruines meme du Palais Na-tional.

NISSAGE SAGET, 1870-1874-Elu le 19 Mars, 1870,
pour une p6riode de quatre annees.
Gouvernement sage et d'une severe probity. Retrait du
paper monnaie imis avec une prodigality scandaleuse
pendant la revolution centre Salnave.
Un incident allemand. A la suite de certaines reclam-
ations diplomatiques, le Capitaine Batsh s'empara de deux
avisos nationaux ancres dans la rade de Port au Prince,
pollua indignement le drapeau haitien et ne remit ses deux
proies que centre la some de 15,000 dollars.
Le 15 Mai, 1874, son mandate quadrimental expire, et
apres avoir remis le Pouvoir au Conseil des Secretaires
d'Etat, Nissage descendit paisiblement du fauteuil pr6si-
dentiel. Il y a ces paroles lapidaires de l'integre President
"Demandez des epaulettes, je vous en accorderai autant que
vous en voudrez. Quand A la clef du tr6sor, vous ne l'aurez
jamais."

MICHEL DOMINGUE, 1874-1876. Elu le 11 Juin.
Traiti de paix et d'amitie avec la Dominicanie, (Novembre,
1874) mauvaise administration financiere et politique.
Emprunts on6reux, notamment celui de Mars, 1875,
contract A Paris, non encore liquid jusqu'ici. Domingue
avait abandoned entierement les renes du Gouvernement,
A son neveu Septimus Rameau, une esp&ce de chancelier,


Rulers of Haiti

FABRE GEFFRARD-(1859-1867)-Elected President
on January 20, 1859, five days after the departure of
Soulouque. His daughter, Cora, married to M. Blanfort,
was assassinated by members of a conspiracy organized by
Prophite; the murderers were executed.
Geffrard intervened and saved the Dominican Republic
from imminent danger; the President of that Republic,
Pedro Santana, had turned traitor to his country in en-
deavoring secretly to have the Dominican Republic an-
nexed to Spain.
Though this generous intervention caused the Haitian
Government to pay afterwards an indemnity of 200I.-1ii
dollars insisted upon by the Spanish Admiral. Rubalva,
Geffrard's action met with general s\ impathv and especially
with the gratitude of the Dominican people.
Under Geffrard's administration Public Instruction was
particularly developed; he opened new schools, such as
law, drawing, and music schools; reorganized the National
and Petion colleges and also the School for Medical Stu-
dents. He furthermore established scholarships in order to
send worthy young Haitians to France to complete their
studies.
In 1861 the first steamship "Le Geffrard" arrived in
Haiti. Geffrard inaugurated the hydraulic service in vari-
ous cities throughout the Republic, establishing monu-
mental fountains, some of which can still be found at
Port au Prince, Cape Haitian, Jeremie and Aux Caves.
He reorganized the Army, especially the National Guard,
and succeeded in having French Military Instructors come
to the country.
Remarkable is also the concordat signed between R,.me
and Haiti during Geffrard's Government, through which
the first Archbishop Festard Ducosquer was nominated.
Without doubt Geffrard's administration was one of the
most successful of all Governments. On March 13. 1867,
Geffrard resigned and went to Jamaica where he died in
1879.

SALNAVE-(1867-1870)-This Government. instituted
on June 14, 1867, was constantly tormented by insurrec-
tions, chiefly through the struggle lasting two years, be-
tween the Piquets," (Salnave's political party and the
Cacos. The Cacos finally succeeded in (,x\rl..niril* Sal-
nave's Government and blew up the National Palace
through bombarding it by the Cruiser "La Terreur" a few
minutes after Salnave had abandoned the Presidential
Mansion.
Salnave, fighting heroically with the small detachment
of men still devoted to him, retreated, endeavoring to
reach the Dominican Republic: but upon his arrival on the
border he was arrested by the Dominican General. Cabral,
and delivered to the Haitian authorities. He was exe-
cuted on the ruins of the National Palace on Saturday.
April 15, 1870.

NISSAGE SAGET-(1870-1874)-He was elected on
March 19, 1870, for a period of four years. His intelligent
and honest administration was marked by the withdrawal
of the paper money issued and distributed pr.r.F- l ,:, during
the revolution against Salnave.
During his term of office a remarkable incident occurred.
Subsequent to certain diplomatical claims. Ca3Ti- Batsh.
a German officer, seized the two National gun : :- which
were anchored off Port au Prince, di.-rt.ir.!,-.l the Haitian
flag and only released the ships on the payment of 15.J.n.KI
dollars.
On May 15, 1874, the date his four years period as
President expired, he turned over the Presidential power to
the Council of Secretaries of State and peacably abandoned
the seat he had occupied as President. This honest Presi-
dent is supposed to have pronounced the f.. *'. -ing: "Ask
epaulets as much as you desire and I shall give them to you.
but not the key to the treasure because you would never
have it."






Les Chefs D'Etat Haitiens


que le people massacre, le 15 Aviil, 1876, dans les Rues de
la Capital, au depart de Domingue pour Kingston
(Jamaique) ou se trouve son tombeau dans l'emplacement
de l'ancienne Holy Trinity Church, (Duke Street) detruite
par le tremblement de terre de 1908.

BOISROND CANAL, 1876-1879. Elu le 17 Juillet.
Exercice complete et rigoureux du control legislatif. regime
essentiellement liberal de liberty entire. Finances res-
pect6es. Chambre des Comptes Comp6tentes et d'une
severit6 redoutable. Conseils d'Arrondissements. Ind6-
pendance absolue des Communes. Deux parties politiques
en rivalit&: Liberaux et Nationaux troublerent cependant
la quietude gouvernementale. Alors prit de dugout, le
President quitta volontairement le Pouvoir, sans sous ni
mailles. Les chambres, plus tard, lui voterent une valeur
de 50,000 dollars, devant subvenir A ses besoins sur la terre
etrangere. Boisrond Canal quitta Haiti le 17 Juillet, 1879,
pour Saint Thomas.

SALOMON:-1879-1888-Ce fut le 23 Octobre que fut
proclame Louis Etienne Felicite-Lysius Salomon Jeune,
d6jh assez age, mais vert d'esprit et de corps. II venait de
passer 20 annees en exil, partage entire la Jamaique et Paris,
oi il demeura longtemps.
Convention de neutrality h l'egard de la politique inte-
rieure et trait d'extradition entire la Dominicanie et Haiti
(14 Octobre 1880) En 1881, la paride d6cima une notable
portion de la population, tant urbaine que rurale.
Evenements politiques d6plorables, a Saint Marc, a
Miragoane, J6r6mie, Jacmel, et les saturnales des 22 et 23
Septembre 1883, A Port au Prince.
En 1880, la Banque Nationale d'Haiti, charge du Service
de la Tresorerie, fut fondue, En 1881, s'organisa pour la
premiere fois, une Exposition Nationale dans le but
d'encourager et de d6velopper l'industrie Haitienne. En
1885, le Gouvernement 6teignait la Dette de l'Independance.
Re61u en Juin 1886, pour une nouvelle period de Sept
ans, le President, vieux, fatigue et malade, fut renvers6 du
Pouvoir, le 10 Aout 1888. I1 mourut h Paris, quelques
mois plus tard.

LEGITIME. Gouvernement qui fut contest& par les
Nordistes qui firent une scission, en formant un Etat
belligerent dans les D6partements du Nord, du Nord Ouest
et de l'Artibonite. Guerre Civile.
L6gitime dut s'embarquer pour l'exil, le 22 Aout 1889.

HYPPOLITE 1889-1896. Investi de la Supreme Magi-
strature de l'Etat, le 9 Octobre 1889, par l'Assembl6e Con-
stituante, remise aux Gonaives; dis le d6but de son gou-
vernement, Louis Mondestin Florvil Hyppolite eut A faire
face a une reclamation diplomatique fort delicate des
Etats Unis d'Am6rique, repr6sent6s dans les eaux haitiennes
par l'Amiral Gerhardi, sous la possibility de la concession
d'un d6p6t de carbon de terre au Mole Saint Nicolas, en
vertu d'une promesse qui aurait ete faite par les revolu-
tionnaires S6paratistes du Nord, parvenus au Pouvoir,
ayant, vaincu Legitime.
Grace a une certain diplomatic, le Gouvernement-
Hyppolite s'en tira comme il l'avait espere.
Le 3 Juillet 1895, apr&s deux entrevues entire le President
dominicain Ulysse Heureaux et le General Hyppolite, la
premiere h Thomazeau (5 F6vrier 1890) et la second A la
Baie de Mancenille (1893), une convention d'arbitrage fut
sign6e, 6tablissant, que les territoires contests, quelque
soit la decision arbitrale, doivent rester h Haiti, moyennant
une compensation p6cuniaire.
Hyppolite s'occupa beaucoup des travaux publics,
Achievement du Palais des minist&res, construction des
Marches en Fer de Port au Prince et du Cap Haitien, Pont
de Momance, de la Croix des Missions et de la Grande
Riviere de J6r6mie, Dock de Bizoton, etc.


Rulers of Haiti


MICHEL DOMINGUE-(1874-1876)-Elected on June
11th. Treaty with the Dominican Republic (November
1874). Bad financial and political administration. Oner-
ous loans, especially the loan contracted in Paris (March
1875) which up to this date has not been paid. Domingue
had abandoned the reins of the Government entirely to his
nephew, Septimus Rameau, somehow his chancellor, who
on April 15, 1876, was massacred in the streets of the
Capital at the moment when Domingue embarked for
Kingston (Jamaica). Domingue died in Kingston and was
buried in the former Holy Trinity Church (Duke Street)
which later, in 1908, was destroyed through an earthquake.

BOISROND CANAL-(1876-1879)-Elected on July
17th, 1876. Complete and vigorous exercise of the legisla-
tive control. Canal's administration can be considered as
one essentially liberal; the finances were respected. He
instituted complete control of all branches of the adminis-
tration, Council of the various Departments and absolute
independence of the Communes. During his Government
there were two rival political parties: Liberals and Na-
tionals caused trouble to the peace of the Government.
The President thereby disgusted, resigned by his own free
will and abandoned the Power without a cent. Later on
Congress voted in his favor the sum of 50,000 dollars to
cover his expenses in a foreign country. Boisrond Canal
eft Haiti on July 17, 1879 and went to St. Thomas.

SALOMON-(1879-1888)-On October 23, Louis-
Etienne-Felicite-Lysius Salomon Jeune was proclaimed
President of the Republic; he was already at a certain age
but still young in spirit. He just had come from exile;
twenty years he had been exiled from his country; part of
this time he spent at Jamaica and a very large part at
Paris.
Neutrality Convention concerning the interior politics,
and Extradition treaty between the Dominican Republic
and Haiti, (October 14, 1880).
Deplorable political events at Saint Marc, Miragoane,
Jeremie, Jacmel and the saturnalias on September 22 and
23, 1883 at Port au Prince.
In 1880 the National Bank of Haiti was installed and was
entrusted with the service of the Treasury. In 1881 for
the first time a National Exposition was organized to en-
courage the development of Haitian industry. In 1885 the
Government extinguished the Debt of Independence.
Salomon was reelected in June 1886, for a further period
of seven years. But being old, tired and sick, his Govern-
ment was overthrown on August 10th, 1888. He went to
Paris and died there several months later.
LEGITIME.-His Government was contested by the
Northern people who formed a belligerent state in the
Departments of the North, the Northwest and the Arti-
bonite Civil War.
Legitime had to go into exile on August 22, 1889.
HYPPOLITE-(1889-1896)-On October 9, 1898, the
Chambers, temporarily meeting at Gonaives, appointed
him President. Since the beginning of his administration,
Louis Mondestin Florvil Hyppolite had to attend to a
diplomatical claim of the United States, which seemed to
be a very delicate matter. The representative of the
United States in Haitian waters was Admiral Gerhardi.
The claim was based upon a probable concession of a coal-
ing base at the Mole Saint Nicolas in accordance with
promises which had been made by the Revolutionary party
of the North, which, having overthrown Legitime, had
arrived to be in authority.
Thanks to certain diplomacy the Government-Hyppo-
lite-settled this affair as it was expected.
On July 3, 1895, after two interviews between the
Dominican Presid nt, Ulysse Heureaux and General
Hyppolite, the first interview at Thomazeau (February 5,
1890) and the second at Mancenille Bay (1893), an arbitra-
tion was signed, establishing: that, whatever decision may






Les Chefs D'Etat Haitiens

Le 24 Mars 1896, A quatre heures du matin, Florvil
Hyppolite, sur sa route pour Jacmel, oi il allait 6touffer
une insurrection, tomba de son cheval dans la Grande Rue
de Port au Prince, foudroy6 par une congestion pulmonaire.
TIRESIAS SIMON SAM 1896-1902. Successeur
d'Hyppolite, 6lu le 31 Mars. Crise financiere sans gale.
Mis&re profonde et g6n6rale; de multiples emprunts sur
place, A des taux tout a fait onereux, n6cessitant la garantie
de tous les droits de douane, et privant ainsi, le Gouverne-
ment de toutes resources. Ce chaos financier devait
aboutir A une catastrophe 6conomique, qu'on appela la
"Consolidation" c'est A dire que, pour d6gager une parties
des droits de douane bloqu6s du fait de ces emprunts
affolants sans measure, le Gouvernement signa, en 1900
avec les porteurs de titres d'Emprunts locaux, une con-
vention unifiant les cr6ances de ceux-ci.
Entre temps, en Novembre 1897, surgit la grave affaire
Luders de pare allemand, mais descendant d'Haitiens.
Dans la parties historique du Livre Bleu, on verra comment,
le 6 Decembre 1897, l'Allemagne humilia la faible Haiti,
pour une affaire d'importance tris secondaire. C'6tait la
deuxieme fois, que la brutality teutonique s'appesantis
sur l'infortunee R6publique, sauf A se r6p6ter 5 ans plus
tard.
L'Immigration Syrienne commenca en Haiti, des l'annbe
1896.
C'est ainsi sous Sam, que furent poses les premieres rails
du Chemin de Fer qui relia le Cap Haitien A la Grande
Riviere du Nord, et plus tard, s'inaugura la ligne de Port
au Prince-Cul de Sac (P.C.S.) avec les capitaux alle-
mands.
Le 13 Mai 1902, le Pr6sident Sam, A qui il ne manquait
que deux jours seulement pour accomplir son septemat, fut
chass6 du Palais National par une 6meute populaire.
NORD ALEXIS 1902-1908. Le depart de Sam fut
suivi d'une Guerre civil, entire les comp6titeurs en presence,
qui dura pres de 7 mois, moment oA le G6neral Nord Alexis,
un vieux guerrier du Nord et qui fut un des combatants
les plus en relief, a et6 acclam6 et Olu President, le 21
Decembre 1902.
Des son av6nement, le G6neral Nord Alexis fit ouvrir
une enquete sur la Consolidation de 1900, don't certaines
combinaisons paraissaient irr6gulieres et louches. Une
commission fut charge de cette operation, et ses investi-
gations rigoureusement menees, aboutirent A un retentis-
sant proces, dans lequel furent impliqu6s les principaux
membres du Gouvernement d6chu, le haut personnel de
la Banque Nationale et de nombreux autres personnages
politiques.
18 Mai 1903, c616bration du Centenaire du Drapeau
Haitien. Le ler. Janvier 1904, c6lbration du Centenaire
de l'Independance d'Haiti, en la ville des Gonaives et au
Palais du Centenaire. Inauguration, le 7 Fevrier 1904, de
la statue de Dessalines, au Champs de Mars, Port au
Prince. Une autre statue du Fondateur a 6t6 6rig6e au
Cap Haitien, le 17 Octobre 1906.
Le Gouvernement Nord Alexis a achev& les nouveaux
batiments du Lycee P6tion, construct la nouvelle cath6drale
de Port au Prince, On doit aussi computer la foundation du
Lyc6e de Jeremie et l'Ecole professionnelle Elie Dubois
pour les Jeunes filles.
La ville des Cayes et le Sud, ayant pris les armes, le
President Nord Alexis partit pour la Jamaique, en De-
cembre 1908.
ANTOINE SIMON 1908-1911. D~l6gu6 militaire aux
Cayes, il prit les armes contre le G6neral Nord Alexis,
auquel il succ6da le 17 D6cembre 1908.
Sous son Gouvernement, fut pos6 le premier rail de la
ligne ferr6e du Carrefour A Leogane. Un gros Emprunt
d'unification des Dettes nationals, fut contract& A la
Banque de l'Union Parisienne, et fut jug6 tres onereux pour
le Pays-ce qui,dans la suite,provoqua de vives pol6miques.
Sous Simon, Le Service de la Tr6sorerie retire de la
Banque, se transform en Service de Recettes et Depenses,
A la seule responsabilit6 du Gouvernement qu'il administra.


Rulers of Haiti

be taken through arbitration, the contested territory, pro-
viding a certain compensation will be paid, may con-
tinue belonging to Haiti.
Hyppolite took a lively interest in Public Works. He
built the Palace of Ministers, Iron markets at Port au
Prince and Cape Haitian, Bridges at Momance, Croix des
Missions and Grande Riviere de Jeremie, the Bizoton
Dock, etc.
On March 24, 1896 at four o'clock in the morning,
Florville was leaving on horseback for Jacmel, where he
intended to suppress a revolutionary movement, and on
Grand Rue (Port au Prince) he fell from his horse, having
been taken ill with pulmonary congestion.
TIRESIAS SIMON SAM-(1896-1902)-who succeeded
Hyppolite was elected on March 31. Under his adminis-
tration was a financial crisis which caused a general misery
in the country. He contracted at Port au Prince several
loans at an excessive rate of interest which absorbed all of
the customs revenues therefore leaving no funds available
for Government use. This financial chaos resulted in an
economical catastrophe, that is, The Consolidation; in
order to obtain the use of some of the revenue funds which
could not be released on account of guaranteeing there-
with the contracted loans, the Government signed, in IlI-NII
a contract with the persons who had granted these loans
unifying the debts.
Then in November, 1 oL'. occurred the very serious
affair Luders, whose father was a German but from Haitian
descendants. In the historical part of the Bl!.. Book it is
shown how on December 6. 1 ''. Germany humiliated
the little Haitian Republic fora matter of minor importance.
This was the second time that the Teutonic brutality at-
tacked our unfortunate Republic. only to repeat it five
years later. In 1896 the immigration of Syrians started.
It was under Sam's Government that the first railroad
was built from Cape Haitian to Grande Riviere du Nord,
and later on the railroad of Port au Prince-Cul de Sac
(P.C.S.) was inaugurated: both were built with German
capital.
On May 13, 1902, when only two days were missing to
finish Sam's period as President, he was threatened by a
rioting crowd and was forced to leave the Palace.
NORD ALEXIS-1902-1908. The departure of Sam
was followed by a period of Civil War between the various
political parties present in the Capital: this period lasted
seven months, when General Nord Alexis. an old warrior
of the North, was acclaimed and elected President. (De-
cember 21, 1902).
As soon as he took possession of the reins of the Govern-
ment, General Nord Alexis made an invt-- :' ; con-
cerning the Consolidation of 1',,,. certain matters of which
appeared to be irregular. A special commission was ap-
pointed and a serious investigation showed certain irregu-
larities in which were implicated the principal leaders of
the former Government, several other political person-
alities and the chief employes of the Bank.
May 18, 1903, celebration of the Centenary of the
Haitian Flag. On January 1. 1904 the Centenary : the
Independence was celebrated at Gonaive- and at the
Palace. The statue of Dessalines at Port au Prince was
unveiled on February 7. 1904. and another statue was
erected at Cape Haitian on October 17. 1'"r
Nord Alexis' Government completed the construction of
the new college Petion and also constructed the Cathedral
at Port au Prince. Furthermore the C'..-. at Jeremie
and the School Elie Dubois for young girls.
In December 1908 the city of Aux Caves and the South
took to arms and President Nord Alexis embarked for
Jamaica.
ANTOINE SIMON--1908-1911 -Being Militar Com-
missioner at Aux Cayes he revolted against General Nord
Alexis whom he succeeded as President on December 17.
1908.
The railroad from Port au Prince to Leogane was 1.-j' I
under his administration. A large loan. unifying all






Les Chefs D'Etat Haitiens

Cependant, a la conclusion de l'Emprunt sus parl6, la
Banque Nationale d'Haiti, change de denomination et
devint "Banque Nationale de la Republique d'Haiti" en
reprenant le service de la tr6sorerie.
Sur ces entrefaites, 6clata la prise d'armes des Cacos a
Ouanaminthe, bourg situ& au Nord Est d'Haiti, en faveur
du G6n6ral Leconte, ancien Ministre des Travaux publics
sous Sam. Refoul6s une premiere fois, les Cacos reprirent
les armes, deux mois apris et r6ussirent par renverser le
Gouvernement. Le 2 Aout 1911, le President Simon
s'embarquait pour la Jamaique.
MICHEL CINCINNATUS LECONTE 1911-1912. Elu
le 10 Aout. Gouvernement de progres qui faisait rappeler
celui de Geffrard. Restauration des Edifices publics et,
notamment, l'ancien Palais National, Achevement des
Casernes, Dessalines, a Port au Prince. Organisation du
Corps de la R4forme militaire et reorganisation de la
Cavalerie de la Garde Pr6sidentielle.
Visites A Port au Prince, du Secr6taire d'Etat Knox qui
y fut regu par de splendides manifestations, ainsi que M. et
Mme. MacAdoo.
Les travaux de la r6fection des rues en b6ton, tris
avances.
H6las, c'est a ce moment, o6 le pays se sentait revivre
dans une atmosphere de r6elle civilisation, que la plus
effroyable catastrophe vint bouleverser brutalement de si
riante perspectives: Le 8 Aout 1912, a 3 h 30 du matin,
le Palais National sautait et an6antissait sous ses ruines,
l'infortun6 President, ainsi que des officers et plus de 200
soldats de son Etat Major et de la Garde Pr6sidentielle.
Une main criminelle arretait ainsi, de nouveau, ce beau
movement progressiste qui semblait devoir definitivement
tirer la R6publique d'Haiti, de la torpeur dans laquelle
elle vivait depuis longtemps.
TANCREDE AUGUSTE 1912-1913. Le meme jour
de la catastrophe, a 10 h. 30 du matin, l'Assembl6e Na-
tionale l6isait un successeur au President assassin et
martyre.
La gloire laiss6 par le grand programme d'administration
de Leconte, demeurait vivace dans les coeurs haitiens.
Ainsi le nouveau Gouvernement ne put que s'y conformer
et continue l'oeuvre commence. Mais un temps d'arrft
survint. Apres une maladie lente et maligne A la fois
et don't on ne peut guere se rendre compete, Tancr6de
Auguste expirait le 2 Mai 1913.
MICHEL ORESTE 1913-1914. Le grand tribune et
l'6minent Juriste, Me. Michel Oreste, Avocat et S6nateur
de la R6publique, fut acclame d'enthousiasme, le 4 Mai
1913, au lendemain des fun6railles de Tancrede Auguste,
mais a la plus grande stupefaction du people haitien qui
se croyait en droit de reposer son entire confiance sur un
homme don't la renommee civique 6tait immense, ce
gouvernement fut tout simplement, un malencontreux et
deplorable fiasco. Le .26 Janvier 1914, Michel Oreste
s'embarquait pour l'exil.
ORESTE ZAMOR F6vrier 1914 Octobre 1914. Gouver-
nement r6volutionnaire, retrograde et 6ph6mere.
DAVILMAR THEODORE 1914-1915. Gouvernement
6ph6mere (Cacos) Elu le 7 Novembre 1914, Le President
Davilmar Theodore tombait fin Janvier 1915.
Le President Theodore, caract&re compatissant et doux,
avait tout l'estime du people, mais la situation financiere
inextricable et la misere sans pr6c6dent auxquelles il elt
malheureusement A faire face et qu'il ne put conjurer, les
Cacos, brigands du Nord, 6tant de nouveau en rebellion
sous la direction du g6n6ral Vilbrun Guillaume Sam,-
Mr. Th6odore dut abandonner le fauteuil pr6sidentiel.
VILBRUN GUILLAUME SAM 4 Mars 1915-27 Juillet
1915. Mcme s6rie des Gouvernements r6volutionnaires et
6ph6meres qui ont about a l'intervention am6ricaine, le
27 Juillet, apres les massacres de la prison de Port au
Prince et le meurtre de Vilbrun Guillaume.
Le President en exercise, 6lu le 12 Aout 1915:
PHILIPPE SUDRE DARTIGUENAVE.
Resume: 2 Empereurs, 1 Roi, 24 Presidents.


Rulers of Haiti

National Loans, was contracted with- te Banque de
l'Union Parisienne, which was considered a very onerous
loan throughout the country, causing afterwards many
disputes.
Simon's Government dispensed with the Bank's services
of the National Treasury and the Government adminis-
tered all public funds under its own responsibility.
But after the above mentioned loan had been con-
tracted, the Bank of Haiti changed into "National Bank of
the Republic of Haiti" and was again charged with the
service of the treasury.
In the meantime a revolt of the Cacos started near
Ouanaminthe, a village situated in North-western Haiti;
this revolution broke out in favor of General Leconte,
formerly Minister of Public Works, under President Sam.
Being repulsed the first time, two months later the Cacos
revolted again and succeeded in overthrowing the Govern-
ment. On August 2, 1911, President Simon left for
Kingston (Jamaica).
MICHEL CINCINNATUS LECONTE-(1911-1912)-
He was elected on August 10th. His Government showed
much progress.
He received at Port au Prince the visit of Secretary of
State Knox, accompanied by Mrs. and Mr. McAdoo, in
whose honor a splendid reception had been prepared.
Under Leconte also the streets were improved.
Just at that time when the whole country was at peace and
hoping to return to normal and civilized conditions a terrible,
sudden catastrophe put the whole Republic in emotion.
On August 8, 1912, at 3:30 in the morning, the National
Palace, through a criminal hand, was destroyed by an
explosion causing the deplorable death of the unfortunate
President and more than 200 officers and men of his Guard.
So these hopes of having returned to a period of progress
and peace were once more destroyed.
TANCREDE AUGUSTE-(1912-1913)-The same day
of the terrible catastrophe through which Leconte was
assassinated, Tancrede Auguste was elected President by the
National Assembly at 10:30 a.m. The memory of the
unfortunate President Leconte was still alive in the heart
of every Haitian. He had left the state of affairs so well
organized that the new Government could follow his
program and continue the work started by him. But soon
the administration of the new President was stopped.
After a slow and vicious sickness, Tancrede Auguste died
on May 2, 1913.
MICHEL ORESTE-(1913-1914)-The grand and emi-
nent lawyer Michel Oreste, lawyer and Senator of the
Republic, was enthusiastically acclaimed as President of
the Republic on May 4, 1913, after the funeral services of
Tancrede Auguste, but to the surprise of every Haitian,
who thought it wise to trust a man who had led such an
honest and moral civil life, this Government proved to be
simply an unlucky and most deplorable fiasco. On Janu-
ary 26, 1914, Michel Oreste left the country and went into
exile.
ORESTE ZAMOR-(February 1914 to October 1914)-
A revolutionary Government retrograde and ephemeral.
DAVILMAR THEODORE- (1914-1915)-Ephemeral
Government (Cacos) e ected on November 7 1914 Presi-
dent Davilmar Theodore was overthrown in January 1915.
President Theodore, gentle and good natured, was held
in high esteem by the people, but the unlucky and difficult
financial situation and the miserable conditions existing
which he had to face (the Cacos were revolting again under
the command of General Vilbrun Guillaume Sam) forced
him to resign as President
VILBRUN GUILLAUME SAM-(March 4, 1915 to
July 25th, 1915)-The same series of revolutions occurred,
which finally led to American intervention on July 27th,
after the massacre at the prison of Port au Prince and the
murder of Vilbrun Guillaume.
The present President, PHILIPPE SUDRE DARTI-
GUENAVE, was elected on August 12, 1915.
Total: 2 Emperors; 1 King and 24 Presidents.






Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave


SON EXCELLENCE
President de la R6publique d'Haiti

Son Administration
ES premieres pages du LIVRE BLEU (Haiti en 1919)
sont consacr6es A celui qui dirige actuellement les
destinies de la Republique.
C'est par lui, par sa vie publique, que le monde ext6rieur
pourra se faire une id6e gen6rale des conditions sociales et
politiques du moment, de la Nation Haitienne. C'est en
meme temps, lui offrir une marque de sympathique cour-
toisie, en sa haute dignity de Chef d'Etat.
Nous sommes heureux done de remplir cette tAche,
d'autant plus que toute la vie du President Philippe
Sudre Dartiguenave a 6t6 d6volue au bien public et au
mieux-6tre de son Pays.
Son Excellence Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave est n& le
6 Avril 1863, en la ville de l'Anse A Veau, Chef lieu de
l'Arrondissement de Nippes dans le D6partement du Sud.
II d6buta dans l'enseignement, comme professeur d'histoire
A l'Ecole Secondaire de sa ville natale. I1 s'adonna en
meme temps A l'etude du Droit, et ne tarda pas A devenir
Avocat. C'est ainsi qu'il fut appele A etre Chef du Parquet
de la Juridiction de Nippes, poste auquel s'accrut de plus
en plus, son influence r6gionale, pour s'y etre distingu6
par sa profonde connaissance du Droit, la droiture de ses
decisions et son caractere austere, mais toujours com-
patissant.
Sa carriere 6tait desormais marquee en haut relief.
Mais ses functions de Commissaire du Gouvernement de
Nippes, ne l'emp&chbrent pas toutefois, de s'occuper de
ses entreprises agricoles. La culture de la terre a t6I le
genre d'occupation pour lequel il a toujours eu le gout
le plus vif et auquel il se serait sans doute completement
consacr6, si la confiance de ses concitoyens ne l'eut appel6
aux facnctions politiques.
I1 se revela done un planteur laborieux et 6merit6, se
penetrant au fur et A measure, de la pratique agronomique.
Pour ne parler que d'une seule de ses propri6tes rurales
auxquelles il a constamment accord& ses soins personnel,
on peut voir et admirer, non loin de l'Anse A Veau, I'habi-
tation "Arnauld," son domaine d'6lection.
En 1896, la commune de l'Anse A Veau le d6signait par
ses libres suffrages pour etre son repr6sentant A la Chambre
des Deput6s. I1 ne tarda pas A m6riter toute l'estime et
la confiance de ses Collegues, qui le porterent A la Pr6sidence
de l'Assemblee, don't il sut diriger les d6bats, meme aux
heures les plus difficiles, avec une competence et une maitrise
don't on ne saurait ne pas tenir compete.
Sa carriere politique eut alors un temps d'arr&t. En
effet, apres les 6venements du 15 Mai 1902, oi les Chambres
furent dissoutes par la revolution qui renversait le President
Tir&sias Simon Sam, Sudre Dartiguenave v6cut dans une
quietude retraite en sa chere ville de l'Anse A Veau, respect
de tous et se consacrant inlassablement A sa profession
d'avocat et aux travaux des champs qui furent toujours,
comme nous l'avons pr6c6demment dit, l'objet de sa
direction.
Durant tout le mandate pr6sidentiel du G6n6ral Nord
Alexis, son nom ne fut plus entendu dans le monde politique,
bien que le prestige acquis par lui au parlement, ne fut
jamais oubli&. C'est ainsi qu'A la chute de ce Gouverne-
ment et A l'avenement au Pouvoir, du D616gu6 militaire
du Sud, le G6neral Antoine Simon, Sudre Dartiguenave fut
envoy& au Senat de la R6publique, qu'il ne tarda pas A
presider. Son tact bien connu 6tant justement appr6ci&
de ses Collegues. II demeure sans contest, qu'A cette
position pr66minente, M. Sudre Dartiguenave se r6vela
un parlementaire de toute premiere competence. Ha-
bilet6, sang-froid, maitrise de soi et des hautes functions
qui venaient de lui &tre imparties, telles sont les carac-
t6ristiques de la carriere legislative de celui qui dirige
actuellement les destinies de la Patrie Haitienne.


HIS EXCELLENCY
President of the Republic of Haiti

His Administration

HE first pages of the "Blue Book of Haiti," 1919,are
dedicated to the person who is actually directing the
destinies of the Republic.
It is through him and through his public life that the
outside world will be able to obtain a general idea of the
actual social and political condition of the Haitian nation.
It is, at the same time, an offering to him and a mark of
appreciation and courtesy to his high dignity as Chief of
State.
The fact that the life of President Philippe Sudre Darti-
guenave has been devoted to public good and the better-
ment of his country makes this work one of additional
pleasure.
His Excellency Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave was born
April 6th, 1863, in Anse A Veau. the chief town of the
arrondissement of Nippes in the Southern Department.
His first important work was as teacher of history in the
Secondary school of his home town. At the same time he
studied law and soon followed the profession, and in a short
time was appointed Prosecuting Attorney of the tribunal
at Nippes, which duty increased his local influel-rl as he
distinguished himself by his deep knowledge of law and
justice, his austere character, and the integrity of his
decisions, always tempered by compassionate tendencies.
From this time forward his career has been distinguished
in a high degree. His appointment as Attorney of the
State of the Department of Nippes did not prevent him
taking an absorbing interest in agriculture. He has
always shown marked preference for agricultural enter-
prises and without doubt he would have followed his
heart's desire to become an important cultivator if the
insistence of his countrymen had not compelled him to
follow a political career.
He has proved himself a hard working, intelligent, and
successful planter. To state only one example of his
agricultural activities we refer to his favorite plantation.
"Arnauld," situated near Anse A Veau, to which pr'.prtr
he has given special care and attention.
In 1896, the commune of Anse A Veau. in free -uirra.-_
elected him to represent it as Deputy in Congress. He
very soon was highly esteemed by his fellow congressmen.
who made him President of the A~ssembly, and t may be
specially mentioned that with admirable tact he directed its
affairs during even the most critical periods.
For some time his political career was interrupted. In
fact, after the events of May 15. 1902, the revolution
which had overthrown President Tiresias Simon Sam. dis-
solved the Congress, and Sudre Dartiguenave. respected by
everybody, returned to his home town. Anse A Veau, and
followed his profession as lawyer and, as already stated.
indulged in agricultural labor.
During the administration of President Nord Alexis his
name was never mentioned or connected with politics, but
the reputation he had acquired as a Cn,.'re-- an was never
forgotten. At the downfall of the aforementioned Govern-
ment, when the military delegate of the South, General
Antoine Simon, was elected President, Sudre Dartii.ui nc .
was appointed Senator and very soon became President of
the Senate. His intelligence and ability were full; ap-
preciated by all the senators, and without doubt Mr.
Sudre Dartiguenave showed himself a very competent
parliamentarian. Ability. tactfulness and inr.Illi.,n,:, are
the characteristics of the legislative career ., him. w h.. to-
day is actually directing the destinies of the Haitian country.
The tragical events of the fateful days of July 27th and
28th, 1915, which caused, successively, the attack on the
National Palace, the massacre of the prisoners of Port au
Prince the assassination of General Charles Oscar Etienne
and President Vilbrun Guillaume. who had been taken in






Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave


Les 6venements tragiques des funestes journ6es des 27
et 28 Juillet 1915, au course desquels s'accomplirent suc-
cessivement: la prise de force du Palais National, les
massacres des prisons de la Capitale, le meurtre du G6n6ral
Charles Oscar Etienne et celui du President Vilbrun Guil-
laume que la populace en furie venait d'arracher A la
Legation de France, oi il s'etait refugi6; ces malheureux
evenements provoquerent sur notre sol, le d6barquement
des forces militaires ambricaines sous les ordres de l'Amiral
Caperton, don't le pavilion flottait sur le croisseur cuirasse
"Washington" Commandant, Capitaine Beach.
Le Chaos ftait complete, etant l'aboutissant des r6voltes
r6it6rees, qui, depuis 4 ans, bouleversaient toutes les forces
vives de la Nation, ankylos6es de ce fait. I1 s'agissait done
de remettre les choses en un 6tat de stability qui put
garantir les droits individuals et le respect de la propri6t6.
Mais, helas! come c'est la regle dans l'histoire Haitienne,
les competitions des parties s'aviv&rent. Les politicians de
tous les groups vo~lurent manger de cette proie encore
ensanglantee, laiss6e sur le carreau par l'Anarchie.
Cependant, les saines preocupations s'6meurent a just
raison. Il y avait de quoi, vraiment, car un rien, les
moindre imprudence gatait tout et compromettait a jamais
l'autonomie d'Haiti.
C'est a ce moment critique, p6rileux, que se fixerent toutes
les consciences nationaux rest6es encore vierges de mes-
quines passions d'int6r&ts individuals, sur l'homme le plus
qualifi& pour ramener la detente souhait6e et l'6quilibre
necessaire A la situation devenue combien p6nible et qu'a
bon droit on pouvait consid6rer comme inextricable.
Alors, sagement, en la pleine connaissance de qui devait
sauver encore une fois, la R6publique, D1put6s et Senateurs
ne penserent, heureusement, qu'a la seule solution possible
et adequate aux circonstances redoutables, oi l'on ne se
doutait d'autant plus que M. Rosalvo Bobo, chef des
r6volutionnaires dits "Cacos" venait de faire son entree
en la Capitale.
Le choix des representants de la Nation se porta tout
naturellement sur Sudre Dartiguenave, le Directeur pond6r6
et avis6 de I'Assembl6e Nationale. Ce choix fut acclam6
du people qui voyait le retour assure de l'appaissement si
ardemment d6sir6, en ces perileuse conjonctures,-Le
President du Senat n'avait jamais appartenu h aucune
guerre civil, capable, par consequent, de rallier tous les
parties, en ce moment dramatique de l'histoire d'Haiti.
L'Assemblee Nationale concentra done ses votes sur ce
citoyens don't le passe et la brillante carriere parlementaire
repondaient que l'on pouvait d6sormais, envisager avec
plus de came et de confiance, 1'6tat de chose qui s'imposait
A la Nation.
PHILIPPE SUDRE DARTIGUENAVE fut 6lu Pre-
sident de la Republique d'Haiti, le 12 Aout 1915, par la
respectable majority& de 94 voix sur les 116 votants:
Le scrutiny se decomposa comme suit:
Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave......... 94 voix
Francois Luxembourg Cauvin........ 14 voix
General Emmanuel Th6zan.......... 4 voix
Dr. Rosalvo Bobo. ................ 3 voix
Bulletin Blanc ..................... 1
116 votants
L'61ection pr6sidentielle s'accomplit sous la presidence
de M. le Deput6 Constantin Mayard, vice-president de
l'Assembl6e Nationale, mais devenu president actif de
cette haute Assembl6e, du fait de la candidature de M.
Sudre Dartiguenave.
II convient de r6peter, que Monsieur Sudre Dartiguenave
n'ayant jamais appartenu A aucun parti politique pro-
prement dit, n'a, par consequent, nullement briqu6 la
Premiere Magistrature de l'Etat o6 seule, l'a appel6
l'estime de ses Collegues du Parlement, se sentant d'ailleurs
puissamment seconds par la sympathique confiance don't
djA, I'entouraient tous ses concitoyens qui voyaient en
lui l'Haitien le mieux prepare pour bien repondre aux


the French Legation by a furious and excited mob-those
unfortunate events which caused the disembarkment on our
territory of American military forces, commanded by
Admiral Caperton, whose flagship was the Cruiser "Wash-
ington," commanded by Captain Beach-brought to a
close the chaos which existed during the four years of
continuous revolution. Henceforth the first thing to do was
to establish an administration with a guarantee of individual
rights to all and respect for private properties.
But, as always in Haitian history, the competition between
the various political parties began. Politicians of all
parties wanted to have their share in the spoils, still stained
with blood, the result of Anarchy.
The wise and intelligent were much preoccupied, as the
least imprudence would compromise for ever the Haitian
autonomy.
At this dangerous and critical moment all the people
with decent and honest minds, not yet corrupted by low
passion, fixed their eyes upon the person most qualified
to establish again to its formal stability a situation which
had really been considered a most critical one.
It was then, knowing very well who would be able to
save the Republic, that the Deputies and Senators gathered
for the election of a President, which was the only solution
adequate to the circumstances, especially as at the time
Mr. Rosalvo Bobo, Chief of the Revolutionary party,
known as "Cacos," had entered the City of Port au Prince.
Very naturally, the choice of the representatives of the
nation fell upon Sudre Dartiguenave, the wise and zealous
President of the National Assembly. This decision was
highly approved by the people, being that now peaceable
conditions would return to the much harassed nation.
The President of the Senate had never participated in any
civil war and was, therefore, the right person to rally all
political parties in this dramatic moment of Haitian history.
The National Assembly therefore elected this citizen
whose brilliant parliamentary career guaranteed amply
the desire of the people to see a return to normal conditions
and they had entire confidence that he would be able to
master the situation.
PHILIPPE SUDRE DARTIGUENAVE was elected
President of the Republic of Haiti on August 12, 1915, with
the magnificent majority of 94 votes out of 116.
The returns were as follows:
Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave. ................... 94 votes
Francois Luxembourg Cauvin ................... 14 votes
General Emmanuel Thezan.................... .. 4 votes
Dr. Rosalvo Bobo.................. ......... 3 votes
Blank vote ................. .................. 1 vote
116 votes
The presidential election was accomplished under the
presidency of Deputy Constantin Mayard, Vice-President
of the National Assembly, who had been appointed Acting
President due to the fact of Mr. Sudre Dartiguenave being
a candidate.
Again it must be repeated that never had Mr. Sudre
Dartiguenave belonged to any political party and conse-
quently was not endeavoring to become President of the
Republic through political pull or ambition, but was purely
and simply elected by Congress owing to the high esteem
in which he was held by all the members as well as having
the sympathy of the people, who were convinced that he,
better than any other man, was prepared to direct the
affairs of the State and respond to the new conditions im-
posed by the American intervention.
The twelfth of August will always be a remarkable date
in Haitian history as being the happy day when robberies
and crimes, which had been for a long period a menace to
the National existence, were finally abolished.
A remarkable incident, which shows the nature of the
President of the Republic in a strong light occurred when
Deputy Constantin Mayard, from the presidential tri-
bunal, proclaimed Sudre Dartiguenave as President, he,
being in the midst of his fellow members of congress, was






Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave


conditions nouvelles qu'imposait l'intervention Am6ricaine.
Le 12 Aout demeure, par consequent, une date de
l'Histoire d'Haiti. C'est le jour du r6confort, abolissant
les brigandages qui nuisaient depuis si longtemps A l'exis-
tence national.
Un trait piquant qui 6claire d'un jour simpathique, la
physionomie du Pr6sident de la R6publique: Quand le
D6put6 Constantin Mayard, du haut du siege de la pr6si-
dence, proclama Sudre Dartiguenave, Pr6sident, celui-ci,
mel6 a ses Colligues, dans l'enceinte, songeant sans doute
a l'existence austere qu'il jusqu'alors menat, envisageant
les devoirs accablants auxquels il allait avoir a faire face,
fondit en sanglots, et le Depute Mayard dut descendre
les degres de l'enceinte pour venir, lui aussi profondement
6mu, prendre le nouvel elu par les bras, pour l'amener
prater le serment solennel de fid61it6 A la nation, aux
int6rfts et aux droits du people.
L'Histoire dira ce que disent, d6ja, ses concitoyens dans
leur majority que Dartiguenave a tenu a son serment.
Le surlendemain de son election, le 14 Aout, le Pr6sident
Dartiguenave composait son premier Cabinet come suit:
D6pute Constantin Mayard, Int6rieur
M. Emile Elie, Finances et Commerce
S6nateur Etienne Dorneval, Justice et Cultes
M. H. Paul6us Sanon, Relations Ext6rieures et In-
struction Publique.
M. Antoine Sansaricq, Travaux Publics et Agriculture
GCneral Charles Leconte, Guerre et Marine.
Ainsi que l'Election Pr6sidentielle, la composition du
cabinet fut g6n6ralement bien accueillie, car apres tant de
bouleversements, of l'on pouvait meme entrevoir l'effronde-
ment d6finitif de la nation alit& haitienne, le pays se sentit
soulag6 et reconfort6 du fait de tant d'hommes de grande
capacity& et de notoire reputation, formant le Gouvernement.
L'ordre et la paix 6taient desormais r4tablis, grace au
concours et h l'aide puissant de la grande R6publique
6toil6e.
C'est sous ces heureux auspices, que s'inaugura l'admi-
nistration Sudre Dartiguenave.
Sur ces entrefaits, il fut, present au nouveau pouvoir,
un project de convention entire les Etats Unis d'Amrrique
et Haiti. Les premiers d6bats, relatif a cet important
instrument diplomatique, entrainerent la admission simul-
tanee de MM. Sanon et Sansaricq, lesquels furent rem-
plac6s par MM. Louis Borno et le Docteur Paul Salomon.
Les conversations reprirent et le project de convention
fut sign par MM. Louis Borno, Secr6taire d'Etat des
Relations Ext6rieures et M. R. Deadle Davis, Charg6
d'Affaires des Etats Unis.
Soumis aux deliberations des Chambres L6gislatives, le
project, a la suite de tris vives discussions, fut d6finitive-
ment sanctionn6 par le S6nat de la Republique, le 11
Novembre 1915, A la popularity du Cabinet et ses efforts
remarquables ayant rendu le people et ses repr6sentants
entiirement favorables A l'intervention et a la forme
juridique de la Convention.
Par sa proclamation du 18 Novembre, Son Excellence,
le President Sudre Dartiguenave, annoncait au people,
l'achevement de ce grand &v&nement, le plus considerable
disait il, de 1'Histoire Nationale, depuis l'acte A jamais
memorable de l'Ind6pendance Haitienne, et il en rendait
hommage aux membres du Corps L6gislatifs qui venaient
si heureusement de le faire aboutir.
La Convention entire Haiti et les Etats Unis d'Am6rique
6tait en effet, necessaire, car tant de bouleversements, et
les p6riodiques et continuelles r6voltes intestines, revenues
presqu'A l'6tat end6mique, dans ces dernieres cinq ann6es,
avaient rendu tout progres impossible dans le pays, don't la
march vers la civilisation semblait condemn6e a une
honteuse et deplorable faillite.
II a fallu quand meme cet instrument de stability& et de
renovation don't les effects concrfts sont impatiemment
attendus et sur lesquels se repose a bon escient et en depit
des vicissitudes diverse, toute la confiance national.
Ainsi donc, Mr. Dartiguenave, ses collaborateurs au


so thoroughly overcome by emotion, that the tears ran
down his cheeks, probably thinking that he who had always
lived in a state of quiet existence had now to face immense
responsibilities; upon this Deputy Mayard came down,
took the newly elected President by the arm and accom-
panied him to take his solemn oath to be true to his nation
and defend the rights and interests of the people.
History without doubt will tell, and which is now well
known to his fellow citizens, that Dartiguenave has lived up
to his oath.
Two days after his election, on August 14th. President
SDartiguenave composed his first cabinet as follows:
Deputy Constantin Mayard, Secretary of State and In-
terior;
Mr. Emile Elie, Secretary of State of Finance and Com-
merce;
Senator Etienne Dorneval, Secretary of State of Justice;
Mr. H. Pauleus Sannon, Secretary of State of Foreign
Affairs and Public Instruction:
General Charles Leconte, Secretary of State of War and
Navy;
M. Antoine Sansariq. Secretary of State of Public Works
and Agriculture.
As was the Presidential election. so was the composition
of the cabinet, generally gladly received, for after such a
long period of political troubles and uneasiness the people
were content to hear that such important citizens of great
ability and intelligence were forming the Government.
Peace and order were forever established, thanks to the aid
and assistance of the great Star Spangled Banner.
Under such a happy outlook for the future Sudre Dar-
tiguenave began his administration.
Shortly after this the project of a convention between
the United States and Haiti was submitted to the new
Government.
The first discussion concerning this diplomatical instru-
ment caused the resignation of Secretaries of State Messrs.
Sanon and Sansariq who were substituted by Messrs.
Louis Borno and Paul Salomon.
The discussion and deliberations r.. ir.': this docu-
ment were again taken up and the project of the treaty
was finally signed by Messrs. Louis Borno. Secretary of
State of F..i.r L, Ai L;r- and Mr. B. D. Davis, Ci-.are
d'Affaires of the United States.
Having been submitted to the deliberation of the Cham-
bers this project was hotly discussed but was r: .. sanc-
tioned by the Senate of the Republic on November 11,
1915; the people applauded the popular Cabinet of the
President for their remarkable efforts to have this inter-
vention made as favorable as possible.
In his proclamation of November 18. his Excellencv,
President Sudre Dartiguenave, announced to the people
the accomplishment of this event, the most considerable,
he said, in our National history since the memorable de-
claration of independence of Haiti, and he gave 'j'1 credit
to the members of Congress who fortunately had accom-
plished this task.
The convention between Haiti and the United States was
in fact very necessary, in view of the fact that during the
last five years the country was in deep misery due to the
continuous insurrections and revolutions which stopped
all progress and which seemed to render the march toward
civilization a deplorable affair.
We needed this treaty to establish normal conditions
and with impatience everybody expects that the iifft-rcnr
clauses of the treaty may be carried out for the betterment
of the Nation and country's conditions.
Therefore. Mr. Dartiguenave. his cabinet members and
also the members of the legislative Chambers can be proud
to have joined the destiny of the -m i !. Republic of Haiti
to the formidable economical power of the United States.
because if the treaty will be religiously .;ppl.l- it :11 mean
the salvation of this country.
If this can be put into effect as soon as the Great War
is finished and peace declared. Haiti can with all confi-







Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave


Pouvoir Ex6cutif d'alors, de meme que les deux chambres
16gislatives, qui en ont carr6ment dote le Pays, ne peuvent
que s'honorer d'avoir associ le destin de la petite Haiti A
la formidable puissance economique des Etats Unis. Car
la Convention, religieusement applique c'est tout le salut.
Et c'est ce qui doit &tre ineluctablement envisage, au
retour prochain de la paix mondiale. Haiti peut donc, en
toute confiance, s'attendre A b6enficier des heureux effects,
encore retards par plusieurs circonstances et, notamment,
l'affreuse guerre allumie par les Empires d'Allemagne et
d'Autriche-Hongrie.
L'Administration Dartiguenave a eu A faire face A de
grosses difficulties comme on le pense bien, de la part des
politicians don't le regime actuel a tu( la funeste industries
qui consistait en intrigues, en pilleries douanieres et en
guerres civiles.
En 1916, (Avril Septembre), et 1917 (Juin) les survivances
du pass& d'anarchie et d'agitations se soulev&rent centre les
measures progressives, que proposaient le Gouvernement et
ses collaborateurs americains. On dut dissoudre les As-
semblies Legislatives et en appeler directement au people,
qui le 12 Juin 1918, vota enfin, A une grande majority, la
constitution liberale sous laquelle Haiti vit actuellement.
Le 12 Juillet, le Counseil d'Etat, dans ses attributions
legislatives telles qu'en dispose la Constitution, vota la
declaration de guerre A l'Empire d'Allemagne.
Haiti, conform6ment A ses traditions nationals, son
int6rft du people, se range A la suite des Etats Unis et des
20 autres Alli6es de l'Entente, pour la defense de la liberty
du monde.
Au travers de beaucoup de vicissitudes, le President
Dartiguenave a fait preuve d'Homme d'Etat. Le Pays
doit par consequent, placer toute confiance en son tact et la
remarquable habilet6 don't il a d6jA donn6 les preuves les
plus convaincantes, a la direction des destinies d'Haiti.
Haiti, de par son heureuse situation geographique, et
place au centre des Antilles, est un pays fort beau et A
resources multiples. C'est un pays absolument int6ressant
et qui, bien connu du monde ext&rieur, de par une propa-
gande de bon aloi et just, attirera sur son territoire au
climate sain de nombreux tourists, ce qui rend inevitable la
construction d'Hotels confortables, de Parcs d'agrements et
de tous les e16ments de progres, don't elle est bien capable.
Son sol, d'une richesse surprenante en tout ce qui garantit
la fortune et le d6veloppement des grandes entreprises
industrielles, est encore vierge et attend les capitaux
strangers et surtout americains qui trouveront surement un
placement avantageux A l'exploitation des mines, des
forts et de toutes les autres sources de richesses naturelles.


ADILON CHARLES


dence look into the future for the carrying out of the various
clauses of the convention which have been delayed through
several circumstances, but principally through the terrible
World War caused by the German and Austrian Empires.
The administration of Mr. Dartiguenave had to face, as it
could be foreseen, serious difficulties with certain political
parties not satisfied with sincere honest and regular adminis-
tration and whose chief interest had always been to in-
trigue, steal and graft in the Customs administration and
causing the Civil wars.
In 1916 (April and September) and 1917 (June) the re-
mains of Anarchism, agitated by certain politicians, re-
volted against the measures of progress that the Govern-
ment had proposed, inspired by its American advisors.
This caused the dissolution of the Chambers and through
direct appeal to the people, on June 12, 1918, by a great
majority; the new liberal constitution of Haiti was voted.
On July 12, the Council of State, in its capacity as
Legislative Assembly in accordance with the constitution,
decided upon a declaration of war against the German
Empire.
Haiti, true to its national traditions, joined the United
States and the twenty other countries of the Entente for
the defense of the liberty of the world.
During all these difficulties President Dartiguenave
proved himself a good statesman. Therefore the Republic
and its people can have all confidence in his remarkable
ability to direct the destinies of Haiti, as on many occa-
sions he gave proof of his intelligence and activity.
Haiti has a most fortunate geographical situation, as it
is located just in the center of the Antilles and a country
of great natural resources. Haiti is a very interesting
country and if proper propaganda would make it rightly
known to the outside world, most certainly its good and
healthy climate would attract a great number of tourists
which would render inevitable the construction of comfort-
able and large hotels, central parks which in time would
bring the desired progress to the country. The Haitian
soil, which never has been cultivated, contains immense
wealth and would guarantee the development of industrial
and commercial enterprises, and the main desire of the
country is to interest foreign and especially American
capitalists to invest in the exploitation of Haitian soil,
mines and woods, which certainly would prove to be one
of the best investments in the world.










.M., ,:B
.4 :.


B. DAUACHE


Chef de Bureau du Cabinet particulier
du President d'Haiti.


Chief Cabinet Clerk and private Secrc.
tary to the President of Haiti.


Chef du Cabinet du President Chief Cabinet Secretary to the
d'Haiti President of Haiti


..."4 VIt'3
10







4-







Geographie

HAITI occupe toute la portion Ouest de cette Ile
d6couverte et d6nommee "Hispanola" par Chris-
tophe Colombe;et fut la premiere Colonie d'Am6rique,
appel6e justement par les Espagnole "La Reine des Antilles"
et "Panier de fleurs et legumes" par les anciens colons
frangais.
Cette Ile est situee au centre des Antilles; latitude 17 36,
et 1958, Nord; longitude 7039, et 76051, Ouest du
m6ridien de Paris. Les distances entire les Iles voisines
sont: a l'Ouest: Cuba, 50 miles; Sud-Ouest: la Jamaique,
100 miles; Sud-Est: Porto Rico, 50 miles; Nord: Inagua
des Bahames Anglaises, 100 miles; Nord-Ouest: La
Floride, 600 miles, Sud, le V6n6zu6la, 600 miles, Sud Ouest:
Panama, 900 miles et au Nord: New York, 1000 miles.
La superficie de l'Ile entire d'Haiti oi Hispanola est
estimee A environ de 28,000 miles carries don't a peu pros
10,000 miles carries de la parties Ouest, forment la R6-
publique d'Haiti et le restant de 18,000 miles carries la plus
grande parties de 1'Ile forment la R6publique de Santo
Domingo.
Aucun relev6 topographique exact de cette Ile ainsi que
de la ligne frontiere entire les deux R6publiques n'ayant pas
encore 6t6 fait, les chiffres donn6s ne peuvent etre qu'ap-
proximatifs.
La parties de l'Ile occupee par le R6publique d'Haiti
consiste principalement de deux longues p6ninsules reliEes
par une base 6troite s'appuyant contre la R6publique
Dominicaine; ce qui lui donne une frontiere terrestre
d'environ 100 miles et une ligne c6tiere de plus de 1,000
miles, inclus les babies et iles.
BAIES ET PORTS: La forme particuliere et l'extra-
ordinaire longueur de ses c6tes forme une continue de babies
et golfes, don't plusieurs peuvent etre nommes de v6ritables
ports naturels, bien prot6g6s et profonds, tandis que d'autres
ne le sont que partiellement pendant certaines saisons et qui
deviendront en y construisant quelques brises lames et
apris le dragage de leur rades des ports de premier ordre.
Les principaux ports de la c6te, Nord de l'ile sont: Fort
Libert&, Cap Haitien, Port de Paix et le Mole Saint Nicolas,
ce dernier 6tant un port natural de premiere classes, profound
et bien prot6g6 par les terres de ses rivages, d'une longueur
de six miles sur trois de larger strat6giquement place
l'entr6e du "Passage du Vent," par lequel doivent passer
tous les bateaux naviguant entire le Nord des Etats Unis et
le Canal de Panama. De ce fait le port du Mole Saint
Nicolas est l'une des plus valuables possessions d'Haiti.
Entre les deux p6ninsules la c6te Ouest d'Haiti forme un
Golfe immense, appel6 le "Golfe de la Gonave," qui com-
prend A lui seul plus d'un tier des c6tes d'Haiti; A l'Est au
point le plus interieur de ce golfe est situ6e la baie et la ville
de Port au Prince, complftement prot6eges par les hautes
montagnes de l'Ile de la Gonave au centre du golfe formant
un port magnifique de belle profondeur et assez large pour
permettre aux flottes du monde d'y mouiller a leur aise.
Dans ce golfe de la Gonave se trouvent aussi les ports,
plus ou moins proteges de Gonaives, Saint Marc, Petit
Goave, Baradere et J6r6mie; ce dernier est virtuellement une
rade ouverte.
Sur la c6te Sud on trouve plusieurs ports partiellement
prot6g&s, les principaux sont: Aux Cayes, Aquin et Jacmel;
tous ces ports ont besoin de perfectionnement pour 8tre des
bons ports assures contre les intemperes du temps.
ILES: Inclus dans son territoire national, Haiti possede
trois Iles de grande valeur, une au large de chaque c6te,
don't la plus important "La Gonave" en face de Port au
Prince a l'Ouest de la cote, dans le golfe de la Gonave,
dimensions: 25 miles de longueur sur six de larger,
superficie environ 150 miles carries ou 1000.000 carreaux.
L'Ile de la Gonave est traverse par une chaine de
montagne de l'Est & L'Ouest ayant des sommets de 3000
pieds avec un climate delicieux sur ses plateaux 6lev6s.
Cette grande masse de terrain n'est pas cultiv6e A cause de
la pauvret6 d'eau et aussi du manque d'ancrage sure pour la
navigation, quoique deux babies (Ports) "Parc" dans le Sud
et l'Anse A Galet sur la cote Nord pourraient etre amelior6es.


Geography

HAITI occupies the extreme western portion of the
Island that Columbus named "Hispanola" and which
became the first settled part of the Americas and
was known in olden times as the "Queen of the West In-
dies" by the Spaniards and as the "Flower and vegetable
basket" by the early French settlers.
This Island is situated in the center of the West Indies;
Latitude 170 36" and 190 58" North and Longitude 700 39'
and 760 51" West of the Parisian Meridian: While the dis-
tances to the neighboring Islands are Cuba 50 miles, West:
Jamaica 100 miles, South West: Porto Rico 50 miles, South
East: Inagua, British Bahamas, 100 miles North and Florida
600 miles North West, or Venezuela 600 miles due South.
Panama 900 miles South West or New York 1000 miles
North.
The entire Island of Haiti or "Hispanola" has an esti-
mated area of about 28,000 square miles of which about
10,000 square miles, the Western part, belong to the Re-
public of Haiti while the remainder and larger portion,
rome 18,000 square miles, belong to the Republic of Santo
Domingo.
No exact survey of the Island has ever been made and
the dividing line (frontier) between the two Republics has
never been settled, for which reason only estimated areas
can be used.
The part of the Island occupied by the Republic of Haiti
consists chiefly of two long peninsulas connected by a
narrow base butting against the Dominican Republic,
which gives a land frontier of about 150 miles and a coast
line of more than 1,000 miles; when bays, headlands and
islands are included.
Bays and Harbors: On account of its peculiar form and
extraordinary length of coast line, Haiti has many bays
and harbors, several of which may be called first class
natural harbors, well protected and with deep water, while
others are only partly protected, according to season and
winds, and would need artificial labor, breakwater con-
struction or dredging to make them first class commercial
Ports for all seasons of the year.
On the North coast the principal Ports are Fort Libert6,
Cape Haitien, Port de Paix and Mole St. Nicolas, the last
named being a first class natural harbor with deep water
and well land locked, having an extension of more than
six miles long by three miles wide, strategically located
at the entrance of the "windwards channel" through which
all vessels must pass plying between the Northern ports
of the United States and the Panama Canal. In fact the
Port of "Mole St. Nicolas" is one of Haiti's most valuable
possessions.
The Western coast of Haiti, between the points of the
two great peninsulas forms one immense Bay or Gulf,
called the "Gonave Gulf", which includes more than one-
third of the entire Haitien coast line. At the farther inside
or most eastern part of this Gulf is situated the Bay and
Harbor of Port au Prince, thoroughly protected by the
great mountainous Island of Gonave which lies in the
center of the Gulf, making a magnificent, deep water, land
locked harbor, large enough to hold the navies of the world
in safe anchorage.
Within the Gulf of Gonave are also situated the more
or less protected harbors of Gonaives, Saint Marc, Petit
Goave, Baraderes and J6r6mie, the latter being virtually
an open roadstead.
On the South coast are to be found several partly pro-
tected ports, principal among which are the Ports of Aux
Cayes, Aquin and Jacmel, all of which would need con-
siderable work to make them safe harbors at all times.
Islands: Included in her national territory Haiti possesses
three large and very valuable islands-one laying off each
coast-the largest and most important being Gonave Is-
land, lying in the Gulf of Gonave, off the Western coast,
in front of Port au Prince Harbor, some 25 miles long by
six miles wide, containing about 150 square miles or 1,000,-
000 acres.
Gonave Island has a range of mountains, running East







Geographie

Sur les plateaux on trouve beaucoup de sources de ruis-
seaux qui malheureusement se percent A cause de la con-
sistance poreuse du terrain avant d'arriver A la c6te ou en
plaine. Mais il est facile d'y rem6dier par l'installation de
conduite d'eau sur ces places poreuses et l'on trouverait
alors assez d'eau pour la consommation et meme l'irrigation
des planes de la c6te.
L'lle de la Gonave a un sol tris riche, couvert d'une part
d'arbres A bois dur et de l'autre de paturages naturels.
Ses montagnes contiennent differents mineraux, mais le
future de cette Ile depend surtout de l'amelioration de ses
sources.
La deuxieme en importance est l'Ile de la Tortue, au large
de la cote nord, devant Port de Paix, qui fut fameux comme
refuge de Pirates des siecles passes. Cette Ile est de 18
miles de longueur sur 4 miles de larger; elle est reconnue
pour ses tortues et crabes rouges. Elle est surtout riche
en bois, en eaux et terrains d'une grande fertilit&, quoique
peu ou pas exploit6e. La troisieme Ile important est l'Ile
A Vache, au large de la cote Sud devant la baie des Cayes,
de 10 miles de long sur 2 de larger. Cette Ile est riche
en bons terrains et est bien arros6e.
RIVIERES. Dans toute la R6publique il n'existe qu'un
course d'eau qui pourrait etre appel un fleuve; l'Artibonite










Cap pittoresque qui protege la
c6lbre plage pres de la ville de
"Jacmel." .,
Favori point d'agr6ments ouvert
toute l'annee.











qui prend sa source dans La R6publique Dominicaine et
traverse Haiti en zig zag de 1'Est A l'Ouest, se jetant dans
le golfe de la Gonave entire Gonaives et Saint Marc au
Grand Marais Sales.
L'Artibonite est 200 miles long et est navigable pour
batiments a fond plat sur un tiers de son parcours. La
grande valeur de cette riviere pour l'irrigation future de la
valley et des planes du meme nom, I'Artibonite, I'une des
richesses agricoles de la R6publique.
Les autres rivieres, beaucoup des torrents d'une import-
ance toute locale. Comme principles parmi eux ont peut
nommer: "Massain Grande et Trois Rivieres se d6versant
au nord dans l'ocean Atlantique," la "Riviere Salee" "Cul
de Sac", Monmance" BaradIre et "Grande Anse" se jetant
dans le Golfe de la Gonave. Tandis que dans le Sud les
rivieres "Dame Marie", "Tiburon", "Grand Riviere", "Jac-
mel" et "Pedernales" se jettant dans la mer Caribienne.
LACS. Le seul important est le lac "Assuei" dans le
Sud Est de la R6publique, sur la frontiere Dominicaine, A
moins de 20 miles de Port au Prince. Ce lac, encadr&
pittoresquement, s'6ilve A 200 pieds au dessus du niveau
de la mer. L'eau de ce lac est sale et malgr6 son altitude
a le flux et reflux semblable a l'oc6an. I1 est navigable et
d'une &tendue de 12 miles sur deux A cinq miles de larger.
MONTAGNES. Le systeme montagneux d'Haiti est
divis6 en deux parties distinctes et s6par6es. La plus large


Geography

and West with peaks 3,000 feet high, which insures a most
delightful climate in the high plateau lands; this great
tract of land is entirely undeveloped on account of lack of
water in the coast lands and plains and the rather poor
anchorages for ships, although there are two fair ports that
could be made safe with some work ("Parc" on the South
and "Anse A Galets" on the North coast).
In the higher lands springs and creeks are abundant but
on account of the porous formation they lose themselves
before reaching the lowlands or coast plains, but this could
be remedied by simple engineering works by bringing the
waters of the springs and creeks over these porous places,
in conducts, for general use and irrigation along the coast
plains.
Gonave Island has very rich soil, heavily timbered, in
many sections and with great natural pastures in others,
while the mountains contain various minerals, but the en-
tire future of the island depends on proper arrangements
for assuring the water supply.
The next important is "Turtle Island", lying off the
North coast, in front of Port de Paix, which was famous
as a Pirate stronghold in past centuries, and is some 18
miles long by 4 wide; this island is famous for its turtles
and red crabs, has large tracts of fertile lands and is well










Picturesque headlands protecting
the famous bathing beach near the
City of "Jacmel."
A favorite all the year pleasure
resort.










timbered and watered, although almost entirely unde-
veloped.
The third island of importance is "Cow Island" lying
off the South coast in front of the bay of Aux Cayes, and
which is some 10 miles long by 2 miles wide, well watered
and with very fertile lands.
Rivers: In the entire Republic there exists only one
stream that could be designated as a river, the "Artibo-
nite" which rises in the Dominican Republic and zig-zags
its course through to Haiti, emptying into the Gonave
between Gonaives and Saint Marc at a point known as the
"Great Salt Marsh".
The Artibonite River is some 200 miles in length and is
navigable, for small flat bottom boats, for about a third
of its length.
The great value of the Artibonite river is for the future
irrigation of the valley and plains of the same name; this
being one of the great agricultural possibilities of Haiti.
The other so called rivers are merely "creeks" of more
or less importance to their respective localities. Principal
among them may be named the "Massaire", "Grand"
and "Trois Rivieres" emptying into the Atlantic ocean
on the North coast, the "Salt River", "Cul de Sac", "Mon-
mance", "Baraderes" and "Grande Anse" emptying into
the Gulf of Gonave while the "Dame Marie", "Tiburon",







G6ographie


et important va du Nord Est A travers le centre de la
R6publique jusqu'a la pointe extreme. de la p6ninsule
Nord Ouest, se divisant dans toutes les directions d'une
hauteur moyenne de 3000 h 4000 pieds avec quelques ex-
ceptions, qui on pretend ont jusqu'a 6000 pieds. Cette
chaine de montagnes est plutot une continuation de celle
du Nord se dirigant de l'Est A l'Ouest, traversant entiere-
ment 1'Ile d'Haiti ou Hispanola et don't la plus grande
parties se trouve en territoire Dominicaine appell6es le
"Cibao."
Du cote Haitien de la frontiere cette chaine se divise en
differentes branches connue localement sous les noms de
"Montagnes Noires" et Morne au Diable dans le district
central, et les mornes de Valliere et Plaisance dans le
Nord. Les montagnes de St. Nicolas suivent la peninsule
Nord finissant dans les promontoires qui protigent la bale
et le port du Mole Saint Nicolas A la pointe extreme Ouest.
La second chaine, montagnes de moindre importance,
s'6tend de la frontiire Dominicaine jusqu'au point extreme
Ouest de la grande peninsule du Sud, d'une distance de
200 miles envoyant ses branches jusqu'aux c6tes de la p6nin-
sule.
Cette chaine de montagnes du Sud a different noms, a
la frontiere dominicaine le "Bahoruco", puis les "Commis-
saires", les "Selles" "La Hotte" et finalement a l'extr6mite
de la peninsule cette montagne est connue comme les months
de "Macaya".
Ces diff6rents massifs sont la plupart covert de hauts
sommets et on y trouve beaucoup de bois pr6cieux et des
bois de construction tandis que les rayons de ces montagnes
se dirigeant vers les cotes sont pays pauvres, couvertes
de brousailles sur les hauteurs et des meilleurs arbres sur
les ravines et dans les vallees.
Ces montagnes ou mornes sont ordinairement bien aroses
par des sources et ruisseaux; le sol est riche et produit facile-
ment donnant les meilleures recoltes avec peu de soins,
sp6cialement le cafe qui prospire dans l'ombre, qui n'a besoin
que d'un sarelage superficiel pour 8tre plant&. Le prob-
lime le plus difficile dans ces regions montagneuses est la
transportation des products, mais grace a l'activit6 actuelle
du Department des Travaux Publics ce problme commence
A se r6soudre et on a commence de construire des bonnes
routes A travers les regions les plus importantes.
PLAINES: Dans la parties septentrionale aux portes de
la ville du Cap Haitien s'etendent les belles planes du
"Nord"; 1200 miles carrns; sur la cote Ouest et tributaire
du Golfe de la Gonave aux abords de la ville de Gonaives
se deroulent les fameuses planes du meme nom d'une ex-
tension d'a peu pres de 200 miles carries. Puis les quatres
grandes planes de la plaine de l'Artibonite: "St. Thomas",
"Banica", "Gonave" et l'Artibonite; ces quatres planes
ont une superficie total de plus de 2500 miles carries;
la derniere de ces planes, "L'Artibonite" est la plus grande
avec environ 1500 miles carries. Puis viennent les planes
du Cul de Sac avec environ 100 miles carries. Au Nord
de la ville de Port au Prince se trouvent les planes de l'Arca-
haie avec plus de 150 miles carries et a l'Ouest se trouvent
les planes de Loegane avec plus de 50 miles carries; au
Sud on trouve les planes de Cayes avec plus ou moins
de 200 miles carries.
Comme on peut voir Haiti posside A peu pres 5000 miles
carries de planes, divis6es en sept sections dans diff6rents
endroits de la R6publique et tous sont situees dans le
voisinage d'un grand port qui leur facility la transportation
de leurs products. Ces planes sont d'une fertility sans
pareille, mais l'irrigation est absolument n6cessaire pour
obtenir le r6sultat desire d'un point de vue agricole.
Les plus grandes, les plus fertiles et plus facile A develop-
per de ces planes sont les planes de l'Artibonite, aux portes
de la ville de Saint Marc, puisque l'Artibonite, la plus
grande rivibre de la R6publique donnera l'eau necessaire
pour regler l'irrigation de ces planes.


Geography


"Grand Ravine", "Jacmel" and "Perdernales" empty into
the Caribbean Sea, from the South coast.
Lakes: The only lake of importance is the "Assuei" in
the South-Eastern part of the Republic, on the dominican
Frontier, less than 20 miles from Port au Prince. Al-
though 200 feet above sea level the lake is salty and by one
of the peculiar laws of nature this salty lake, even at its
high altitude above the sea, has a rise and fall of tide similar
to the ocean. It is some 12 miles long and 2 to 5 miles
wide and navigable.
The Miragoane lake, situated in the uplands back of
Miragoans and Petit Goave is some 5 miles long and two
wide, with a depth of 100 to 150 feet.
Mountains: The Mountain Ranges of Haiti are divided
into two distinct and separate systems: the larger and more
important range runs north-east through the center of the
Republic to the extreme point of the upper peninsula,
with off-set spurs branching off in all directions, they have
an average altitude of 3,000 to 4,000 feet although it is
claimed that some peaks go as high as 6,000 feet above sea
level. This range is merely a continuation of the Northern
range running from east to west through the entire island
of Haiti or "Hispanola", the greater portion of which lay
in Dominican territory and are called the "Cibao Range."
On the Haitien side of the frontier the Range is very
much split into spur ranges carrying such local names as
"Black Mountains" and the "Devil Mountains" in the
Central district and the "Vallieres Mountains" and "Plais-
ance Mountains" in the North; the "St. Nicolas Range"
follow the northern peninsular, ending in the great head-
lands which protect the Bay and Port of Mole St. Nicolas
at the extreme Western point.
The second, and less important range of mountains
extend from the Dominican frontier west to the extreme
point of the great southern peninsula.
This southern range has various local names; beginning
at the Dominican frontier the range is called "Bahoruco,"
then "Commissaires," then "Selles," then "La Hotte,"
and lastly, at the extreme end of the peninsula, the range
is called the "Macaya Mountains."
These various mountain ranges are, for the most part,
heavily wooded, with fine hardwood and construction tim-
bers, while the offshoots or spur ranges which jut out to the
coasts are rather poorly wooded, with scrub timber on the
heights and the better timber on the lower slopes and in
the ravines and valleys.
Plains: In the Northern part of the Republic are situ-
ated the great plains of the North" with some 1200 square
miles, back of the Port and City of Cape Haitien; on the
west coast and tributary to the Gulf of Gonave are located
the famous plains of Gonaives, near the city of that name,
with some 200 square miles, after which come the four
great plains of the Artibonite Valley-"St. Thomas,"
"Banica," "Gonave" and "Artibonite"-these four plains
have a total area of more than 2500 square miles-the last
named-the "Plains of Artibonite" being the largest with
about 1500 square miles. To the North of Port au Prince
are the "Plains of Arcahaie" with more than 150 square
miles and to the West are situated the plains of "Leogane"
with an extension of about 50 square miles; on the south
(caribbean) coast are found the plains of "Cayes" with more
or less 200 square miles.
As will be seen from the above calculated areas, Haiti
has some 5000 square miles of plains, divided into seven
sections, in distinct parts of the Republic, and all of them
are near deep water transportation. The soil of these
plains are of unrivalled fertility, but irrigation is an absolute
necessity in order to get the full returns, from an agricul-
tural point of view.
The largest, most fertile, and from an engineering point
of view, the most easily developed of these plains are those
of the Artibonite Valley, just back of the City of Saint
Marc, as the Artibonite river, the largest in the Republic,
will give a sufficiency of water for irrigation, if properly
handled.






Instruction Publique

L E D6partement de l'Instruction Publique en Haiti se
reorganise et se modernise enti6rement sous la capable
administration du Secr6taire d'Etat actuel, Monsieur
Dantes Bellegarde, l'homme le plus habile de la R6publique
pour l'organisation important de ce D6partement de
l'Administration.
Pendant la p6riode de la colonie il 6tait naturellement
contre les id6es du coloniste de donner une education A
l'escalve et 1'education ne pourrait non plus augmenter la
valeur de l'escalve; mais au contraire l'education leur
aurait permis de r6fl6chir et de r6aliser leur position et pour
cette raison, c'est seulement apris la guerre de l'ind6pen-
dance de 1804 que l'Instruction Publique fut connue en
Haiti.
Les premiers Gouverneurs d'Haiti, Empereur, Roi ou
President on commence graduellement A faire connaitre au
people la grande valeur de 1'iducation et pendant que
certain gouverneurs ont fait leur mieux pour faire du bien,
g6n6ralement leur oeuvre fut d6truite par leur successeur
qui regardait leur entreprise d'une autre point de vue et












Type d'ecoles publiques qu'on peut-trouver dans chaque
village et ville d'Haiti. H aii a ra da e f re
La meilleure garantie, que Haiti aura dans le future
paix et prospirite. ,r -












ordonna ua change general du D6partement, ce qui natu-
rellement rendait la bonne march de l'administration dans
un 6tat assez incertain. Le r6sultat de cette diplomatic
peu certain 6tait, que le seul Haitien qui recevait une
education 6tait celui qui itait instruit par les pr6tres cath-
oliques qui 6tait partout dans le pays ou celui qui fut
envoy& en France pour y faire son education.
De cette manibre seulement un petit nombre de la classes
moyenne et du bas people recevait une education l66men-
taire des 6coles des pr6tres pendant que les riches recevaient
une education Frangaise & Paris except pendant les p6riodes
que le Gouvernement reellement nomma un homme intel-
ligent et competent pour diriger le D6partement de l'In-
struction Publique.
L'administration pr6sente sous l'intelligente supervision
du President Dartiguenave, a entreprise une r6forme du
Dipartement entier de l'Instruction Publique pour la rior-
ganization complete de ce d6partement. La premiere
measure etait d'assurer l'homme qu'il fallaitcomme Secr6taire
d'Etat de l'Instruction Publique, ce qui 6tait tris difficile,
mais on finalement trouva l'homme n6cessaire dans la
personnel de Monsieur Dantes Bellegarde et il s'est prouv6
competent par les r6formes qu'il a d6jh entrepris dans son
department. Monsieur Bellegarde est un home de
grand talent et activity& et il a pris un grand interft dans


Public Instruction

THE Department of Public Instruction of Haiti is
being thoroughly reorganized and modernized under
the very able administration of the actual Secretary,
Mr. Dantes Bellegarde, the man best fitted in the Republic
for this delicate and important work.
In the colonial times it was naturally against the colonists'
idea of slave raising to permit education of any description,
and education did not increase the value of the slave; but
on the contrary caused them to think of and to feel their
position and condition so that what is termed "Public
Instruction" had its birth in Haiti only after the war of
Independence in 1804.
The first rulers of free Haiti, Emperor, King or President,
began little by little, to arouse their people to the value of
education, and while some of the rulers made great strides
in the right direction their good work was generally undone
by his successor who had some different views on the subject
and would order a general change in the Department which
went far to keep everything in a state of uncertainty. The
results of these uncertain policies were that the only Haitians












.A' A type of the Public Schools to be found in every town
?iS The best guarantee that Haiti has for her future peace
NO and prosperity.













who received an education were those taken in hand by the
Catholic priests, scattered over the country or who were
sent to France by parents of means.
In this way, only a limited number of the middle and
lower class received a moderate education from the Priests'
schools while the upper and wealthy class received a thor-
ough French education in Paris, except in such periods as
the Government happened to appoint a man who would
really give his energies and personal attention to the schools,
which was rarely the case.
The present Administration, under the wise guidance
of President Dartiguenave, undertook to reform the entire
Department of Public Instruction in a thorough and drastic
manner.. The first step was to secure the right man for
the important post of Secretary of State and Public Instruc-
tion, which was and is a difficult position, and in Mr.
Dantes Bellegarde they found the proper man, as is evi-
denced by the wonderful work of reorganization that he has
done and is doing. A man of rare talent and great ability
who has thrown himself soul and body into the important
work of educating the youth of Haiti.
The new organization of the Department of Public In-
struction has the Republic divided into 14 School Districts,
each under a competent District Inspector of Schools and
according to the latest statistics these 14 districts have
to-day the following schools:






Instruction Publique

l'oeuvre de l'education de la jeunesse Haitienne.
La nouvelle organisation du D6partement de l'Instruction
Publique a divis& la R6publique en 14 districts scolaires et
selon les dernieres statistiques ces 14 districts ont aujourd'-
hui les ecoles suivantes:
387 Ecoles l66mentaires rurales avec ........ 21960 el6ves
266 Ecoles 616mentaires urbaines avec....... 13881 "
105 Ecoles Presbyteriennes avec............ 4836 "
49 Ecoles prives avec ................... 325 "
29 Ecoles des Soeurs .................... 5141 "
8 Ecoles des Freres ................... 2576 "
10 Ecoles populaires .................... 1009 "
2 Ecoles professionnelles pour filles........ 133 "
1 Ecole des Arts et M6tiers ............. 555 "
Ecole l66mentaire prive. ............... 5481 "
Colleges Nationaux ................... 2012 "
Colleges priv6s. ...................... 2904 "

857 ecoles avec................... ...... 61313 lives
Les &coles 616mentaires recoivent des lives de cinq ans
jusqu'a quatorze et les colleges de 14 jusqu'a 17 et les
lois concernant l'instruction publique promulg6es en diff6r-
entes p6riodes d6clarent ces 6tablissements des institutions
d'utilit6 publique.











Une classes typique d'intrm- -
ibre, graduant chaque ann6e sous O
administration Dartiguenave.











Apr~s avoir pass par une cole il6mentaire et alors le
college chaque 6lve qui a passe les examens avec succis
peut s'enroler dans un des Colleges Nationales pour obtenir
son dipl6me comme avocat, docteur en m6decine, dentist,
pharmacien etc. Chaque live admis a un de ces colleges
doit avoir plus de 16 ans et tenir son dipl6me d'une cole
normal.
En plus des icoles mentionnees ci-dessus il y a encore
quatre ecoles techniques: "L'6cole des sciences pour gar-
cons"; L'6cole des arts et m6tiers pour garcons et I'6cole
"Elie Dubois" pour jeunes filles et l'Orphelinat "La Made-
leine."
Une &cole de commerce, qui est assez important, a 6t6
organis6e par le bien connu professeur, Monsieur Gabriel E.
Pierre; cet ftablissement qui a meme un charactire priv6
est sous le contr61e direct du Gouvernement et les leaves
doivent passer un examen r6gulier devant les inspecteurs
du Gouvernement pour obtenir leurs dipl6mes.
Monsieur le Ministre Bellegarde continue avec son oeuvre
de r6forme des ecoles dans toute la R6publique en conform-
it6 avec les fonds qu'on met A sa disposition.
Son excellence le Pr6sident Dartiguenave donne tous son
concours A l'oeuvre de Monsieur Bellegarde pour riorganiser
ce D6partement si important pour l'iducation de la jeunesse
Haitienne.


Public Instruction

Elementary Rural Schools with.........21,960 pupils
Elementary Urban schools with......... 13,881 "
Presbyterian Schools with.............. 4,836 "
Mixed private schools with............. 825 "
Girls schools (Catholic sisters) with...... 5,141 "
Boys schools (Catholic priests) with..... 2,576 "
Mixed popular schools with............. 1,009 "


Girls professional schools with ..........
Manual Labor school with..............
Private Elementary school.............
National High Schools.............. .
Private High Schools................ .


133
555
5,481
2,012
2,904


857 Schools with...................... 61,313 pupils

The Elementary Schools receive pupils from 5 to 14 and
the High schools from 14 to 17 years old, and the various
Educational Laws passed at different periods, since the
formation of the Republic, declare these Government schools
free, and even compulsory.
After passing through the Elementary and then the











A typical "class" of trained
nurses being graduated every year
under the Dartiguenave adminis-
4 -- tration.










High Schools, any scholar, who has successfully passed
the examinations, may enroll in any of the colleges, to grad-
uate as lawyer, doctor in medicine Surgeon, Dentist, Phar-
macist, etc. These College courses are free to holders of
high school diplomas, who are over 16 years old.
In addition to the regular educational courses, as de-
scribed above, there are four special technical or training
schools: "The Scientific Technical School for boys; The
Manual Labor School also for boys; "Elie Dubois" for girls
and the "Orphans Institute La Madeleine" for girls.
An important commercial college has been organized and
installed by the well known professor, Gabriel E. Pierre,
which, although of a private character, is under direct
supervision of the Government Inspectors, who issue a
proper Government certificate to the graduate who passes
the Examination and receive diplomas.
SMinister Bellegarde is proceeding with his re-organization
of old conditions and the proper installation of new and
modern schools, in all parts of the Republic, as fast as he
receives the proper funds for the work.
President Dartiguenave is giving all possible finan-
cial aid to Mr. Bellegarde, as well as loaning his great
personal influence to this most important and necessary
Department which means so much to the Haitian youth
of the future.






Commerce et Industrie


LE Commerce et l'Industrie en Haiti sont deux facteurs
de la vie national si entrelac6s que les d6crire
separ6ment est une chose presque impossible.
Afin de bien comprendre les conditions particulieres du
commerce et de l'industrie en Haiti il est n6cessaire pour le
lecteur de se rappeler que Haiti a une population de plus de
2,500,000 habitants et moins de 10% n'ont -jouit
d'aucune education et cette grande masse de gens ont eu
tres peu d'ambition pour eux memes ou leurs families et ils
ont encore moins les fonds n6cessaires pour meme satisfaire
les peu d'ambitions qu'ils pourront avoir.
Le dix pour cent d'Haitiens, r6ellement instruits, graduent
des institutions locales, 6coles, colleges ou seminaires
lesquels 6tablissements sont presque tous dirig6s par les
prftres catholiques et ceux qui ont les moyens ont obtenu
une education en France, aux Etats Unis, en Allemagne ou
Angleterre; mais tous ceux avec tres peu d'exception,
presque toujours ont embrass6 une profession ou la carrieres
politique laissant ainsi Haiti presqu'entierement sans la
classese moyenne" qui dans tous les pays du monde est le
fondement, parce que c'est elle qui donne le commercant,
banquier, industrial et fabricant; pour nous exprimer par
des autres mots on pourrait dire que Haiti a toujours










Fabrique moderne pour extraire
la prefieuse matiere tinctoriale du
bois de campeche. Industrie nou-
velle en Haiti.










essays de vivre seulement avec une t8te et les pieds sans le
coeur, l'estomac et les poumons ce qui causa toujours les
troubles et intrigues politiques, revolutions et guerres civils
ce que le Pays supportait pendant plus de 100 ans jusqu'au
moment oti par administration actuelle une convention fut
signee avec le Gouvernement des Etats Unis dans un sensible
effort d'obtenir reellement pour Haiti le coeur, poumons et
estomac, pour donner assez de force A cette tete vraiment
intellectuelle et les pieds bien capable pour prendre
soins des functions naturelles du Pays et de presenter au
monde entier une R6publique bien d6velopp6e et bien ad-
ministr6e.
Provisoirement le coeur, les poumons et l'estomac de la
Republique d'Haiti, ce qui veut dire: l'agriculture, le
commerce et l'industrie depuis 1804 jusqu'en 1915 6taient
pour la plupart repr6sent6s par des Etrangers: Allemands,
Frangais, Syriens, Belges et Anglais, avec l'importance dans
l'ordre nommee qui naturellement ne se preoccupaient pas
beaucoup du sort d'Haiti pendant qu'eux pouvaient obtenir
leur part.
Aujourd'hui tout est change; les grandes propri6tes
allemandes ont 6t6 confisquees et vendues ce qui a ouvert la
porte A la competition et a influence beaucoup le progres du
commerce, de l'industrie et de l'agriculture.
Les ennuis politiques ayant 6t6 mis compl&tement de
cot6, le vrai Haitien se familiarise rapidement avec les
entreprises agricoles et le commerce et l'industrie. Le pays


Commerce and Industry

HE commerce and industry of Haiti are two factors of
the national life so intimately interwoven with each
other that separate articles would merely mean repe-
tition.
In order to understand the very peculiar commercial and
industrial conditions of Haiti it is very necessary for the
reader of this article to keep in mind the fact that Haiti
has a population of more than 2,500,000 souls, less than 10%
of whom have any education at all, and this great mass of
uneducated people have had very little ambition for them-
selves and families and still less actual money with which
to satisfy such small ambitions as they might have had.
(See article on Public Instruction.)
The 10% of really educated Haitians, graduates of the
local institutions-schools, colleges and seminaries, run
mostly by French catholic Priests-or the wealthier class
who have graduated from colleges in France, United States,
Germany or England, have almost without exception turned
to some profession or Politics, leaving Haiti almost entirely
without the so-called "middle class," the foundation and
rock on which all successful countries must stand as from
this "class" comes the merchant, banker, skilled laborer
and industrial, in other words Haiti endeavored to live with











Modern factory for extracting
the valuable dyefrom the Logwood.
A new Industrial venture in Haiti.










head and feet, and leave out entirely the heart, lungs, and
stomach, hence the continual turmoil, political intrigues,
revolutions and civil wars, which the country withstood for
more than 100 years, when a treaty was signed with the
United States, by the present Administration, in a whole
hearted and sensible effort to manufacture a set of real
Haitian heart, lungs and stomach powerful enough to force
the really intellectual head and the very able feet to per-
form their natural functions and assume to the world a
prosperous and well developed and managed Republic.
The provisional heart, lungs and stomach of the Republic
of Haiti, which means literally, agriculture, commerce and
industries, from 1804 to 1915 were largely foreigners: Ger-
mans, French, Syrians, Belgians and English, with impor-
tance in the order named, who cared very little what be-
came of Haiti so long as they got their "bit."
To-day all is changed, the immense German holdings
have been confiscated and sold, which has opened the doors
of competition and given a great impetus to all classes and
grades of commerce, industry and agriculture.
With the political "bugaboo" laid completely to rest the
real Haitian is rapidly coming into his own in commercial
and industrial circles, as well as in agriculture and other
national enterprises. The country is prospering, the
Hatian people are prospering and the world participates
in this prosperity by adding one more country to the list
of civilized and contented nations.







Commerce et Industrie


prospire, la population prospire et le monde entier prend
part dans cette prosperity puisque un pays en plus a it6
ajout ah la liste des nations civilis6es et bien organisees.
Pour assurer la stability financiere du Pays trois grandes
banques ont ouvertes des branches en Haiti: The National
City Bank de New York contr6le maintenant l'ancienne
Banque Nationale d'Haiti avec le bureau principal a Port
au Prince et 12 branches dans les 12 villes principles de la
R6publique. The Royal Bank of Canada vient d'ouvrir
ses bureaux principaux a Port au Prince et graduellement
ouvrira aussi des branches dans toutes les autres villes.
The American Foreign Banking Corporation a ouvert une
branch a Port au Prince et bientot installera des branches
dans les autres villes principles. A part de ces banques il y
a encore des nombreuses autres maisons de commerce ou de
banque telles que: W. R. Grace & Co., McFadden Bros.,
Roberts Dutton & Co., Richardson & Co., et plusieurs
autres de plus ou moins d'importance, mais qui tous sont
int6ress6 dans le progris du pays.
Des grands fabricants et lee grandes maisons de commerce
6tablissent des branches a Port au Prince: Armour & Co.,
Swift & Co., Everett, Heaney & Co., Texaco Oil Co., et
plusieurs agencies d'automobiles et des autres entreprises
viennent d'etre cr6ertoutes tachant d'ameliorer les conditions
existantes en Haiti.









Vue d'une parties de la grande manufacture
de sel A la bouche de la riviere Artibonite, pres
de Gonaives.









La plus grande des entreprises actuelles en Haiti est la
"Haitian American Corporation" avec un capital de-
plusieurs millions invest dans quatre grandes companies:
(a) La grande Usine a Sucre "Hasco" avec une capacity
de 100,000 sacs de sucre par an (32,500,000 livres). L'in-
stallation est du plus moderne type et on vient de finir
justement de mouler la r6colte de la premiere annie. (b)
La Compagnie du Chemin de Fer P. C. S. qui a pris sous sa
direction et contr6le l'ancien chemin de fer de Port au Prince
a Thomazeau et construit une nouvelle ligne de Port au
Prince a Leogane representant en total une quantity de
miles de voie ferr6e. (c) Les tramways de la ville de Port
au Prince sont op6ers actuellement par vapeur mais la
Compagnie a l'intention de faire opirer ces tramways par
ilectriciti en combinaison avec les plants 6lectriques de
Port au Prince et Cap Haitien lesquelles ils ont achet6es
aussi. (d) L'immense et moderne wharf de Port au Prince
ou plusieurs des plus grands bateaux peuvent accoster en
meme temps.
La Compagnie Nationale des Chemins de Fer d'Haiti,
(The Caribbean Construction Co.) une compagnie Ameri-
caine qui retient une concession pour lier les villes princi-
pales du centre et du Nord d'Haiti. Trois sections de cette
ligne sont di6j completes (voir article concernant trans-
portation) et quand cette ligne sera complete elle aidera
beaucoup au d6veloppement du commerce et de l'industrie
de la R6publique d'Haiti.


Commerce and Industry


To insure further financial stability of the country, three
great Banking houses have opened branches in Haiti: The
National City Bank of New York now controls the old
National Bank of Haiti, with its principal headquarters in
Port au Prince and its twelve branch banks located in the
twelve principal cities of the Republic. The Royal Bank
of Canada has opened its principal offices in Port au Prince
and will install branches in all principal cities as fast as
conditions warrant: The American Foreign Banking Cor-
poration has opened a branch in Port au Prince and expect
to open branches in other cities later on, while many private
Banking concerns are already established, such as W. R.
Grace & Co., McFadden Bros., Roberts Dutton & Co.,
Richardson & Co., and many others of less importance, all
preparing to take active interest in the march of progress
already being felt in Haiti.
"Big Business," manufacturer and wholesaler, are rapidly
establishing local branch houses in Port au Prince: such as
Armour & Co., Swift & Co., Everett, Heaney & Co.,
Texico Oil Co., several automobile agencies and many other
concerns of like character, all doing their part to help Haiti
and her people, while they are helping themselves.
The largest of the new concerns now doing business in
Haiti is the "Haitian American Corporation," with several
millions of capital already invested in four different sub-









A partial view of the great Salt Works at
the mouth of the Artibonite River, near Go-
nalves.










companies: (a) The great Hasco Sugar Mills with a capacity
of 100,000 bags of sugar each year (32,500,000 pounds).
These mills are of the most modern type and have just
finished their first year's grinding. (b) The P. S. C. Rail-
road Co. which has taken over the old railway from Port
au Prince to Thomazeau and has built the new line from
Port au Prince to Leogane, making a total of some 70
miles of operating railways. (c) The Port au Prince City
street car lines, which they are preparing to operate by
electricity, instead of steam, in combination with the
Electric Light system of Port au Prince and Cape Haitien,
which they have purchased outright. (d) The immense,
modern wharfs at Port au Prince which are capable of
handling several large steamers at the same time.
The National Railroad of Haiti (The Caribbean Construc-
tion Co.), an American Corporation with concession to
connect the principal cities of Central and Northern Haiti,
have already three sections of their line completed (see
article on transportation) and when finished will be a great
aid in the development of the commercial and industrial
life of Haiti.
Many other concerns have been, or are being organized
with both Haitian and Foreign capital, to develop some of
the various natural resources which only await capital to
become paying assets to the country, such as mining outfits,
timber cutting outfits, agricultural combinations, etc.
The best indication of the actual progress of the com-






Commerce et Industrie


Beaucoup des autres companies et corporations sont en
train oh sont dejh organis&es, soit avec du capital haitien
ou stranger pour developper les resources naturelles du
Pays qui seulement ont besoin d'etre exploits pour donner
des bonnes revenues; ne mentionnons que les grandes forces
et les mines.
La meilleure indication du progres actuel du Commerce et
de l'Industrie en Haiti est I'ardeur avec laquelle l'elite de la
soci6t& Haitienne est entree dans les affaires et leur succes
exceptional qu'ils ont dans toutes les branches, la preuve
qu'A une date peu distant, Haiti aura un group de com-
mercants, banquiers et industries plus qu'6gaux dans leur
condition, que ces brillants professionals et politicians
regardaient d'un oeil d6favorable le n6gociant ou l'industriel.
Le grand et sensible changement d'id6e est clairement
indiqu6 par le fait que tout les grands chefs de parties
politique, avocats et medecins conduisent l'education de
leurs fils sur des lignes nouvelles, envoyant leurs enfants
faire leurs 6tudes dans les institute commerciaux ou in-
dustriels des Etats Unis, d'odi ils sortent charge d'une
experience pratique du commerce, en place et lieu de
dipl6mes professionals.
L'avenir de la vie commercial oi industrielle d'Haiti
depend de la promptitude avec laquelle seront d6velopp6s
ses resources naturelles puisque sans le d6veloppement de










Preparation pour 1'exportation de la pr&-
cieuse ecorce calandrer, employer pour le tan-
nage.









ces resources la balance du commerce est centre le pays
puisque en effet, les importations surpasseront les export-
ations et ce ne peut &tre rem6di6, que par l'6tablissement
d'industries dans le pays.
Toutes sortes de "Chambres de Commerce" existent dans
plusieurs villes, mais seulement sur le paper, et ne repre-
sentent aucune valeur r6elle A personnel ni d'un point de vue
financier ni d'un sens pratique pour I'industriel ou le com-
mercant. Ils ont des status bien 6crits qui promettent
beaucoup mais qui finalement prouvent avoir 6ti un vain
effort et inutile d6pense de paper. Maintenant, comme le
Haitien intelligent et instruit a commence de s'interesser au
commerce et A l'industrie il est a souhaiter que bient6t on
organisera la publication de statistiques, brochures et
propagandes.
Les exports du pays deviennent de jour en jour plus
important comme on peut voir du rapport de la Douane,
(voir article sur les Douanes) ce qui prouve que Haiti
advance sur la voie du progris et que ses resources vont etre
exploits au measure que les fonds necessaires seront obtenus.
Autrefois aucune attention' 6tait donn& qu'aux products
tels que: cafe, bois de teinture et bois dur, quoique l'on
exportait le cacao, extrait de gaiac, miel, pite, sponges,
peaux de boeuf, &cailles de tortues, coton, amidon etc. les
fluctuations des prix suivant les conditions du pays, mais
dependant principalement de la demand de ces articles
sur les marches strangers.


Commerce and Industry


mercial and industrial life in Haiti is the manner in which
the best class of Haitians have entered the business life,
and the exceptional success they are making in every branch,
which means that at no distant date Haiti will have her
own merchants, bankers and industrials, fully equal, in
their chosen line, to the very brilliant professional and
political classes which have formerly depreciated anything
in the ordinary trade and industrial line. This great and
favorable change is clearly indicated by the fact that the
great political chiefs, lawyers and doctors are sending their
sons to Northern business colleges where they will gain
practical business experience in place of some professional
diploma, as in former years.
The future of Haiti's commercial and industrial life de-
pends on the promptness with which her valuable natural
resources are developed, as without the development of
these resources the balance of trade stands against her, in
the fact that her Imports exceed her Exports, and this
change can only be realized by the establishment of home
industries of all kinds.
All kinds of "Chambers of Commerce" exist in different
cities, on paper, but are of no real value to any one in the
real sense of the word as they have not the proper support,
either in a financial way or in practical interest and atten-
tion from the merchants and industrials as a whole; they










SPreparing for shipment the valuable mangle
bark used for tanning.









have wonderfully worded "by-laws" which promise much
but which in the end are only so much wasted effort and
paper. Now, with the entrance of the intelligent and edu-
cated Haitian into commercial and industrial life, much can
be hoped for in a practical way, in the shape of real statistics,
commercial reports, proper pamphlets of propaganda, etc.,
etc.
The Haitian Exports are fast becoming more diversified,
as will be seen from the Custom House reports (see article
on Custom houses) which proves that Haiti is going forward
and that her resources are being carefully studied and
exploited as fast as the capital is found to handle the
business.
Formerly very little attention was given to anything out-
side of coffee, dyewoods and hardwoods, although the
exportation of cocoa, extract of Lignum Vitae, honey, sisal,
sponges, hides, tortoise shell, cotton, starch, etc., fluctuated
according to conditions in Haiti and the special demands
for these articles in the outside world.
From the very unreliable data at hand it is noted that the
combined imports and exports of Haiti, during the latter
part of the past century fluctuated between the total sums
of ten to twenty million dollars yearly, and some years
reaching as high as twenty-four million dollars.
In the beginning of the present century the fluctuation of
Imports and Exports became more marked, with a steady
tendency to decrease, on account.of internal disorders, ex-






Commerce et Industrie


Des vieux statistiques, peu exactes, on peut remarquer
que les imports et exports d'Haiti pendant la derniere
parties du dernier siecle se montait de dix A vingt millions
dollars par an, obtenant pendant certaines ann6es un
chiffre tant 6lev6 que 24 millions.
Au commencement du present siecle les fluctuations des
imports et exports s'accentuirent d'une facon marquee avec
une forte tendance A se diminuer, cause par les guerres
civiles, les dettes int&rieures et exterieures, gaspillage des
revenues du Gouvernement, par des mauvais politicians
et des commercants strangers, peu scrupuleux. Ces mau-
vaises conditions continuerent et devinrent pires jusqu'A
ce qu'une fin abrupte y fut mise par la signature de la con-
vention, mentionn6e d6ja, avec les Etats Unis.
Un coup d'oeil sur l'article concernant les Douanes
prouve que depuis la signature du sus-dit traits en 1915, les
exports de l'annee fiscal 1916-1917 furent de $7,220,239.68
don't plus de 50% ont 6t6 exp6dies aux Etats Unis et pour
l'ann6e 1917-1918 les exportations ne furent que $6,577,-
846.19 don't plus de 87% pour les Etats Unis tandis que
durant les premier six mois de l'annee pr6sente-1918-1919
les exports se chiffrent dejt $15,000,000.00 don't plus de
70% pour les Etats Unis. Les Importations de 1916-1917
et 1917-1918 se chiffrent h un total de $8,608,085.79 et
9,741,598.03 respectivement, plus de 80% de ces marchan-
dises venaient des Etats Unis pendant que pendant les
premiers six mois de l'ann6e pr6sente plus de $8,300,000.00
ont &t6 imports don't a peu pros 90% des Etats Unis.
Ces statistiques officielles montrent que les imports et
exports ont dans la premiere moiti6 de l'ann6e presente
atteint un point plus 61ev6 que la plus haute moyenne des
ann6es anterieures et il est bon de se rappeler qu'on est
arrive h ce r6sultat pendant les conditions defavorables
de la guerre mondiale, ce qui donne une bonne idWe des
possibilities du commerce Haitien quand la navigation
sera r6tablie et les richesses naturelles du pays proprement
d6velopp6es.
Il est vrai que les industries locales ne se d6veloppent
que sur une petite 6chelle. mais ils ont 6et commence dans
des bonnes conditions.
Des moulins a coton et Usines a l'huile de coton sont
deja en operation, plusieurs fabriques de chaussures,
op6rbes a la main, des tanneries, fabriques de bougies,
moulins A cannes et distilleries commencent a atre installs,
ils leur manquent l'outillage n&cessaire tandis que les brique-
teries et les scieries sont surchag6s de travail pour r6pondre
a la demand grandissante de mat6riaux de construction.
Une Compagnie Americaine de cigarettes vient d'etre
installed produisant une cigarette vraiment bonne et une autre
compagnie Am6ricaine vient d'etre fondue pour l'extraction
du bois de campeche et en plus il y a dans different parts
de la R6publique des Usines a cafe pour la preparation de
ce produit afin d'obtenir un bon prix & l'exportation.
Main d'oeuvre: Haiti possede une abondance de travail-
leurs qui travaille a des prix assez bas (15 h 30 centimes or
par jour) mais on doit tenir compete que tous ces travailleurs
n'ont pas beaucoup d'expirience; ils ont la bonne volont6
et il faut leur apprendre peu a peu; mais en r6sumi Haiti
n'a pas besoin de se prioccuper de la main d'oeuvre, c'est
seulement une question de choix et d'entrainement pratique.
Monnaie: Le dollar ou paper Haitien est appel6 "Gour-
de" et est divis6 en 100 centimes, de meme que le dollar
Am6ricain et il a des pieces de nickel de 50, 20, 10 et cinq
centimes et deux pieces de cuivre-un et deux centimes.
La valeur actuelle de cette monnaie a 6t6 fix6e par le trait
de 1915 h cinq pour un, soit une Gourde Haitienne vaut
20 centimes or et cinq gourdes valent un dollar.
Toutes les transactions commercials se font soit en or
ou en gourdes sur la base de cinq pour un.


Commerce and Industry


ternal and internal National debts, graft manipulations by
local politicians and foreign Bankers and commercial houses,
and these unsatisfactory conditions continued and became
gradually worse until a definite end was made of them by
the signing of the before mentioned convention and treaty
with the United States.
A glance at the article on Custom Houses, since the
signing of the 1915 treaty will show that the Exports for the
Fiscal Year 1916-1917 amounted to $7,220,239.68, of which
more than 50% went to the United States and for the year
1917-1918 the exports were only $6,577,846.19, of which
more than 80% went to the United States, while in the first
6 months of the present Fiscal Year (1918-1919) the Exports
already amount to nearly $15,000,000.00, more than 70% of
which was shipped to the United States. The Imports for
1916-1917 and 1917-1918^reached the totals of $8,606,-
085.79 and $9,741,598.03, respectively, more than 80% of
these imports were brought from the United States, while
in the first 6 months of the fiscal year in course, more than
$8,300,000.00 have already been imported, of which about
90% came from the United States.
As shown by the above official statistics, the Haitian
Imports and Exports have, in one half year of the present
fiscal year reached and passed the highest averages of
former times, and it must be remembered that she has done
this under war time shipping conditions which will give a
fair idea of what the commerce of Haiti will be when real
Peace time shipping conditions are again in force and the
natural resources of the country are being properly devel-
oped.
Local industries are beginning to be developed, in a
small way it is true, but it shows advancement along the
right lines.
Cotton gins and cotton seed oil mills are now in operation,
several small shoe factories with mostly hand labor, tan-
neries, candle factories, starch factories, sugar mills, dis-
tilleries are being nursed into life, with inadequate machin-
ery and unskilled labor, while brick factories and saw mills
are running at capacity to supply the increasing demand for
building material.
A large cigarette factory has just been installed by an
American concern, turning out a really excellent cigarette,
while another American company has installed quite a
plant for the extraction of dyes from the logwood, while
several large coffee cleaning factories have been established
in the different coffee districts to facilitate the handling of
this important article of export and secure a better market
price for same.
Haiti has an abundance, even an excess of laborers who
work for very low wages (15 to 30 cents a day American
gold), but it must be taken into consideration that these
laborers are absolutely unskilled and must be taught,
with great patience and care; they are strong and willing
and much depends on the manner the instruction is given;
but taking all in all Haiti has little to worry about labor, it
is only a question of selection and careful training.
The Haitian paper dollar is called "Gourde" and has
100 cents, the same as an American dollar with nickel
coins representing 50 cents, 20 cents, 10 cents and 5 cents,
while two copper coins are used-one cent and two cents-
and the actual value of this local money, fixed by the 1915
treaty, is 5 for 1, or to be exact a Haitian "Gourde" is
worth 20 cents American Gold and five "Gourdes" makes
one dollar American.
All commercial transactions can be carried out in either
class of money, on a flat five for one basis.






Douanes


UN des d6partements les plus important du Gouverne-
ment Haitien, on pourrait meme direl e coeur de sa vie
financiere, est arrive h son 6tat actuel donnant la meil-
leure satisfaction, sous l'Administration du Pr6sident actuel,
son Excellence Monsieur Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave A
cause de la Convention, sign6e le 16 Septembre 1915 entire les
Governments de la R6publique d'Haiti et des Etats Unis.
Avant que cette convention a 6t& faite les Douanes ont
6t6 pendant des annies la cause principal des disputes entire
les diverse factions revolutionaires et parties politiques et
ge6nralement ce d6partement 6tait consid6r6 pour satisfaire
i ces parties leurs d6sirs personnel et de presenter les
moyens d'extortion si cela etait n&cessaire ou convenable,
mais jamais les revenues de ce Departement avaient 6te
int6gralement employs au b6nefice de l'Etat ou Gouverne-
ment auquel en ce moment ces employes servaient et le
r6sultat de tout ce d6sordre dans I'administration des
Douanes a et6, que ce D6partement itait mal organism,
caus6 par quelques hommes politiques et commercants peu
scrupuleux au m&contement de tout commercant honn&te
et des gens en general de la R6publique, qui tous devaient
souffrir pour permettre A quelques uns de s'enrichir.











MONSIEUR A. J. MAUMUS, Receveur
G6n6ral des Douanes a son bureau travaillant
de 8 h 10 heures par jour.











La signature de la convention, mentionn6e ci-dessus,
mettait subitement fin A cet etat de choses, puisque en
conformity avec cette convention les Etats Unis devaient
procurer a la R6publique d'Haiti un group d'experts,
choisis et nomm6s par le Pr6sident des Etats Unis et imme-
diatement ces fonctionnaires ont r6organiz6, avec d6sin-
t6ressement, ce d6partement et y ont extermin6 le chaos
qui y existait autre fois.
Meme pendant l'6poque d6sastreux de la guerre mondiale
les revenues de l'Etat des douanes se sont augments pen-
dant que les d6penses pour la bonne march de cet int6res-
sant d6partement ont considerablement baiss6es.
Le service de la Douane a 6te premierement dirig& en
Aoft 1915 par le Payeur de la Marine Americaine, Charles
Conard, comme Administrateur temporaire, jusqu'on pour-
rait nommer des experts en matiere douaniere; c'est simple-
ment rendre justice de mentionner ici que les bons services
de Monsieur Conard et son aide ne laissaient rien A desirer
et le Gouvernement Haitien et le people Haitien doit a
Monsieur Conard et son aide beaucoup de consideration et
gratitude pour leur besogne tant difficile, mais qui itait
plein de succes jusqu'h I'arrivee des experts, le 29 Aoit
1916 pour prendre charge du service.
Ces fonctionnaires qui ont 6t6 finalement nomm6s 6taient
Monsieur A. J. Maumus de New Iberia, Louisiana, Re-
ceveur G6n6ral des Douanes et Monsieur W. S. Matthews,
Jr., de Pascagoula, Miss. comme d6put6 du Receveur G6n-


Custom House


NE of the most important departments of the Haitiar
Government, we may say the Heart Pump of its
Financial life, was brought to its present efficient and
satisfactory condition under the Administration of the
actual President of Haiti, Mr. Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave,
through the Convention, signed September 16, 1915, be-
tween the Government of Haiti and the United States of
America.
Prior to this convention the Haitien Customs Depart-
ment had been for years a virtual bone of contention be-
tween the various revolutionary factions, and political
groups, and used merely as a source of incomes for their
personal advancement or a means of extortion when con-
venient or necessary, but rarely for the good of the actual
Government, they may have been temporarily serving, or
planning to overthrow and as a natural consequence of
these years of mismanagement, this Department became
honeycombed with graft and dishonesty; fostered and kept
in this condition by unscrupulous Politicians and merchants,
much to the disgust of the honest merchant, and to the
general peoples of Haiti, all of whom suffered, that a few
might thrive.











MR. A. J. MAUMUS, General Receiver of
Customs at his desk doing 8 to 10 hours of real
work.











The signing of the above quoted convention brought this
condition of things to an abrupt close, as by the terms of
the convention the United States loaned to Haiti a group
of experts, selected and appointed by the President of the
United States, and these officials have quickly and dis-
interestedly brought order and system to replace the chaotic
conditions of former times.
Even in the difficult and depressing times of the World
War the Government's Income from the Customs, has in-
creased while the cost of efficiently operating and main-
taining this important department has decreased.
The Customs service was first taken in charge August,
1915 by Paymaster Charles Conard as temporary Adminis-
trator until expert customs executives could be selected
and appointed, and it is only just to state here that the
work of Paymaster Conard and his able assistant was
nothing short of marvelous, and the Haitian Government
and people owe him and his aids a lasting debt of gratitude
for their difficult but successful labors until the properly
appointed customs officials arrived to take charge on
August 29, 1916.
These officials finally selected and appointed were Mr.
A. J. Maumus of New Iberia, Louisiana, General Receiver
of Customs and Mr. W. S. Matthews, Jr., of Pascagoula,
Miss., Deputy General Receiver of Customs and now
after nearly three years of tireless work, there is no doubt







Douanes


Custom Houses


... _- ... --" ".-- -- -.,I-
-7n











a '-
-v. .-- :
.i



;. : ..], .: r r ; -x'( -,,, ..,'- .-..J" ">" -"
.1 .=; 7 .' -' <'_ '-,;'; +":-;' : -...:,.; :-, ;
: :, -, ; ',:.7
,-.-"'- ."-.;; ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ -' ,r'-.- .- -- ,-,o.,,.,,-.
.: -_..- .-:L -" \'- .. -. ,-;. .,,'.


Entrep6t-Cayes-Ware-House
BAtiment du Port-Cayes-Port-House


H6tel du Port-Port-House
Pare des Douanes-Customs Park
Entrep6ts-Ware-Houses
Panorama du Port-Panorama of Water Front


Bassin-Basin
Entrep6ts-Ware Houses







Douanes


6ral des Douanes et A present apres trois ans d'infatiguable
besogne il n'existe aucun doute, que leur nomination a et6
le plus heureux choix.
Le personnel actuel choisi et instruit par Messieurs
Maumus et Matthews se compose de dix Am6ricains, 196
Haitiens et quatre employs d'autre nationalist : chaque
employ& a &ti soigneusement choisi et instruit moyennant
d'un systime de "m6rite" pour 6viter aucune partiality
dans l'avancement d'un employee et aujourd'hui Haiti peut
etre fier de poss6der un d6partement des Douanes bien
organism, bien dirig6 par des hommes honnetes et intelli-
gents.
Une des plus grandes difficulties rencontr6e a 6t6 la cr6a-
tion urgente d'un nouveau tarif douanier, puisque celui en
vigueur actuellement est le vieux ta;rif de 1872, ligirement
revise en 1905, lequel est base de r6gler les imports et
exports selon des conditions qui existaient cinquante an-
n6es auparavant quand on n'avait qu'un petit commerce
avec l'Europe et qui est aujourd'hui tris compliqu6 et in-
juste aux inter&ts du commercant Haitien et des gens en
general.
Un nouveau tarif bas6 sur les conditions commercials
actuelles a 6t& beaucoup recommand6 et il est a esp&rer que












MONSIEUR W. S. MATTHEWS, fils.
Assistant Receveur General des douanes a
son bureau dans 1'H6tel du port.












bient6t ce tarif sera 6tabli par des hommes competent et
mis en vigueur.
La R6publique d'Haiti compete 12 ports ouverts qui
peuvent etre classes comme suit: Port au Prince, Cap
Haitien, Aux Cayes, Gonaives, Jacmel, Petit Goave, Saint
Marc, J6r6mie, Port de Paix, Miragoane, Aquin et Fort
Liberty et trois douanes terrestres a la frontiere Domini-
caine: Ouanaminthe, Belladere et Glore.
Tous les ports mentionn6s ci-dessus ont des batiments
de Douanes proprement construites qui sont la proprift6
du Gouvernement except celui de Fort Liberte, don't le
batiment, pendant une des dernieres revolutions a 6et la
proie des flames, ce qui est la cause, que dans ce port,
qu'ainsi la Douane de Belladere, au long de la frontiere
dominicaine on a 6t6 oblige de louer des maisons pour les
Douanes, jusqu'A ce que les revenues de ces deux endroits
permettront la construction des bureaux et halles par l'Etat.
Sous la presente Administration tous les batiments de
Douanes ont et6 bien r6parees et on prend beaucoup soins
pour les preserver dans un bon 6tat.
Avant la contre-bande etait consideree, et accept6e comme
une bonne profession surtout entire les R6publiques d'Haiti
et Santo Domingo, mais le nouveau etat de choses a rendu
cette "profession" tris impopulaire grace A la bonne organ-
ization de la Gendarmerie d'Haiti et la Guardia Nacional


Custom House


of the happy appropriateness and farsightedness of their
appointments.
The present personnel gathered together and trained by
Messrs. Maumus and Matthews consist of 10 Americans,
196 Haitians and four employees of other nationalities:
every man carefully selected and trained through a "merit"
system, in order to prevent any favoritism or partiality, and
to-day Haiti can boast of a clean-cut, smooth running and
properly systematized Customs Department, honestly and
intelligently operated and supervised.
One of the greatest difficulties encountered has been the
urgent and vital need of a new up-to-date tariff, as the one
in operation at present is the old 1872 tariff, slightly revised
in 1905, made to cover imports and commercial conditions
of 50 years ago, based on a small European business, and
which is to-day very much out-of-date and a mass of com-
plications, in some instances unfair to the Haitian merchants
and people.
A new tariff based on the actual commercial conditions of
the World of to-day is being strongly agitated, with every
prospect of being compiled by experts and put into operation
at an early date.
The Republic of Haiti has 12 sea ports, the importance












MR. W. S. MATTHEWS, JR., Deputy
-, General Receiver of Customs at his desk in
4 the Port House.












of which may be classed as follows: Port au Prince, Cape
Haitien, Aux Cayes, Gonaives, Jacmel, Petit Goave, Saint
Marc, Jeremie, Port de Paix, Miragoane, Aquin and Fort
Liberty and three land custom houses along the Dominican
frontier, namely: Ouanaminthe, Belladere and Glore.
All of the above named ports have adequate customs
buildings owned by the Government, except the Port of
Fort Liberte, whose buildings were burned in some past
revolution, so that in this port, as in the Dominican frontier
port of Belladere the necessary building is rented and will
be, until such time as the returns from these places warrant
the erection of customs buildings by the State.
Under the present administration all of the customs build-
ings have been put in proper repair and their continued up-
keep is being carefully looked after.
Formerly "smuggling" was considered and accepted as
quite a profession, especially between the Republics of
Haiti and Santo Domingo, but the new order of things has
caused this "profession" to become rather unpopular, thanks
to the very efficient Gendarmerie of Haiti and Guardia
Nacional of Santo Domingo (the native Constabulary forces
of the respective Republics) who have made a smuggler
hard to find on either side of the frontier.
As it is practically impossible to give correct data of
anything worth while of the more than complicated work-








Douanes

de Santo Domingo, (les forces de police de ces deux R6-
publiques) ce qui est la cause qu'aujourd'hui tres rarement
on trouve un contrebandier au long de la frontiere.
Puisque c'est presque impossible de donner des details
corrects d'aucune valeur sur l'administration passee des
Douanes qui 6tait mal men6e et tres compliquee, nous
donnons simplement ici deux p6riodes completes, sous la
supervision du Receveur General actuel et le D6put6 du
Receveur G6neral, intelligemment assist par le Secr&taire
d'Etat des Finances, premiirement, Monsieur le Dr.
Edmond Heraux et Monsieur Fequiere, qui ont donn6
leur meilleur concours pour reformer ce Departement et
exterminer le vieux systeme de d6shonnet6. N'ayant
aucun detail exact des administrations passes pour pouvoir
faire des comparisons, on peut quand meme bien d6clarer
qu'aujourd'hui le Gouvernement Haitien recoit plus de
revenues de ces Douanes qu'auparavant et que les d6penses
pour ce D6partement sont actuellement beaucoup moins
et cela en temps de guerre, quand tout le commerce a
beaucoup diminu6 h cause du manque des moyens de trans-
port et il sera facile de calculer la grande difference qui
existera sous ce nouveau systeme, quand les lignes de trans-
portation retourneront A leur 6tat normal en temps de paix,
ce qui se fera dans peu de temps.











MONSIEUR MATHIEU, Auditeur pour le
Receveur GenBral des Douanes











Exports
Statistiques comparatives pour I'ann6e fiscal de 1916-1917
et 1917-1918 avec un sommaire des premiers six mois de
1'ann6e actuelle 1918-1919.


Denomination des
articles exports

Caf6 tri. .................
Brisure de caf6...........
Campeche. ..............
Extrait de Campeche......
Cacao...................
Peaux de Boeufs..........
Peaux de Chevres.........
Coton.... ..............
Gaiac. ..................
M iel. ...................
Bois rouge. ..............
Ecailles. ............... .
Fertilizer. ...............
Crins ... .............
Materiaux de Construction
Extrait de Gaiac.........
Monnaie en Argent. ......


1916/17
Valeur en Or
am.
$4.505.716.70
114.837.70
615.050.60
154.629.30
489.694.50
109.621.45
181.884.00
355.367.15
107.112.54
189.260.81
184.00
1.561.50
935.24
51.16
84.00
6.00
2,373.48


19:
Valeu

$3.13
1
31

43
3
12,
68
3
17.


Custom House

ings, or mismanagement, of the Haitian customs prior to
the present Administration, we will merely give here two
complete fiscal periods passed under the supervision of the
present Receiver General and Deputy Receiver General ably
assisted by the Ministers of Finance, Dr. Edmond Heraux
and Mr. Fequiire, in the making of reforms and all round
improvements to root out the remains of the old system of
graft and dishonesty. While we have no exact data of past
administrations to make comparisons, it is believed that it
may be safely stated that the Haitian Government is to-day
receiving more income from the Custom houses than for-
merly at a correspondingly less percentage of costs, and
that in the time of war, when all commerce has been sadly
crippled, for lack of transportation, hence it will be easy to
calculate the immense difference that will be shown, under
this new system, when the transportation lines are again
doing a normal business under peace conditions, a thing of
the near future.
The make-up and installing of the new Tariff, now under
consideration, will mean an immense improvement in every
way for the Import and Export business of Haiti, asitwill
simplify in many ways the entire work of handling the
customs of the country, and at the same time favor certain
articles now manufactured in the Republic, without materi-
ally changing the Government's income from the Customs.











MR. MATHIEU, Auditor for the General
Receiver of Customs.











Exports
Comparative statistics for the Fiscal years 1916-1917 and
1917-1918, with a summary of the first six months of the
actual fiscal year 1918-1919.


17/18
.r en Or
im.


Name of articles
Exported


V


0.241.22 Hand picked coffee......... .
7.040.34 Residue of cleaned coffee. ....
3.696.64 Logwood .................
Logwood extraction.........
0.348.00 Cocoa .....................
7.672.47 Cowhides. .................
3.436.32 Goat skins. ................
9.133.97 Cotton ....................
6.385.83 Lignum Vitae..............
4.089.14 Honey................ ..
8.00 Red Wood. ................
657.20 Tortoise shells. .............
5.307.80 Fertilizer ................
H orse-hair............. ....
Construction material.......
Lignum vitae extract........
Silver money ............


1916/17
ralue in U. S.
Currency
$4,505,716.70
114,837.70
615,050.60
154,629.30
489,694.50
109,621.45
181,884.00
355,367.15
107,112.54
189,260.81
184.00
1,561.50
935.24
51.16
84.00
6.00
2,373.48


1917/18
Value in U. S.
Currency
$3,130,241.22
17,040.34
313,696.64

430,348.00
37,672.47
123,436.32
689,133.97
36,385.83
174,089.14
8.00
657.20
5,307.80







Douanes


Vieux Fer et Zinc.........
Cuir tann6...............
Huile de Coton...........
Huile de Ricin............
M 6taux. ... .............
Vieux Cuivre.............
Cire .... .............
Fruits du Pays...........
Graines de Coton.........
Graines de Ricin..........
M ais. ...................
Pois. ...................
Gingembre...............
Sisal ....................
Fustic ou bois jaune.......
C om es..................
O s ... . . . . .
Acajou .................
Cedre.. ................
Charbon..............
Racines de Campeche ....
Rapadou...............
Gomme. ..............
Autres products export6s...
Pistaches................
Petit M il................
Peaux de Moutton........
Eponges.................
Sablier..................
Guano ...................
C opra ...................
Syrup ...................
V olaille. .................
R iz . . . . . .
Sucre .............. .
Legumes. .................
M 61asses. ................


Custom House


65.60
115.80
53.023.35
5.341.39
396.30
3.242.32
23.435.92
16.140.10
76.808.43
49.540.67
53.516.77
25.111.10
214.20
14.322.33
1.860.37
217.64
64.36
13.800.00
483.00
281.30
11.088.45
1.50
1.30
42.797.34


3
9


Total des Exports...


P
Etats Unis..
France. ....
Angleterre..
Autres Pays


$7.220.239.68 $6.577.846.19


Recapitulation des Exports
ays 1916/1917
....... $3.926.953.44 $
.. . 3.023.691.04
...... .. 61.182.53
. ............ 208.462.67


1917/1918
5.187.301.73
30.082.80

1.360.461.66


$7.220.239.68 $6.577.846.19
Imports
Statistiques comparatives de l'ann6e fiscal 1916/1917 et
1917/1918 avec un sommaire des premiers six mois de
l'annuee actuelle 1918/1919.


Articles imports

C im ent....................
Drogues et products chi-
m iques................
Sacs et fibres v6g6tales ....
C uir ............. .....
T abac. ................
Liqueurs, Bire, etc.......
G azoline...............
K erosene...............
Tout autres products de
petroleum .............
Calico ................. .
Tout autres toiles.........
Outils pour agricultures....
Automobiles et autres v6-
hicules .............. .
Savon...................
Poisson ..................
Viande..................
Farine..................


1916/1917
Valeur Or
amer.
$ 46.765.08

88.960.44
212.077.81
108.923.52
229.188.97
167.613.67
27.486.73
143.636.18

4.287.54
1.455.109.06
1.209.430.43
22.966.84

40.782.30
494.262.73
500.383.09
211.037.43
843.573.12


1917/1918
Valeur Or
amer.
$ 71.267.30

53.561.52
497.816.02
159.267.42
255.824.79
142.384.04
38.492.36
209.342.52

35.125.02
2.840.276.69
289.093.30
34.763.50

64.995.24
926.835.75
358.888.43
298.477.85
179.828.14


Total of Exports.......... $7,220,239.68 $6,577,846.19

Recapitulation of Exports with Percentage
Country 1916/1917 1917/1918
United States. ............. $3,926,953.44 $5,187,301.73
France. ................... 3,023,691.04 30,082.80
United Kingdom............ 61,182.53
Other countries ......... ... 208,462.67 1,360,461.66

$7,220,239.68 $6,577,846.19
Imports
Comparative statistics for the Fiscal Year 1916/1917 and
1917/1918 with a summary of the first six months of the
actual fiscal year 1918-1919.


Articles Imported

Cement. ................. ..
Chemical and Drugs. ......
Vegetable fibres, sacks, sack-
cloth, etc................
Leather.................
Tobacco ..................
Liquors, Beer, etc ..........
Gasolene ............... .
K erosene oil................
All other products from pe-
troleum .......... .......
Calico or cotton cloth.......
All other cloth..............
Agricultural implements.....
Automobiles and other ve-
hicles...................
Soap ............ .........
Fishes.....................
Meat. ............ .. ..


1916/17 1917/18
Value in U. S. Valuein U.S.
Currency Currency
46,765.08 $ 71,267.30


88,960.44


212,077.81
108,923.52
229,188.97
167,613.67
27,486.73
143,636.18

4,287.54
1,455,109.06
1,209,430.43
22,966.84

40,782.30
494,262.73
500,383.09
211.037.43


53,561.52


497,816.02
159,267.42
225,924.79
142,384.04
38,492.36
209,342.52

35,125.02
2,840,276.68
289,093.30
34,763.50

64,995.24
926,835.75
358,888.43
298,477.85


1.520.00 Old iron and zinc........... 65.60
816.72 Tanned leather............. 115.80
138.783.37 Cotton seed oil............. 53,023.35
Castor oil.................. 5,341.39
942.23 M etals. ................ 396.30
2.332.46 Old copper................. 3,243.32
10.942.38 Wax..... ................. 23,435.92
4.102.44 Native fruit. ................ 16,140.10
22.357.11 Cotton seed ............... 76,808.43
136.708.21 Castor beans .............. 49,540.67
)82.914.25 Corn...................... 53,516.77
22.927.82 Peas. ...................... 25,110.11
60.00 Ginger .................... 214.20
15.551.82 Sisal. .................. .. 14,322.33
15.916.29 Fustic or yellow wood....... 1,860.37
Horn.......... .......... 217.64
S Bones............. ...... 64.36
11.273.61 Mahogany............. .... 13,800.00
5.70 Cedar wood ......... ...... 483.00
S Coal (charcoal) ............. 281.30
667.00 Logwood roots ............. 11,088.45
3.20 Rapadou................... 1.50
Fig-gum .................... 1.30
3.225.60 Other products exported..... 42,797.34
729.98 Peanuts ..................
22.497.24 Petit Mil .................
218.40 Sheep skins ................
150.00 Sponges .................
529.00 Sablier ....................
6.00 Guano...................
2.505.67 Copra...................
1.009.46 Syrup.....................
3.909.52 Poultry ......... ..........
60.90 Rice...................-
65.80 Sugar.................. ---
5.414.52 Vegetables................ .
1.681.60 M olasses...................


1,520.00
816.72
138,783.37

942.23
2,332.46
10.942,38
4,102.44
22,357.11
336,708.21
982,914.25
22,927.82
60.00
15,551.82
15,916.29


11,273.61
5.70

667.00
3.20

2,235.60
729.98
22,497.24
218.40
150.00
529.00
6.00
2,505.67
1,009.46
3,909.52
60.90
65.80
5,414.52
1,681.60







Douanes


Custom House


R iz . .. .. . ..
Tous autres products ali-
mentaires. .......... ..
Bois. ....... .. .......
Fer et Acier..............
Machines agricoles et in-
dustrielles. .............
Tous autres products pas
mentionnes ailleurs......


68.255.08

917.709.25
151.840.71
121.164.60

1.466.90

1,388.314.06


70.990.93 W heat Flour. ..............
Rice ................... ..
'86.146.42 All other alimentary products
05.960.34 W ood .....................
844.811.82 Iron and steel..............
Agricultural and industrial
m machines ................
All other imports not else-
177.448.63 where specified. ..........


843,573.12
68,255.08
917,709.25
151,840.71
121,164.60

1,466.90

1,388,314.06


179,828.14
70,990.93
786.146.42
205,960.34
844,811.82



1,377,448.63


$8.606.085.79 $9.741.598.03


Total Imports............ $8,606,085.79 $9,741,598.03


Recapitulation des Imports


Pays
Etats U nis...............
France. .................
Angleterre. ..............
Tous autres Pays.........


1916/1917
$7.478.228.18
393.317.53
591.777.52
142.762.56


1917/1918
$9.023.346.23
181.739.47
384.921.03
151.591.30


Coi
United States
France. .....
United Kingd
Other country


$8.606.085.79 $9.741.598.03


Recapitulation of Imports
intry 1916 /1917
............ .7,478,228.18
. . .. 393,317.53
om ............ 591,777.52
es ............. 142,762.56

$8,606,085.79


1917/1918
$9,023,346.23
181,739.47
384,921.03
151,591.30

$9,741,598.03


Imports et Exports Par Port Pour L'Annee
1916-1917
Imports Ports Exports
$3.386.273.28 ........ Port au Prince....... $1.433.060.18
1.534.428.85 ........ Cap Haitien.......... 1.413.347.30
360.758.50 ........ Port de Paix......... 583.801.69
653.390.68 ........ Gonaives. ........... 673.796.59
351.453.81........ Saint Marc .......... 511.026.48
510.406.48 ........ Petit Goave.......... 536.739.69
350.835.11 ..... .. .J6rmie.............. 571.682.15
496.741.71 ..... .. Jacmel. ............. 674.816.06
805.514.82........ Cayes............... 660.725.92
138.836.02 ........ Miragoane. .......... 85.549.65
17.446.49........ Aquin. ............ .. 65.651.67

$8.606.085.75 Imports Exports $7.220.289.68

Imports et Exports Pour L'Annee 1917-1918
Imports Port Exports
$6.269.777.28 ....... .Port au Prince....... $2.642.640.09
1.213.107.19 ....... Cap Haitien.......... 879.736.39
653.695.68........ Cayes. .............. 331.735.64
535.236.77 ........ Gonaives. ............ 303.441.99
392.825.80 ....... .Jacmel. ............. 594.351.14
229.196.35 ...... Je6rmie.............. 357.711.42
4.997.66 ........Aquin............... 8.364.05
32.167.40........ M iragoane ........... 30.137.05
345.723.44........ Petit Goave.......... 245.240.62
295.150.37........ Port de Paix ......... 321.834.86
268.958.00 ....... Saint Marc .......... 548.479.79

$9.741.598.03 $6.577.846.18

Total des Imports et Exports D'Octobre
1918 a Avril 1919


Imports
$4.894.906.43. ......
544.726.23.......
1.115.130.19.......
458.262.94.......
551.598.24 .......
239.789.52 .......
254.327.93 .......
165.498.00 .......
133.201.07 .......
31.228.97 .......
2 .71 .......


Port
.Port au Prince ......$
Jacm el .............
.Cap Haitien.........
.Gonaives. ..........
.Cayes. .............
.Petit Goave .........
.Port de Paix........
.Saint M arc.........
. J6r m ie. ............
.Miragoane. .........
.Aquin..............


Exports
5.722.988.94
2.067.933.21
1.922.817.00
1.143.343.78
1.029.792.99
935.513.97
750.449.41
633.784.88
365.657.29
305.303.77
89.023.60


Exports $14.966.668.84


Import and Export for Fiscal Year 1916-1917
by Ports
Imports Port Exports
$3,386,273.28 ....... .Port au Prince....... $1,443,060.18
1,534,428.85 ........ Cape Haitien......... 1,413,347.30
360,758.50........ Port de Paix ......... 583,801.69
653,390.68........ Gonaives........ .... 673,796.59
351,453.81 ...... ...Saint Marc .......... 511,026.48
510,406.48........ Petit Goave .......... 536,739.69
350,835.11........ Jeremie .............. 571,682.15
496,741.71........ Jacmel. ............. 674,816.06
805,514.82........ Cayes. .............. 660,725.92
138,836.02........ Miragoane. .......... 85,549.65
17,446.49........ Aquin. .............. 65,651.67


$8,608,085.75 Imports


Exports $7,220,289.68


Imports and Exports for Fiscal Year 1917-1918
Imports Port Exports
$6,269,777.28 ....... .Port au Prince....... 2-,,4- r,40.09
1,213,107.19 ........ Cape Haitien ......... 879.736.39
653,695.68........ Cayes. .............. 331,735.64
535,-236.77........ Gonaives. ........... 303,441.99
392,825.80 ........ Jacmel .............. 594,351.14
229,196.35 ........ Jeremie.............. 357,711.42
4,997.66 ........Aquin............... 8,364.05
32,167.40........ M iragoane. .......... 30,137.05
345,723.44........ Petit Goave .......... 245,240.62
295,150.37........ Port de Paix......... 321,834.86
268,958.00........ Saint Marc .......... 548,479.79

$9,741,598.03 $6,577,846.19

Total of Imports and Exports from October 1918
to April 1919
Imports Port Exports
$4,894,906.43. ........Port au Prince ..... $ 5,722,988.94
544,726.23........ Jacmel ............. 2,067,993.21
1,115,130,19 ....... Cape Haitien........ 1,922,817.00
458,262.94........ Gonaives ........... 1,143,343.78
551,598.24........ Cayes. ............. 1,029,792.99
239,789.52 ....... Petit Goave ......... 935,513.97
254,327.93 ....... Port de Paix........ 750,449.41
165,498.00........ Saint Marc ......... 633,784.88
133,201.07 ........ J.J r mie............. 365,657.29
31,228.97........ M iragoane.......... 305,303.77
2.71..... .. Aquin .............. 89,023.60

$8,388.672.23 $14,966,668.84


7
2
8


1.3


$8.388.672.23 Imports







Custom House


R6sum6: Comme on peut noter du petit article ci-dessus
et des Statistiques pour deux ans et demi, l'Administration
actuelle est justifi6e d'etre fibre de la bonne et syst6matique
reorganization accomplie jusqu'l cette date et quand le
nouveau tarif sera 6tabli beaucoup des conditions seront
encore am6lior6es pour la grande satisfaction de tout le
monde.
La Statistique pour les premiers six mois de l'annfe 1918-
1919 donne un r6sultat plus elevN, tant pour les imports que
pour les exports, que toute l'ann6e pr6c6dente, ce qui a
et6 caus6 par le manque de bateaux, A cause de la grande
Guerre, mais en meme temps ce extraordinaire r6sultat pour
les derniers six mois est une preuve que de jour en jour les
affaires s'augmentent en Haiti, ainsi assurant un brilliant
avenir pour la Republique d'Haiti.


EMPLOYES DES DOUANES.

1-Chef de Service, L. Dufort, Chief of Service
2-Clerc, M. Stines. Bookkeeper
3-Chef du Service C6tier, Thos. Carre, Chief of Coast Service
4-Comptable, M. Astrel, Billing Clerk
5-Clerc, M. Gaillard, Bookkeeper
6-St4nographe, M. Laforest, Typist 14-Chef du S
7-Stenographe, M. Gabriel, Typist
8-St(nographe, M. St. Victor, Typist


Resume: As will be noted from the above brief article
and condensed statistics, for two and one half years, the
actual administration has every cause to be proud of the
efficient re-organization and systematizing effected to date,
and with the establishing of the new Customs Tariff now
under consideration, many of the present unsatisfactory
features will be done away with, much to the satisfaction
of every one.
The Statistics for the first 6 months of the fiscal year of
1918-1919 show a greater Import and Export than any
entire previous year which is due to the shortage of shipping
facilities for the past three or four years, on account of the
World War, but at the same time this extraordinary move-
ment for the past 6 months gives a fair indication of the
steady growth of all business in Haiti.


CUSTOM HOUSE EMPLOYES


9-Secr6taire, M. Fouchard, Secretary
10-Clerc, M. Juste, Bookkeeper
11-Garcon de Bureau, Office boy
12-Garcon de Bureau, Office boy
13-Clerc, M. Bavin, Clerk
service Postale, M. Pressoir, Chief of Postal Service
15-Comptable, M. Thrasybale, Bill Clerk
19-Garcon de Bureau Office boy






Department Sanitaire


3I a
ls r< "


~dj ~


r~


SERVICE DE L'HYGIENE PUBLIQUE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE
PORT AU PRINCE, HAITI.
Inspecteurs Sanitaires Sanitary Inspectors
Tombereaux A Mulet Mule Dump Carts La Brigade des "Chapeaux verts" The "Green Hat" Brigade Camions-Auto A Rebut Refuse Auto Trucks
Nettoyeur de jour A Day Cleaner Charrettes A Rebut Refuse Carts Nettoyeurs de Rue Street Cleaners
Incinerateur pour Rebut (ordinaire) Incinerator for Refuse (ordinary) Porteurs Carriers Incinerateur pour Rebut (special) Incinerator for Refuse (special)


Sanitary Department






Department Sanitaire


EPUIS que la convention entire le Gouvernement
des Etats-Unis et Haiti a e6t signee, la question de
l'hygiene 6tait constamment sous consideration par le
meilleur talent medical d'Haiti et apres une propaganda
active seconder par beaucoup de travail preliminaire de
tout cote, I'actuel fameux service de l'Hygiine publique a
ete inaugure en Octobre 1917 et fait en une Sous-Division
ou Departement du Departement de l'Interieur.
Ce nouveau Departement prit la direction des H6pitaux
et du service des Quarantaines pour I'entiere R6publique
d'Haiti. Ils etaient et sont empftr6s A cause du manque
de fonds, pour d6velopper le service comme projeter, mais
meme sous ces difficulties des grands travaux ont 6t6 ac-
complis et une bonne foundation poser et assurer pour un
reel et moderne D6partement Sanitaire et d'Hygiene
publique pour Haiti.
Dans ces premiers mais p6nible mois la Gendarmerie a
rendue d'immenses services et donner aide au D6parte-
ment sanitaire et trop de credit ne pourrait &tre donned aux
forces de la Gendarmerie pour sa cooperation opportune,
en enforgant les ordres et regulations necessaire parmi
un people completement inaccoutumer A aucune regulation
sanitaire.
Dr. M. T. McLean s'est prouver un organisateur mer-
veilleux en plus d'etre un Ing6nieur de sanitation de pre-
miere classes. Le travail 6tait penible A manipuler et dans
bien des cas lent A accomplir, mais avec une patience et
perseivrance sans limited ce grand blond a accompli des
merveilles et a dressed un corps de premiere classes d'Assist-
ants, Inspecteurs, et des Chefs de sous-divisions, qui non
seulement font leur travail comme projeter, mais toujours
essay de faire un peu plus et insisted A de bons r6sultats.
Le Chef de l'H6pital principal, Dr. Lawrence a aussi fait
un record de premier ordre, habilement assister comme il
est par un group choisi de Medecins, Pharmaciens et In-
firmi6res expert. Les statistiques du ler Dec. 1917 au
30ieme Nov. 1918 sont suffisant pour donner une idee du
travail que Dr. Lawrence a accompli; les livres montre 2349
admissions, 2383 d6charges, 64 naissances et 309 morts.
Dans le recensement de l'ann6e il y avait une moyenne
journali6re de 292 malades avec 64 operations majeure et
un grand nombre d'operations legeres.
A l'H6pital de la Gendarmerie (Caserne Dartiguenave)
le genial Dr. Albert Albrecht est en charge. En plus de ses
travaux a l'h6pital, il s'occupe dans le Laboratoire A
classifier des microbes de toutes especes. Dr. Albrecht est
vraiment devenu la derniere cour d'appel en des choses se
rapportant aux travaux de Laboratoire et recherches en
general.
Le D6partement de l'Hygi&ne publique de Port-au-Prince
emploi a present cinq camions automobiles, 30 tombereaux
et 60 charrettes pour transporter les rebuts et plusieurs
incin6rateurs modernes. Quelques centaines d'hommes
sont employes pour tenir la ville dans un etat propre.
Le balayage des rues est fait A la main, pour donner du
travail aux pauvres et c'est un curieux spectacle de voir de
bon matin la fameuse brigade des "Chapeaux verts" net-
toyer les rues avec des balais a main. Toutes les autres
villes et ports d'Haiti ont inaugures le meme systeme que
Port-au-Prince, et c'est presque incroyable, la difference
en propret6, du Haiti d'aujourd'hui avec celui d'il-y-a
5 ans, seulement un t6moin qui a vue pourrait le croire.
Les Haitiens, non seulement se sont habitues A ces
regulations sanitaires, mais ce qui est mieux, ils commen-
cent A les apprecier et A insisted qu'elles soient executer A
la lettre.
Les ameliorations sont execut6es aussi vite que le temps
et la monnaie approprier le permette et on peut dire qu'-
actuellement le people d'Haiti est complitement r6veille sur
le point de vue de l'Hygi6ne publique.


Sanitary Department


ROM the date of the signing of the Convention be-
tween the Governments of the United States and Haiti
the matter of sanitation was constantly under con-
sideration by the American Naval Authorities ably assisted
by the best medical talent of Haiti, and after an active
propaganda backed by a great deal of preliminary work on
all sides the now famous Public Health Service was inaugu-
rated in October, 1917 and made into a Sub-Division, or
Department, of the Department of the Interior.
This new Department took over the Hospital and Quar-
antine Service for the entire Republic of Haiti. They were,
and are, hampered by lack of funds to develop the service
along the lines of the plans laid out, but under the many
difficulties encountered, great work has been accomplished
and a firm basis laid out and assured for a really up-to-date
Public Health and Sanitary Department for Haiti.
In these first trying months the forces of the Gendar-
merie have given invaluable assistance in every way and in
all cases necessary, and too much credit cannot be given to
the Armed Forces for their muchly needed and timely
cooperation in enforcing the necessary rules and regulations
among a people entirely unaccustomed to any sanitary
regulations.
Dr. M. T. McLean has proven himself to be a wonderful
organizer in addition to being a first class sanitary engineer.
The work has been difficult to handle and in many cases
slow to finish but with an unlimited amount of patience
and stick-to-it perseverance this big, good-natured, freckle-
faced blond has accomplished wonders and has whipped
into shape a first class corps of assistants, inspectors and
heads of sub-divisions, who not only do their work as laid
out, but always try to do just a little more, and insist on
real results.
The Chief of the General Hospital, Dr. Lawrence, has
also made a record second to none, ably assisted as he is
by a selected group of active medical men, pharmacists and
expert trained nurses. One year's statistics will be suf-
ficient to give an idea of the work Dr. Lawrence has done;
take the year's report from Dec. 1st, 1917, to Nov. 30th,
1918 and the books show 2349 admissions, 2383 discharges,
64 births and 309 deaths. An average daily census of
292 patients, with 64 major operations and a large number
of minor operations during the year.
In the Gendarmerie Hospital (Caserne Dartiguenave)
the genial Dr. Albert Albrecht holds forth and in addition
to doctoring up the Gendarmes spends his time in the
Laboratory classifying microbes of all kinds. Dr. Albrecht
has really become the last court of appeal in things pertain-
ing to Laboratory work and general research.
The Sanitary Department or Public Health Service of
Port-au-Prince at present employs five motor trucks, 30
dump carts and 60 hand carts for handling the refuse and
rubbish, in addition to several modern incinerators of
different kinds. Several hundred men are employed in
keeping the city clean.
The street-sweeping is done by hand, in order to give
labor to the poor, and it is well worth while to make an
early rise in the morning in order to see the famous "Green
Hat" Brigade sweeping the streets with hand brooms.
Every man wearing a large wide-brimmed straw hat painted
green.
The other cities and ports of Haiti have all installed the
same system as Port-au-Prince and it is almost unbe-
lievable, the difference, in point of cleanliness, of the
Haiti of to-day and that of 5 ye4rs ago, only an eye witness
of "before and after" could possibly believe the story.
The Haitians have not only become accustomed to these
sanitary regulations, but what is better, they are beginning
to appreciate them and to insist on their being carried out to
the letter.
Improvements are being made as fast as time and the
money appropriated will permit and it is not too much to
say that from a sanitary and Public Health Service stand-
point Haiti is thoroughly awake and doing.







Department Sanitaire


Sanitary Department


Port-au-Prince


or


H6pital Principal, Port au-Prince General Hospital, Port au-Prince
Medecin en charge (Dr. Lawrence), ses Aides et Infirmirres Principales Physician in Charge (Dr. Lawrence), his Assistants and Head Nurses
Terrains de I'H6pital et quelques uns des sales Hospital Grounds and some of the several wards
Ecole d'Entrainement pour les Infirmieres Training School for Nurses
Salle des Enfants Children's Ward
Salle des B6ebs Baby Ward


L'actuel H6pital Principal est result de la coalition du vieux "H6-
pital Militaire" et de l'H6pital de "Saint Vincent de Paul" et est sous
la direction du Departement de l'Hygi&ne Publique.
Le nouveau Hfpital a 8 sales contenant 40 lits chacune en plus des
batiments necessaire pour les Bureaux, la Pharmacie, Laboratoire,
Garage, Ecole pour les Infirmieres, etc., etc., tous situer dans de
vastes terrains qui sont toujours tenu en bon 6tat.
Un M6decin en chef est en charge avec un corps d'assistant M6decins,
Chirurgiens, Pharmaciens et Infirmieres, pendant que les Soeurs de la
Sagesse et Sainte Rose, qui ont charge de tous les H~pitaux et Hospice
en Haiti donnent les soins aux malades et s'occupent de tous les autres
travaux.
Aucune indemnit& est pergue pour traitement ou service rendu a cet
HOpital, lequel est complete dans tout les details, des ambulances
jusqu'au service special Dentaire.


The present General Hospital is the outgrowth of the combining of the
old "Military Hospital" and the Hospital of "Saint Vincent of Paul"
and is under direct charge of the department of Public Health Service.
The new General Hospital has 8 wards with 40 beds each, in addition
to the necessary buildings for Offices, Pharmacy, Laboratory, Garage,
Training School for nurses, etc., etc., all situated in well kept and
extensive grounds.
A Chief physician has charge, with a full corps of assistant Doctors,
Surgeons, Pharmacists and Trained Nurses, while the regular nursing
and other work is done by the French Sisters de la Sagesse and Saint
Rose, who have charge of all the Hospitals and Poor Houses throughout
Haiti.
No charges of any description are made for treatment or services in
this General Hospital, which is complete in every detail, from Ambu-
lance to Special Dental Department.






Transportation et Communication

TRANSPORTATION: A cause de sa forme particuliere
et de sa cote immense, Haiti a jusqu'aux derniires ann6es
fait presque entierement usage de la transportation sur
mer. Chaque ville et village d'importance 6tait naturelle-
ment batie sur la c6te afin d'etre en communication avec
les autres villes de la R6publique et le monde, de cette
fagon 6chappant la construction de routes co^teuses et les
plus cotteux chemins de fer, car les quelques chaines de
montagnes traversant la R6publique font la construction
des voies tres colteuse et difficile.
Les Haitiens ne poss6daientTpas les fonds n6cessaires
pour construire des voies de transportation dans l'int6rieur
et la constitution de la R6publique ne permettant aux
strangers de construire ou de poss6der aucune ligne, forgait
le Haitien de garder son mulet et voilier pour son service
du fret et des voyageurs.
En 1898, le Pr6sident de la R6publique, T. Simon Sam,
6tait impliqu6 dans des difficulties financiire A un degr6 tel,
qu'un group d'Allemands a put s'assurer une concession
pour construire des voies ferries, des tramways, etc., et
ils ont actuellement commences les travaux de Cape Haitien
et de Port au Prince a travers la plaine tr6s riche de Cul-de-
Sac au Lac Salant, une distance de 40 miles. La meme
compagnie a construite la ligne de "tramways a vapeur"
pour la ville de Port au Prince. Quelques ann6es plus tard
Monsieur P. MacDonald s'ait assure une concession pour
la compagnie des chemins de fer d'Haiti, pour joindre Port
au Prince avec Cape Haitien, touchant h Arcahaie, St.
Marc et Gonaives, avec des branches dans l'int6rieur;
plusieurs parties de cette ligne 6taient d6ja bqties, quand
des dissensions s'61ev&rent et tous les travaux furent arr&tes.
Actuellement il-y-a deux companies de Chemins de
fer en Haiti; la Compagnie Nationale des Chemins de fer
d'Haiti a une ligne en operation de Port au Prince a St.
Marc (65 miless; de Gonaives A Ennery (18 miless; et
du Cape Haitien h Grande Riviere (13 miless, un total
de 96 miles. L'autre Compagnie, "The Haitian-American
Corporation" s'est assures les possessions Allemande dans
les lignes de Port au Prince au Lac Salant et de Port
au Prince A L6ogane aussi bien que les tramways de la
ville de Port au Prince un total d'A peu pros de 100 miles,
qu'ils ont en operation. Les companies ont suspend
tous travaux de construction jusqu'apres la guerre, A
cause de la difficult et du coot de s'assurer du materiel.
N6anmoins des arrangements sont d6ja faits pour recom-
mencer les travaux le plus t6t possible et Haiti aura dans
un avenir prochain quelques r6elles voies de transportation
pour exp6dier ses products et elle pourra ouvrir ses minieres
et autres resources jusqu'ici non d6velopper.
En temps de paix plusieurs lignes de steamers touchaient
A diff6rents Ports d'Haiti; principles entire elles 6taient
la Hamburg-American line, la Transatlantique et la Royal
Dutch West India Mail, mais pendant la guerre seulement
la derniere continue de faire le service; alors le Gouverne-
ment des Etats-Unis donna autorisation A la "Panama
S. S. Line" de toucher Port au Prince afin d'assister aux
services des passagers et du fret, pendant que la "Raporel
line" &tait organis6e pour le service c6tier du fret et des
passagers. La ligne Francaise Transatlantique a d6ji
arrange pour recontinuer le service des passagers et du
fret.
COMMUNICATIONS: Sous l'Administration pr6sente
les lignes de t6l6graphes et t6l1phone, proprift6 du Gouverne-
ment ont 6ti r6par6es et ameliorees et elles donnent A
present excellent satisfaction. Le Gouvernement des
Etats-Unis a erig6e une station de t616graphie sans fil A
Port au Prince laquelle accepted les communications commer-
ciales A un tarif tres mod6er et le CAble Frangais rend de
bons services mais avec un tarif un peu 6lev6.
Le service postal a 6t6 r6organis6 dans tous ses d6parte-
ments et d6sormais ne laisse rien A d6sirer.


Transportation and Communication

TRANSPORTATION: On account of her peculiar shape,
and immense coast line, Haiti has made use of water trans-
portation, almost entirely, until recent years. Every city
and town of any importance was naturally built on the
coast, in order to be in touch with other cities of the Repub-
lic and with the outside world; thus evading construction
of costly cart-roads or the more costly railroads, as the
several mountain ranges that criss-cross the Republic make
any sort of road construction a difficult task.
The Haitians themselves did not have the necessary
capital to build transportation lines, into the interior, and
the constitution of the Republic forbid foreigners construct-
ing and owning any possible lines. All this forced the
Haitian to stick to the donkey and sailboat for his freight
and passenger service.
In 1898 the President of the Republic, T. Simon Sam,
became involved in financial difficulties to such an extent
that a group of influential Germans, secured a concession
for building railroads, tramways, etc., and they actually
began work out of Cape Haitian and from Port au Prince
through the rich plain Cul de Sac to the Salt Lake, a distance
of 40 miles. The same company built the steam "street
tramways" for the City of Port au Prince.
Some years later a concession was secured by Mr. James
P. McDonald for the National Railroad Company of Haiti,
to connect Port au Prince with Cape Haitian, touching at
Arcahaie, Saint Marc and Gonaives, with branches to
interior towns; several pieces of this line were built, when
dissensions arose and all work was stopped.
Today there are two railroad companies, the "National"
(Compagnie Nationale des Chemins de Fer d'Haiti) having
a completed line from Port au Prince to Saint Marc (65
miles); from Gonaives to Ennery (18 miles) and from Cape
Haitian to Grande Riviere (13 miles). A total of 96 miles
in operation.
The other railroad company, The Haitian-American
Corporation, have secured the German holdings in the
lines from Port au Prince to the Salt Lake and from Port
au Prince to L6ogane, as well as the Street Railways of the
City of Port au Prince, a total of about 100 miles, which
they have in operation. Both companies suspended all
construction work until after the war, on account of the
difficulty and cost of securing material.
Arrangements are now being made to resume work at the
earliest possible moment, which means that Haiti will, at
an early date, have some real transportation facilities to
move her products and open mines and other natural re-
sources now laying dormant.
In times of peace various steamship lines called at differ-
ent Haitian ports; principal among them being the Hamburg
American Line, the Transatlantique and the Royal Dutch
West India Mail, but during the war times only the last
named of these lines continued to give any service, so that
the U. S. Government allowed the Panama S. S. Line to
make Port au Prince a Port of Call, to assist in both pas-
senger and freight service, while the Raporel Line was or-
ganized for freight and coast wise passenger service. In
the last few months the Transatlantique (French) Line has
arranged to continue both passenger and freight service.
COMMUNICATIONS: Under the actual Administration
the Government owned telegraph lines have been repaired
and extended and are now giving very good service, both as
telegraph and telephone lines. The U. S. Government has
built a large wireless station at Port au Prince which accepts
commercial messages at very fair rates and the French
Cable is giving good service, but at rather high rates.
The Postal service has been reorganized in all its depart-
ments and is fast becoming all that it should be, both for
first and second class matter in addition to registered mail
and parcel post; although the money order arrangements
have not, as yet, been completed.











Travaux Publics


Public Works


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POINTS ET CHAUSSEES
C'est un fait bien connu que jusqu'A, il y a deux au trois ans, toute transporta-
tion en Haiti etait accompli par des mulets ou les petits chevaux indigenes, pen-
dant qu'aujourd'hui on peut voyager en automobile dans presque l'entiere Re-
publique et les travaux des "Bonnes Chauss6es" commencent a etre justement
apprecies.


ROADS AND BRIDGES
It is a well known fact that up to within the last two or three years, all travel
in Hayti was done by packmule or the small native horse, while at this date
travel can be done by automobile in nearly all parts of the Republic, and the
"Good Roads" work is just beginning to be appreciated.


I






Travaux Publics d'Haiti


C ET important D6partement du Gouvernement d'Haiti
a une double administration, parties Haitienne et
parties Am6ricaine. Le Minister des Travaux Pub-
lics, Monsieur Louis Roy, repr6sente la Republique
d'Haiti et est membre du Cabinet du President pendant
que l'Ing6nieur des Travaux Publics, Commandant
E. R. Gayler, C. E. C. Marine Americaine, repr6sente les
"Fonctionnaires du Trait6," conform6ment a la convention
entire les Gouvernements des Etats Unis et de la R6pub-
lique d'Haiti.
Le Ministre Louis Roy a comme assistant, M. M. David
Borges, (Chef de division) Turenne Th6zan (chef de bur-
eau) et Louis Callard (tr6sorier); pendant que l'Ing6nieur
E. R. Gayler a comme assistant: Lt. Com. C. H. More-
field; Lt. R. A. Conard; Lt. W. N. Thompson and Lt.
W. C. Diehl tous C. E. C. de la Marine Am6ricaine, entire
lesquels la supervision g6nerale des travaux publics est
divis6e.
Les Ing6nieurs et Architectes Haitiens en charge de
projects individuals sont: M. M. Thos. Price, asst. a 1'In-
g6nieur en chef: Hennan Doret, Ing6nieur de la Ville de
Port au Prince; Louis Aubry, Directeur des Travaux Hy-
drauliques; Geo. Price, Dessinateur en chef; L. Maignan
et L. Mathon, Architectes Doyens, Geo. Baussan, Archi-
tecte du Palais National, L. Borno et L. Menos, Ing6n-
ieurs des te61phones et tel6graphes; A. Gard re, M. Montes,
E. Champana, E. Maximilien et L. Jeannot, Ing6nieurs
des Chauss6es et de la ville en g6enral; G. Cauvin, J.
Pereira et J. Lafontaut, Ing6nieur topographique et M.
Canez, Directeur des Usines A Glace.
TELEPHONES ET TELEGRAPHES.-Ce D6parte-
ment accompli un travail tris n6cessaire d'une excellent
maniere, ayant augmenter les lignes de 800 a plus de 1,000
miles et r6duit les interruptions lin6aires de 300 heures A
moins de 40 heures par mois, par un systeme d'amendes
et de prix aux ouvriers. En plus de ces ameliorations
locales, les lignes principles ont 6t& jointent a ceux de la
R6publique Dominicaine.
STATION DE LA TELEGRAPHIE SANS FIL.-La
station de T616graphie sans fil de la Marine Am6ricaine est
install6e et en operation, manipulant les messages commer-
ciaux aussi bien que les officials, avec un tarif tres mod6r6.
IRRIGATION.-Comme l'Agriculture Haitienne d6-
pend largement sur l'irrigation pour ses recoltes, le Gouver-
nement a trouv6 n6cessaire de faire sa part dans l'arrange-
ment de l'approvisionnement de l'eau pour certain dis-
tricts qui dependent absolument sur cet eau pour leurs
r6coltes. Le present Gouvernement a commence le travail,
en restorant oi possible, et en ajoutant dans bien des cas,
aux appareils d'irrigation magnifiques construits par les
Colons Frangais, il-y-a plus de 150 ans.
BATIMENTS PUBLICS.-L'actuel travail principal
de ce D6partement est I'achevement du Palais National,
une aile duquel est d6j~ occup6e par le President; les autres
travaux du d6partement consiste pour la plus part de r6para-
tions et d'ameliorations aux diff6rents batiments du Gou-
vernement.
APPROVISIONNEMENT D'EAU.-L'approvisionne-
ment d'eau de la ville de Port au Prince est op6er par ce
department. Le systeme est en mauvaise condition mais
des plans sont dej~ fait pour son entire reconstruction.
SYSTEME DES EGOUTS.-Ces travaux sont fait par
la ville de Port au Prince aussi vite que les appropriations
peuvent Etre faite et l'argent trouver.
REPARATION DES RUES.-Les rues sont amelior6es
chaque ann6e mais l'argent approprier pour ces travaux
est insuffisant, plus specialement dans les villes de moindre
importance, mais le d6partement fait tout ce qui est pos-
sible avec les mat&riaux et fonds actuellement en main.
PONTS ET CHAUSSEES.-Le travail etait sous la
direction du d6partement de la Gendarmerie jusqu'au mois
de Juin 1919 et des bons r6sultats ont ete accomplish dans
l'int6rieur. Le D6partement des Travaux Publics a des
plans pour le diveloppement d'un systime de routes mod-
ernes pour la Republique toute entire.


Public Works of Haiti


HIS important Department of the Government of
Haiti has a dual administration, part Haitian
and part American. The Minister of Public Works,
Mr. Louis Roy, represents the Republic of Haiti and is
a member of the President's Cabinet, while the Chief Engi-
neer of Public Works, Commander E. R. Gayler, C. E. C.,
U. S. Navy, represents the "Treaty Officials" in accord-
ance with the Convention between the Governments of the
United States of America and the Republic of Haiti.
Minister Louis Roy has for his aids, Messrs. David
Borges, (Division Chief), Turenne Th6zan (Chief Clerk)
and Louis Callard (Paymaster); while Chief Engineer E.
R. Gayler has for his aids Lt. Com. C. H. Morefield, Lt.
R. A. Conard, Lt.W. N. Thompson and Lt. W. C. Diehl,
all C. E. C. of the U. S. Navy, among whom the general
supervision of the Public Works is divided.
The Haitian Engineers and Architects in charge of in-
dividual projects are: Messrs. Thos. Price, Assistant to the
Eng. in Chief, Hennan Doret, City Eng. for Port au Prince,
Louis Aubry, Director of Water Works, Geo. Price, Chief
Draftsman, L. Maignan and L. Mathon, Senior Architects,
Geo. Baussan, Architect of the National Palace, L. Borno
and L. Menos, Telephone and Telegraph Engineers; A.
Gardere, M. Montes, E. Champana, E. Maximilien and
L. Jeannot, General Road and Town Engineers; G. Cau-
vin, J. Pereira and J. Lafontaut, Topographic Engs. and
M. Canez, Director of the Ice Factories.
TELEPHONES AND TELEGRAPHS.-This Depart-
ment is doing a very necessary work in a first class manner,
having increased the total mileage from less than 800 to
more than 1,000 miles and reduced the line interruptions
from over 300 hours to less than 40 hours per month,
through a system of fines and awards to the linemen. In
addition to the many local improvements the main lines
have been connected with those of the Dominican Republic.
WIRELESS STATION.-The U. S. Naval Radio Sta-
tion is now completed and in operation, handling commer-
cial, as well as official messages, at very moderate rates.
IRRIGATION.-As Haitian Agriculture depends, to a
large extent, on irrigation, it has been found necessary for
the Government to do its part in arranging the Water
Supply for certain districts.
The actual Government has begun this work by restor-
ing where possible, and adding to same in many instances,
the magnificent irrigation plants built by the French
Colonists more than 150 years ago.
PUBLIC BUILDINGS.-The principal work of this
department at present is the completion of the National
Palace, one wing of which is already occupied by the Presi-
dent. Other works of the department being mostly re-
pairs or auxiliary improvements on different Government
owned buildings.
WATER SUPPLY.-The water supply for the City of
Port au Prince is being operated by this Department.
The System is in poor condition but plans are being made
for its entire reconstruction.
SEWERAGE.-This work is being done for the City of
Port au Prince as fast as the appropriations are made and
the money can be found.
STREET REPAIRS.-The streets are notably better
each year but the money appropriated for this work is
entirely inadequate, more especially in the cities and towns
of less importance, but the Department is doing the best
possible with the materials and funds actually in hand.
ROADS AND BRIDGES.-This work was under the
direction of the Gendarmerie Department until June of
this year and good work was done toward opening the
interior to vehicle traffic. The Public Works Department
has plans for developing a modern system of improved
roads for the entire Republic.
ICE FACTORY.-This industry was taken over by the
Haitian Government from its enemy alien owners. The
plant has been put into proper repair and its output more
than doubled.






Gendarmerie d'Haiti


Armed Forces of Haiti


ti f 'T ik P: "

i..T





VUES DIVERSE DE LA GENDARMERIE VARIOUS GENDARME VIEWS
Quarter Gentral de la Gendarmerie General Headquarters Gendarmerie
Bataillon du Parc "Champ-de-Mars" Battalion "Champ-de-Mars" Park Bataillon du Parc "Champ-de-Mars" Battalion "Champ-de-Mars" Park
Quarter General de la Police (Port-au-Prince) Police Headquarters (Port-au-Prince)
Inspection (JYremie) Inspection (Jeremie) Inspection (Saint Marc) Inspection (Saint Marc)
La Musique du Quartier G6enral a la Parade Headquarters Band on Parade







Gendarmerie d'Haiti
ient6t apres l'atterrissement des fusiliers Marins Am&r-
icains en Haiti, en Aoft 1915, il devenait apparent
que la police et les forces militaires Haitienne avait
grand besoin d'une complete reorganisation. Avec celi en
vue, des measures ffrent prise pour l'institution d'une Police
Militaire Haitienne, organisation qui prendrait la place de
toutes les forces militaires et de police existantes dans la
R6publique.
Cette id6e fut accepter favorablement par les Haitiens
et le Gouvernement des Etats Unis et au 16 du mois de
Septembre 1919, un trait& fut sign entire les deux Pays
dans lequel entire autres agr6ments, il itait stipule qu'une
Gendarmerie soit organis6e, qui serait charger de toutes
les activities militaires et de police en Haiti. Les hommes
enr61er dans cette organisation serait des Haitiens et les
officers des Americains, jusqu'au jour que des Haitiens
qualifies pourront 6tre trouv6s pour prendre les places de
ces derniers.
Les conditions en Haiti 6tait a ce moment la, chaotiques
et la nouvelle Gendarmerie se trouvait bient6t dans la
n&cessit6 d'etendre ses functions a contenir les telephones,
les routes et le payment des fonctionnaires, afin d'instiller
un sentiment de s6curit& dans le people.
Brigadier G6n6ral Smedley D. Butler, U. S. Marine
Corps, alors un commandant, 6tait charge d'organiser et de
commander la Gendarmerie et il 6tait commission Major
General par le President d'Haiti.
Pour but de police et d'administration, Haiti 6tait divis6
en d6partement et ces d6partements redivis6 en des dis-
tricts et sous districts. A chaque d6partement fut assigned
un Colonel avec son personnel et un nombre de compagnie
et a chaque district fut assigned une compagnie complete
laquelle 6tait distribute en detachments de cinq A vingt
hommes dans toutes les villes et localit6s importantes du
district.
C'est ainsi que bient6t, la Gendarmerie 6tendue d'Ouana-
minthe a M61e St. Nicolas et d'Anse a Pitres a Dame Marie
devenait lefacteur principal, executant les conditions du
trait.
A l'exception des officers sup&rieurs, praticallement tous
les officers furent choisi dans les rangs des fusiliers Marins.
Les jeunes gens pris hors d'une organization d'hommes
choisis avait bient6t fait de surmont6s les difficulties a se
familiariser avec le dialect et les contumes du pays.
A ce sujet, il faut toujours comprendre que la premiere
impression que le voyageur regoit a Port au Prince, oA on
peut trouver partout des hommes de culture et d'instruction
n'est pas applicable aux provinces, oi la majority du people
est encore illettr6e.
Malheureusement les fonctionnaires dans les provinces
6tait bien souvent trouv6s d'etre aussi ignorant que le reste
de la population, avec le r6sultat que les ecoles et les tribu-
naux fonctionnaient d'une mani6re deplorable. Mais tous
ces fonctionnaires montrait une admirable disposition a ce
laisser guider par les avis des officers de la Gendarmerie
locale et un esprit de plus grande justice et d'attention au
devoir etait bient6t instiller dans la conduite des services
publiques.
Un autre probleme qui se presentait a la Gendarmerie
etait les prisons Haitiens. Ce system ou plut6t manque
de systime etait probablement le plus mauvais trait de la
mauvaise direction Haitienne. Bientot apris que la Gen-


Armed Forces of Hayti

Soon after the landing of the U. S. Marines in Hayti,
in August 1915, it became apparent that the existing
police and military forces of Hayti were in need of a
complete reorganization. With this in view, steps were
taken towards the institution of a Haytian Military Police
organization which would take the place of all the existing
military and police forces of the Republic.
This idea met with the favor of the Haytian and the
United States governments and on September 16, 1919,
a Treaty was signed between the two powers which among
other agreements stipulated that a Gendarmerie should be
organized which should take over all the military and police
activities of Hayti. The enlisted men of this organization
were to be Haytians and the officers to be Americans until
such time as qualified Haytians could be found to take the
places of these latter.
Conditions in Hayti at this time were chaotic and the
Gendarmerie soon found it necessary to extend its func-
tions to include the telephones, roads and the payment of
civil officials in order to help instill a feeling of security
among the people.
Brigadier General Smedley D. Butler, U. S. Marine
Corps, then a major, was directed to organize and to com-
mand the Gendarmerie and was commissioned by the
President of Hayti, a Major General.
For purposes of police and administration Hayti was
divided up into departments and these departments sub-
divided into districts and subdistricts. To each department
was assigned a colonel with his staff and a number of com-
panies and to each district was assigned a complete com-
pany which was distributed in commands of from five to
twenty men in all the important towns and localities of
the district.
Thus the Gendarmerie stretching out from Ouanaminthe
to M61e St. Nicolas and from Anse a Pitres to Dame Marie
soon became the dominant factor in carrying out the terms
of the treaty.
With the exception of the senior grades practically all
the officers were selected from the ranks of the Marine
Corps. These young men selected from an organization
of picked men soon mastered the difficulty of making
themselves familiar with both the native dialect and many
of the customs of the country.
In this connection it should be borne in mind that the
impressions the traveller gains in Port au Prince where Hay-
tians of culture and learning are everywhere found, are
not applicable to the country districts where the vast
majority of the people are illiterate.
Unfortunately the officials in the rural districts were
often found to be as ignorant as the rest of the population,
with the result that the schools and courts were found to
be functioning in a most deplorable manner. However,
all these officials showed an admirable disposition to be
guided by the advices of the local Gendarmerie officers
and a spirit of greater fairness and attention to duty was
soon instilled in the conduct of the public services.
The next problem which presented itself to the Gendar-
merie was the Haytian prisons. This system or rather
lack of system was probably the worst feature of Haytian
mismanagement. Soon after the Gendarmerie took charge,
the horrible fact presented itself, that people were actually
dying of starvation in prison. Upon investigation it de-












Gendarmerie d'Haiti Armed Forces of Haiti


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Caserne (Gonaives Barracks (Gonaives) "Un Groupe" a Jacmel "The Bunch" at Jacmel Caserne (Port-de-Paix) Barracks (Pt. Paix)
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Hpital, Jacmel Hospital, Jacmel






















42
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Caserne (Gonaives --Barracks (Gonaives) "Un Groupe" Jacmel The Bunch" at Jarmel Caserne (Port-de-Paix) Barracks (Pt. Pai',
Lt. Ossman (adjudant) Lt. Ossman (adjutant) G~n~al Williams (Chef) Gen. Williams (Chief) Lt. Denman architectt) Lt. Denman (architect)
Gna Williams relevant Epe du Pr6sident Gen. Williams receiving Sword from President















Hpita, Jacmel Hospital, Jamel
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Gendarmerie d'Haiti


Armed Forces of Haiti


I '.


7!


Res. Col. Buckley (Aux Cayes) -

Gendarmes a la Patrouille Gendarmes on Patrol

Gendarmes de Miragoane-Lt. Shaker -

Pri-e d'Armes (Caserne Dartiguenave) Guard Mount (Caserne Dartiguenave)

Bureau du Capitaine Brown (St. Marc)

Quarter du Capitaine Brown (St. Marc) Captain Brown's Quarters (St. Marc)

Un Groupe d'Officiers (Aux Cayes)


Res. Col. Buckley (Aux Cayes)

Gendarmes a la Patrouille Gendarmes on Patrol

iragoane Gendarmes-Lt. Shaker

Quarter du Capitaine Kenney (Cavalerie) Capt."Kenney's Quarters (Cavalry)

Capt. Brown's Office (St. Marc)

Quarter du Capitaine Brown (St. Marc) Capt. Brown's Quarters (St. Marc)

- Group of Officers (Aux Cayes)


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Gendarmerie d'Haiti

darmerie prit charge, le fait horrible se presentait, que les
gens actuellement mourrait de faim dans les prisons. A
l'enqu&te il developpait que la loi Haitienne ne procure pas
l'alimentation des prisoners avec le r6sultat que si un pris-
onier n'avait pas d'amis ou d'argent il mourrait de faim.
Aussit6t que ce caractcre de la direction Haitienne devenait
apparent, la Gendarmerie prenait charge de tout les prisons
en Haiti, demandait pour et recevait des fonds pour nourrir
proprement, habiller et loger toutes personnel en detention.
Apres trois ann&es sous la supervision de la Gendarmerie
d'Haiti, les prisons d'Haiti sont a present un des spectacles
de la R6publique, avec leurs traits industries progressifs
et splendides arrangements sanitaires. Fortuitement le coOt
s'el6ve a $3.00 par mois pour chaque prisoner, y compris
non seulement la nourriture, I'habillement et le logement,
mais aussi les reparations et ameliorations des bhtiments de
prison.
En vue de l'inclusion de tout les traits militaires dans
organization de la Gendarmerie, une branch connue com-
me la "Coast Guard" etait 6tablie, consistent de plusieurs
bateaux auxiliaires de100tonnes, commander par des officers
de la Marine des Etats Unis, et personnel enr6ler Haitien.
Cette garde de c6te a prouv6e sa valeur par l'absence pres-
que complete de contrabande, et le bas prix et la vitesse avec
laquelle elle transport tous les approvisionnements du
Gouvernement.
Les travaux de routes de la Gendarmerie, sous la terrible
energie de son premier chef progressaient rapidement et il en
r6sulte que huit cents kilomitres de routes ont 6ti ouverts
au traffic, la plus grande parties de ces routes 6tait hors d'us-
age depuis le temps des Frangais, il y a cent trente annees.
En 1919 la Gendarmerie a remis les t6elphones et routes
a l'ing6nieur d'Haiti, un fonctionnaire du traits charge de
la supervision et conduite de ces travaux.
Les autorit6s Haitiennes reconnaissaient maitenant que
les collections et d6boursements des revenues n'etaient pas
faite dans le meilleur advantage publiaient au 10 Aott,
1917, une lettre circulaire qui virtuellement mettait la
Gendarmerie en complete charge des communes. Les
r6sultats accomplish par ce sage ordre du Ministre de l'In-
terieur 6taient etonnants. Par example dans la commune
St. Michel de l'Attalaye, apres que le Lieutenant de la local-
it6 avait pris la supervision des affaires de la ville, les revet-
nues s'acroissaient de cinq fois dans un seul mois et I'argent
fut judicieusement d6pens6 pour des ameliorations depuis
longtemps necessaire en ville. Aussi longtemps que ce
syst6me sera maintenu, il y aura d'importantes ameliorations
dans la sanitation et appearance des villes et tous les fonc-
tionnaires seront sOre de recevoir le payment de leurs
salaires promptement.
Pour resume, il parait que l'etablissement de la Gendar-
merie 6tait un considerable facteur dans chaque ameliora-
tion manifeste en Haiti et quoiqu'il y a encore matiere
pour amelioration, beaucoup des traits non militaire des
travaux de la Gendarmerie peuvent et ont ete remis d6ej
A d'autres branches du Gouvernement comme c'etait con-
templ6 par le trait, et on pense qu' I1'6poque quand le
trait va expirer, la gendarmerie sera commander entiere-
ment par des officers Haitiens et que l'oeuvre commencer
sera continue par les Haitiens meme sans le besoin de la
direction des Etats Unis.


Armed Forces of Hayti

veloped that the Haytian law did not provide for the feed-
ing of prisoners and as a result those who possessed no
friends or money starved. As soon as this feature of Hay-
tian management became apparent, the Gendarmerie im-
mediately took charge of all prisons in Hayti and asked for
and received funds to properly feed, clothe and house all
persons in confinement.
After three years under the supervision of the Gendar-
merie of Hayti, the prisons of Hayti are now one of the
show sights of the Republic, with their progressive industrial
features and splendid sanitary arrangements. Incident-
ally the cost amounts to about $3.00 per month for each
prisoner including not only the feeding, clothing and hous-
ing, but the repair and improvement of the prison buildings.
In view of the inclusion of all military features in the
organization of the Gendarmerie, a branch known as the
Coast Guard was established consisting of several 100 ton
auxiliary schooners officered by a detail from the U. S.
Navy, and enlisted force of Haytians.
This Coast Guard has proven its worth by the absence
of practically all smuggling and by the cheapness and dis-
patch with which it transports all the supplies for the
government.
The road work of the Gendarmerie under the tremendous
energy of its first Chief soon became one of its leading
features and as a result some five hundred miles of road
were opened for vehicle traffic, most of which had been closed
since the time of the French,.one hundred and thirty years
ago.
During nineteen hundred and nineteen the Gendarmerie
turned over the telephones and roads to the Engineer of
Hayti, a treaty official charged with the supervision and
conduct of this work.
It having become patent to the Haytian authorities that
the collection and disbursement of town revenues were not
being made to the best advantage, on August 10, 1917, a
circular letter was issued which virtually put the Gendar-
merie in charge of the communes. The results accom-
plished by this wise and farseeing order of the Minister
of the Interior were astonishing. For example, in the
commune of St. Michel de l'Attalaye, after the local lieu-
tenant had assumed supervision of the town affairs, the
revenues increased five fold in a single month and the
money judiciously expended in much needed town improve-
ments. As long as this system is maintained there will
continue to be a decided improvement in the sanitation
and appearance of the towns and all the officials will be
assured of prompt payment of their salaries.

To sum up, it would appear that the establishment of the
Gendarmerie has been a considerable factor in every im-
provement manifested in Hayti and that while there is still
room for continued improvement, many of the unmilitary
features of the Gendarmerie's work can and have now been
turned over to other branches of the government as was
contemplated by the treaty, and it is believed that by the
time the treaty expires, the Gendarmerie will be officered
entirely by Haytians and that the great work started will be
continued by the Haytians themselves without the neces-
sity of the guidance of the United States.






Maison Penitentiaire Nationale
Port-au-Prince


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DIVERSE VUES DE LA GRANDE PRISON VARIOUS VIEWS OF THE GREAT PRISON
Batiment principal (exterieur) -Exterior Main Building
Entree principal (ext6rieur) Main Entrance (outside) Entree principal (int6rieur) Main Entrance (inside)
Section des femmes Woman's Department Appel Roll Call Brisement de Pierres Breaking Rock
Cour pour Exercice Exercise Yard Directeurs et Bureaux Wardens and Office La Garde The Guard
Tour du Quetteur Watch Tower Chapelle Chapel Tour du Quetteur A Watch Tower
Vue de l'Intirieur prise du toit du BAtiment principal Interior View from Roof of Main Building


National Penitentiary


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Gendarmerie d'Haiti


Armed Forces of Haiti


Capt. D. A. KELLEY LT. A. M ACKROYD


LT. E. A. RAYMOND


Capt. H. L. HOWELL


Capt. CARL SVENSEN


Capt. T. G. LAITSCH


Capt. EMIL SORENSON


Capt. J.'_P. FITZGERALD BROWN


LT. HARRY RUBLE


Fusiliers Marins des Etats Unis, preter par le Gouvernement Americain au Gouverne- United States Marines, loaned by the American Government to the Haitian Govern-
ment Haitien pour commander et organiser la Nouvelle Armee Haitienne ment to officer and build up the New Haitian Army








Gendarmerie d'Haiti


Armed Forces of Haiti


Id


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Lt. A. H. Haug
Lt. L. O. Gates
Dr. E. C. Beaulac
Lt. H. R. Kinney


Maj. G. D. Hatfield
Dr. Albert Albrecht
Lt. Richard Shaker


Lt. P. A. Daggett.
Lt.OW. D. Denman
Lt. W. L. Berroyer
Lt. Edward Ortciger


p"P,






Geologie, Mineraux et Mines


G EOLOGIE: Deux hypotheses existent quand A la
formation de l'Ile d'Haiti. D'apr&s la premiere,
l'Ile aurait 6it une part du continent de l'Am6rique
du Nord A une certain 6poque et en 6tait s6pari par la
submersion des pays-bas joignant Haiti avec Cuba et Cuba
avec Florida, pendant que la second et plus probable
des hypotheses est que Haiti aussi bien que les nombreuses
Iles des Antilles doivent leure formation h une succession
de soul6vements volcaniques.
MINERAUX: D'apris les recherches de plusieurs g6olo-
gues il y aurait d'immenses richesses et gisements de min6-
raux, dans toutes les parties de 1'Ile, pendant que les
affleurements et aspects soutiennent l'id6e d'un district rich
en mineraux et jusqu' a present aucunement d6velopper.
C'est un fait bien connu que les Espagnoles ont exp6dies
de l'or laver des riviires et ruisseaux d'une valeur de plus
de $70,000,000.00 de l'Ile. Ceux de Santo Domingo pro-
duisait la plus grande parties des ses expeditions.
Dans les jours coloniaux, des mines d'or ont 6et exploit6es
dans la parties de l'Ile appartenant a Haiti, pros de Dondon,
Ouanaminthe et de Port Piment du Nord, mais depuis
l'Ind6pendance de la Republique, aucune exploitation a 6it
tentie, parce que la Ripublique d'Haiti avait des lois des
mines d6favorables et prohibitives aux capitaux strangers
et les Haitiens eux 6taient trop pris dans les politiques pour
s'occuper de l'exploitation des mines.
D'apres les indications, les mineraux suivants peuvent
8tre trouv6s dans les dirti r._ i,,_ sections nommer:
Or: a Dondon, Ouanaminthe et Port Piment du Nord.
Argent: a Dondon et Port de Paix.
Cuivre: a Terrier-rouge, Saint Suzanne, Fort Libert6,
Dondon, St. Michel, Plaisance, Terre Neuve, M61e St.
Nicolas, Arcahaie, Les Cayes et Jacmel.
Fer: a Limonade, Ouanaminthe, Plaisance, Quartier-
Morin, Terre Neuve, M61e St. Nicolas, Arcahaie, Les Cayes
Jacmel et Anse a Veau.
Asbeste: a Limonade et Jean Rabel.
Zinc: a Port de Paix.
Antimoine: a Jean Rabel, Dondon, Borgne, Petite
Riviere du Nord.
Mercure: a M61e St. Nicolas.
Souffre: a Ouanaminthe, Marmelade et Arcahaie.
Charbon: a St. Michel, Hinche, Las Caobas, Marmelade,
Grand Gosier, Anse a Veau et Camp Perrin (Cayes).
Silice: a Dondon, Gonaives, Marigot, Petit Goave, etc.
Quarts: a St. Michel, Jacmel, Anse A Veau et C6teaux.
Lignite: a Arcahaie.
Kaolin: a Gonave et Hinche.
Craie: a Ennery et autre places.
Marbre: dans toutes les parties de la Republique. Du
Plomb, Platine, Feldspar, Bitume, Anthracite, Nitrate,
Phosphate et diff6rents autres mineraux de moindre im-
portance existent dans differentes sections; on a d6couvert
en Haiti beaucoup de gisements de pierre pr6cieuses, telles
que le Diamand, I'Agathe, 1'Emeraude, le Lapis-lazuli, etc.
Sel: Dans plusieurs places, le long de la c6te d'Haiti,
il-y-a de vastes marais salants, don't quelques-uns donnent
lieu a une exploitation avantageuse: les plus important
sont ceux de la Grande Saline, Gonaives, Aquin et Jean
Rabel.
Sources Minerales: L'interieur de l'Ile renferme beau-
coup de sources d'eaux min6rales don't plusieurs sont connue
d'etre d'une grande valeur curative.
Exploitation des mines: Des travaux de prospection
ont 6ti ex6cut6s dans diffirentes sections, mais il n'y a
encore aucune mine en exploitation, ga fait que Haiti est
encore un Pays vierge pour les operations de mines, et va
sans doute produire de grosses fortunes quand les lois sur
les mines seront riform6es de maniere a faciliter les exploi-
tations sur une grande 6chelle.
II faut esperer que le prospecteur, ing6nieur des mines
et capitalist prennent advantage de ces tr6sors, aussitOt
que les nouvelles lois seront d6cr&ites.


EOLOGY: Two versions exist as to the formation
of the Island of Haiti. The first version pretends
that at one time the Island formed a part of the
North American continent and was separated by the sinking
of the connecting low lands connecting Haiti with Cuba and
Cuba with Florida, while the second and most probable
version is that the formation of Haiti, as well as the other
West Indian Islands was brought about by successive vol-
canic eruptions.
MINERALS: The various geological investigations and
studies point to an immense wealth of mineral, in all parts
of the Island, while the outcrops and prospects made seem
to bear out the idea of a rich mineral district, as yet un-
developed in any way.
It is a known fact that the Spaniards shipped more than
$70,000,000.00 of gold washed from the rivers and creeks
of the Island, those of Santo Domingo producing the
larger part of these shipments.
In the Colonial days gold was mined, in the part of the
Island pertaining to Haiti, at Dondon, Ouanaminthe and
at Port Piment du Nord, but since the Independence of the
Republic no mining of any consequence has been attempted
as the Haitien Republic had unfavorable mining laws pro-
hibitive to foreign capital and the Haitiens themselves were
too busy with politics to worry about mines.
Indications and outcrops indicate that the following
named minerals are to be found in the different sections and
districts named:
Gold: at Dondon, Ouanaminthe and Port Piment du
Nord.
Silver: at Dondon and Port de Paix.
Copper: at Terrier-Rouge, Saint Suzanne, Plaisance,
Fort Liberty, Dondon, St. Michel, Terre Neuve, M61e St.
Nicolas, Arcahaie, Les Cayes and Jacmel.
Iron: at Limonade, Ouanaminthe, Plaisance, Quartier-
Morin, Terre Neuve, M81e St. Nicolas, Arcahaie, Les Cayes,
Jacmel and Anse a Veau.
Asbestos: at Limonade and Jean Rabel.
Zinc: at Port de Paix.
Antimony: at Jean Rabel, Dondon, Borgne, Petite
Riviere.
Mercury: at M61e St. Nicolas.
Sulphur: at Ouanaminthe, Marmelade and Arcahaie.
Coal: at St. Michel, Hinche, Las Caobas, Marmelade,
Grand Gosier, Anse a Veau and Camp Perrin (Cayes).
Silica: at Dondon, Gonaives, Marigot, Petit Goave, etc.
Quarts: at St. Michel, Jacmel, Anse a Veau and C6teaux.
Lignite: at Arcahaie.
Porcelain Clay: at Gonave and Hinche.
Chalk: at Ennery and other places.
Marble: in all parts of the Republic.
Lead, platinum, feldspar, bitume, anthracite, nitrate,
phosphates and various other minerals of less importance
exist in different sections, while diamonds, agates, emeralds,
lapiz-lazuli, etc., etc., are found here and there.
Salt: In several places, along the coasts of Haiti, are
found great salt marshes which are advantageous sources
for exploitation. The principal of these are those of the
Grand Salines, Gonaives, Aquin and Jean Rabel.
Mineral Springs: Many springs of more or less medicinal
value are found in different parts of Haiti, some of them of
known and proven curative value.
MINING: While some prospecting has been done at
different periods in various parts, there are at present no
mines in actual operations, so that Haiti is yet a virgin
country for mining operations, and will no doubt produce
great fortunes once the mining laws are reformed in such
manner as to make operation on a large scale possible.
It is to be hoped that an early day will see the pros-
pector, mining engineer and capitalist taking advantage of
these great hidden stores of wealth, which only await the
passing of proper mining laws; as modern science and up-to-
date mining machinery will do the rest.







Agriculture


Haiti considerer en entier peut etre compare & une grande ferme
dilapider, laquelle a ft6ihypoth6qu6 afin de tenir son propriftaire dans
le luxe et a 6t6 cultiv6 au hazard par une multitude d'irresponsables
tenanciers, sans systeme ou organisation d'aucune sorte. Jamais
rien n'a i6t fait ce qui n'6tait pas absolument n6cessaire et chacun
vivait toujours de jour en jour avec aucune id6e ou pens6e pour I'am6l-
ioration de leur condition. Telles ont 6t& les conditions dans l'Agri,
culture d'Haiti. II etait inutile d'essayer de faire l'ilevage du b6tail,
d'am6liorer les fermes ou de preparer le sol pour des recoltes spiciales
parce-que le fermier ne savait jamais, s'il serait capable d'lever ses
animaux ou d'accomplir ses ameliorations ou de moissonner ses r6coltes
avant qu'il soit chasser par une prochaime revolution ou peut etre
toutes ses propri6ets confisquer par quelque politician sur des fausses
accusations.
Telles 6taient les conditions en Haiti avant 1915 lesquelles existaient
depuis plus que 100 ans ou depuis que les Frangais l'avait abandon&
come Colonie et depuis que c'est une R6publique. Les grandes
plantations Frangaise 6taient divisees parmi les affranchis et anciens
esclaves et ces sous divisions n'ont jamais cesser d'etre en dispute
jusqu'A la pr6sente administration et l'existant trait avec les Etats Unis.
Pour plus de cent ans, aucun stranger ftait permis d'approprier des
biens fonciers d'aucune sorte et par consequent, aucune amelioration
permanent ne pouvait etre faite, pendant que les moulins magnifiques
plantations et systemes d'irrigation laisser par les Francais ditruisaient
graduellement ou tombaient en ruines, faute d'entretien.
Aujourd'hui tout est change, Haiti est r&veill et debout et les hommes
intelligent commence A regarder vers la r6g6n6ration du Pays, parce-
que tous ils savent que les richesses et le bonheur du Pays doivent venir
du sol dans l'avenir. La paix est assure, les droits de propri6it sont
assures, les strangers sont permis de poss6der et d'ameliorer des pro-
prietis, des bestiaux peuvent etre 6leves,des systems d'irrigation
installer et les champs peuvent a present recevoir leurs propres soins
et etre cultiv6s sans crainte. Des bonnes routes ont 6t6 construites, des
chemins de fer sont en etat de construction, enfin le fermier reviens
dans ses biens et aucun pays au monde ne posside un plus brilliant
avenir consider le climate, le sol et la main d'oeuvre.
Une Compagnie Amiricaine a di6j invest plusieurs millions de dol-
lars dans une grande plantation de sucre pendant qu'une autre com-
pagnie est dej. organis6e pour commencer le travail cet hiver, pendant
que beaucoup d'Etrangers et des gens du pays commence A preparer
leurs plantations pour different products d'agriculture, notamment
du cafe, coton, cacao, canne, grain de ricin, riz, etc., etc., pendant
que d'autres commence l'elevage des bestiaux, chevaux, pourceaux, etc.
I1 y a de belles opportunities en Haiti, mais ce qu'il faut le plus, ce
sont des fermiers experts et prati que avec du capital; Haiti a le reste.
le climate, la bonne terre et la main d'oeuvre a bon march. L'agree
culteur pratique qui voudra aller en Haiti est assure d'un revenue im-
mense pour son argent et experience.
La terre est bon march et facile A acquerir et la main d'oeuvre cote
seulement de 20 a 30 sous par jour a la ferme. Beaucoup d'Americains
et autres strangers ont d6ja pris advantage des nouvelles lois leurs per-
mettant d'acheter des propri6t6s et dejA nombres de fortunes ont 6t6
faites.
CANNE.-La canne Haitienne est tris prolifique et donne un grand
pourcentage de sacharine; se cultive facilement et se plante seulement
une fois tout les 10 A 15 ans.
COTON.-Le coton Haitien est de la vari6te appeler "Sea Island"
et produit d'une a deux balle par acre. Se plante une fois tout les 3 ans.
CAFE.-II n'y a pas de sup6rieur au monde au caf6 Haitien; il est
tres prolifique producteur et en grande demand dans tout les marches.
Planter seulement une fois tout les 50 ans.
CACAO.-Complitement 6qual en quality au fameux cacao de
l'Amerique du Sud; est plant seulement une fois tout les 40 A 50 ans.
TABAC.-II est de tres bonne quality mais peu connu hors du Pays.
Actuellement Haiti imported presque tout son tabac.
FRUITS ET LEGUMES.-Toutes les variit6s de fruits et legumes
tropiques et sous tropiques poussent partout et sous n'importe quelle
condition, virtuellement toute l'ann6e.
BETAIL, CHEVAUX ET POURCEAUX.-Haiti imported tous
ses bestiaux, chevaux, cochons et lard, pendant qu'elle posside les
meilleurs climats et pAturages au monde; ce qu'il manque est le capital
et l'l6eveur experimenter.
Pour possibilities non divelopper en Agriculture et elevage de bes-
tiaux, il faut aller en Haiti.


Hayti considered as a whole may be compared to a great "ramshackle"
farm, which has been heavily mortgaged to keep its proprietor in luxury
and cultivated, at random, by a multitude of irresponsible tenants,
without system or organization of any sort. Nothing being done that
could be left undone and everyone living from hand to mouth with-
out any idea of or care for bettering their condition, such has been
the Agricultural Conditions of Hayti. It was useless to attempt to
breed blooded stock or to make any extensive farm improvements or
to prepare the soil for special crops as the farmer never knew whenever
he would be able to raise his animals or finish his improvements or
harvest his crop, before he was chased out by the next revolution
or his entire holdings would be confiscated by some politician by a
trumped up charge.
Such was the conditions in Hayti prior to 1915; conditions which
had existed more than 100 years or ever since the French gave it up
as a colony and it became a Republic. The great French plantations
were sub-divided among the freedmen and ex-slaves, and these sub-
divisions have been a bone of contention up to the beginning of the
present administration and the existing treaty with the United States.
For more than a century no foreigner has been allowed to own land
of any kind and consequently no permanent improvements could be
made, while the magnificent mills, plantations and irrigation plants
left by the French were gradually destroyed or went to ruin for want
of upkeep.
Today all is changed, Hayti has her best foot forward and thinking
men are beginning to look forward to the Agricultural regeneration
of the country, as they all know that their future wealth and happi-
ness must come from the soil. Peace is assured, property rights are
assured, foreigners may own and improve property, blooded stock may
be raised, irrigation plants installed and the fields may now have their
proper care and cultivation without fear. Roads are where mule paths
used to be, railroads are being built, in fact the farmer of Hayti is com-
ing into his own again and no country in the world has a brighter future
-climate, soil and labor considered.
Already one American concern has invested several million dollars
in a great sugar plantation while another company has been organized
to begin work this winter, while many individuals both native and
foreign are laying out their plantations for various agricultural products,
such as: cane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, castor beans, rice, etc., etc.. while
others are making a start in cattle and stock raising, hog raising, etc.
The opportunities are many and what is most needed is practical
farmers with money to invest. Hayti has the climate, the soil and the
cheap labor. What she needs is money and experienced agriculturists
and they will be assured of immense returns for their money and ex-
perience.
Land is cheap and easy to secure and labor costs from 20 to 30 cents
per day on the farm, and while these laborers are not expert farm hands,
they are quick to learn and make steady workers in so far as they have
been shown.
Many Americans and other foreigners are taking advantage of the
new laws permitting them to buy property and not a few fortunes
have already been made.
CANE.-The Haytian cane is very prolific and gives a high percen-
tage of sacharine, is easily cultivated and only planted once every 10
to 15 years, according to soil.
COTTON.-The Haytian cotton is of the "Sea Island" variety and
will run from one to two bales per acre. Planted once every three years.
COFFEE.-The Haytian coffee has no superior in the world; is a
very prolific bearer and brings topnotch prices in the market. Planted
only once every 50 years.
COCOA.-Fully equal to the famous South American Cocoa in
quality, planted once every 3 to 50 years.
TOBACCO.-Very fine quality but little known outside of the
country. At present Hayti imports most of her tobacco.
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.-Every known variety of tropical
and sub-tropical fruits and vegetables grow anywhere and under almost
any conditions, virtually all the year round.
CATTLE, HORSES AND HOGS.-Hayti is importing her beef
stock, horses, pork and lard, while she has the finest climate and grass
in the world. What is needed is capital and experienced stock men.
For undeveloped possibilities in Agriculture and stock raising go to
Hayti.







Faune


A NIMAUX.-La R6publique d'Haiti a une faune
tres variee comportant heureusement plus d'animaux
utiles que d'animaux nuisibles. Les seules bates
dangereuses qu'on rencontre dans la contr6e sont le
sanglier des Antilles et le cochon marron; certaines
arachnides telles que les scorpions, les araign6es-crabes ou
tarentules, la bete-a-mille-pieds et l'arraign6e-A-cul rouge
dans les rivieres et aux embouchures, le caiman et, dans
la mer, sur certaines c6tes seulement, le requin et le
pantouflier (ou requin-marteau).
L'ichtyologie est tres riche. On trouve dans les eaux
d'Haiti: la baleine, le dauphin, le marsouin, le souffleur,
la vache-marine, le lamantin, la raie, 1'anguille, le mulet,
la dorade, l'alose, la sardine, la crevette, plusieurs vari6t6s
de crabes, le hareng, la moule, l'huitre, le homard, l'6cre-
visse, la langouste, les pisquettes, le caret et d'autres
ch6loniens de moindre grandeur.
Les animaux domestiques les plus communs sont le
cheval, le mulet, l'Ane, le boeuf, le cabri, le mouton, le
porc, le chien, le chat, le cochon d'Inde, le lapin etc.
On trouve encore dans les bois des cam6lons, des 16zards,
des mabouyas, des couleuvres a tate de chien, des anolis
tous inoffensifs, mais insectivores et qui sont des auxil-
iaires pour l'agriculteur.
D'un people innombrable d'insectes aux mille couleurs,
de papillons aux teintes rares et de mouches diapr6es qui
remplissent l'air de leurs vols musicaux, il fautnoter une
abeille indigine tres prolifique et qui donne une cire et
un miel estimes;-le ver a soie, des hym6nopteres, des
h6mipteres et dipteres en nombre infini.
Comme gibier de venaison on a, outre le cochon-marron,
l'agouti, un quadrupide et l'iguane, un saurien.
L'ornithologie du pays est d'une richesse inouie. On en
peut citer: la poule, la dinde, le canard, la pintade, le pigeon,
l'oie, le flamant, la poule d'eau, la b6casse, la b6cassine,
le rh616, la fresaie, le manf6ni, la sarcelle, l'aigrette, le
ramier, le musicien, le chirurgien, le pivert ou charpentier,
la tourterelle, le plongeon, le spatule, l'ortolan, la caille,
la perdrix, le faisan, le paon, l'alouette, le pluvier dor6,
la frigate, le congra, la Madame Sara, la corneille, le merle,
I'hirondelle, l'6mouchet, le perroquet, le colibri, l'oiseau-
mouche, le taco, l'oiseau-palmiste, le pipirit, le rossignol
etc. don't la plus grande parties se nourrit des vers et in-
sectes qui s'attaquent aux cultures.
La douceur et la constance du climate, l'abondance des
course d'eau, la richesse de la v6g6tation fourragere dans
d'innombrables savanes semblent destiner Haiti h &tre un
pays de grande industries pastorale. Les regions d'levage
les plus importantes A l'heure actuelle sont comprises dans
les arrondissements de Mirebalais, Las Cahobas, Hinche,
Valliere, le Trou et Fort-Libert6. La Plaine-du-Cul-de-Sac
(Port-au-Prince), les C6tes-de-Fer (Jacmel), Aquin, Nippes
et tout le D6partement de l'Artibonite fournissent d'ex-
cellents petits chevaux.
Un grand champ pour investissement est ouvert en Haiti
pour l'61evage des bestiaux et pourceaux et dans les laiteries.
Le climate est parfait, l'eau est bonne et les paturages
naturelles et artificielles sont facile a faire et plus facile a
tenir en condition. Actuellement il n'y-a pas une seule
ferme pour l'elevage des bestiaux ou pourceaux en Haiti.


Fauna


ANIMALS: The Republic of Haiti has a widely varied
fauna, comprising fortunately more useful than harm-
ful animals. The only dangerous beasts found in the
country are the boar of the West Indies and the wild hog;
some kinds of spiders and the scorpions, the crab spiders or
tarantulas, the millepeds and the spider with the red back;
in the rivers and their mouths, the alligator or crocodile;
and in the sea, upon some coasts only, the shark and the
slipper or hammer shark.
The ichthology is of rich interest. There are found in
the seas of Haiti: the whale, the dauphin, the sea hog, the
blower, the sea cow, the lamantin, the ray fish, the eel,
the mullet, the gold fish, the shad, the sardine, the shrimp,
several varieties of crabs, the herring, the clam, the oyster,
the lobster, the cray fish, the spiny lobster, the "pisquettes,"
the hawk bill turtle, and other sea tortoises of smaller size.
The domestic animals most common are the horse, the
mule, the ass, the ox, the goat, the sheep, the pig, the dog,
the cat, the guinea pig, the rabbit, etc.
Besides these, there are found in the bush: chameleons,
lizards, "mabouyas," grass snakes with dog's heads,
"anolis"; all harmless but insectivorous and valuable aids
in agriculture.
From an innumerable variety of insects with thousands
of colors, rare colored butterflies and variegated flies whose
buzzing fills the air, especially worthy of note is a native
bee, which is very prolific and gives a much valued honey;
the silk worm, hymenopera, hemiptera and diptera in in-
finite number.
As game we find besides the wild hog, the agouti, a quad-
ruped, and the iguana, a saurian.
The ornithology of the country offers unprecedented
wealth. We find for example: the fowl, the turkey, the
duck, the guinea-fowl, the wood-cock, the snipe, the
"rhele," the barn owl, the "manfeni," the teal, the egret,
the ring-dove, the musician, the surgeon, the green wood-
pecker or carpenter, the dove, the diver, the spoonbill,
the ortolann," the quail, the partridge, the pheasant, the
peacock, the lark, the golden plover, the frigate bird, the
"congra," the "Madam Sara," the crow, the blackbird,
the "taco," the palmistt bird," the "pipirit," the whistle,
etc.; the greater part of which feed on worms and insects
which are injurious to the crops.
The mildness and equability of the climate, the abund-
ance of the water courses, the richness of the grazing on the
innumerable savannahs make of Haiti a country of great
pastoral possibilities. The most important regions for
raising cattle are in the neighborhood of Mirebalais, Las
Cahobas, Hinche, Valliere, Le Trou and Fort Liberty.
The "Plaine du Cul de Sac" (Port au Prince), C6tes-de-Fer
(Jacmel), Aquin, Nippes and all the Department of Arti-
bonite have very fine pastures, both natural and artificial,
and furnish milk cows, beef cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys
and excellent small horses.
A great field for investment is open in Haiti for practicable
stock men, expert dairymen and hog ranchers. The climate
is just right, the water good and the native, as well as
artificial pastures are easily made and easier kept in con-
dition. At present there is not one single cattle ranch,
stock farm or hog farm in all Haiti.







Flore


DENREES D'EXPORTATION.-Le caf6 introduit &
St. Domingue par Declieux en 1729, y a trouv6 son climate
d'election. Sortes renommees sur les marches du monde:
le "St. Marc", le "Miragoane", le "Port-au-Prince", le
"Petit Goave". De 80 a 100 millions de livres par an.
La canne A sucre introduite en 1506, sous les Espagnols
par Ovando donne un sucre et un rhum qu'aucun produit
semblable dans le monde ne surpasse en vertu tonique et
en finesse de bouquet.
Le cacao introduit en 1666 par Bertrand d'Ogeron.
Le campeche. L'ile en est couverte depuis 1730 ou les
premiers plants furent imports de l'ile de Campeche. En
outre, on export les espices autochtones suivantes: le
coton, le gaiac, I'acajou, le bois jaune ou fustet, le coprah,
le ricin, le pite, le dividivi, la graine de medecinier, le
chine, la bayahonde, les graines de palmiste etc. etc.
PRODUCTS DE CONSOMMATION LOCALE.-Di-
verses vari6t6s de bananes; diverse vari6t6s de patates;
le malanga et les ignames, tubercules tres riches et de valeur
alimentaire tres grande; l'arbre-A-pain et I'arbre veritable,
artocarpes tres nourrissants; le tayo jaune, noir et blanc;
le topinambour; le manioc doux et le manioc amer; I'arrow-
root, des balisiers comestibles ou tolomanes. Des legumes
sees tels que le Haricot (phaseolus vugaris et varieties ,
le haricot lathyroide, le pois de souche, le pois du Congo
ou cajan de l'Inde, le pois d'Angole. Des c6r6ales: le
mais, le petit-mil, le riz etc. Des fruits 16gumiers: le mirli-
ton, le giraumont, la courage, le petit cocombre, etc. Divers
autres legumes autochtones ou acclimat6s tels que, parmi
ces derniers le chou, la laitue,les bettes, la carotte,le radis,
I'artichaut, le caraibe, le navet, I'aubergine, la tomate,
la ketmie comestible ou gombo. Beaucoup d'esp&ces condi-
mentaires telles que les piments, 1'ail, l'echalotte, le thym,
le persil, la cive, le cerfeuil, le laurier-sauce qui viennent
surtout dans les regions 6lev6es du pays: Fourcy, Fort-
Jacques, Kenscoff dans les hauteurs de Petionville, la
Grande Colline dans la region de Grand-GoAve. En outre,
on cultive le gingembre comme spices et l'on use des feuilles
de malaguette (pimenta vulgaris) comme aromates tandis
que ses fruits ainsi que ceux d'autres esp&ces comme le
Bois d'Inde (Boidinne) ou poivrier de la Jamaique servent
d'6pices et sont connus sous le nom de "toutes spices".
Parmi les nombreux fruits alimentaires qui se mangent
crus comme desserts et qui sont plus savoureux et nour-
rissants les uns que les autres, on peut citer les ananas,
la banane-figue, les mangos,excellents drupes du mangifera
indica et qui sont en vari6tis infinies; les diff6rentes sortes
de citrus (oranges, limons, chadeques ou pamplemousses,
mandarines, bigarrades, le citron doux); la grenade; la
grenadille; les sapotilles; les sapotes; la caimite; les quen-
epes (melicocca bijuga); les cirouelles (spondias purpurea);
le jack ou couroupite-boulet (artocarpus integrifolia)
abondant a Tiburon; le cerisier des Antilles, le g6nipailler,
le jambosier (pomme-rose); le jaune d'oeuf; le mombin ou
ramboustan; le figuier des Indes; la vigne cotonneuse (raisin
des bois); la pomme-liane; I'amandier; l'abricotier des
Antilles; le dattier; l'icaquier; le cocotier; le noisetier;
le tamarinier; les anones (corossol, cachiman-canelle, cachi-
man-coeur-boeuf, cachiman-la-Chine); le papayer la pom-
me-acajou, parties astringente et aigrelette assez sucr6e de
l'anacardium orientale et formte par le p6doncule accres-
sent et succulent du fruit r6el qui est une noix A amande
ol6agineuse et comestible don't le goCtt rappelle celui de la
chataigne. etc. etc. Nous n'en finirions pas s'il nous
fallait faire une enum6ration complete de tous les fruits
d'Haiti.
PLANTES TINCTORIALES.-Les principles plants
tinctoriales d'Haiti sont: le roucouyer (bixaorellana) don't
les graines ont un arille rouge employ sous le nom de
roucou; l'indigotier, le safran des Indes don't les rhizomes
donnent une belle matiere colorante jaune; le brbsillet franc
(coesalpina crista) don't le bois est connu dans le commerce
sous le nom de Bois du Bresil ou Bois de la Jamaique; le


Flora


EXPORT PRODUCTS: Coffee introduced in St. Dom-
ingue by Declieux in 1729 seems to have found there the
climate of its choice. Well known kinds on the market of
the world are the "St. Marc," the "MiragoAne," the "Port
au Prince," the "Petit Goive." The production of this
product reaches from eighty to one hundred million pounds
yearly.
Sugar cane introduced in 1506 under the Spaniards by
Ovando yields a sugar and a rhum unsurpassed in flavor and
tonic virtue by any other similar product in the world.
Cocoa introduced in 1666 by Bertrand d'Ogeron.
Logwood. This has flourished throughout the island
since 1730 when the first plants were imported from the
island of Campeche.
In addition, the following autochthonic products are ex-
ported: cotton, lignum vitae, mahogany, yellow wood or
fustic, coprah, castor oil bean, fiber, dividivi, seeds of
medicinal plants, oak, "bavahonde," seeds of the palm
tree, etc.
PRODUCTS OF LOCAL CONSUMPTION. Several
varieties of bananas, several varieties of potatoes, coconuts,
yams, rich tubercles of great food value, breadfruit and
breadnut which are very nourishing, the yellow, black and
white "tabo," the sweet and bitter cassava, arrow-root,
some edible Indian shot plants or tolomanes; dry vegetables
like the kidney bean, the stump bean, the Congo bean or
cajan of India, the bean of Angola. Cereals: corn, guinea
corn, rice, etc. Vegetable fruits like the "mirliton," the
pumpkin, the pumpkin gourd, the little cucumber, etc.
Several other autochthonic vegetables like the last named,
such as the cabbage, the lettuce, the beet, the carrot, the
radish, the artichoke, the "caraib," the turnip, the egg-
plant, the tomato, the edible "ketmie" or "gombo." Var-
ious plants used in seasoning: the capsicums, the garlic.
the shallot, the thyme, the parsley, the cives, the chervil,
the bay; of which the greater part come from the high
regions of the country, such as Fourcy, Fort-Jacques,
Kenscoff in the heights of Petionville, the Grande Colline
in the region of Grand Goave. Besides these they culti-
vate ginger and use the leaves of the Malaquette pepper
(pimenta vulgaris). These last named products, as well
as those obtained from the wood of India (Boidinne) or
pepper tree of Jamaica are used as spices and known under
the name of all spices.
Among the numerous alimentary fruits that are eaten
raw as desserts and which are pleasing to the taste as well
as nourishing may be named the pineapple, the bana fig,
the mangos, excellent drupes of the mangifera indica of in-
finite variety, the different sorts of citrus (oranges, lemons,
grape fruits or pamplemousses, mandarines, Seville oranges,
sweet leoms), the pomegranate, the passion flower, the
sapodilla plum, the "caimite," the "guenep" (melicoca
bijuga), the cirouelles (spendias purpurea), the jackfruit
(artocarpus integrifolia) abundant in Tiburon, the cherry
tree of the West Indies, the "genipailler," the rose apple,
the cotonous grape vine (grape of the woods), the bind weed
apple, the yolk of the egg, the mombin or rambustan, the
fig tree of India, the almond tree, the apricot tree of the
West Indies, the date tree, the "icaquier," the cocoanut
tree, the nut tree, the tamarind tree, the anones (corossol,
sweetsap, heart of ox sweet sap, China sweetsap) the paw-
paw tree, the cashaw; the astringent and the sweet parts of
the anacordium orientale which is formed by the peduncle
of the real fruit and is a nut like an oleaginous and edible
almond, whose taste resembles the chestnut, etc., etc.
It would be impossible to make a complete enumeration of
the fruits of Haiti.
TINCTORIAL PLANTS: The principal tinctorial plants
of Haiti are: the "roucouyer" (bixa orellana), the seeds of
which have a red aril used under the name of "roucou";
the indigo plant, the crocus of India of which the rhizomes







Flore


Bois jaune ou Fustet qui sert a teindre les 6toffes de khaki.
On en trouve en grande quantity au Morne de l'Hopital,
au sud de Port-au-Prince, en Plaine-du-Cul-de-Sac, a la
Gonave et un peu partout dans le Pays; le Bois rouge (Gau-
rea trichiloides) qui sert a l'industrie locale pour, particul-
iirement, peintre en rouge chocolate les chaises fabriquies
a la champagne; l'arbre a brai ou figuier maudit don't l'&corce
produit abondamment une matiere colorante jaune insol-
uble dans l'eau, soluble dans l'alcool; le raisinier a grappes
(coccoloba unifera) ou raisin du bord de la mer; l'avocatier
(du nom caraibe aoticate) don't l'ecorce comme la graine
peuvent ftre utilisees dans la teinturerie; le cactier, le cam-
p&che, le dividivi ou guatapana; le manglier rouge etc.
BOIS DE CONSTRUCTION, BOIS D'EBENIS-
TERIE, DE MENUISERIE, ETC.-Les bois et les forts
d'Haiti, la plupart encore vierges, renferment en abondance
des essences de grande valeur industrielle. On les utilise
en petit dans le pays soit dans la charpenterie, soit dans
la menuiserie ou l'6b6nisterie ou le charronnage, la tonnel
lerie, la tournerie ou la confection des planches. Citons
parmi tant d'inappreciables richesses forestieres: l'acajou
a meubles ou mahogani, le c6drel aromal ou cedre rouge, le
cedre noir ou bois de chine (catalpa longissiliqua), le cidre
blanc, le laurier a grandes feuilles, le mombin batard, le
maxima (amyris toxifera), le Bois de mamei d'Amerique,
le taverneau lisse et le taverneau 6cailleux ou caracoli, le
Bois de rose, le laurier a petites feuilles ou laurier fou, le
gaiac, le noyer, le pin d'Occident-2) Le Bois de ferou
Tendre a cailloux bitard, le prosopis de St. Domingue ou
bayahonde, le tcha-tcha ou calliandre A fleurs blanches, le
bois de fer blanc, le bois de frnne ou quassia 6levW, le bois
blanc, le bois ipineux jaune, le bois epineux blanc, le bois
de fer ou acomat franc, l'acomat batard ou dipholis
feuilles de saule, le sapotiller marron, le g6nipa ou g6ni
payer d'Am6rique, le bois balata (achras dissecta), le
m6risier, le montjolly blanc,le goyavier de montagne, toutes
ces essences forestieres servant surtout comme bois de
construction solides et durables-3) Les pommiers blanc
et rouge, les figuiers sauvages, le quenepier servant la
fabrication de planches durables et l6gires, le mapou, le plus
grand arbre de la flore d'Haiti employee, depuis l'6poque
des Aborigines jusqu'a nos jours, a la construction de
petites embarcations appel6es boumbas. Ajoutons a cette
6numeration sommaire la larme de Job on Jof ou graine
maldioc produisant de jolies graines d'un blanc laiteux
servant a faire des chapelets ou des colliers;-le bois
macaque (geonoma vaga) don't la tige grele, noueuse et
susceptible d'un beau poli sert a faire des cannes solides
et 16gires, terroir particulier: les hautes montagnes du
Sud et surtout de la Grande Anse;-le bois-danneau, le
bois-abeille et les goyaviers servant a faire des houssines
flexibles et presque incassables.
PLANTES TEXTILES.-Les principles espces Hait-
iennes de cette cat6gorie sont les diverse vari6t6s de coton
qui viennent bien dans tout le pays, mais particuliere-
ment dans le Departement de l'Artibonite; les lappuliers
ou grand cousin et petit cousin et autres especes du genre
don't l'6corce fournit une fibre textile analogue a celle du
lin; le mahot; le galata; le pite, le pingouin; les oreilles
d'ane; la ramie et le Bois dentelle (lagetta lintearia) don't
l'&corce constitute une sorte de cuir v6g&tal d'une extraordi-
naire solidity; la laiche, les fibres de coco, les feuilles de
palmiste, du grand latanier et du petit latanier qui servent
a fabriquer des nattes, des cordes, des chapeaux, des paniers
et d'autres menus objets de vannerie; la liane a panier ou
bignone Equinoxiale, le bambou et le roseau utilis6s a la
confection d'engins de peche, de corbeilles, etc.
PLANTS OLEAGINEUSES.-De ce group tres nom-
breux dans le pays il convient de citer le ricin, le cocotier,
le hoholi (sesame orientale), la pistache, le ben olivera
(moriaga pterygosperma) ou l'olivier, le sablier (hura crepi-
tans), l'avocatier don't le fruit a une pulpe riche en une huile
cosm6tique et comestible, le m6decinier b6nit don't les
graines fournissent I'huile infernale ou huile de Jatropha


Flora


give a fine yellow coloring matter; the frank Pernambuco
wood (coesalpina crista), the wood of which is known in
the trade under the name of Wood of Brazil or Wood of
Jamaica; the yellow wood or fustic which is used in dyeing
khaki fabrics. Large quantities of the "Morne-de-l'Hopi-
tal" is found on the south of Port au Prince, in the Plaine
du Cul-de-Sac, in Gonave and scattered throughout the
country; also the red wood (Gaurea trichiloides) which is
used by the local industry, particularly for painting a red
chocolate the chairs manufactured in the country; the resin
tree or ill blessed fig tree, the bark of which produces
abundantly a yellow coloring matter insoluble in water but
soluble in alcohol; the vine with grapes (coccoloba unifera)
or vine of the seashore; the alligator tree (of the caraib
name aoiicate), of which both the bark and the seed are
used in dyeing; the cactus, the logwood, the dividivi or
guatapana, the red mangrove, etc.
WOODS OF CONSTRUCTION, CABINET MAKING,
JOINERY: The woods and forests of Haiti, most of them
still virgin, contain in abundance products of great indus-
trial value. They are used in small quantities in the coun-
try either for carpentry or cabinet making or joinery,
wheel-wright's work, cooperage, turnery or the manufac-
turing of lumber. Among this richness of material, may
be mentioned: (1) mahogany, aromal cedrel or red cedar,
black cedar, or oak wood (catalpa longissilliqua), the laurel
with large leaves, the "bastard mombin," the "maxime"
(amyris toxifera), the wood of mamei of America, the
smooth taverneau and the scaly taverneau or caracoli, the
rose wood, the laurel with small leaves or mad laurel, the
lignum vitae, the walnut tree, the pine of the Occident;
(2) the iron wood or bastard tendre-a-caillous, the prosopis
of St. Domingue, or cashaw, the tcha-tcha or calliandre with
white flowers, the white iron wood, the ash tree or high
quassia, the white wood, the yellow thorny wood, the iron
wood or frank acomat, the bastard acomat or dipholis with
willow leaves, the wild sapodilla tree, the genipa or geni-
payes of America, the balata wood (achras dissecta), the
wild cherry tree, the white montjolly, the guava tree of
mountains. All of these forest products are used princi-
pally as strong and lasting construction woods. (3) The
white and red apple trees, the wild fig trees, the guenepe
tree are used for the manufacture of strong, light planks.
The mapou, the largest tree in the flora of Haiti, has been
used since the time of the aborigines in the construction of
small crafts called "boumbas." To this enumeration may
be added the tear of Job or Jof or "maldioc" seed, which
has pretty, milky white seeds used in making rosaries or
necklaces; the monkey wood (geonoma vaga), the knotty
stalk of which takes a fine polish and is used in making
strong, light canes. The high mountains of the South and
particularly of the Grand Anse yield the "danneau" wood,
the bee wood, and the guava tree which serves to make
flexible and almost unbreakable whips.
TEXTILE PLANTS: The principal Haitian varieties
which come under this category are the several kinds of
cotton which grow well in all parts of the country, but par-
ticularly in the Department of Artibonite; the lappulierE
or "great cousin" and "little cousin" and other varieties,
of this genus, the bark of which furnishes a textile fiber simi-
lar to that of the linseed; the "mahot," the "galata," th<
fiber, the "pingouin," the "ass's ears," the ramiee," anc
lace wood (laget talintearia), the bark of which constitute!
a sort of vegetable leather of an extraordinary toughness
the "laiche," the coco fibers, the palmist leaves, the leave
of the great latania and the small latania, used in th,
manufacture of mats, ropes, hats, baskets and other wovei
objects; the bind weed for baskets (equinoxial bigonne)
the bamboo and the reed utilized for fishing implements
corbels, etc.
OLEAGINOUS PLANTS: Of this numerous group w
should mention the castor oil bean, the cocoanut tree; th
hoholi (orientale sesame), the ben olivera (moriaga ptery






Flore


du commerce. L'amandier des Antilles, le palmiste A
chou, le noisetier d'Am6rique.
PLANTS MEDICINALES.-La Flore d'Haiti est
6minemment prodigue sous le rapport des plants m6dici-
nales. Les principles esp6ces sont:
1) Plantes toniques et f6brifuges: le quinquina de St.
Domingue, le quinquina des Antilles tris abondants dans
les regions volcaniques de l'Anse A Veau, Bainet et Saltrou,
le Faux Quinquina gris aromatique ou cuscurille, le frene
l6ev&, le Quassia amara, le laman ou morelle et la sauge
du pays ou conyse lobee;
2) Plantes diur6tiques: la Scille du P6rou, la cainca
noire, le savonnier, le pissenlit, le sureau de Virginie, la
phyllante diur6tique ou derri&re-dos, le melon d'eau ou
pastique, l'oseille de Guinee, les 6pinards de St. Domingue
la raquette;
3) Plantes purgatives: la coloquinte, la liane a Bauduit
ipomoeaa cathartica) et la liane A Minguet ipomoeaa macro-
rhysa) ou jalap du pays, l'aloes la rhubarbe des Antilles,
la coccis, la casse en batons ou caneficier, le sen6 des An-
tilles, le ricin, l'euphorbe des Anciens, I'euphorbe des
boutiques les m6deciniers ou pignons d'Inde;
4) Plantes narcotiques: L'arg6mone du Mexique ou
chardon benit don't le sue a des propri&t6s analogues a
celles de l'opium, le Datura stramonium et le datura tatula,
le tabac et autres solan6es viruses, le Mort A poissons (pis-
cidia erythrina).
50) Plantes 6metiques: L'ip&cacuanha batard et variftes,
l'ascl6piade de Curagao ou Herbe A Madame Boivin, Mata
Cabaille, I'arbre A soie;
60) Plantes vermifuges: le semen-contra des Antilles, le
torchon, la cuscute d'Amerique ou liane-amitii, les absin-
thioides, l'oldenlandia, la liane A vers;
7) Plantes aromatiques: la melisse des Antilles, le
vetiver, la citronelle, le cannellier des Antilles, le corosso-
lier, le bonbonnier, I'anis, le th6 des Antilles, l'eupatoire
odorante et la camomille des Antilles;
8) Plantes ap6ritives: l'herbe A cloques ou coqueret
d'Amerique, I'aristoloche longue, la langue de chat, la
calebasse, I'herbe A collet, la griffe A chat, le jonc de mer,
la liane A savon, la squine de St. Domingue, I'herbe a bl,
le thym des savanes, le bois de couille et la scolopendre;
90) Plantes astringentes: Kawa-kawa, le dividivi, le Bois
d'orme, les goyaviers, l'icaquier, le copayer, le raisinier,
le g6nipayer et le grand cousin;
100) Plantes pectorales: le bois immortel, la r6glisse,
le capillaire, le basilic, etc.
11o) Plantes 6mollientes: le gombo ou ketmie comestible,
la mauve des Antilles et la guimauve des Antilles.
PLANTS CAOUTCHOUCFERES.-A part les Figu-
iers sauvages et les Artocarpes indigenes qui contiennent
dans leur sive jusqu'a 90% de caoutchouc, le Figuier l6as-
tique, le Castilla elastica et le Hervea Guineensis ont et6
r6cemment introduits avec succes dans le pays, A la ferme
de Bayeux, dans le Nord.
PLANTS FOURRAGERES.-L'herbe de Guinee ou
Fleole 6lev6e, et le Trophis d'Am6rique ou Bois Ramon sont
les principles espices fourrageres du pays. I1 y a en outre,
sur les flancs des mornes une quantity infinie de simples
aromaux don't se nourrit le b6tail durant la belle saison.
Notons encore que l'herbe de Para s'est parfaitement accli-
mat6e dans le pays et produit dans les regions basses et un
peu humides un fourrage abondant et tres nourrissant.
D'autre part, a la r6colte des c&r6ales indigenes sorgho et
mais, on utilise les tiges, feuilles et fruits pour l'entretien
des animaux; il en est de meme des feuilles et de la parties
sup6rieure des tiges de la canne A sucre, au moment de
1'6mondage et de la coupe.


Flora


gosperma) or olive tree, the sablier (hura crepitans), the alli-
gator pear tree, the fruit of which has a pulp rich in cosmetic
and edible oil; the blessed medicinier, the seeds of which
furnish the "infernal oil" or "oil of Jatropha" of trade;
the almond tree of the West Indies; the palmist with cab-
bage, the nut tree of America.
MEDICINAL PLANTS: The flora of Haiti is especially
prodigal in medicinal plants. The principal varieties are:
(1) Tonic and febrifuge plants: the cinchona of St.
Domingue, the cinchona of the West Indies which is very
abundant in the volcanic regions of Anse-a-Veau, Bainet
and Saltrou; the false grey aromatic cinchona or cuscurille,
the high ash tree, the quassia amara, the "laman" or mor-
elle, and the sage of the country or conyse lobee.
(2) Diuretic plants: the squill of Peru, the black cainca,
the soap tree, the dandelion, the ilder tree of Virginia, the
diuretic phyllante or "derriere dos," the water melon or
pasteque, the sorrel of Guinea, the spinach of St. Domingue,
the "raquette."
(3) Purgative plants: the colocynth, the bind weed of
Bauduit (ipomea cathartica), the bind weed of Minguet
(ipomea macrorhysa) or jalap of the country, the aloes,
the rhubarb of the West Indies, the coccis, the cassia in
sticks or caneficies, the sennah of the West Indies, the
castor oil, the euphorbia of the Ancients, the euphorbia of
the shops, the medicines or pignons of India.
(4) Narcotic plants: the Mexican poppy or blessed
thistle, the juice of which has properties similar to those
of opium; the Datura stramonium and Datura tatula,
tobacco and other solanaceae, the death for fish (piscidia
erythrina).
(5) Emetic plants: the bastard ipecacuanha and varie-
ties, the asclepiades of Curacao or Herb of Madam Boivin,
Mata Cabaille, the silk tree.
(6) Vermifugal plants: the semen-contra of the West
Indies, the "dish cloth tree," the American cuscute or the
bind weed of friendship, the absinthoides, the oldenlandia,
the bind week for worms.
(7) Aromatic plants: the West Indian balm mint; the
vetiver, the citronella, the cinnamon tree of the West
Indies, the soursop, the bonbonnier, the anise, the West
Indian tea, the odorous eupatory and camomilla of the
West Indies.
(8) Aperitive plants: the herb with cloques or American
coqueret, the long aristolochia, the cat's tongue, the cala-
bash, the herb with collar, the cat's paw, the sea cane, the
soap bine weed, the squine of St. Domingue, the wheat
herb, the thyme of savannahs, the wood of couille and the
hart's tongue.
(9) Astringent plants: Kawa-kawa, the dividivi, the
elm wood, the guava trees, the icaquier, the copayer, the
raisinier, the genipayer, and the great cousin.
(10) Pectoral plants: the immortal wood, the liquorice,
the capillar, the basilic, etc.
(11) Emollient plants: the gumbo or edible ketmie,
the West Indian mallow and the West Indian marshmallow.
RUBBER PLANTS: Besides the wild fig trees and the
native artocarpes which contain almost ninety per cent
rubber, the elastic fig tree, the Castilla elastica and the
Hervea Guineensis have been recently introduced with
success at the farm of Bayeux in the North.
PLANTS USED FOR FODDER: The herb of Guinea
or high Fleole and the Trophis of America or Ramon Wood
are the principal species suitable for fodder in the country.
There are found besides on the mountain sides great quan-
tities of simple aromatics on which the cattle feed during the
good season. It is to be noted also that the herb of Para
has become perfectly acclimated to the country and pro-
duces in the low and slightly damp regions plants suitable
for fodder and very nourishing. Also, at the harvesting
of the native cereals, sorgho and corn, the stalks, leaves
and fruit are fed to the animals; as is also done with the
leaves and upper part of the stalks of the sugar cane at the
time of pruning and cutting.







Le Gouvernement Actuel
C 'est le 12 Ao^t 1915 que l'Assemblke Nationale 6lut
President de la R6publique Monsieur Sudre Darti-
guenave qui avait et6 pendant plusieurs ann6es
President du Senat.
Quand cette election eut lieu, le territoire national 6tait
occupy depuis quelque temps dejh par les troupes de l'in-
fanterie de Marine Am6ricaine. En outre, depuis le mois
de D6cembre 1914, le Gouvernement americain avait en-
gage des pourparlers avec celui d'Haiti, Monsieur Davilmar
Theodore 6tant President, pour l'6tablissement d'une Con-
vention d'aide et de cooperation.
Le nouvel 6lu ayant form& son premier Cabinet, il lui
fut pr6sent6 par le Chef de 1'exp6dition am&ricaine, le
Contre-Amiral W. B. Caperton, r6gulierement assist&
d'un jeune avocat americain, Monsieur Robert Beale
Davis, Jr., Charg6 des Affaires de la L6gation Am6ricaine,
un autre project de Convention. Des ce moment, le Pr6si-
dent Dartiguenave r6v6la sa grande habilet6 et son profound
patriotism. Car, malgri la pression des 6venements,
malgr6 les difficulties sans nombre que lui opposerent ses
propres compatriotes au milieu desquels l'anarchie s'6tait
encore accentu6e h raison du d6sarroi cause par l'interven-
tion, il r6ussit A obtenir d'importantes concessions des
negociateurs americains. Il r6ussit A cr6er un grand cou-
rant populaire en faveur du project et a en obtenir le vote
par les Assembl6es Lgislatives. La Convention sign6e par
les Pl&nipotentiaires des deux Gouvernements le 16 Sep-
tembre 1915 fut sanctionn6e par la Chambre des D6put6s
le 6 Octobre 1915, puis, par le Senat le 11 Novembre 1915.
L'&change des ratifications par les deux Gouvernements eut
lieu a date du 6 Mai 1916. Pour arriver a ces r6sultats,
le President Dartiguenave avait 6t6 puissamment aide par
ses Ministres Emile Elie, Etienne Dorn&val, J. B. Dartigue-
nave, Louis Borno et Constantin Mayard et par les Pr6si-
dents du S6nat et de la Chambre des D6putis, MM.
Stephen Archer et Annulysse Andre.
Une commission compose de M. M. Solon M6nos, Min-
istre a Washington, Auguste Magloire, Administrateur des
Finances de Port-au-Prince et Pierre Hudicourt, avocat
fut envoy6e h Washington pour r6gler dans des accords


The Present Government

ON the 12th of August, 1915, the National Assembly
elected as President of the Republic Mr. Sudre
Dartiguenave, who had been for several years, Presi-
dent of the Senate. At that time the National Capital
was occupied by an expeditionary force of United States
marines, under the command of Rear Admiral, W. B.
Caperton, sent there to establish order out of the internal
strife that was causing a serious crisis in the affairs of the
country.
In December, 1915, a convention was held between
representatives of the two countries, Mr. Davilman Th6o-
dore being elected president. The newly elected President
of the Republic, having formed his Cabinet, the proceed-
ings of the convention were submitted for their consideration
by Rear Admiral Caperton, ably assisted by a young Amer-
ican lawyer, Mr. Robert Beale Davis, Jr., Charge d'Affaires
of the American Legation, and an outcome of the conven-
tion. During the consideration of the proceedings, Presi-
dent Dartiguenave showed his marked ability and deep
patriotism. In spite of numerous difficulties and a deter-
mined opposition of a number of his fellow citizens, among
whom anarchy was rampant; accentuated, no doubt, by
the intervention of the United States, he succeeded in
obtaining from the American representatives several im-
portant concessions, and created a great popular sentiment
in favor of the project and a favorable vote in the Legis-
lative Assemblies. The treaty was signed by the pleni-
potentiary of the two governments on September 16, 1915,
and was sanctioned by the House of Commons on October
6th, and by the Senate on November 1lth of the same year.
It was ratified by the two governments on May 6, 1916.
In conducting the successful negotiations of the treaty
President Dartiguenave was ably assisted by the following
Ministers: Emile Elie, Etienne Dorn6val, J. B. Dartigue-
nave, Louis Borno, and Constantin Mayard, and by the
Presidents of the Senate and House of Commons, Messrs.
Stephen Archer and Annulysse Andr6.
A Commission composed of Messrs. Solon M6nos, Min-
ister to Washington; Auguste Magloire, Administrator of
Finances of Port au Prince; and Pierre Hudicourt, a lawyer,


i'4


I,.i eli


II 'I ~

~~~ I 1
4We
Aw


VUES INTERIEURES DU NOUVEAU PALAIS-INTERIOR VIEWS OF NEW PALACE
Le President et son Cabinet en conference dans un couloir-President and Cabinet conferring in upper hallway
Coin du grand Salon de Reception-Corner of grand Reception Parlor Salon de Reception Pr6sidentiel-Presidential Receiving Parlor-
Le President et son Cabinet en session executive-President and Cabinet in executive session






Le Gouvernement Actuel
sp&ciaux avec les fonctionnaires du D6partement d'Etat
la procedure d'application du Trait6.
Ce trait pr6voyait I'assistance et la cooperation am6ri-
caine pour deux points principaux: les Finances et I'Ordre
public en Haiti et, secondairement, pour l'Hygiene et les
Travaux Publics.
Durant et jusqu'apres les n6gociations, I'esprit du Peuple
n'ayant jamais cess6 d'&tre surexcit6 et fr6missant, les
forces ambricaines occuperent militairement clill ri_ Ir, serv-
ices de l'Etat; elles prirent notamment toutes les functions
de la S6curit6 publique, assumerent administration des
douanes et &tendirent leur action jusque sur les munici-
palit&s.
L'arm6e et la police indigene furent renvoy6es et il fut
institu6 A la place une gendarmerie.
Naturellement, tous ces changements n'all6rent pas sans
que des atteintes essentielles fussent port6es A la Constitu-
tion existante, celle de 1889. Bientot meme, la n&cessit6
s'imposa de r6formes encore plus incompatible avec le
regime constitutionnel en vigueur. II devint indispensable
de conformer imm6diatement le Droit Public Haitien aux
conditions nouvelles suivant lesquelles le Peuple allait
d6sormais vivre. C'est alors qu'eclata une virulente oppo-
sition qui, nee dans les Assembl6es 1egislatives, se r6pandit
plus tard dans le Pays entier.
S l'on ne tient pas compete du malaise qu'une revolution
aussi profonde que l'intervention devait apporter dans les
esprits, des froissements, des malentendus qui devaient
forc6ment r6sulter du choc subit de deux mentalit6s
opposes et de deux conceptions dill rnl-i... de l'Etat, de
l'humiliation et de l'irritation que devait ressentir un people
naturellement orgueilleux; mais, appauvri et affaibli,-
en se voyant contraint d'accepter l'aide opportune qu'ap-
portaient, non pas de souples diplomats, mais des soldats
d'une Grande Puissance, si on ne tient pas compete de tout
cela on ne pourra jamais s'expliquer l'illogisme et l'troitesse
de vues de la plupart des politicians qui, apres avoir accept
l'intervention en formant grace A la protection materielle
dela Force am6ricaine, le gouvernement du 12 Aoft et
apres avoir vote au mois d'Octobre-Novembre le Trait& de
1915, en vinrent par la suite A refuser leur concours A l'6tab-
lissement de resorts constitutionnels nouveaux appro-
pri6s A la vie pan-americaine ou le Pays 6tait d6sormais
entr6 et seuls capable, ces resorts, de faire produire des
r6sultats fructueux A la cooperation.
La resistance du Corps L6gislatif alla si loin que l'Etat
en devint en p6ril. On pourrait se croire revenue aux beaux
jours des insurrections trimestrielles d'avant 1915. Une
bonne demi-douzaine de candidates A la presidence faisaient
ouvertement leur champagne. La crise fut d6nou6e grace
au D6cret du 5 Avril 1916 parlequel l'Ex6cutif prononqa
la dissolution du S6nat ou s'6tait cristallis6e l'hostilit6
contre l'ordre de choses 6tabli et le meme d6cret appela la
Chambre des Deput6s A endosser le Pouvoir Constituant
pour refondre imm6diatement et int6gralement la Consti-
tution afin de l'ajuster A la situation.
Une suite de malentendus n6s de cette situation mrnme
et aggrav6s pour le surplus par les tendances et les inter&ts
divergents des multiples 6elments en presence empecha la
nouvelle Constituante de singer. Le Gouvernement Darti-
guenave dut dissoudre la Chambre des D6put6s et il en
appela au Peuple par un second D6cret en date du 22
Septembre 1916.
Ces troubles int6rieurs se developpant A un moment oA
le gouvernement se d6battait dans les luttes les plus ardues
avec la force d'intervention produisirent ce qu'ils devaient
produire. L'activit6 des agitateurs se trouva naturelle-
ment aliment6e et accrue par un fait que, par contre, elle
accentua elle-meme et fortifia jusqu'aux pires limits:
c'est le fait que justement alors ce gouvernement etait en
discussions sur le territoire national avec un pouvoir mili-
taire plus fort. L'autorit6 et l'action de l'Ex6cutif Haitien,
c'est A dire du Pays meme, s'en trouverent singulierement
affaiblies et quand en Janvier 1917, on vint, au plein de la
crise, A proc6der aux elections g6n6rales, la formation des
nouvelles Chambres et leur esprit se ressentirent de l'affaib-


The Present Government
was sent to Washington to confer with the officials7of the
State Department in reference to the settlement of some
special agreements in the application of the treaty.
This treaty provides for the cooperation and assistance
of the United States at two principal points: First, the finan-
cial affairs and the establishing of law and order in Haiti,
and, second, the departments of Public Health and Public
Works.
During the negotiations and pending their successful
conclusion the spirit of the people of Hayti was at a very
high tension, indeed, thus imposing on the American forces
the proper functioning of the various public offices of the
State. They assumed control of public securities, ad-
ministered the affairs of the Custom House, and extended
their activities to the various municipalities. The native
army and police were disbanded and a system of gendarm-
ery was instituted in their place.
Naturally, these changes were not achieved without
conflicting with the existing Constitution of the country,
that of 1889, and soon the necessity arose of instituting
a reform movement more compatible to the existing regime.
An immediate conformation to Haytian Public Right, a
new condition under which the Haytian people were going
to live in the future, was indispensable, but this met with
outbursts of violent opposition, originating in the legis-
lative assemblies and spreading later on throughout the
country.
If one cannot grasp the vast amount of misery caused
by a widespread revolution, the anguish of spirit, the con-
tinual clashings and misunderstandings which are bound
to occur when two mentalities irreconcilably opposed to
each other have different conceptions of the requirements
of the nation; the humiliations and irritations inflicted
on a naturally proud but impoverished and weakened
people, causing them to resent the help thrust upon them,
not by diplomacy, but by the soldiers of another nation;
if one cannot comprehend all these, how, then, can they
explain the utter inconsistency of a group of politicians,
who having asked for and accepted the intervention of
another country to enforce law and order, reverse them-
selves and refuse to accept a treaty which was entered into
for the purpose of establishing a form of Constitution in
accord with the Pan-American idea of life on which the
country had entered, and which could be accomplished
only by cooperation.
The resistance of the Legislative Corps was so bitter
and was carried to such extremes that the country was
rapidly approaching a serious crisis. One could readily
believe that the country had gone back to the insurrection
period preceding 1915. At least a half dozen candidates
openly announced their opposition to the acceptance of the
treaty, but finally the crisis was averted by the action of
the President who on April 5th issued a decree dissolving
the Senate, where had originated the hostility against the
new order of affairs, and by the same decree called upon
the House of Commons to assume the responsibility of
framing a Constitution which would be amenable to the
exigencies of the situation.
A succession of misunderstandings arising from this same
situation, and, further aggravated by the insurgent tenden-
cies of the radical element prevented the carrying out of
this power by the House of Commons and that body was
also dissolved by a second decree, issued on September
22nd, 1916, the Dartiguenave Government placing itself
in the hands of the people.
These interior troubles coming just at a time when the
government was engaged in a bitter struggle with the forces
opposed to intervention, produced exactly the desired effect.
By the unscrupulous use of these troubles the power of
the agitators was materially strengthened and their activ-
ities greatly increased.
The fact that the government was at the time engaged
in a discussion with a stronger military power over the
national territory showed that the power of the Haytian
Executive had been greatly curtailed. The country being
at this time on the eve of a general election, the opposition







Le Gouvernement Actuel
lissement ou le Pouvoir indigene avait 6et tenu. Toutes
ces circonstances regrettables impos&rent a ce Corps L6gis-
latif de 1917 des directives incoh6rentes et tout h fait oppo-
sees aux conditions memes qui leur avaient donna nais-
sance. Le President Dartiguenave dut une nouvelle fois
se courber devant la necessity de dissoudre l'Assembl6e
Legislative (20 Juin 1917).
Tout cela fit conclure A l'impossibilit6 d'obtenir de Cham-
bres a origine populaire un aminagement du Droit Public
en rapport avec le nouveau statut international du Pays
et son veritable intiret et ses v6ritables besoins. Le Presi-
dent Dartiguenave, pour 6pargner A sa Nation ce mecompte
d6finitif que, par d6faut pr6sume chez la parties haitienne du
,sir concrete de coop6rer, avec l'intervention americaine
sur la base de la collaboration n'ivoluat vers la situation
politique regrettable oui des circonstances de cette nature
ont place la Nation dominicaine, notamment, se rallia sans
hesiter a l'id6e de s'adresser directement au Souverain
populaire. Le 12 Juin 1918, le Peuple adopta, par voie de
plebiscite, une autre Constitution. La nouvelle Consti-
tution fit entrer la Convention de 1915 dans le Droit Public
haitien ou tout au moins, elle n'y contredit point comme
celle de 1889. En outre, elle consacra les innovations
suivantes.
1) Les pr6ecdentes Constitutions disposaient que "nul
s'il n'est Haitien ne peut 8tre proprietaire de biens fonciers
en Haiti, a quelque titre que ce soit, ni acquirir aucun
immeuble."
Cette disposition qui ne pourrait etre que funeste au
d6veloppement economique du Pays fut change en ce qui
suit:
"Le droit de propri6t6 immobiliere est accord h l'etranger
r6sidant en Haiti et aux Societes formees par des strangers
pour les besoins de leurs demeures, de leurs entreprises
agricoles, commercials, industrielles et d'enseignement."
20) L'ancienne Constitution portait que la peine de mort
est abolie en matiere politique, la nouvelle Constitution y
ajoute: except6 pour cause de trahison". Cette innova-
tion qui semble designer un crime constitutionnel analogue
la disloyalty de la legislation americaine, t6moigne evidem-
ment du souci d'apporter des garanties plus grandes A
l'ordre public et a la stability gouvernementale don't le
pays a un si grand besoin pour sa prosp6rit6 materielle.
3 0) L'article 24 comporte une disposition nouvelle d'apres
laquelle: "Le Frangais est la langue officielle. Son emploi
est obligatoire en matiere administrative et judiciaire."
4) Le nombre des D&put6s est r6duit A moins de la
moiti6 et le recrutement du Senat se fait par voie de suffrage
universal et direct.
5) Le Pouvoir Ex6cutif a seul le droit de prendre l'ini-
tiative des lois concernant les d6penses publiques; et aucune
des deux Chambres n'a le droit d'augmenter tout ou parties
des d6penses proposes par le Pouvoir Executif.
60) Autrefois, le President exergait en fait toute l'auto-
rite executive. Mais en droit, les Secritaires d'Etat etaient
census d'exercer l'autorit6 avec lui et, eux seuls, avaient une
responsabilit& precise. D6sormais, le President a une auto-
rite constitutionnelle qui se rapproche de celle du President
des Etats-Unis. Mais, maintenant, des sanctions pr6cises
sont pr6vues centre lui, en cas de forfeiture. Toute la
responsabiliti politique du Gouvernement repose sur lui.
D'autre part, les Secritaires d'Etat relevent exclusivement
de sa nomination et de sa revocation et ils ont une responsa-
bilit6 considerable, mais purement administrative.
En resume, le regime constitutionnel haitien qui, nagu-
&re, se tenait assez inconfortablement entire le systime
parlementaire frangais et le systime pr6sidentiel ambricain
a subi, depuis le 12 Juin 1918, une evolution marquee
vers cette derniere forme d6mocratique et representative.
Nous allons examiner d'un peu plus pres comment fonc-
tionnent le Conseil des Secretaires d'Etat, le Conseil d'Etat
et le Pouvoir Judiciaire.
Les Secr6taires d'Etat, dans le regime actuel, ont gagn6
en efficiencee" administrative ce qu'ils ont perdu en im-
portance politique apparent. Le President peut les re-
cruter parmi des sp6cialistes sans se preoccuper de savoir


The Present Government
resented this curtailment, claiming that the native govern-
ment should have more power and this with other regret-
table circumstances compelled President Dartiguenave to
bow before the necessity of again dissolving the Legislative
Assembly, which he accordingly did on June 20th, 1917.
All of this brought the conclusion that it was impossible
to obtain from the chambers of popular origin a disposition
of the Public Right, in respect to the new international
status of the country and its true interests and its true
needs. To spare his nation that definitive disappointment,
President Dartiguenave rallied without hesitation to the
idea of addressing himself directly to the popular sover-
eignty. On June 12th, 1918, the people adopted by means
of a plebiscite another Constitution. The new Constitu-
tion entered the 1915 Convention in the Haytian Public
Right where at least, she doesn't contradict like the one of
1889. Furthermore, she consecrated the following inno-
vations:
(1) The preceding Constitution declared that "no one,
unless a native of Hayti, can be proprietor of estate in
Hayti, of whatever title it might be, nor can he purchase
any property.
"Thisdeclaration which could only be regarded as inimical
to the economical development of the country was changed
to the following:
"The right of holding property is allowed to foreigners
residing in Hayti, or to Societies established by foreigners,
for residences or for the conducting of agricultural, indus-
trial or educational enterprises."
(2) The old Constitution specified that capital punish-
ment for crime committed including that of a political
nature shall be abolished. The new constitution adds:
"except the crime of treason." This amendment places
political intrigue on the same plane as "disloyalty" in the
United States, and was introduced in order to create a
greater respect for the laws of the country and to prevent
any recurrence of insurrection, thus adding materially to
its prosperity.
(3) Article 24 contains a new clause which specifies that
"the French language is the official language. Its use is
obligatory in Administrative and Judiciary matters."
(4) The number of Deputies is reduced by one-half,
and the method of electing the Senate shall be by universal
or direct vote.
(5) The Executive Power only has the right to intro-
duce laws, appertaining to public expenditures and neither
House has the right to increase any or part of the expendi-
tures proposed by the Executive Power.
(6) In the past the President was the sole Executive
authority, but by the Public Rights Act the Secretaries of
State are supposed to exercise this authority in conjunction
with him, and in cases of extreme necessity may act on their
own responsibility. Hereafter the President will have a
constitutional power very much like that of the President
of the United States.
He may be removed when it is proven that he has failed
to live up to the obligations of his office. All the political
responsibility of the Government rests on him. He has the
right to create or remove Secretaries of State, they having
a certain amount of responsibility, but purely of an admin-
istrative character.
To sum up, the Constitutional Haytian regime which
was conducted partly on the French Parliamentary system
and partly on the American presidential system, has dis-
appeared and in its stead has arisen a truly democratic
form of government-based on the principles obtaining
in the United States.
We will now examine a little closer the operations of the
Council of Secretaries of State, the Council of State, and
the Judiciary Power.
The Secretaries of State in the present regime have gained
in administrative power what they have apparently lost in
political importance. The President may appoint to the
office, men of sterling character and well known ability,
irrespective of their political influence, or how popular
they are in the legislative assemblies. They govern less






Le Gouvernement Actuel
s'ils sont des hommes influents dans la politique, popu-
laires dans l'opinion ou dans les Assembl6es 1gislatives.
Ils gouvernent moins et administrent davantage. Toute-
fois, ils dlemeurent justiciables des Assembl6es politiques
au lieu de 1'&tre des jurisdictions de Droit commun.
De la mrme fagon qu'ils travaillent avec le Corps L6gis-
latif pour le compete du Pr6sident, de cette mnme facon,
ils sont les agents du Chef de l'Etat dans la cooperation avec
les fonctionnaires am6ricains. Seuls, le D6partement de la
Justice et celui des Relations Ext6rieures semblent avoir
une activity juridiquement ind6pendante de la collabora-
tion avec les Americains.
DEPARTMENT DES FINANCES.-Le Secr6taire
d'Etat des Finances est l'organe ex6cutif de la cooperation
avec le Conseiller financier et le Receveur-G6n6ral, fonction-
naires pr6vus par les articles II et V du Trait& de 1915.
Ces textes sont conditionn6s par un accord du 27 Juin 1916,
lequel n'a fait que pr&voir le traitement des fonctionnaires
am6ricains et renvoie "A un accord ult6rieur" pour la d6fi-
nition pratique et le detail de la cooperation. En outre,
la Commission a Washington signa, le 10 Juillet 1916, avec
des Repr6sentants de la Banque Nationale de la R6pub-
lique d'Haiti et sous les auspices du D6partement d'Etat,
une transaction avec cet 6tablissement de credit. Dans les
mimes conditions, une pareille transaction fut sign6e, le
15 F6vrier 1917 avec la Compagnie Nationale des Chemins
de fer d'Haiti (Chemins de fer Mac-Donald). Enfin, un
agent americain extra-conventionnel, Mr. Lamiel, commis-
sionn& Inspecteur-G6n6ral du service des Postes, le 28
Novembre 1917, passa, A la date du 19 Aoft 1918, un con-
trat pour trois ans avec le D6partement des Finances.
DEPARTMENT DE L'INTERIEUR.-En vertu de
l'article XIII de la Convention et d'un accord signed A
Washington, le 27 Juin 1916, il fut institu6 au D6partement
de l'Int6rieur un "Service National d'Hygiene Publique"
que consacra une loi du 26 Fevrier 1919.
Ce Service soumit a la signature du President de la R6-
publique et du Ministre de l'Int6rieur un Arr&t du 12 Avril
1919 6tablissant des R6glements Sanitaires don't l'ex6cu-
tion est A la diligence d'"Officiers Sanitaires" et des Agents
de la Gendarmerie.
Des la fin de Janvier 1916, par suite d'un arrangement pris
entire le D6partement de l'Int6rieur et les Autorit6s ameri-
caines charges de l'organisation de la Gendarmerie, les
anciens Commandants militaires qui s'occupaientdela police
de suret6 et de la police judiciaire ainsi que les corps de
police communale disparaissaient pour faire place a l'insti-
tution unique de la Gendarmerie. Le 24 Aoft 1916 un ac-
cord d6finitif 6tait sign A Washington concernant I'organi-
sation et le fonctionnement de la gendarmerie ainsi que
de la police des c6tes.
DEPARTMENT DES TRAVAUX PUBLICS.-Le
meme accord du 27 Juin 1916 concernant les Agents Sani-
taires Am6ricains traite aussi des Ing6nieurs pour les Tra-
vaux Publics. Le 24 Aoft 1916, un autre accord remit le
service, la direction et l'entretien des t616graphes et t&16-
phones aux sus-dits Ing6nieurs am6ricains des Travaux
Publics et assura le service sans restriction des tl16graphes
et t6l6phones aux Officiers de la Gendarmerie pour
le bon accomplissement de leurs functions. Enfin, au mois
de Mai de cette annie, le Conseil d'Etat a vote une loi
cr6ant la Direction G6nerale des Travaux Publics.
DEPARTMENT DE L'INSTRUCTION PUBLIQUE.
-En Octobre 1917, le Gouvernement dut signer un contract
pour trois ans avec un sp6cialiste americain des questions
d'Enseignement, Monsieur Lyonel Jean Bourgeois pr6sent6
par l'Occupation am6ricaine. Ce contract attache Mon-
sieur Bourgeois au D6partement de l'Instruction Publique
en quality de Superintendant.
Les Municipalit6s.-Pour mettre un terme aux difficulties
continuelles qui s'ilevaient entire l'Occupation et les Admin-
istrations Communales, le President de la R6publique 6crivit
le 7 Aoft 1917 une d6peche au Secr6taire d'Etat de l'In-
terieur pour l'inviter A informer les M.ii-tr... Communaux
que d'apres un arrangement provisoire accept par le
Gouvernement, un Officier Am6ricain de la Gendarmerie


The Present Government
and administer more. However they may retain their
political faith and are not under the jurisdiction of the
people.
Under the same conditions they work with the Legis-
lative Corps under the direction of the President and act
as agents for him in cooperation with the American officials.
Only the Department of Justice and that of Foreign Affairs
seem to have judicial independence in their collaboration
with the Americans.
Department of Finance.-The Secretary of State of Fi-
nances is the executive head of this department and acts in
cooperation with the financial advisor and receiver-general
-two officials designated in Article II and V of the treaty
of 1915. These articles do not conflict with the agreement
of June 27, 1916, which provides for the appointment of
American officials only, but contain only the definition
and practical detail of the form of cooperation. Moreover
the Commission at Washington, acting under instructions
from the State Department, on July 10, 1916, signed, in
conjunction with the representatives of the National
Bank of the Republic of Hayti, articles of agreement estab-
lishing a credit with that institution, and on February 16,
1917, action under the same instructions on agreement
was signed with the Compagnie Nationale des Chemins de
Fer of Hayti (MacDonald Railroads). Finally, on Au-
gust 19, 1918, an American agent, Mr. Lamiel, commis-
sioned General Inspector of the Post Office, consummated
a contract for a period of three years with the Department
of Finance.
Department of Interior.-By virtue of Article XIII of
the Convention, and of an agreement signed at Washing-
ton, on June 27, 1916, there was established at the Depart-
ment of Interior a National Board of Public Health, which
had been authorized by a law passed on February 26, 1919.
This Board submitted to the President and Minister
of Interior for their signatures a resolution adopted on
April 12, 1919, establishing certain rules for regulating
the sanitary conditions of the country, these rules to be
enforced by officers appointed for the purpose, and by
official of the Gendarmerie.
During the month of January, 1916, an arrangement
was made between the Department of Interior and the
American officials in charge of recruiting for the Gendar-
merie, the native army and the various bodies of police,
who were relics of by-gone days, and who had virtually
ceased to perform the,duties for which they were appointed,
were abolished, and a thoroughly efficient system of Gen-
darmerie and police patrol of the coasts were established
on August 21, 1916, a joint agreement duly authorizing
these two bodies was signed at Washington.
Department of Public Works.-The agreement of June
27, 1916, which authorized the Board of Public Health,
also authorized a Board of Engineers of Public Works, and
in August of that year the entire supervision and manage-
ment of the telegraph and telephone systems were turned
over to this body, realizing that only under its control
and perfect system of patrol inspection could these impor-
tant utilities be maintained in the high state of efficiency
necessary for the protection of public and private property,
and to assist the Gendarmerie in maintaining law and order
throughout the country. In May of this year, the Council
of State created the office of Director General of Public
Works.
Department of Public Instruction.-In October, 1917,
the Government signed a three-year contract with Mr.
Lyonel Bourgeois, an American professor, and a specialist
in educational matters, and attached him to the Depart-
ment of Public Instruction as superintendent.
The Municipalities.-To put an end to the continual
friction which existed between the Army of Occupation
and the Communal Administrations, the President of the
Republic, on August 7, 1917, wrote the Secretary of State,
asking him to notify the Communal Magistrates that, ow-
ing to a provisional arrangement accepted by the Govern-
ment, an American officer of the Gendarmerie should
henceforth be attached to each municipality as counsellor.






Le Gouvernement Actuel


serait desormais attache h chaque Municipalit6 comme Con-
seiller.

CONSEIL D'ETAT.-L'article D des Dispositions Tran-
sitoires de la Constitution du 12 Juin 1918 dit: "Un Conseil
d'Etat institu6 d'apres les memes principles que celui du
5 Avril, se composant de Vingt et un membres r6partis
entire les diff&rents Departements exercera le Pouvoir Lgis-
latif jusqu' la constitution du Corps Legistatif, epoque
a laquelle le Conseil d'Etat cessera d'exister."
Le Decret du 5 Avril et le R6glement que, conform6ment
a son art. 6, le Gouvernement prit a la date du 18 Juillet
1916, donnerent au Conseil d'Etat les r&gles de travail
appropri6es au service de contentieux et de bureau de
preparation de la besogne legislative que ce conseil devait
6tre. Mais, le D&cret de dissolution, le 19 Juin 1917, du
dernier Corps Legislatif et le plebiscite du 12 Juin de l'annbe
suivante apport&rent un changement considerable au carac-
tere et aux functions du Conseil d'Etat. En effet, il lui
fut d6sormais attribu6 la function legislative. Toutefois,
cette prerogative lui fut confiee seulement, ce semble, pour
consentir l'imp6t, au nom du Peuple, comme ce fut le
caractere et le pouvoir originels des Communes en Angle-
terre, le pays natal du regime parlementaire. Car, bien
que ce Conseil d'Etat soit dote du privilege r6galien de
faire la loi, il n'y a qu'a considerer, un instant, la pensee
a quoi est dfl cet arrangement: savoir l'inaptitude d'un
Corps A origine populaire a s'assujettir aux exigences im-
p6rieuses de la situation actuelle et a fonctionner en conse-
quence, il n'y a, en plus, qu'a considerer la condition signi-
ficative de la nomination et de la revocation discr6tion-
naires des Conseillers par le Pr6sident pour d6gager sens6-
ment cette conclusion que le Conseil n'est comme on l'a dit,
que le prolongement du Gouvernement ex6cutif, quant h
sa responsabilit6 et quant h son action. Quoiqu'il en soit,
des qu'ils furent en possession de leur nouvelle quality,
les Conseillers d'Etat abandonnerent leur r6glement parti-
culier du 18 Juillet 1916 et adopterent le R6glement de
l'ancien S6nat, avec le serment Constitutionnel et certain
privileges anodins de l'ancien Corps Legislatif. Le Conseil
recrut6 en tenant compete un peu des sp6cialit6s et surtout
des regions differentes du Pays qu'on a voulu y voir rep-
resenthes, se compose de M. M. Stephen Archer, Alex-
andre Moise, Constantin Mayard, Annulysse Andr&, Charles
Bouchereau, Dr. Victor Jean Louis, Charles Sambour pour
le D6partement de l'Ouest;
A. C. Sansaricq, Arthur Rameau, J. M. Grandoit, Jules
Bance pour le D6partement du Sud;
Dr. Enoch Desert, Etienne Dorneval, Leo Alexis, Estime
Jne. pour le D6partement de l'Artibonite;
Denis Saint-Aude et Suirad Villard pour le Nord'Ouest;
Dr. D6joie-Laroche, Louis Augustin Guillaume, Hannibal
Price, Alfred Auguste Nemours pour le D6partement du
Nord.
LE POUVOIR JUDICIAIRE.-Quoi qu'il y ait eu dans
le passe d'excellents juges ayant laiss6 un nom admire et
respect et don't les decisions en une ou deux circonstances
m6rit6rent de flatteuses appreciations d'autorit6s reconnues
du Monde judiciaire europ6en, il faut reconnaitre pourtant
que trop souvent la faveur et la politique avaient pr6side
au choix du personnel des tribunaux. Juges et avocats
eux memes s'en plaignaient. En outre, la technique mrme
de l'organisation judiciaire donnait lieu a de vives critiques.
Tout le monde 6tait d'accord pour penser qu'h l'occasion du
developpement prevu du pays et de l'implantation pro-
chaine en Haiti d'importants int&6rts strangers, il fallait
au plus tot pourvoir a une refonte de l'appareil judiciaire
afin qu'il donnat le moins possible prise a la suspicion quan
a la competence et a l'impartialiti des juges. Le change-
ment constitutionnel de 1918 permit d'y rem6dier. Le
privilege d'inamovibilit6 des juges fut lev6 et le Gouverne-


The Present Government
Council of State.-Article D of the Constitution of June
12, 1918, says: "A Council of State instituted on the same
principle as that of the Decree of April 5, and composed
of twenty-one members, divided equally between the differ-
ent departments, shall exercise the legislative power until
such time as a new Legislative Corps could be elected,
after which the Council of State shall cease to exist."
The Decree of April 5th and the regulation which in com-
pliance with Article 6, the Government issued on the 18th
of July 1916, gave to the council of State the rules of work
appropriate to the service of the affairs in litigation and to
the preparation committee of the legislative work, which
this council really was to be. But the Decree of dissolu-
tion of June 19th, 1917, of the last Legislature and the
plebiscite of June 12th of the following year brought a
considerable change to the character and to the duties of
the State council. In reality, the legislative duties were
henceforth attributed to it. However, it seems that these
duties were confided to the council only, to consent and give
in to the will of the people, the same, as was the character
and the original power of the Commons in England, the
native country of the parliamentary government. Al-
though this state council was to be endowed of the royal
privilege to make the law, one has but to consider the
thought for a moment to find to what this arrangement
was due: first, the inaptitude of a body of popular origin
to subject itself to the pressing demands of the actual
situation and to work in consequence; there is furthermore
but to consider the significant condition of the discretionary
nomination and revocation of the counsellors by the Presi-
dent to come sensibly to the conclusion that the council is
nothing but, as it was said, the extension of the executive
government, as to its responsibility and its action. What-
ever it might be, as soon as they became in possession
of their law quality, the State Counsellors abandoned their
particular regulation of July 18th, 1916, and adopted the
regulation of the old Senate, with the constitutional oath
and some calming privileges of the old legislative body.
The council recruited, taking in account a little of the
specialties, chiefly of the different regions of the country,
which they wanted to see represented in it, is composed of:
Messrs. Stephen Archer, Alexandre Moise, Constantin
Mayard, Annulysse Andre, Charles Bouchereau, Dr.
Victor Jean Louis, Charles Sambour, for the Department
of the West;
A. C. Sansaricq, Arthur Rameau, J. M. Grandoit,
Jules Bance, for the Department of the South;
Dr. Enoch Desert, Etienne Dorneval, Leo Alexis, Estime
June, for the Department of the Artibonite;
Denis Saint Aude and Suirad Villard for the North-west;
Dr. D6joie Laroche, Louis Augustin Guillaume, Han-
nibal Price, Alfred Auguste Nemours, for the Department
of the North.
The Judiciary Power.-Although there have been many
excellent judges in the past who have left honored and re-
spected names and whose decisions in several notable cases
have been highly approved of by many of the leading men
in the European judiciary, yet it is to be regretted that
only too often favor and politics, rather than ability, were
the means by which incapable men attained high positions
in the courts of Justice. Even the methods of the judicial
organization were open to severe criticism. As the country
had entered upon a new era, and the number of foreign
interests were rapidly increasing, its future development
seemed fully assured, it was found necessary to change the
mode of procedure in the election or appointment of judges
in order to secure only men of the highest character and
ability. This was effected by a Constitution change. The
Government assumed the power to appoint judges and
supervised the administration of justice. The system of
life tenure was abolished and in its stead were created a
chief judge and a Court of Appeals. The former has juris-






Le Gouvernement Actuel
ment remania profond6ment le personnel judiciaire et le
systime meme de distribution de la Justice. Les deux
innovations essentielles sont I'institution du Juge unique
et celle des jurisdictions d'appel. La premiere vise A gar-
antir les justiciables centre les complaisances et l'incapacit6
du Juge parce-que ce fonctionnaire prend d6sormais la
responsabilit6 individuelle des sentences rendues. La sec-
onde tend A assurer la rapidity dans le r6glement des litiges.
Une autre innovation dans le Droit Constitutionnel Hait-
ien, c'est le pouvoir attribu6 d6sormais au Tribunal de Cassa-
tion de se prononcer sur la constitutionnalit6 des lois, pouvoir
qui se rapproche de l'une des prerogatives les plus caract6r-
istiques de la Supreme Cour F6d6rale dans le syst6me
americain.

On dit qu'abstraction faite de l'appel qu'il dut faire au
concours indispensable de sp6cialistes pour les details de
mise en oeuvre, cette r6forme est le fruit de la conception
personnelle du Pr6sident Dartiguenave. On sait d'ailleurs
que le President est un avocat qui milita longtemps avec
la plus grande distinction.

Parmi les motifs qui firent prendre au President Darti-
guenave la decision de dissoudre les Chambres de 1917, il
faut noter leur refus d'adopter entr'autres -uLi.ciinii- des
Etats-Unis, celle de modifier l'ancien article 6 de la Consti-
tution qui d6niait aux strangers le droit de propri6t6 im-
mobiliere et leur refus de d6clarer la guerre A l'Allemagne.
Nous avons vu comment la premiere measure a &et adopt6e
dans le referendum de 1918. Voyons comment on arriva A
la guerre.

Depuis 1914, le people Haitien, malgr6 une declaration
officielle de neutrality avait en toutes circonstances, mani-
fest6 son attachment filial a la France et beaucoup de
jeunes Haitiens enthousiastes avaient 6t6 s'enr61er dans les
rangs de l'Armee Frangaise. En Janvier ou F6vrier 1917,
les Etats-Unis du Nord adresserent leur appel aux neutres;
en Avril qui suivit ils entr6rent dans le conflict. Sur ces
entrefaites, des sousmarins allemands coulerent les
paquebots KARNAK et MONTREAL qui portaient des
citoyens Haitiens et des marchandises appartenant A des
Haitiens.

L'Assembl6e Nationale si6geant en ce moment, il lui fut
demand de d6clarer la guerre a l'Empire d'Allemagne.
Sans tenir compete des profonds sentiments francophiles du
people et perdant de vue les int6rets actuels et d'avenir du
Pays, l'Assembl6e se content d'autoriser le Gouverne-
ment A rompre les relations avec le Gouvernement Imp6rial.
Le Charge d'Affaires A Berlin, en r6ponse A une note de
representations envoyee a la Wilhemstrasse touchant les
prejudices causes A la vie et aux biens des Haitiens recut
tout simplement ses passeports. Les relations diplo-
matiques entire les deux pays furent officiellement rompues
le 16 Juin 1917. Mais, une fois le Conseil d'Etat install
dans ses attributions 16gislatives, au moment of I'Al-
lemagne d6clanchait sa derni6re et formidable offensive et
remportait coup sur coup ses succes terrifiants d'Avril, Mai
et Juin 1918, menacant la cause des Alli6s d'une catastrophe
irr6m6diable, just A ce moment le Peuple Haitien declara
la guerre au colossal Empire d'Allemagne. Les Haitiens se
reconnaissent un grand m6rite pour avoir, non pas vol6 au
secours de la victoire, mais embrass6 d'enthousiasme la
cause de leurs amis naturels, la France et les Etats-Unis du
Nord, precis6ment A l'heure oi pour les homes de peu de
foi cette cause paraissait perdue.

Ils esperent que grace a la conduite sage et patriotique de
leur President leur pays recueillera bient6t les bienfaits plus
substantiels qu'ils attendent de l'action Am6ricaine, hienfaits
sans doute retards A cause de l'attention exclusive et des
efforts paroxystes tant dans l'ordre militaire que dans l'ordre
6conomique que la Grande Guerre r6clama au Pr6sident
WILSON et au Peuple Am6ricain.


The Present Government
diction over the lower courts and has the power to reverse
decisions rendered by them, thus assuring a fair and im-
partial administration of justice. The Court of Appeals
was established in order that decisions in cases pending
might be rendered with greater rapidity than heretofore.
Another innovation in the Haytian Constitutional right
is that of bestowing on the Supreme Court the power to
rule on matters pertaining to the constitutionality of laws,
much in the same manner as the Supreme Court of the
United States.
This reform was conceived by President Dartiguenave,
who, as is well known-is a brilliant lawyer, and has had a
long and honorable career. He was only obliged to call in
outside help to assist him in the practical working out of the
details of the measure.
Among the reasons which compelled the President to
dissolve the Chambers of 1917, were their refusal to adopt
the suggestions offered by the United States tending to
modify the old Article VI of the Constitution denying
the right of foreigners to hold property in the country, and
their refusal to uphold the Government in its declaration
of war against Germany. We have seen how the first
measure succeeded in the referendum, now let us see how
they fared in the second.
Since 1914, the Haytian people, in spite of an official
declaration of neutrality, always had a sincere filial affec-
tion for France, in fact many enthusiastic young Haytians
had already enlisted in the French Army. In January or
February, 1917, the United States of the North had ad-
dressed an appeal to the neutrals, and in April, 1917, they
entered the conflict. Owing to this German submarines
sank the cargo vessels Karnak and Montreal, which car-
ried not only valuable cargoes belonging to Haytians, but
a number of Haytian citizens.

The National Assembly, seated at that time, was asked
to declare war on Germany, but disregarding the deep
feelings of the people toward France and the present and
future interests of the country, the Assembly contented
itself by authorizing the Government to break off relations
with the imperial government. The Charge d'Affaires at
Berlin, on the presentation of a note to the Wilhemstrasse,
protesting against the wilful destruction of Haytian lives
and property, was immediately handed his passports and
on June 16, 1917, diplomatic relations between the two
countries were broken. At the very moment when Ger-
many was launching her last formidable offensive against
the Allies and her repeated successes of April, May and
June, 1918, threatened a serious catastrophe to the cause
of democracy, the Council of State in legislative assembly,
was obliged to bow to the will of the peoples and declare
a state of war against the vast empire of Germany. The
Haytian people are entitled to meritorious recognition
for espousing the cause of their natural friends, France and
the United States, rather than that of Germany, even at
a time when victory seemed within her grasp.
The people of Hayti hope that, thanks to the wise and
patriotic behaviour of their President, their country will
soon reap substantial benefits by their cooperation with
the United States, benefits delayed without doubt by the
entrance of America in the great World War and later by
the prolonged negotiations in effecting a world place in
which President Wilsun and the American nation played
so conspicuous a part.






Port-au-Prince


LA ville de Port-au-Prince date de 1749 h 1750. Elle
tire son nom d'apres Charlevoix, de ce qu'un navire
command par Monsieur d'Iberville et appeal "Le
Prince" y resta mouill6 pendant toute l'ann6e 1706. Moreau
de St. M6ry, de son c6t6, protest centre cette opinion et
pretend que la denomination de Port-au-Prince provient du
group d'ilets qui se trouvent dans la baie et qu'on appelait
depuis longtemps avant 1706, les Ilets du Prince.
Quoiqu'il en soit du veritable origine du nom, ce qu'il
y a d'int6ressant a rapporter c'est que, sur les instances des
Administrateurs Larnarge et Maillard, 6merveill6s de ce
site admirable et de ses conditions strat6giques et de salu-
brit6, un ordre du Roi Louis XV, en date du 26 Novembre
1749, fit de la ville commencante "la Capitale des Iles sous
le Vent."
Comme fait curieux h citer, rappelons que sous la R6vo-
lution francaise, le nom de Port-au-Prince fut change pen-
dant quelque temps en celui de "Port-R6publicain" et que
plus tard, apris l'Ind6pendance, Le Roi Christophe, au
course de sa guerre centre le Pr6sident P6tion, appelait,
par derision, la capital de la R6publique, le Port-aux-
Crimes.
La ville est h 180 33 de latitude et A 740 47 de longitude,
au fond du Golfe de la Gonave, dans un angle droit form
par la c6te qui part de Liogane et celle qui borne la Plaine-
du-Cul-de-Sac. L'espace sur lequel elle se trouve est une
petite vall6e borne au nord par un "mornet" appel6 le Bel-
Air, allant vers l'Est et s'6levant jusqu'A 220 mitres environ
au dessus du niveau de la mer. D'autres mamelons qu'on
rencontre imm6diatement courant au sud-est et s'61evant
jusqu'. 320 metres environ, terminent la vall6e en allant
se relier A d'autres montagnes tris levees nommees les
Mornes de l'Hopital, lesquelles courant a leur tour vers
l'Ouest vont aboutir a la pointe du Lamantin. Cette
vall6e s'ouvre A l'ouest sur le golfe de La Gonave qui, par
son ftendue et sa beauty, a meriti d'etre compare A la
Baie de Naples.
Jusqu'en 1870, la ville comportait une superficie 16gale
de 458,000 toises carries, divis6e en 101 ilets in6gaux, for-
mant cependant des carries parfaits ou des rectangles don-
nant sur 27 rues. Ces rues d'une larger de 60 h 70 pieds
talentt perches du Nord au Sud et de l'Est a l'Ouest. On en
comptait 9 de la premiere cat6gorie et 16 de la derniere.
A l'heure actuelle, Port-au-Prince couvre une surface
de 7 Kilom6tres carries environ (exactement 6 Km. carries,
823.750 mitres carr6s).
Les plus longues rues et avenues sont: La Rue R6pub-
licaine (2.370 m; la Rue du Centre (2.320 m.); l'Avenue
John Brown (2.300 m.); la Rue de l'Egalit6 (2.270 m.);
etc.-Vingt-quatre autres rues et avenues mesurent 1000
metres et au dessus. De ces grandes voies 17 sont b6ton-
n6es et 14 macadamisbes. En outre, il y a en achievement
un systeme d'6gouts don't on a d6jh construit 5.242 m&tres
carries, 82. Les quarters A la fois les plus agr6ables et les
plus sains sont ceux places sur les hauteurs: le Bel-Air mal-
heureusement mal bati et habit par la parties pauvre de
la population; ensuite le Haut- Turgeau, Bellevue, Pacot,
Desprez, Bolosse et le Faubourg St. Antoine. Bolosse
jouissant du privilege d'etre a flanc d'un coteau au pied
duquel la mer s'6tale, b6neficie du plus ravissant panorama,
d'une temperature agr6able et d'un air tres pur.
SERVICE HYDRAULIQUE.-La ville est aliment6e
par cinq sources don't le debit est le suivant:
Plaisance entiree Pt.-au-P. et P6tion-Ville)-40 litres A
la second.
Cerisier entiree Pt.-au-P. et P6tion-Ville)-30 litres a la
second.
Chaudeau (A Bizoton)-50 litres A la second.
Turgeau a la limited Est de Pt.-au-Pce.-45 litres a la
second.
Leclerc au Haut de Bolosse-35 litres h la second.
Les deux dernieres sources produisent la meilleure eau
de la ville. Un project est actuellement A l'6tude pour la
captation de nouvelles sources et la construction d'un
autre reservoir pour augmenter l'approvisionnement d'eau


HE town of Port au Prince dates back to the eigh-
teenth century, to be exact 1749 or 1750. Accord-
ing to Charlevoix it derives its name from the fact
that in 1706 a boat named "The Prince", commanded by
M. d'Iberville, had anchored in the harbor for a year.
This is disputed, however, by Moreau de St. Mary, who
advances the claim that the name came from a group of
islets in the bay and which were known long before the
year 1706 as "the islets of the Prince."
However, whatever may be the true origin of the name,
a matter of greater interest is, that at the instance of Ad-
ministrators Larnage and Maillard, charmed with its beau-
tiful scenery, its delightful climate, as well as its strategical
situation, the budding town was made "the Capital of the
Isles sous le Vent" by King Louis XV on November 26,
1749.
During the French Revolution the name Port au Prince
was changed for a time to that of "Port Republicain." In
later years, after the Declaration of Independence, King
Christopher in the course of his wars with President P6tion,
derisively called the capital of the Republic "the Port of
Crimes."
The town lies in latitude 180 33' and in longitude 740
S47' at the apex of the Gulf of La Gonave, in an angle formed
by the coast line which starts from Leogane on one side
and reaches to the limits of Plaine-du-Cul-de-Sac on the
other. The site of the town is a little valley, bounded
on the North by a hill called Bel-Air, which runs to the
East and rises to a height of 220 meters above the level
of the sea. Directly South-east runs another range of
hills which at some points reach a level of 320 meters,
through which the valley continues until it reaches the
base of a high mountain named "the Mountains of l'Hopi-
tal", which in turn run west as far as Lamantin. This
valley starts at the Gulf of Gonaive, which owing to its
extent and beauty is deservedly compared to the Bay of
Naples.
Until 1870, the town had an area of 458,000 square toises,
divided into 101 unequal blocks, forming however, perfect
squares and rectangles through which run some 27 streets,
60 or 70 feet wide. Nine of these streets run North and
South and 16 East and West.
At the present time Port au Prince has an area of about
7 square kilometers (to be exact 6 square kilometers and
823,750 square meters).
The longest streets and avenues are: Republican street,
2,370 meters; Centre street, 2,320 meters; John Brcwn
Avenue, 2,300 meters; Equality street, 2,270 meters; etc.
Twenty-four other avenues and streets measure 1,000
meters and over, of these 18 are paved with concrete and
14 macadamized. There is under way a system of sewers
of which there have already been constructed 5,242.82
square meters. The better and more healthy sections
are those situated on the heights. The Bel-Air section
which is very poorly laid out, is inhabited by the poorer
classes. Next in comparison to the heights come the
High-Turgeau, Bellevue, Pacot, Desprey, Bolosse, and
the suburb St. Antoine. Bolosse is delightfully situated
on the side of a hill, overlooking the sea and enjoys the
benefit of a most ravishing panorama, a very agreeable
temperature, and the purest air.
HYDRAULIC SERVICE.-The water supply is fur-
nished by five springs with a continuous flow as follows:
Plaisance, (between Port au Prince and Petion-Ville)
40 litres per sec.
Cerisier (between Port au Prince and P6tion-Ville) 30
litres per sec.
Chaudeau (at Bizoton), 50 litres per sec.
Turgeau (at the eastern limits of Port au Prince),
45 litres per sec.
Leclerc (at the Heights of Bolosse), 35 litres per sec.
The two latter springs produce the purest water. A pro-
ject is now under way to trace the source of further springs
and to build another reservoir to assure a plentiful supply
of water. The five springs at present supply 17,280,000








Port-au-Prince


POINTS INTERESSANTS ET PANORAMA

La Ville de Port-au-Prince possede beaucoup de points d'int6rit
special, quelques-uns desquels sont montr6s ci-dessus, en has on
peut voir la Vue panoramique de la Ville, prise des murs du
vieux Fort, sur les montagnes derriere la Ville.


POINTS OF INTEREST AND PANORAMA

The City of Port-au-Prince has many points of special interest,
a few of which are shown above, while below is shown a
Panorama View of the City, taken from the walls of the old
Fort, on the hills behind the City.







Port-au-Prince


de la ville. En attendant les cinq sources actuellement
utilis6es donnent ensemble 17,280.000 litres (4,571,429
gallons) d'eau par jour. Une &valuation faite en 1906
attribuait a Port-au-Prince 101,133 habitants. En pregnant
ce chiffre on obtient pour la ville une consommation jour-
naliere de 170 litres, 86 d'eau par tate d'habitants.
RESOURCES ALIMENTAIRES.-Port-au-Prince est
approvisionn6 en lIgumes par les sections environnantes,
notamment la section des Sourcailles (P&tion-Ville); en
vivres, par l'Arcahaie; en bestiaux, par le Marche de Beudet
(Croix des Bougents). La mare est abondante et saine
toute cette cote 6tant tris poissonneuse.
NATALITE ET LETHILITE.-En 1906, on &valuait le
taux de la natalit6 h Port-au-Prince A 24, 47 pour mille
habitants et le taux de la lthiliti6 12, 14 pour mille habi-
tants
EDIFICES.-Parmi les monuments et edifices de Port-
au-Prince on peut citer: le Palais National, le Palais des
Ministeres, le Palais du Corps Ligislatif, la Nouvelle
Cath6drale, les Eglises St. Anne, St. Joseph, St. Frangois,
St. Antoine, le Sacr&-Coeur de Turgeau, le Temple Wes-
leyen, la Banque Nationale de la R6publique d'Haiti, le
Tribunal de Premiire Instance,la Prison Centrale, le March&
de la Place Valliire (Halles Centrales), l'Abattoir, 1'Ecole
Professionnelle de Jeunes Filles Elie-Dubois, l'Inspection
scolaire, 1'Hopital G6n6ral, l'Hospice Saint-Francois de
Sales, 1'Ecole Normale de Filles (ancienne Poly clinique
Pean), le Lyc&e P6tion, le Petit S6minaire Collage Saint-
Martial, le Square Nord-Alexis, le Square Elie-Dubois, la
Place de la Paix, le Pensionnat de Sainte Rose de Lima,
le College de Saint Louis de Gonzague, l'H6tel du Bureau
du Port, la Douane et le Champ de Mars et une quantity
de grandes constructions en ciment arm6 qui, depuis six
ans se sont 6leviees dans les quarters des affaires. Les
usines de la Haitian American Sugar Co. sont merveil-
leuses par leurs proportions.
TEMPERATURE ET METEOROLOGIE.-La tem-
perature du Port-au-Prince est sujette aux saisons seches
et aux saisons pluvieuses; mais, elle offre des variations
sensible.. Cependant, on peut dire que les pluies torren-
tielles accompagn6es de tonnerre et des vents du Sud, du
Nord, de l'Est et de l'Ouest parent d'ordinaire de Fevrier et
se pr6sentent presque journellement jusqu'a la fin de Mai.
Alors, arrive ce qu'on appelle la secheresse de la Saint
Jean qui dure environ un mois. Viennent ensuite avec
Aoflt, Septembre et Octobre les plus fortes pluies, lesquelles
sont souvent accompagnbes de bourrasques toujours dan-
gereuses dans le Canal et que, depuis les Aborigines, on
continue d'appeler l'Hurrican. Port-au-Prince a encore
des pluies fines dites de la Toussaint provenant des vents
du Nord qui se font sentir toujours en Novembre et quel-
quefois meme jusqu'a la mi-D6cembre. D6cembre et
Janvier aminent la s6cheresse d6solante pour la v6g6tation
et r6guliirement accompagn6e de fortes brises de l'Est qui,
insupportables le jour, rendent cependant les nuits tres
d6licieuses A cette 6poque de l'ann6e. C'est alors le beau
ciel bleu de l'Italie, c'est son douxhiver. Les mois de Juin,
Juillet et Aoft sont l'6poque des grandes chaleurs et, par


litres (4,571,429 gallons) of water daily. The census of
1906 gives Port au Prince a population of 101,133 inhab-
itants, which would give a daily consumption of 170.86
litres of water per capital.
ALIMENTARY RESOURCES.-Port au Prince is sup-
plied with vegetables by the surrounding sections, princi-
pally that of Sourgailles (P6tionville); with provisions, by
l'Arcahaie; and with cattle by the market of Bendet (Croix
des Bouquets); an abundant supply of fresh fish of excellent
quality may be obtained from the waters along the coast.
BIRTHS AND DEATHS.-The census of 1906 esti-
mates the birth of Port au Prince at 24.27 per thousand
inhabitants, while the death rate is only 12.14 per thou-
sand.
BUILDINGS.-The following monuments and buildings
of Port au Prince are worthy of mention: the National
Palace, the Palace of the Ministers, the Palace of the Legis-
lative Corps, the New Cathedral, the Churches of St.
Anne, St. Joseph, St. Francis, St. Antoine, and the Sacred
Heart of Turgeau; the Wesleyan Temple, the National
Bank of the Republic of Hayti, the Tribunal of First In-
stance, the Central Prison, the Market of Place Valliire,
(Central Hall), the Abbatoir, the Elie Dubois Professional
School for Young Ladies, the Scholar Inspection, the Gen-
eral Hospital, the Almshouse of St. Francis de Sales, the
Normal School for Young Ladies (the old Polyclinic P6an),
the Lyceum Pftion, the Petit Seminaire Coll&ge of Saint
Martial, the Square Nord Alexis, the Square Elie-Dubois,
the Place of the Peace, the Boarding School of St. Rose of
Lima, the College of St. Louis of Gonzague, the Hotel of
the Board of the Port, the Custom House, and the Champ
de Mars. In addition to these a large number of concrete
buildings have been erected during the past six years in
the business district; the plant of the Haytian-American
Sugar Company being the largest and are especially worthy
of note.
CLIMATE AND ATMOSPHERE.-The climate of
Port au Prince is variable. It has its dry seasons and rainy
seasons with moderate temperature in between.
Torrential rains, accompanied by thunder and strong
winds from the South, North, East and West invariably
arrive in February and continue almost daily until the end
of May, then comes a period commonly called the draught
of St. John, which lasts about a month. From August
to October come the heaviest rains, accompanied by dan-
gerous squalls in the Channel, which from the time of the
Aborigines to the present have been called the "Hurrican",
then comes a period of mild rains with wind from the North,
lasting through November and sometimes to the middle of
December. December and January are the months of
drought, which is very detrimental to vegetation. During
these months strong breezes from the East make the nights
cool and comfortable no matter how unbearable the day.
The sky assumes the blue of Italian skies. It is the
finest period of the year-it is winter. June, July
and August are the months of great heat, and consequently
of sickness. It is then the people migrate to the country;
families crowd the roads to Charbonniere or Lalue; to Bizo-
ton, Tort, Diquini, Carrefour, and Mariani, near the Laman-


Vue panoramique du "Marche ouvert" en face Panorama View of the "Open Market" facing
de la Cathedrale, oil journellement 5000 fermiers the Cathedral, where 5000 Country people
vendent leurs products. dispose of their produce daily.


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Port-au-Prince


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ADMINISTRATION ET BATIMENTS


ADMINISTRATION AND BUILDINGS


S-minaire
Gare du Chemin de fir
Abbatoir


H6tel de Ville
Seminary Le Maire et Commissaires
Railroad Station Chefs des D6partements de la Ville
Slaughter House Statue de "Dessalines"


City Hall
The Mayor and Commissioners Le Marche en fer
City Department Chiefs Palais des Ministres
Statue of "Dessalines" H6pital de la Ville


The Iron Market5
Palace of Ministers
City Hospital






Port-au-Prince


consequent, des maladies. Alors, les families 6migrent en
foule et vont faire la vill6giature sur les routes de la Char-
bonniere ou Lalue, a Bizoton, aTort, a Diquini, a Carrefour
et a Mariani pris de la pointe du Lamantin, a l'entr6e des
gorges de la Riviire-Froide et enfin, a P6tionville, situ6
vers l'Est, a deux lieues et a une altitude de deux cents
toises au dessus du niveau de la mer. Au surplus, meme
a cette 6poque, la chaleur est temp6r&e, surtout pour cer-
tains quarters situ6s comme Bolosse, par deux vents deli-
cieux appel6s la brise de terre et la brise de mer soufflant le
premier de 1'Est a partir de 10 heures du soir pendant toute
la nuit et l'autre venant du large marin durant la journ6e.
En r6sum6, d'apr6s le Bulletin M6t6orologique du S&mi-
naire pour l'annee 1917, le maximum absolu de la temp&ra-
ture pour le mois le plus chaud (Juillet) a 6t6 de 35, 2; le
minimum absolu pour le mois le moins chaud (F1vrier)
a &t6 de 17, 1. Pour ce qui est de la pluviositi voici ce
qu'atteignit en millimetres la tension de la vapeur d'eau
en des mois tris humides (Mai, Juin, Juillet et Octobre):
99 et, en des mois moins humides: Mars 18; Janvier: 20;
Aofit: 23; et Fevrier: 24. Coefficients extremes d'insola-
tion: Janvier 0,80 et F&vrier 0, 72. Juin et October 0,62.
Mai 0,63. Moyennes de la vitesse du vent: Juin 4.02; Jan-
vier 3.45; Avril 2.66 et Decembre 2.68.
INCENDIES.-Le fl6au des incendies a souvent
ruin la ville. C'est au point qu'elle a plusieurs fois
change de physionomie et qu'elles sont tris rares, les
constructions de l'epoque colonial qui ont surv6cu jusqu'a
nos jours. Ceux de ces innombrables sinistres qui ont
laiss6 le souvenir le plus terrifiant sont ceux du 16 D6cem-
bre 1822, dit incendie Dumesnil, du 2 F6vrier 1827, du 9
Janvier 1843, du 19 Mars 1866, dit incendie de John Hep-
burn, du 4 Juillet 1888, dit incendie de la Chambre, de
Juillet 1896, dit incendie de Demeuran, et 5 et 6 Juillet
1908, dit du G6neral Nord-Alexis et enfin, celui du 8 Aofit
1912, dit la catastrophe Leconte etc.
ETABLISSEMENTS UTILES.-Il y a h Port-au-Prince
comme etablissements utiles la Compagnie des Pom-
piers Libres, la Glaciere, un Abattoir pour le grand et
le petit betail, le Service d'Eclairage 6lectrique, le Service
Hydraulique don't le bureau est une construction qui date
de l'6poque colonial, les deux Phares du Fort-Ilet et du
Lamantin, une quantity d'Offices de M6decins des Univer-
sit6s de France et d'Amerique et de l'excellente faculty de
Port-au-Prince, une dizaine de sales de Dentistes don't
six ou sept sont des graduis des plus renommes "Dental
Colleges" des Etats-Unis, pros de vingt Pharmacies don't
cinq sont de suffisante importance et don't l'une est dirig6e
par un Pharmacien brevet6 de 1'Universit6 Am6ricaine.
TRANSPORTS ET COMMUNICATIONS.-Port-au-
Prince posside 6 garages d'automobiles pour les reparations
et le louage: les Garages Leboss&, Pawley, Chenet Frires,
Fr6edric Mirambeau, Odi'de et Shea. Il y a 140 automo-
biles de difffrentes marques en circulation, non compris
les autos officielles, 175 autres voitures publiques et
780 autres voitures priv6es, trois etablissements d'en-
treprises de pompes funibres et de louage de voitures
de gala, a traction animal. I1 y a trois totes de lignes
feri-6es aboutissant a l'int6rieur. Mais il y a un service
de tramways urbains qui depuis dix sept ans dessert
la ville dans les conditions suivantes: Une voie reliant la
Station Centrale du Champ de Mars a la parties basse de
la ville pris le Bureau du Port et une autre voie reliant la
meme Station Centrale du Champ de Mars a la Gare du
Nord. Ces deux voies ensemble mesurent environ trois
kilom&tres. Une troisieme voie relief la Gare du Nord et
Carrefour et measure 7 kilometres. Les deux premieres
voies sont desservies par des cars partant des stations
chaque trois quarts d'heure, de 6 heures du matin a 7
heures du soir. La derniere voie est desservie par six
trains faisant le trajet aller et retour entire 6 heures du matin
et six heures du soir. La-Capitale Haitienne communique
avec le Monde entier par le Cable Transatlantique Frangais
et par une Station de Wireless Americain. L'ile toute en-
tiere est depuis bient6t un quart de siecle reli6 par un r6seau


.tin point at the neck of the Rivi6re Froide; and last, to
P6tionville, situated two leagues east, and at an altitude
of two hundred toises above the level of the sea. Not-
withstanding the excessive heat, there are certain favor-
ably located sections where the temperature is moderate.
Bolosse is swept by continual breezes, a land breeze from
the East from 10 o'clock and continuing all night, and one
blowing from the sea during the day. According to the
Meteorological Bulletin of the Seminaire for the year 1917,
the maximum temperature for the hottest month of the
year (July) was 35.2; the minimum for the coolest month
(February) was 17.1. The rainfall in millimeters during
May, June, July and October, was 99; in March, 18; Janu-
ary, 20; August, 23; and February, 24. Extreme coeffi-
cients of insolation: January 0.80; February, 0.72; June
and October, 0.62; and May, 0.63. Average velocity of
the wind: June, 4.02; January 3.45; April, 2.66, and De-
cember, 2.68. (The above temperatures are in centigrade.)
It is a matter of note that the periods of rain are so vari-
able throughout the island that those of Port au Prince are
not the same as elsewhere in the country. There are six
different periods, during some of which cultivation is car-
ried on to an extraordinary degree.
FIRES.-Fires of a very serious nature have on numerous
occasions almost entirely destroyed the town. So disastrous
have some of these been that houses constructed during
the colonial period have disappeared, thus changing the
entire aspect. Among the more terrifying of these fires
which have left indelible memories are: the Dumesnil fire
which occurred on December 16, 1822; those of February
2, 1827, and January 9, 1S443: the John Hepburn fire of
March 19, 1866, and the Ch.imiilr- fire which occurred on
July 4, 1888; the fire of Dumeran in July, 1896; the
General Nord Alexis fire July 5th and 6th, 1908; and, last,
the Leconte catastrophe, which occurred on August 8, 1912
USEFUL ESTABLISHMENTS.-There are a number ol
useful establishments in Port au Prince, such as: The Com-
pany of Free Firemen, the Ice Plant, the Abbatoir for th(
slaughter of cattle and smaller animals; the Electric Lighi
System; the Hydraulic Service, whose office was constructec
in Colonial days; the light houses of Fort Ilett and Laman
tin; and number of offices of doctors from universities it
France and America, and eminent physicians of Port at
Prince; a dozen dentists' offices, of which some six or sevei
are occupied by graduates of the finest Dental Colleges ii
the United States; twenty drug stores, five of which are o
superior importance, and one under the management of ;
graduate druggist of an American university.
TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION.-
Port au Prince has six automobile garages for hiring an
repairs, they are conducted by Leboss6, Pawley, Chene
Brothers, Frederic Mirambeau, Odeide and Shea. Ther
are 140 automobiles of different makes, besides the official
automobiles; there are 175 other public vehicles and .78
owned by private individuals; three establishments c
undertakers and the hire of horse driven carriages for fune
rals. It is the terminal of three lines of railroads running
into the interior, and a tramway service has been in opere
tion in the town for the past 17 years; one of the line
connects the central station of the Champ de Mars wit
the lower part of the town, another runs from the sam
station to Gare du Nord. These two lines are about
kilometers long. A third line connects Gare du Nord an
Carrefour, and is 7 kilometers long. The first two lint
operate cars on a 45 minute schedule from 6 o'clock i
the morning to 7 o'clock at night, the third operates
trains back and forth from 6 o'clock in the mornnig to
in the evening.
The Haytian capital is in communication with the who
world by means of the French transatlantic cable and a
American wireless station, while for nearly a quarter of
century the telegraph has been installed throughout tl
entire Island. An excellent telephone service is in use


































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VUE A VOL D'OISEAU
Le Palais National et la Place du "Champ de Mars"


BIRD'S EYE-VIEW
National Palace and "Champ de Mars" Park


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PORT-AU-PRINCE, HAITI









Port-au-Prince


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SECTION DES RESIDENCES
La merveilleuse et belle Section des R6sidences de Port-au-Prince, avec vue
donnant sur la Ville et le Port et un veritable jardin de fleurs et plants tropi-
ques. L'approchement de ces demeures .... ..I., se fait par des ruelles 6t-
roites et tortueuses, bien macadamiser et ... ,-. balayer A main tout les
matins.


RESIDENTIAL SECTION
The wonderful and beautiful Residential Section of Port-au-Prince, over-
looking the City and Harbour, and a veritable garden of flowers and tropical
plants. These magnificent homes are reached by narrow crooked lanes, well
macadamized and drained, and swept by hand every morning.


-I-l-







Port-au-Prince


de T6lgraphes terrestres. Dans ce meme service fonc-
tionne, depuis peu, un t61iphone qui fait communiquer les
diff6rents quarters de la ville et, en outre, certain centres
de la province avec la Capitale.
HOTELS ET RESTAURANTS.-II existe ici cinq
Grands H6tels, quinze Restaurants et une quantity de
simples bars.
Port-au-Prince s'honore d'avoir donn6 le jour a une foule
d'hommes illustre don't les plus c61ibres sont: le G6neral
Galbaud, Gouverneur-G6n6ral de Saint Domingue, Alexan-
dre Pftion, Jean-Pierre Boyer, presidents de la R6publique
d'Haiti, les gi6nraux Lys, Borgella, Beauvais, les poftes
Coriolan Ardouin, Ducas Hippolyte, Alcibiade Fleury
Battier, Massillon Coicou, les publicistes et hommes
politiques: Boyer Bazelais, Edmond Paul, Dantes Fortunat,
Dr. Louis Joseph Janvier, le peintre Colbert Lochard,
Thomas Madiou, historien.
Comme, toutes les villes d'Haiti qui sont places sous la
vocable d'un saint du Calendrier, Port-au-Prince a pour
patronne la Vierge de l'Assomption don't la fete tombe le
15 d'Aofit.


every part of the town every day in the year. A long
distance service connects the Capital with certain parts of
the country.
HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS.-There are 5 mod-
ern and efficiently managed hotels, 15 restaurants and a
number of bars and cafes.
Port au Prince has the proud distinction of being the
birthplace of many illustrious men, among whom may be
mentioned: G6enral Galbaud, Governor-General of St.
Domingue; Alexander P6tion and Jean Pierre Boyer, presi-
dents of the Republic of Hayti; Generals Lys, Borgella and
Beauvais; the poets Coriolan Ardouin, Ducas Hyppolite,
Alcibiade Fleury Battier, Massillon Coicou; Boyer Bazel-
ais, Edmond Paul, Dantes Fortunat and Dr. Louis Joseph
Janvier, publicists and politicians; Colbert Lochard, the
Painter, and Thomas Madiou, the historian.
As every town in Hayti is under the patronage of some
Saint of the calendar, Port au Prince has as its patroness
the Virgin of Assumption, whose feast day falls on August
15th.


JOHN Z. THOMAS CLEMENT MAGLOIRE CHARLES A. ALPHONSE
Commissaire Commissioner Commissaire Commissioner President


Charles Alphbe Alphonse


Charles Alph6e Alphonse est n6 A Port au Prince en 1869. Fit ses
6tudes classiques A l'Ecole Polymathique et au Lycee National de Port
au Prince. A principalement occupy des functions communales de
1888 A 1919 comme Receveur, Collaborateur au "Bulletin Communal",
Conseiller, Membre et Pr6sident de Commissions Communales.


Charles Alph6e Alphonse was born in Port au Prince in 1869. He
made his studies at the Polymathic School and National Lyceum of
Port au Prince. He has been employed principally by the City Council
from 1888 to 1919 as receiver,collaborator at the"City Council Bulletin"
Counsellor, Member and President of the City Council commissions.


Clement Magloire
Membre de la Commission Communale


C'est la deuxieme fois que le Gouvernement de la R6publique a appel6
A la direction des affaires communales Monsieur Clement Magloire,
Directeur et propri6taire du Matin, qui en plus d'une circonstance donna
dans son journal, des conseils 6cout6s concernant les int6rets de la
Ville. Les nombreux amis qu 'il a dans tous les groups, luiaccordent,
leur entire confiance.


It is for the second time that the Government of the Republic has
called to the direction of the City Council's affairs Mr. Cl6ment Mag-
loire, Director and owner of "Le Matin", who constantly devotes the
services of his newspaper to the interests of the City. His numerous
friends he has in all classes of society give him their entire confidence
and collaboration.


John Zacharie Thomas


Est n6 A Port de Paix en 1873, il a faith une parties de ses etudes
A l'Ecole Polymathique de Port au Prince, et les acheva A l'Institut
Pratt de Brooklyn, N. Y.
II travailla A la Western Electric Company de New York City et
sejourna deux annees en Europe. I1 est maintenant membre de la Com-
mission Communale de Port au Prince.


Was born in Port de Paix in 1873. He made part of his studies at
the Polymathic School in Port-au-Prince and completed them at the
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y.
He worked with the Western Electric Company of New York City
and later spent two years in Europe. He is now a member of the City
Council Commission of Port au Prince.







Le Matin

Quotidien Fonde en 1907, Par Mr. Clement Magloire


Ce journal don't l'influence est grande a eu comme collaborateurs les
meilleurs ecrivains du pays. On peut citer Messrs. Fernand Hibbert,
Auguste et Felix Magloire, Constantin Mayard, Charles Moravia,
Thos. A. Vilmenay, H6nio Vincent, Abel N. L6ger, Paul Sales, Lys
Latortue, LUon Laleau, Thos. H. Lechaud, Alfred Nemours, Amilcar
Duval, Thales Manigat, Fl6ix Niard, Dr. Hyson, Placide David.
Le Matin a entrepris des campagnes qui ont eu un immense retentisse-
ment et n'a jamais recul6 par peur de consequences. Ce journal a fait
des d6put6s, des ministres, des Chefs d'Etat.


This newspaper with its great influence has as contributors the best
writers of the country. One can quote: Messrs. Fernand Hibbert,
Auguste and Fl1ix Magloire, Constantin Mayard, Charles Moravia,
Thos. A. Vilmenay, Henion Vincent, Abel N. Leger, Paul Sales, Lys
Latortue, L6on Laleau, Thos. H. Lechaud, Alfred Nemours, Amilcar
Duval, Thal6s Manigat, Fl6ix Niard, Dr. Hyson, Placide David.
Le Matin has undertaken campaigns of great importance and has
never been held back by fear of consequences. This journal has made
deputies, ministers, and presidents.


Le Nouvelliste


Le "Nouvelliste" le plus ancien, le plus repandu quotidien d'Haiti,
A present dans sa 226me ann6e d'existence. Fond6 par Henri Chauvet
avec Ch6raquit comme administrateur; a pour r6dacteur en chef le fils
du fondateur Ernest G. Chauvet, diploma de New York oi il passa
deux ans au "Brooklyn Daily Eagle," 6tudiant le mecanisme des quo-
tidiens modernes.
"Le Nouvelliste" public quotidiennement les nouvelles du monde
entier recu par cable, sans-fil, et correspondence sp6ciale. Comporte
une section anglaise et une section comique avec carricatures. Les
meilleurs &crivains sont parmi ses collaborateurs.


"Le Nouvelliste," the oldest and most popular daily of Haiti, now in
its 22nd year of existence. Founded by Henri Chauvet with Cheraquit
as administrator. Ernest G. Chauvet, a son of the founder and a grad-
uate journalist of New York, where he spent two years with the "Brook-
lyn Daily Eagle," studying the mechanism of modern daily papers, is
now Editor and Manager.
"The Nouvelliste" publishes every day the news of the world
received by cable, wireless, and special correspondence. It prints an
English section and a comic section, with sketches. The best writers
belong to its staff.


L'Informateur Haitien


Un quotidien litteraire et commercial. II a pour Directeur, Mr.
Thos. A. Vilmenay, publiciste et ancien consul g6n6ral d'Haiti a la
Jamaique, pour administrateur, Mr. Arthur Isidore, pour principaux
redacteurs, M. M. Louis Morpeau, Thos. H. Lechaud, Constantin
Mayard, Pierre Breville, Fl6ix Courtois, Leon Laleau, Placide David,
Justin Montas, Dr. Catts Pressoir, Dr. J. C. Dorsainville, Etienne
Bourand.
II a la reputation d'etre le mieux r6dig6 de ses confreres. II a des cor-
respondants dans toutes les villes de la R6publique. Mr. Vilmenay a
6tudi6 A New York of il passa plusieurs ann6es. II parole couramment
le Franqais, I'Anglais et l'Espagnol.


A literary and commercial daily newspaper. It has for director, Mr.
Thos. A. Vilmenay, publicist and ex-Consul-General for Haiti in Jam-
aica; for administrator, Mr. Arthur Isidore; for principal redactors,
Messrs. Louis Morpeau; Thos. H. Lechaud, Constantin Mayard,
Pierre Br6ville, Felix Courtois, Leon Laleau, Placide David, Justin
Montas, Dr. Catts Pressoir, Dr. J. C. Dorsainville and Etienne
Bourand.
It has the reputation of being the best written paper in Haiti. It
has correspondents in all the towns of the country. Mr. Vilmenay
was educated in New York where he spent several years. He speaks
fluently French, English and Spanish.


L'Essor


Henec Dorsinville, son Directeur, est n6i a Port au Prince. II a
6tudi6 au Petit Seminaire College St. Martial a Port au Prince.
A sa sortie du S6minaire, il entra A l'Ecole de Droit pour en sortir
avec le dipl6me de licencie.
Le 10 janvier, 1917, il se porta candidate a la Deputation National
pour l'arrondissement de Leogane.
En 1912, il langa la Grande Revue litt6raire "L'Essor" avec le con-
cours des meilleurs 6crivains de la nouvelle generation. En 1917, il
edita le journal quotidien "L'Essor" organe de la defense des inti6rts
Haitiens, tres r6pandu et tres int&ressant.


Henec Dorsinville, its director, was born in Port au Prince, He was
educated at the Petit Seminaire College St. Martial in Port au Prince.
When he left the S6minaire, he entered the Law School from which
he obtained his diploma of Licentiate.
On the 10th of January, 1917, he became candidate to the National
Deputation for the arrondissement of L6ogAne.
In 1912, he edited the great literary Review "L'Essor," with the help
of the best writers of the new generation. In 1917, he established the
daily paper "L'Essor," organ of defense of the Haitian interests, very
popular and interesting.


Courrier du Soir
Un journal quotidien fort and bien ecrit, 6tabli par Mr. Edgard A strong and well written daily paper, established and owned by
Jones, chef de bureau des Douanes d'Haiti, qui en est le propri6taire. Mr. Edgard Jones, chief clerk of the Customs of Haiti.
Le Courrier du Soir est tres populaire avec une grande circulation The Courrier du Soir is very popular and has a wide circulation cover-
6tendue dans toutes les parties de la R6publique. ing all parts of the Republic.
Les annonces insurer dans le Courrier du Soir reqoivent toujours le Advertisers would do well to communicate with Mr. Jones regarding
plus grand nombre de r6ponses. space and terms.


Haiti Commerciale, Industrielle et Agricole


Fondee en Juin, 1917, par M.M. Fr6d6rick Morin et Sylvain. La
retraite inopinee de Mr. J. Sylvain, dfl la maladie, obligea Mr. F.
Morin a s'adjoindre un nouvel associi pour la parties financiere, Mon-
sieur Edmond Chenet, imprimeur r6put6 de la capital.
La Revue, comme son nom l'indique, s'occupe de toutes les ques-
tions commercials, industrielles et agricoles, int6ressant le public
Haitien ou stranger. Elle se recommande, en outre, par la publication
de statistiques renseignant le lecteur sur la vie economique d'Haiti.
La Revue a acquis maintenant une grande popularity.


Founded in June, 1917, by Messrs. Frfedrick Morin and J. Sylvain
but the sudden withdrawal of Mr. J. Sylvain, due to his illness, obliged
Mr. F. Morin to get a new partner for the financial part, Mr. Edmond
Chenet, renowned printer of the Capital.
The Review, as its name indicates, handles all the commercial, in-
dustrial and agricultural questions interesting to the Haitian and
foreign public. It recommends itself, moreover, by the publication of
statistics giving exact information upon the economical life of Haiti.
The Review has acquired now a great popularity.


Gazette Des Tribuneaux


Ce journal fond6 il y a 24 ans, est le plus ancien de Port ku Prince.
Il content les d6bats et les decisions judiciaires et parait le samedi de
chaque semaine. M. Aug. A. H6raux, en est le proprietaire-editeur.
M. Aug. A. H6raux a occupy des functions tres importantes dans
Administration du Pays. Ancien d6put6 au Corps L6gislatif, plusieurs
fois Inspecteur des Finances, ex-Grand Maitre de l'Ordre Magonnique
en Haiti, c'est un des avocats les plus s&rieux et les plus comp6tents du
barreau de Port au Prince.


This newspaper, founded 24 years ago, is the oldest publication in
Port au Prince. It is a weekly and contains the debates and judiciary
decisions. M. Aug. A. H6raux is the proprietor and editor.
Mr. Heraux has occupied many important positions in the adminis-
tration of the country. Ex-Congressman, several times Supervisor of
Finances, ex-Grand Master of the Masonic Order in Haiti, he is one of
the most reliable and most competent lawyers of the bar of Port au
Prince.







Roberts, Dutton & Co.


La firme, Roberts, Dutton & Cie., a 6t& 6tablie il y a
plus que trente ans par Monsieur Henry E. Roberts et
Monsieur E. L. Dutton, deux jeunes Anglais qui avait
choisi Aux Cayes, le port principal du sud d'Haiti, comme
la place la plus favorable pour leur commerce d'Importation
et d'Exportation en gin6ral.
La preuve de leur prevoyance, sagesse commercial et
strict attention aux affaires se voit actuellement dans le
fait que la firme de Roberts, Dutton & Cie., est parvenue a
&tre une des plus importantes maisons de Banque et de
Commerce de la R6publique d'Haiti.
Cette firme a agie h Aux Cayes comme filiale de la Banque
National d'Haiti depuis l'ann6e 1887 jusqu'h ce que la
Banque s'est install6e dans
ses propres bAtiments en
1895.
En 1887, le comit6 de
Lloyds a commissioner
Roberts, Dutton & Cie.
leur Agent en Haiti, et la
firme tient encore cette
tris important Repr6sen-
tation et en 1889 la "Ham-
burg-American Steamship
Line" leur a confi6 sa
representation, laquelle ils
ont tenu jusqu'au com-
mencement de la grande
guerre.
En 1893 la firme a ouverte
une succursale A Aquin et a
construite pendant la meme
ann6e une usine pour
wonder le cafie Cavaillon,
afin de le preparer pour
l'exportation. En 1903 la
firme a ouverte une autre
succursale a Jer6mie et a
construite une usine a Anse
d'Hainault pour monder le
cacao, laquelle a cause un
accroissement considerable
dans ses affaires.
En 1902, la firme a
ouverte la maison de Port-
au-Prince et les bureaux
principaux ont 6t6 6tablis
en cette ville sous la super-
vision directed de Monsieur
Henry E. Roberts avec la
collaboration de plusieurs
de ses principaux employes. MR. HEN
En 1906 la firme a souf-
ferte la perte d'un de ses
associ&s originels, Monsieur Dutton.
En plus de son commerce immense en Importation et
Exportation, la firme manipule une grande quantity
d'affaires de banque et change stranger, pour son b6nefice
aussi bien que pour le b6nefice de ses nombreux clients
locals et strangers. Ses importations principles con-
sistent en marchandises seches et tissus et de products
alimentaires de toutes esp&ces, pendant que ses Expor-
tations consistent principalement de cafe, cacao, coton,
peaux, miel, bois de teinture, etc.
La firme repr6sente diff6rentes Fabriques et Maisons
Commerciales Am6ricaines, Anglaises et Frangaises et est
I'Agent de la "Royal Mail Steam Packet Company" et de la
"Panama R. R. & S. S. Company" A Aux Cayes et est
l'Agent principal pour les "Munson Steamship Lines" a
Port-au-Prince.
Monsieur Henry E. Roberts 6tait pendant bien des
Ann6es Agent consulaire pour l'Angleterre et les Etats-
Unis et actuellement il est Consul A Port-au-Prince pour la
Suede et la Norvege.


RY E


The firm of Roberts, Dutton and Company was estab-
lished more than thirty years ago by Mr. Henry E. Roberts
and Mr. E. L. Dutton, two young Englishmen, who
selected Aux Cayes, the principal Port on the south coast
of Haiti, as the best place to open their General Import
and Export business.
The proof of their far-sightedness, commercial sagacity
and strict attention to business, is seen today in the fact that
the firm of Roberts, Dutton & Co. has risen to be one of the
most important commercial and banking houses in the
entire Republic of Haiti.
This firm acted as branch of the National Bank of Haiti
from 1887 until the bank installed its own building in
1895, in Aux Cayes. The
Committee of Lloyds ap-
pointed Roberts, Dutton
& Co. their Agents in
Haiti, in 1887, and the
firm still holds this most
important representation.
In 1889 the Hamburg-
American Steamship Line
intrusted to them their
agency and it was held
until the beginning of the
World War.
In 1893 the firm opened
a branch house in Aquin
and built a coffee cleaning
plant at Cavaillon the same
year, for the preparation of
coffee for shipping. In
1903 the firm opened an-
other branch in Jeremie
and built a cacao cleaning
plant at Anse d'Hainault,
which increased their busi-
ness greatly.
The Port-au-Princehouse
was opened and the head
offices established there in
the year 1902, under the
direct supervision of Mr.
Henry E. Roberts and the
collaboration of some of the
principal employees.
The firm suffered the
loss of one of the original
partners, Mr. Dutton, in
1906.
In addition to its im-
.ROBERTS mense import and export
business the firm now
handles a great deal of
Banking and Foreign Exchange, for their own benefit as
well as for the benefit of their numerous local and foreign
customers. Their principal imports are dry goods of all
kinds and food stuffs of every description, while their
exports are mainly coffee, cacao, cotton, dye woods, hides,
honey, etc.
They represent various American, English and Frencf
factories and commercial houses and are agents for the
Royal Mail Steam Packet. Company and for th(
Panama R. R. & S. S. Company, at Aux Cayes
and general agents for the Munson Steamship Lines al
Port-au-Prince.
In Aux Cayes, Mr. Henry E. Roberts was foi
many years both English and American Consul, anc
at present he is Consul, at Port-au-Prince for Sweden anc
Norway.
Mr. Roberts now makes his home in the City of Port
au-Prince, in order to be near the headquarter offices o
the company, where he has a charming home and belong
to the principal business and social clubs.







Joseph Carre


Mr. Joseph Carr6, D6put&-Capitaine du Port, de
Port au Prince, est n6 le 7 Mars 1893 A Port au Prince.
Son pere 6tait Mr. Clement Carr6, un important com-
mergant de la ville de Port au Prince. C'est a Port
au Prince que Joseph Carri a recu son education.
Apres avoir fini ses etudes au CollAge S6minaire, il
commenta sa carriere dans une maison de commerce;
bient6t apris il fut employ& du Gouvernement A la
Douane oi' actuellement il occupe les int6ressantes
functions de Dipute Capitaine du Port. II s'est tou-
jours montr6 un jeune home tres ,,,.lli. ,.r et
actif et a su inspire de la confiance A ses chefs. II
est mari6 depuis le 11 juin 1908. date A laquelle il a
6pous6 Mlle. Th6rese Desriviere. II parole Anglais et
Francais.


Mr. Joseph Carr6, Deputy Captain of the Port of
Port-au-Prince, was born on March 7, 1893, at Port
au Prince. His father was Cl6ment Carr6, a prom-
inent merchant of Port-au-Prince. Joseph Carre
received his education at Port-au-Prince. After hav-
ing graduated from the college Seminaire, he began
his career as an employee of a commercial concern,
but shortly afterwards, he became a Government
employee at the Custom house. At present he is
holding the interesting position of Deputy Captain
of the Port. He is a young man of great intelligence
and activity, who has the entire confidence of his
superiors. Mr. Joseph Carri, married Miss Th6rese
Desriviere on June 11, 1918. He speaks French and
English.


JOSEPH CARE


Thomas Price est n6 A Port au Prince en
1867, fils de Mr. et Mme. Chenier Price.
II fit son education A Brooklyn (New York)
et est diploma de l'Institut Pratt de cette
ville. Il est ing6nieur civil et dirigea pen-
dant quelque temps le Service Hydraulique
de la ville de Port au Prince, actuellement
il est Ing6nieur du Gouvernement. L'ex-
cellent ing6nieur parole plusieurs langues:
Frangais, Anglais, Espagnol et Italien. II
est un ancien Prbsident du Cercle Cath-
olique. Price s'est marie en 1896 avec Mile.
Delinois. De cette union sont issues dix
enfants.


Thomas Price


THOMAS PRICE


Born in 1867 at Port-au-Prince. Mr.
Thomas Price is a son of Mr. and Mrs.
Chenier Price. He was educated at Brook-
lyn (New York), where he graduated as a
civil engineer from the Pratt Institute.
He was in charge of the Hydraulic Service
of Port-au-Prince for some time and is em-
ployed at present by the Haytian Govern-
ment as Civil Engineer. He speaks French,
English, Spanish and Italian fluently. He
has the reputation of being a competent
and excellent engineer. He married in 1896
Miss Delinois from Port-au-Prince and has
ten children. Mr. Price was at one time
president of the Catholic Circle at Port-au-
Prince.


Dr. Lamartine Camille


Un des m6decins les plus recherch6s A Port-au-
Prince est sans doute, Mr. le Docteur Lamartine
Camille. II est nA A Port-au-Prince en 1873, fils de
Mr. et Mme. Th6mistocle Camille. II a fait ses
etudes A Port-au-Prince o6 il a aussi regu son dipl6me
de Docteur en m6decine. Docteur Camille a une
connaissance profonde en chirurgie et son habilet6
est reconnue par toute personnel qui a Aet trait6e par
lui. II s'est mariA en 1895 et est aujourd'hui pere
de six enfants: quatre gargons et deux filles. II est
ancien D6put6 du Corps L6gislatif et professeur A
l'Ecole Nationale de Medecine. Son cabinet se
trouve au No. 236, Rue Republicaine; consultations:
3 A 5 p. m.


One of the most prominent surgeons at Port-au-
Prince is without doubt, Doctor Lamartine Camille.
He was born at Port-au-Prince in 1873 and is a son
of Mr. and Mrs. Themistocles Camille. He received
his education at Port-au-Prince where he also gradu-
ated as surgeon. Dr. Camille has a great knowledge
of surgery and is appreciated as a skilled doctor by
anybody having required his services. He married
in 1895 and is father of six children: four boys and
two girls. He is a former member of Congress and is
also professor of the National Medical School. His
offices are at 236, Rue R6publicaine and his office
hours are from 3 to 5 p. m.


DR. LAMARTINE CAMILLE


Mme. J. Jolibois Fils


Etablie depuis 1915 A la rue Traversiere,
No. 325, cette maison imported des provisions
Americaines de toutes sortes, de la quincail-
lerie, mercerie, etc., des Etats-Unis, d'Europe
et d'Asie. Adresse t6l6graphique: "Jolibois."
Les codes en usage sont A B C, 5 eme Edition
et Lieber. Le grant de la maison est Mr.
Jolibois fils. Elle emploie 8 commis et 6
agents en province. Repr6sentant de maisons
itrangeres des Etats Unis, elle accepterait
d'autres representations s6rieuses.
C'est une maison recommandable A tous
les points de vue et ses ventes se font g6nerale-
ment au comptant. Elle peut 6galement
offrir les meilleures rffirences.


Established since 1915 at Traversiere
Street No. 325, this house imports all sorts of
American provisions, hardware, hosiery, etc.,
from United States, Europe and Asia. Codes
in use: Cable address: "Jolibois." A. B. C.
5th Edition and Lieber. The manager of
the house is Mr. Jolibois fils. It employs 8
clerks and 6 agents in the country. Repre-
senting foreign firms of the United States, it
would accept other first class representations.
Best of references given.
It is a reliable house at all points of view
and its sales are generally made for cash.


M. J. JOLIBOIS FILS







George A. Payne


Ing6nieur-Entrepreneur-Constructeur

Monsieur George A. Payne est le plus vieux et le mieux connu des
Ing6nieurs, Entrepreneurs et Constructeurs strangers en Haiti; In-
genieur notable de nationality Anglaise, il est venu en Haiti il-y-a
quelques ann6es de la Jamaique, afin de dediquer sa grande experience
et science comme Ingenieur dans les tropiques pour l'am6lioration de
la R6publique d'Haiti.
Monsieur Payne s'est fixer a Port-au-Prince ofi il a ouvert ses bureaux
et construit un important atelier de machine, en conjunction avec le
grand nombre de travaux confines a lui.
Dans ces ateliers, unique dans la Republique, Monsieur Payne,
execute beaucoup et differents travaux necessaire dans ses entreprises
et constructions, a lui meme comme pour le Public.


Engineer-Contractor-Builder

The oldest established and best known of the foreign engineers,
contractors and builders in Haiti is Mr. George A. Payne, an English
Engineer of note and ability, who came to Haiti some years ago from
Jamaica, to dedicate his great experience and knowledge in tropical
engineering to the improvement and upbuilding of the Republic of
Haiti.
Mr. Payne settled in Port-au-Prince, where he opened his offices,
and built a large machine shop, as aids to the numerous works that
were and are intrusted to him.
In these general shops, the only ones of their class in the Republic,
Mr. Payne executes much work, for his own contracts and buildings,
as well as for the public. Some of the best buildings of the entire Re-


I I


Systemes d'Irrigation, Batiments et Construction de Route.


Plusieurs des plus beaux bAtiments de la R6publique entire, doivent
leures constructions a Monsieur Payne et sa force de m6canicien et
constructeurs.
A present il donne son entire attention A la construction des sys-
tames d'Irrigation et execute beaucoup de travaux similaire pour des
hommes particulier aussi bien que pour le Gouvernement.
Monsieur Payne croit fermement dans un grand avenir pour Haiti et
il a invest de forts capitaux dans des propri6tes en vue de l'avancement
prochain du Pays.
Monsieur Payne fournit avec plaisir toutes informations a qui que
soit int6resser en placements de capitaux, construction et n'importe
quelles sortes d'entreprises dans la R6publique d'Haiti. Adresse:
GEo. A. Payne, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.


Irrigation Plants, Buildings and Road Construction.


public owe their construction to Mr. Payne and his force of mechanic
and builders.
He is at present giving special attention to the building of irrigatio
systems and is doing a great deal of work for private individuals a
well as for the Government along these lines.
Mr. Payne is a great believer in the future of Haiti and has invested,
heavily in properties looking to future advances. Any information
regarding investments, construction, engineering and building in an
part of the Republic, will be cheerfully furnished. Special Engineer'
Reports will be made on undeveloped natural resources, such as wate
powers, irrigation plants, agricultural lands and other possibilities fc
investment.
Address: Geo. A. Payne, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.






Chas. A. Raven


Monsieur Charles A. Raven, 6tabli rue du Maga-
sin de l'Etat No. 1718, est agent general de la
"European and Far Eastern Sales Co., Inc.,"(Lord's
Court Building), 27 William Street, New York.
Elle fait des affaires en marchandises seches de
toutes sortes, tissus, dentelles, broderies en soie,
fil et coton, provisions ali-
mentaires, ferraille, quin- .
caillerie, verrerie, faience
et porcelaine, bonneterie,
mercerie, etc., etc. Elle ,;
imported aussi aux Etats-
Unis les denr6es des pays
tropicaux.
Elle vend au comptant
et a credit et elle possede '
des repr6sentants voyag-
ant pour son compete et
residant dans toutes les
Antilles et ailleurs.
Monsieur Charles A.
Raven qui s'est 6tabli ici
depuis cinq mois, venant
de Mexico et de Cuba, a
fait de grandes affaires
avec les commergants de
la place et d'autres villes
de la Republique. Ses cli-


ents ne peuvent trouver CHAS.
ailleurs de meilleures con-
ditions d'achats. Sa chambre d'6chantillons,
situee rue du Magasin de l'Etat No. 1718 est visit6e
par de nombreux marchands qui viennent s'appro-
visionner de marchandises, par son interm6diaire,
a la "European Far Eastern Sales Co., Inc." de
New York.
Mr. Charles A. Raven, pere de onze fils, se
trouve aujourdhui uni a sa famille qui est venue
r6sider en cette Republique. Son spouse est
V6n6zuelienne, n6e A Caracas, fille du grand finan-
cier bien connu Seiior Don Adolfo Herrera, ex-
Directeur de la Banque de Venezuela et admini-
strateur des biens de l'ex-Pr6sident Mr. le ge6nral
Cipriano Castro.
Personnellement, Monsieur Charles A. Raven
est un homme amiable, poli et courtois, accueillant
toujours avec un sourire de bienveillance tous
ceux qui s'adressent a lui. Aussi, il jouit, depuis
son arrive ici, de la sympathie de tout le
monde et voit ses affaires croitre et prosperer
chaque jour advantage.


A. R.


Mr. Chas. A. Raven has established himself at
No. 1718 Magasin de 1'Etat Street, in Port au
Prince, as Representative of and General Agent for
the "European and Far Eastern Sales Co., Inc.,"
of 27 William Street, (Lord's Court Building),
New York City. This great "Sales Company,"
as its name indicates,
--* does a world-wide business
but concentrates on com-
merce in the Latin-Ameri-
cas and the Far East hand-
ling all kinds of dry goods,
woven stuffs, laces, em-
broideries, threads,
hosiery, millinery, provi-
3 sions, hardware, glassware,
crockery, earthenware,
porcelains, novelties of all
kinds, etc., etc.
The appointment of Mr.
Raven as their Represent-
ative and General Agent
for Haiti was a good stroke
of business for the firm, as
Mr. Raven has already
shown his great intelli-
gence, activity and busi-
ness sagacity, during the
AVEN six months since he estab-
lished himself by securing
large orders from the best commercial houses and
by making a host of friends for himself and for
his company which insures future orders and
greater business.
In addition to being a first class business man,
Mr. Raven is also a social addition to the select
society of Port au Prince. He is in every sense a
"Roosevelt" man; having a charming family of
eleven children, now being trained and educated
to follow the good examples set by their father
and mother.
Mrs. Raven was one of the society belles of
Caracas, Venezuela, daughter of the well known
banker and financier, Don Adolfo Herrera, ex-
manager of the Bank of Venezuela and actual
administrator of the great estates of Venezuela's
ex-President, Cipriano Castro.
Mr. Raven is very much enthused about the
great commercial future of Haiti and is laying for
himself and the Company he represents a solid
foundation for large business in the coming years.







J. D. Maxwell


Repr6sentant de Manufacturiers

Port-au-Prince
Haiti

Monsieur J. D. Maxwell
don't la photos apparait a cette
page fait un grand travail en
Haiti avec quarter general et
bureaux a Port au Prince, rep-
r6sentant des manufacturers
Americains.
Il reprbsente des firmes bien
connue comme Austin Nichols
& Cie. de Brooklyn, N. Y.;
Rafael Castillio & Cie., 24 State
Street, New York City; La
Ro yal Typewriter Cie., 364
Broadway, New York City; et
la Burroughs Adding Machine
Cie, de Detroit, Mich., etc., etc.
Adresse J. D. Maxwell, 1613
Rue du Centre, P. O. Box 322,
Port au Prince, Haiti.


J. D. MAXWELL


Manufacturers' Representative

Port-au-Prince
Haiti

Mr. J. D. Maxwell, whose
photograph appears on this page
is doing a great work in Hayti,
with headquarter office in Port
au Prince, introducing and rep-
resenting American manufac-
turers.
He represents such well known
concerns as Austin, Nichols &
Co. of Brooklyn, N. Y.; Rafael
Castillio & Co., of 24 State
Street, New York City; The
Royal Typewriter Co. of 364
Broadway, New York City and
The Burroughs Adding Machine
Co., of Detroit, Mich., etc., etc.
Address J. D. Maxwell, 1613
Rue du Centre, P. O. Box 322,
Port au Prince, Hayti.


The Royal Typewriter

Une Machine de Grandes Idses

Honneteti en construction.
Rapide et satisfaisante parce-que
entierement sup&rieure. "Com-
parez l'Ouvrage" alors les raisons.
A y e z une demonstration
"ROYAL."


La Machine A Addition Bur-
roughs multiple, soustrait, divise
et additionne des nombres beaucoup
plus rapidement, que le travail
peut 6tre fait avec plume ou crayon.
Et parce-que l'ouvrage est accom-
pli mecaniquement il est toujours
exacte, qui que se soit qui sait lire
des nombres peut op&rer une Bur-
roughs. En fait, sa simplicity
d'op6ration et sa durability en sont
deux traits en saillie.
La Compagnie des Machines a
Addition Burroughs a des bureaux
dans plus que 200 villes des Etats
Unis et Canada et il y a des Rep-
resentant de la Machine Burrough
dans les villes principles du monde
entier.
Burroughs Adding Machine Co.
Detroit, Michigan, U. S. A.


The Royal Typewriter

A Machine of Big Ideas


Honesty of construction. Speedy
and satisfactory because superior
throughout. "Compare the Work"
then the reasons.
Have a "ROYAL" demonstration.


Burroughs Adding Machines
multiply, subtract, divide and add
figures much faster than the work
can be done with pen or pencil.
And because the work is done me-
chanically it is always accurate.

Anyone who can read figures can
operate a Burroughs. In fact,
simplicity of operation and dur-
ability are two of its outstanding
features.

The Burroughs Adding Machine
Company has offices in over 200
cities of the United States and
Canada and there are representa-
tives of Burroughs machines in the
principal cities of the world.

Burroughs Adding Machine Co.
Detroit, Michigan, U. S. A.







Joseph Eugene Maximilien


N6 5 Jacmel le 7 novembre 1875, il fit ses etudes pri-
maires chez les freres de l'Instruction Chr6tienne et au
Lyc6e de Jacmel. II les continue A Port au Prince au
college fond6 par Messrs. Miguel Boom et Ducis Viard.
II fut ensuite envoy par ses parents A Paris of, au college
Chaptal, il les acheva.
Entrb A 1'Ecole Sp6ciale et G6n6rale d'Architecture de
Paris, apris le cycle des 6tudes, il sortit avec le dipl6me
de l'6cole. I1 fit parties de l'atelier Gaston Frelat, travailla
A I'agence national des Ponts et Chauss6es de Paris sous la
direction de l'ing6nieur Faur6 Dujaric. Apres avoir trav-
aill6 sous les ordres de plusieurs ing6nieurs et architects de


Born in Jacmel, on the 7th of November, 1875, he made
his primary studies at the Brothers of Christian Instruc-
tion and the Lyceum of Jacmel. He continued them at
Port au Prince at the college founded by Messrs. Miguel
Boom and Ducis Viard. He was sent afterwards by his
parents to Paris, where at the Chaptal College, he com-
pleted them.
Entered at the Special and General School of Architec-
ture of Paris, after the cycle of studies, he graduated with
the diploma of the school. He belonged to the working
room Gaston Fr6lat, worked at the National Agency of
Bridges and Roads of Paris under the direction of the engi-


Monsieur J. E. Maximilien et plusieurs de ses oeuvres. Mr. J. E. Maximilien and some of his works. The lower
La Vue en has est la route de Miragoane en 6tat de con- view is of the MiragoAne Highway, under construction.
struction.


Paris, il rentra A Port au Prince en 1897 of il fut nomm6
membre du Service Technique du D6partement des Travaux
Publics.
En 1901, il fit parties de la commission mixte Haitiano-
Dominicaine charge de fixer les frontieres des deux R6pu-
bliques, mais les divergences de vue entire les commissaires
Haitiens et Dominicains contrarierent les travaux de cette
commission. En 1912, il fut nomm6 inspecteur g6enral
des chemins de fer de la R6publique et est actuellement A
la t&te de la section sud-ouest du service de la grande voie
rurale. A c6t6 de cet 6tat de services administratifs, il a
toujours eu une forte clientele priv6e qui lui a permis tant
A Port au Prince qu'a Jacmel de construire un grand nombre
de villas et de maisons de commerce.


neer, Faur6 Dujaric. After having worked under the
orders of several architects and engineers of Paris, he re-
turned to Port au Prince in 1897 where he was appointed
member of the Technical Service of the Department of
Public Works. In 1901, he belonged to the joint Commis-
sion Haytiano-Dominican appointed to fix the boundaries
of the two Republics, but differences of opinion between
the Haytian and Dominican commissaries interfered with
the works of that commission. In 1912, he was named
general inspector of the railroads of the Republic and is now
at the head of the South-Western section of the service of the
rural roads. Besides those administrative services, he has
always a great many private customers for which he built a
great number of cottages and business houses.


-. ---.- ,. .- 'Ii i
1" .






Antoine Laforest


Antoine Laforest naquit a Jer6mie en Aoft 1871 de l'ain6e
des filles du v6nerable Alain C16rie et de Monsieur Pition
Laforest, un excellent instituteur. Nature ardente, intelli-
gence primesautiere, il ne s'attarda pas longtemps a l'6cole.
A seize ans, il apprit l'art du typographe, et aide d'un de ses
oncles, acheta une Imprimerie qu'il dirigea pendant
quelque temps. Mais son temperament ne pouvait s'ac-
commoder de ce travail s6dentaire, il s'embarqua sur un
voilier comme subr&cargue et fit le commerce du cabotage
entire les ports du Sud et ceux du Nord et du Nord Ouest.
En 1888, Mr. St. Lucien Hector,
un philanthrope du Cap Haitien,
ayant mis au concours une dis-
sertation sur les bienfaits du travail
et son influence moralisatrice,
Antoine Laforest l'emporta de haute
lutte sur tous ses concurrents et son
6tude fut mise en brochure et dis-
tribu6e dans tout le Pays.
En 1889, La Revolution du Nord
ayant triomph6e, il fut choisi comme
secritaire intime par un des premiers
secretaires d'Etat de l'Interieur I
d'Hyppolite, Mr. St. Martin Dupuy.
Chef de bureau h l'Administration
des Finances de J6r6mie, il fut en-
suite Inspecteur des Ecoles. 11
fonda, vers cette meme &poque, le
journal "La Presse" qu'il continue
d'6diter juqu'en 1900 oii il fut
oblige de partir pour l'exil. I1 reprit
le journal en 1902. ANTOINI
En 1903, il fut nomm6 Consul
d'Haiti A Kingston. Oblig6 de se d6mettre, il rentra
dans le Pays A la fin de 1904 et en 1905, il aida Mr.
Fr6deric Marcelin a fonder la revue "Haiti Litt&raire et
Politique." Mr. Marcelin nomme Ministre des Finances
abandonna la proprit6i du journal. En 1911, il fut &lu
D6put6 de la Commune de Corail, en 1914, Directeur de
la Douane de J6r6mie.
Antoine Laforest a beaucoup ecrit. Ayant constamment
exerc6 la profession de journalist, il a en outre public
plusieurs livres parmi lesquels il convient de citer: "Courte
Pointss" "Impressions de la Jamaique," "Annuaire
Statistique de la R6publique d'Haiti," etc.
Des l'arriv6e en Haiti de la Compagnie Biographique,
elle s'attacha Antoine Laforest qui s'y consacra avec
enthousiasme. La mort le surprit en pleine activity pour le
"Livre Bleu" qui se devait bien de consacrer un souvenir
reconnaissant A sa m6moire.
T. A. V.


E LA


Antoine Laforest was born in Jeremie in August, 1871, of
the eldest daughter of the venerable Alain Clerie and Mr.
Petion Laforest, an excellent teacher. Being of an ardent
nature and keen intelligence, he did not remain long in
school. At the age of 16, he learned the art of typography
and assisted by one of his uncles, bought a printing house
which he managed for some time. But his temperament
could not get used to this sedentary work, so he engaged
himself on board a sailing boat and went trading along
the coast, between the ports of the South and those of
the North and North West.
In 1888, Mr. St. Lucien Hector, a
philanthropist of Cape Hayti, opened
a contest for a dissertation upon the
benefit of working and its moralizing
influence. Antoine Laforest's dis-
sertation was by far the best and his
study was put in pamphlet form and
Distributed throughout the country.
In 1889, the Revolution of the
North having triumphed, he was
appointed private secretary to one
of the first Ministers of Interior of
Hyppolite, Mr. St. Martin Dupuy.
Office Manager at the Adminis-
tration of Finance of J6r6mie, he be-
came afterwards Inspector of
Schools. About the same time he
founded the paper "The Press"
of which he continued to be
the editor until 1900 when he was
FOREST exiled. He resumed the editorship
in 1902.
In 1903, he was named Consul of Hayti in Jamaica.
Obliged to resign he returned to the country at the end of
1904 and in 1905; he assisted Mr. Frid6ric Marcelin in the
foundation of the Review "Haiti Litt6raire et Politique."
Mr. Marcelin, appointed Minister of Finances, left the
ownership of the paper to him. In 1911, he was elected
deputy of the Commune of Corail; in 1914, Director of the
Custom House of J&rimie.
Antoine Laforest has written much. Having constantly
exercised the profession of journalist, he has, moreover,
published several books among which may be mentioned:
"Courte Pointes," "Impressions de la Jamdique," "Annu-
aire Statistique de la R6publique d'Haiti," etc.
Since the arrival in Hayti of the Biographic Company, he
became attached to it and devoted himself with enthusiasm
to the work. He died very suddenly in full activity and
the "Blue Book" holds him in grateful memory.
T. A. V.






Thos. A. Vilmenay


Thos. A. Vilmenay naquit h Port au Prince le 6 D6cem-
bre 1874, d'Arthur Vilmenay et Anna Phillips.
Apris avoir fait de brillantes 6tudes a Saint Louis de
Gonzague, son pere l'envoya A New York pour apprendre
l'Anglais et se familiariser avec la pratique des affaires.
Vilmenay entra dans l'importante maison Hoheb & Jul-
ien. Il en sortit en 1895 avec une connaissance parfaite de
l'Anglais, une experience intime des affaires Am6ricaines
et des proc6des commerciaux les plus usit6s aux Etats Unis.
A sa rentr6e en Haiti, son oncle Phillips et son oncle
d'alliance Mr. Fleurville Laforest occupaient a cette &poque
de brillantes situations dans le commerce de Port au Prince,
Vilmenay fut lanc6 par eux.
Malheureusement cette p6riode fut celle des 7 vaches
grasses pour Haiti. La prosp6rit6 inouie des affaires devait
avoir un lendemain fatal. Des
banques et des commissionnaires
de France firent faillite et le com-
merce Haitien en regut des attein-
tes profondes don't il ne se releva
jamais tout A fait. La maison
Phillips fut parmi les maisons frap-
pees. Vilmenay alors ouvrit avec
son frere Edgar une maison d'im-
portations Americaines. Malgre
leur experience et leurs efforts, les i
6venements politiques, l'instabilit6
des conditions mon&taires emportai- L'*
ent leur magasin.
Thos. A. Vilmenay se r6fugia
alors dans le commerce des lettres
et le journalism. Il y fit ses
debuts vers 1904 avec Clement
Magloire qui dirigeait alors le jour-
nal "Le Moment". Vilmenay se
fit tout de suite remarquer par sa
prose somptueuse, sa fougue lyrique
sa franchise sans frein, et A ses jours
d'6motion ou de bonne humeur,
par la teinte de mysticisme Amer-
icaine et d'humour Anglais qui lui T. A.
6taient rests d'une 6tude fervente
de la litterature Anglaise des deux
hemispheres. En 1906, il fonda "L'Actualite" un journal
politique don't le style impeccable fit la joie des lettr6s,
mais don't la rudesse impitoyable fit la terreur des intrigants
politiques. Il en r6sulta des querelles retentissantes qu'il
soutint avec la bravoure et l'implacabilit& qu'il a toujours
apport6es dans la defense de ses convictions.
Le President Nord Alexis qui aimait ces temperament
enflamm6s et ces esprits inflexibles dans leurs croyances,
s'eprit de ce journalist qu'il avait d'ailleurs connu enfant.
II l'encouragea de toute fagon, et quand mourut Oswald Du-
rand, le plus illustre des hommes de lettres Haitiens, il
titularisa Thomas Vilmenay a la charge de R6dacteur des
Actes officials du Gouvernement qui venait d'8tre ainsi
vacant. II fut elu d6put6 du Mirebalaisen janvier 1907.
A la chute du g6n6ral Nord Alexis, il dut s'exiler a la
Jamaique o6i il se cr6a de belles relations et obtint meme
ses entrees dans la press locale.
Rentr6 en Haiti en 1913, il reprit sa plume de journalist.
En 1915, son education Americaine le fit s'engager A fond
dans la bataille pour porter ses concitoyens A accepter
l'intervention Americaine et en profiter. Son activity
aux c6t6s de Mr. Charles Moravia, actuellement Ministre
d'Haiti A Washington et alors Directeur du journal "La
Plume" est inoubliable. II fut nomme Consul-G6n6ral
d'Haiti A Kingston. Les inimiti6s qu'il s'6tait attir6es
dans la Presse agirent alors activement centre lui. Et il
cessa d'8tre Consul le 27 Juillet 1917.
Aussit6t il fonda, malgr6 mille difficulties le journal
"L'Informateur Haitien", pour amener les relations 6con-
omiques les plus 6troites et un change intellectual profit-
able entire son pays et les Etats Unis.


VIL]


Thos. A. Vilmenay was born the 6th of December 1874,
son of Arthur Vilmenay and Anna Phillips, his father was
of French descent and his mother of Scotch descent. After
some brilliant studies at "St. Louis de Gonzague" his father,
who had been a laureate of the University of France under
the second Empire and was considered one of the most
cultured men of his time, sent him to New York in order
to study English and the American business methods.
Vilmenay was connected with the important New York
firm of "Hoheb and Julien" for two years and a half.
On his return to Hayti, his uncles, Phillips and Laforest
occupied prominent positions in the commerce of Port
au Prince and Vilmenay was launched into business by
them.
Several French banks and commission merchants failed
and the Haytian trade received in-
juries, from which it never recov-
ered entirely. The firm Phillips
was among the many stricken con-
cerns Vilmenay then formed part-
nership with his brother Edgar and
entered the Import and Export
business. But in spite of their
wide experience and efforts, the pol-
itical events and the instability of
monetary conditions engulfed their
business.
Thos. A. Vi!menay then took
to his pen and entered journalism.
He made his debut about 1904 in
collaboration with Clement Mag-
loire, the then editor of the news-
paper "Le Moment". Vilmenay
soon came into the public eye
through his sumptuous prose, his
lyrical passion and limitless sincer-
ity.
In 1906 he founded "L'Actualite"
a political newspaper, whose impec-
cable style was the joy of the liter-
MENAY ates, but whose unmerciful rude-
ness was the terror of the political
plotters. The result was, that he
always had resounding quarrels on hand which he fought
with the bravery and implacability, he always brought
in the defense of his convictions.
President Nord Alexis who loved those temperaments
and unbending spirits in their beliefs, took a liking to this
journalist whom he had known after all as a child. He
encouraged him in every way and when Oswald Durand,
the best known of all men of letters in Hayti died, he ap-
pointed Thomas Vilmenay, to succeed him, to the position
of Editor of the Official Acts of the Government. Vilme-
nay didn't remain there long; he was elected in January
1917, deputy in the Assembly for the district of Mirebalais.
After the downfall of General Nord Alexis, he was com-
pelled to exile and went to Jamaica where he created fine
relations and even found his way into the local press.
In 1913 he returned to Hayti and took again to his
pen of journalist. In 1915, when the intervention came,
his American education came to the fore and he engaged
thoroughly in the fight to win his fellow citizens over to
the American intervention and reap the profits thereof.
His activities, in assistance to Mr. Charles Moravia, the
actual Minister of Hayti at Washington and then Editor
of the paper "The Pen" is unforgettable. He was appointed
Haytian Consul General in Kingston, but the enmities
he had created while engaged in the Press started to act
actively against him and in July 1917 he resigned from office
as Consul.
In December of 1918 he founded and published in spite
of a thousand difficulties, the paper "The Haytian Adver-
tiser" in order to bring closer economic relations and a
profitable intellectual exchange between his country and
the United States,






Constantin Mayard


Constantin Mayard naquit A Port au Prince le 27 No-
vembre 1883 de Jean Loctamar Mayard et de Marie Claire
Rigaud, la petite-fille de ce general Andr6 Rigaud, qui,
en outre du role de premier ordre qu'il joua dans son pays
dans les luttes pour l'affranchissement de sa race et pour
l'egalite des classes A St. Domingue, fut encore parmi ces
affranchis qui, sous le comte d'Estaing, se couvrirent de
gloire A Savannah dans la guerre pour l'ind6pendance des
Etats Unis d'Am6rique.
Constantin Mayard fit ses 6tudes avec succes au Petit
Seminaire Collige St. Martial. Successivement employee de
commerce, employ d'administration, puis professeur dans
1'enseignement public aux debuts de sa carriere, il entra
en 1903 au Cabinet du President Nord Alexis comme em-
ploye r6dacteur et sous-chef de bureau. Il ne tarda pas
A se faire distinguer A cet emploi etil lui fut confi6 les services
les plus important. Vers 1907,
il fut nomm6 R6dacteur;des actes -
officiels du Gouvernement et
lui 6chut une part tres large dans
la direction m.me du Cabinet.
Sous le g6n&ral Antoine Simon,
il fit un peu de commerce et
s'adonna avec plus d'assiduit a .
cette culture des Lettres qui est
la grande passion de sa vie, car, ,
depuis 1901, il avait commence A
publier dans les revues litteraires:
La Ronde, la Revue Catholique,
la Bleuette, des posies d'une
forme tres recherche, mais d'une
inspiration profond6ment Hait-
ienne qui lui valurent les suff-
rages de tous les lettr6s du pays.
II fit aussi du journalism poli-
tique et collabora avec 6clat A
plusieurs journaux. Quand son
ami Clement Magloire fonda "Le
Matin", il lui donna tout son
concours et depuis il n'a jamais
cess6 de travailler dans ce quoti-
dien malgre les occupations des
hautes positions politiques qu'il
eut A d6tenir. II a 6galement
fond6 avec un autre de ses amis,
T. A. V., le signataire de cet
article, "l'Actualit6" et L'In-
formateur Haitien", deux jour- CONSTANTI
naux appr&ciis A leur valeur,
chacun A son 6poque.
En 1912, apres une des plus chaudes luttes 6lectorales
qu'on ait vues dans le Pays, I'autorit6 ayant decide de n'y
pas intervenir, Mayard fut ilu par 16,000 votants le premier
d6put6 de Port au Prince. I1 occupa une place tres brillante
dans cette 27Mme L6gislature, grace A son experience des
affaires administrative, A sa connaissance du Droit public
et de la jurisprudence parlementaire et grace surtout A
son 6norme capacity de travail. C'est A cette 6poque qu'il
publia dans "Le Matin" son Essai sur le Code Rural, un
livre tres remarqu6 et oAt 6taient continues en germe toutes
ses id6es de Reformes. C'est de cette epoque que parle
un des plus celbres pontes du pays 6galement, l'actuel
Ministre A Washington, Mr. Charles Moravia, quand,
dans sa dldicace d'un de ses recueils de vers A Mayard,
son plus intime ami, il dit: "Je sentais, au contact quotidien
de ta pensee vaillante ma foi en la possibility d'une rgen&e-
ration national, reprendre des forces nouvelles et nous
nous armions ensemble pour la supreme bataille."
Au terme de son mandate, il fut relu A la legislation
suivante, la 28eme. A partir de ce moment, son autorit6
ne fait que croitre dans le monde politique et sa popularity
s'6tend encore chaque jour dans le people. Son mandate est
alors marque par son project de Reforme Constitutionelle
presentW dans un magistral rapport a 1'Assemblee de revis-


IN I


Constantin Mayard was born November 27th, 1883 from
Mr. John Loctamar Mayard and Marie Claire Rigaud,
a grand daughter of General Andr6 Rigaud who, in addi-
tion to the great part that he played in his country, in
the fights for the freedom of his race and the equality of
the classes at Santo Domingo, was also among those emanci-
pated, who, under the command of Count d'Estaing,
covered themselves with glory at Savannah, in the war
for independence of the United States of America.
Constantin Mayard graduated with great success from
the College Petit Seminaire St. Martial. Successively com-
mercial clerk, clerk at the administration, then at the start
of his career, professor in the Public Instruction; in 1903 he
was admitted to the cabinet of President Nord Alexis as
editor and assistant manager of the office. He soon dis-
tinguished himself in that office and was trusted with
the most important duties.
At about 1907, he was appoint-
:, ed Editor of the Official Acts of
the Government, where he also
S shoulder a big part of the man-
S* agement of the Cabinet.
.; .1 Under General Antoine Simon,
he entered business and worked
assiduously in the culture of Let-
ters which is the great passion
-. of his life, because ever since
1901, he was writing for the fol-
lowing literary magazines: "la
Ronde", "la Revue Catholique",
"la Bleuette", poetries of a very
refined form, but of deep Haytian
inspiration, which brought him
the votes of all the lettered men
of the country.
He wrote also for political
papers and collaborated success-
fully to several newspapers.
When his friend Clement Mag-
loire founded "Le Matin" he gave
him his contribution and collabo-
ration and never ceased to work
for that daily paper, in spite of the
high political position, he had to
fill. He also founded with an-
other of his friends, T. A. V.,
the writer of this article "L'Ac-
IAYARD tualit6" and "The Haytian Ad-


vertiser", two newspapers which
were very much in favor for their value in their time.
In 1912, Mr. Mayard was elected by 16,000 voters, first
deputy of Port au Prince, after one of the hottest electoral
fights ever seen in the country, the authorities having
decided not to interfere in it. He soon made himself a
brilliant position in that 27th Legislature, thanks to his
experience in administrative affairs, to his knowledge of
the public Right and the parliamentary jurisprudence and
thanks chiefly to his great capacity of work. It was at
that time that he published in "Le Matin" his "Essay on
the Rural Code", a very remarkable book which contained
in germ all his ideas of reforms. At that period another
of the most famed poets of the country, Mr. Charles Mora-
via, the actual Minister at Washington, wrote, in his dedi-
cation of one of his collections of verses to Mayard, his most
intimate friend: "I felt, through the daily contact of the
valiant thought, my faith in the possibility of a national
regeneration, the gain of new strength and together we
were arming ourselves, for the supreme battle."
At the end of the mandate, he was reelected to the
following (28th) Legislature. From that time on, his
authority grew in the political world and his popularity
with the people extended every day. His mandate was
then marked by his project of constitutional Reform pre-
sented in a magisterial report to the revisional Assembly


Lnrr;r







Constantin Mayard


ion de 1914. II d6posa aussi un project de loi pour ouvrir
le MOle St. Nicholas aux activities 6trangeres afin, disait-il
"que le Pays ne continuat plus A vivre confine dans un
insolement sterile, afin que le monde civilis6 voyant Haiti
venir a lui, n'efit pas a intervenir en Haiti dans des condi-
tions qui feraient de cette intervention une catastrophe
pour la Nation."
Mayard ne tarda pas a devenir le President de la Cham-
bre des D6putes dans des conditions qui lui font le plus
grand honneur. Une majority& fit sa candidature a son
insu et apres un refus motive de cette dignity une premiere
fois, il fut, le mois suivant, elu a l'unanimit6, puis, a chaque
renouvellement du Bureau, r6l6u avec le meme enthous-
iasme de ses collogues. En pregnant pour la premiere fois
possession du siege de President, il d6clara, en s'appropriant
le mot de Lamartine qu'il voulait prendre son point d'appui
en dehors des parties existants, dans la conscience du Pays.
C'est 1A la formule caracteristique de toute sa brillante
carriere. Quand 6clat&rent les malheureux 6venements des
27 et 28 Juillet et que 1'intervention armbe de 1915 eut
suivi, Mayard, Pr6sident de la Chambre et Vice President
de l'Assembl6e Nationale, fut le personnage official avec
qui les agents Americains s'entretinrent, le President du
Senat, President de l'Assembl6e Nationale, actuellement
le Chef de l'Etat, ayant decide alors a cause de sa situation
de candidate, de garder une grande reserve. Comme bien
l'on pense, l'action de Constantin Mayard fut important
et decisive dans cette election et il fut nomme le premier
Ministre de l'Interieur du nouveau Gouvernement.
Ses adversaires, comme ses ennemis, s'accordent a
reconnaitre que, par sa popularity, son 6nergie intelligence
et son d6vouement au President Dartiguenave, il donna les
plus solides assises au Gouvernement et assura dans le
people l'acceptation de la Convention de 1915 et son vote
dans les Chambres. Apres avoir pris, au service de son
Gouvernement et de son pays, avec une ardeur de conviction
et une franchise d'allure et de propos, qui lui sont bien per-
sonnels, toutes les responsabilit6s qu'il y avait a prendre vis
a vis des diff6rents 6elments en presence, il d6missionna com-
me Ministre le 15 Mai, 1916.
Un an apres, en Mai 1917, les luttes tres Apres du Pouvoir
ayant fortifii et itendu sa popularity au lieu d'y avoir
nui, comme cela arrive, ordinairement, Mayard etait 6lu
le 2&me Senateur de la R6publique, a une tres forte major-
ite. II n'avait tout just que 35 ans. Quand arriva la
dissolution de cette 29%me Legislature, Mayard reprit
au Matin sa plume de journalist, il se jeta dans l'6tude
des questions sociales qui l'ont toujours s6duit, fit des
conferences, parla au people, institua des oeuvres de
mutuality et de solidarity populaire, r6p6tant que selon
lui, la solution du probleme est l plutet que dans la poli-
tique destructrice. 11 mene ainsi une quantity d'oeuvres
A la fois. Et c'est au milieu de toutes ces activities que
le manager du "Livre Bleu" alla lui demander son con-
cours. II le donna sans h6siter dans l'int6rft de son pays.
Le President Dartiguenave vient de lui donner une nou-
velle marque d'amiti6 et de confiance en le nommant
membre du Conseil d'Etat. Personne dans son pays n'a
occupy aussi jeune que Constantin Mayard une telle quan-
tite de hautes functions avec un si constant succ"s et un
mepris si vibrant des petites intrigues et des habiletes qui
amoindrissent. A l'heure actuelle, une seule pens6e le
domine: mettre d'accord les deux mentalit6s, Am6ricaine
et Haitienne pour faire obtenir A son pays les bienfaits de
I'intervention Am6ricaine, dans les limits d'une coop6ra-
tion sincere et veritable en sorte qu'Haiti, au lieu d'y rien
prendre, gagnera en prosp6rit6 materielle, tout en conserv-
ant ses droits de people, et cette part de civilisation Fran-
qaise don't elle est une des dbpositaires dans le Nouveau
Monde.


of 1914. He deposited also a project of law to open the
Mole St. Nicolas to foreign activities, in order to, he said:
"Help the country from living any further in that bare
isolation, and the civilized world seeing Hayti coming to
herself, should not have to intervene in Hayti in conditions
which would make of this intervention a catastrophe for
the Nation."
Mr. Mayard soon ascended to the Presidential Chair of
the Chamber of Deputies with great honor. A majority,
without his knowledge, put him up as a candidate but
after a first declination of acceptance to that dignified
office, he was, the following month, elected by unanimity
and then at every renewal of the office, he was reelected
with the same enthusiasm by his colleagues. The first
time when he took possession of the Presidential chair he
stated, appropriating the words of Lamartine that it was
his intention, to take his support outside of the existing
parties, in the conscience of the country. That is the
characteristic formula of his whole brilliant career. When
the unhappy events of the 27th and 28th of July burts out
and the armed intervention of 1915 had followed, Mayard,
President of the Chamber and Vice-President of the Na-
tional Assembly was the official authority, with whom the
American Agents consulted, because the President of the
Senate and President of the National Assembly, at present
the chief of the state had decided on account of his position
as candidate to stay in the background. As one can see,
the action of Mr. Constantin Mayard was important and
decisive in that election and he was appointed first Secre-
tary of State of the new Government.
His adversaries, as his enemies, agree to recognize that
on account of his popularity, his intelligent energy and his
devotion to President Dartiguenave, he gave a strong
foundation to the Government and assured the acceptation
of the Convention of 1915 by the people and its vote in
the chambers. After he had taken, at the service of his
country and Government, with an ardour of conviction
and a frankness of action and purpose which is character-
istic of him, all the responsibilities that there were to be
taken towards the various elements in presence, he resigned
as Minister of the 15th of May, 1916.
One year later, in May 1917, Mayard was elected, the
second senator of the Republic, by a very strong majority,
the bitter fights of the Powers, having strengthened and
extended his popularity, instead of harming it, as happens
ordinarily. He was then 35 years of age. After the dis-
solution of the 29th Legislature, Mayard turned again to
Journalism with "Le Matin"; he threw himself in the study
of social questions, which have always appealed to him,
gave lectures, spoke to the people, instituted works of
popular mutuality and solidarity, repeating that, accord-
ing to him, the solution of the problem was there rather
than in the destructive politics. Thus he carries on a
number of works at the same time. And it was in the
midst of all those activities that the manager of the "Blue
Book" went to ask him for his cooperation. President
Dartiguenave has just given him a new mark of friendship
and confidence by appointing him member of the Council
of State. Nobody in his country has occupied, as young
as Constantin Mayard, such a number of high positions
with such a constant success.
At the time being, only one thought dominates him,
to join the two mentalities, American and Haytian, to
obtain for his country the benefits of the American inter-
vention in the limits of a true and sincere cooperation, in
order that Hayti, instead of losing anything by it, will
gain in material prosperity and at the same time preserve
the rights of her people.






Louis
Est ne a Port au Prince le 20 Septembre 1865,
fit ses etudes a l'Ecole Polymathique et les acheva
au College Saint Martial. Il est licencie en Droit
de la Facult6 de Paris, fut plusieurs fois conten-
tieux du Gouvernement, de banques, etc. Jour-
naliste, porte, charge
d'affaires, ministry
d'Haiti A Santo Domin-
go, Secritaire d'Etat de
la Justice, de l'Instruc-
tion Publique, des Cul-
tes, des Travaux Pu-
blics, des Relations Ex-
terieures (3 fois) et tout
dernierement encore
Ministre des Finances.
II accepted toujours a
entrer dans le cabinet
en des circonstances dif-
ficiles.
C'est un des ecrivains
Haitiens les plus classi-
ques. Il semble avoir
renonci A la litt6rature
pour Ics compilations ari-
des de codes et de docu-
ments diplomatiques.
Voici, bri&vement, re-
sumte la belle carriere
qu'a parcouru Louis
Borno qui est un des
hommes politiques
d'Haiti, les plus aims,
les plus estimes, pour sa
franchise, sa correction
et son patriotism au
dessus de tout eloge.
18 90, Licencie en LOUIS
Droit de la Faculte de
Paris. 1891, Avocat du barreau de Port au Prince
ofi il milita activement jusqu'en 1899.
1891-1894, professor d'Economie politique, de
Droit Civil, de Droit International, de Droit Com-
mercial, a l'Ecole Nationale de Droit.
1899-1908 charge d'affaires, puis Envoye Extra-
ordinaire et Ministre Plenipotentiaire A Santo-
Domingo.
1908 Secretaire d'Etat des Relations Exterieures
et des Cultes.
1912-1914 Juge au Tribunal de Cassation.
D6cembre 1914-f6vrier 1915 Secr6taire d'Etat
des Relations Exterieures et de la Justice.
Aoit 1915-Mars 1917, Secr6taire d'Etat des
Relations Exterieures, de l'Instruction Publique,
des Cultes, des Travaux Publics.
Juin a Decembre 1918 Secretaire d'Etat des
Relations Exterieures, des Finances et du Com-
merce .
Mr. Louis Borno a reouvert son bureau d'avocat
Rue du Fort Per. II est l'avocat conseil de la
Royal Bank of Canada. II vient d'etre appele par
le President de la R6publique aux delicates
functions de Directeur de 1'Ecole Nationale de


B


Borno
Mr. Borno was born in Port au Prince on Sep-
tember 20, 1865. He received his primary educa-
tion at Polymathic School, going from there to St.
Martial College, from whence he graduated. He
is a Licentiate at Law of the University of Paris,
and has been counsel
several times for the
government, banks, and
other institutions,
Journalist, poet, Charg6
d'Affaires,Haytian Min-
ister to Santo Domingo,
Secretary of State for
Justice, Public Instruc-
tion, Cults, Public
SWork, Foreign Affairs
(three times) and lately
Minister of Finance. It
e is a matter of note, that
almost every time Mr.
SBorno entered the Cab-
"/ inet it was during a
serious crisis in the affairs
of the country.
As a classical scholar
and writer he is pre-emi-
nent in Hayti and has
compiled some valuable
codes and diplomatic
documents. Mr. Borno
is perhaps the best
known and most highly
respected man in the
political life of Hayti,
frankness and courage-
ness having won for him
the admiration of friends
ORNO and enemies alike, while
his patriotism is of the
highest order. The following is a brief review of
his remarkable career:
1890 Licentiate at Law of the Faculty of Paris.
1891 Lawyer of the Bar of Port au Prince, where
he worked actively until 1899.
1891-1894 Professor of Political Economy, Civil,
International and Commercial law in the National
School of Law.
1899-1908 Charge d'Affaires and afterwards En-
voy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Minister to
Santo Domingo.
1908 Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and
Cults.
1912-1914 Judge of the Supreme Court.
December 1914-February 1915, Secretary of
State for Foreign Affairs and Justice.
August 1915-March 1917, Secretary of State for
Foreign affairs, Public Instruction, Cults and
Public Works; until December, 1918, Secretary of
State for Foreign Affairs, Finance and Commerce.
He has reopened his office to resume the practice
of law and is counsel to the Royal Bank of Can-
ada. He has just been called (July, 1919) by
the President of the Republic to the important






Louis Borno


Droit de Port au Prince (juillet 1919). Mr.
Louis Borno est un des hommes les plus sympa-
thiques de Port au Prince, et nous pouvons
mime dire de la Republique entire. Dou6
d'un coeur sensible et g6nereux, il compatit A
toutes les infortunes.
Sa culture raffin6e, son
intelligence rare, son pa-
triotisme 6prouvI le
placent au premier rang
des plus hautes person-
nalit6s du pays.
On dit qu'il a le tem-
p6rament de son illustre
aleul Marc Borno don't
Ardouin, l'historien Hai-
tien, nous laisse le por-
trait ci-apres: Dans cette
page il est 6galement
question de Borgella
auquel Louis Borno se
rattache par sa mere:
"Lorsque Sonthonax
revint A Port au Prince,
en Novembre 1793 et
qu'il envoya Marc
Borno attaquer Logane,
soumi s aux Anglais,
Borgella fut de cette "
expedition. Toujours a
l'avant-garde avec les
gendarmes de sa com-
pagnie, il fut fait prison-
nier autour de cette ville,
avec quelques uns
d'eux, par sa temerit.
Des prisonniers ennemis
6tant aussi tombs au MADW
pouvoir de Marc Borno,
celui-ci proposal imm6diatement leur change qui
eut lieu. A cette occasion, Borgella fut fortement
r6primand6 par son commandant, pour sa valeur
imprudente en presence de l'ennemi; c'6tait pres-
qu'un eloge pour un jeune homme qui commengait
sa carriere militaire.
"Ce chef, d'un age plus avanc6 que la plupart
des combatants de cette epoque, etait lui-meme
d'une bravoure 6prouv6e; il savait appr6cier celle
de ses subordonn6s; il distingua Borgella A cause de
cette quality qu'il remarqua en lui.
"Lie d'amiti6 avec sa famille, ce fut un nouveau
motif pour lui de se l'attacher, de l'avoir constam-
ment dans sa soci6te, de le former A ses principles
s6veres de probity. Sous ce rapport, Marc Borno
6tait un homme de la trempe de Beauvais, dis-
tingu6 par sa conduite et par ses sentiments hono-
rables. Soumis a son chef, respectueux envers
celui en qui il reconnaissait des vertus, Borgella le
prit pour son module. Quand il parvint lui-meme
A un age avanci, il aimait A dire aux jeunes gens
employs aupris de lui, combien les principles de
Marc Borno exercerent une salutaire influence sur
toute sa vie militaire et politique.


AME


position of Director of the National School of
Law of Port au Prince. Mr. Borno is one of
the most congenial men in Port au Prince, one
might even say, in the entire republic. Polite
and kindly of manner, and benevolent of heart,
he is ever ready to sym-
pathize with and render
assistance to those in
misfortune. His refined
culture, rare intelligence
and proved patriotism
has placed him in the
front rank of the prom-
inent men of the coun-
try.
It is said of him that
k he has the character of
h his illustrious ancestor,
Marc Borno, of whom
the Haytian historian,
Ardouin, gives the fol-
lowing pen picture, and
also of Bargella, a rela-
tive of Louis Borno on
his mother's side:
"When Sonthonax
came back to Port au
Prince in November,
1793, he sent Marc
Borno at the head of
an expedition, of which
Bargella was a member,
to attack LUogine, sub-
missive to the English.
Always in the vanguard,
Bargella, owing to his
temerity, was taken
BORNO prisoner, together with
a number of his men.
Some of the enemy having been taken prisoners,
Marc Borno immediately arranged for an ex-
change, which was accepted. For his imprudent
valor in the face of the enemy Bargella was
severely reprimanded by his superior, but this was
looked upon as high praise for a young man who
had just started his military career.
Marc Borno, a man of more advanced age than
most military men of that time, and himself of
tested bravery, appreciated valor in any one of his
subordinates and immediately distinguished Bar-
gella.- His relationship was another reason for
advancing the young man and he attached him to
his personal service inculcating in him the severe
principles by which he himself, had become dis-
tinguished, for Marc Borno was a man of the stamp
of Beauvais. Submissive and respectful to his
Chief, Bargella took him for his model, and in
later years used to say that Marc Borno exercised
a salutary influence on his military and political
life."
As can be seen, Mr. Louis Borno has something
to live up to, and there is no doubt but that he
maintains the honor of the illustrious ancestors.







Georges Baussan

Architecte-Architect


Monsieur Georges Baussan est un des plus grands archi-
tectes de Port au Prince. Son pere est ex-s6nateur Baus-
san, un des hommes les plus remarquables de la Republique.
DiplOme de l'Ecole d'Architecture de Paris, il poss&de A
fond son m6tier. Au concours qui eut lieu pour la con-
struction du nouvel 6difice du Palais National, Monsieur


Mr. Georges Baussan is one of the most notable archi-
tects of Port au Prince. He is the son of ex-senator Baus-
son, one of the remarkable men of the Republic. Graduate
of the School of Architecture of Paris, he is a thorough
master of his profession. At the contest which took place
for the building of the new National Palace, Mr. Baussan


GEORGES BAUSSAN
Caserne-"DESSALINES"-Barracks
Oeuvres de Monsieur Georges Baussan, Architecte, Port-au-Prince, Haiti Works of Mr. Georges Baussan, Architect, Port-au-Prince, Haiti


Georges Baussan l'emporta sur tous les autres comp6titeurs.
II parle le Frangais et l'Anglais. Les heures de bureau
sont de 9 A midi et de 2 a 5. Monsieur Baussan, appartient
A tous les cercles de Port au Prince. C'est un homme d'une
courtoisie et d'un commerce fort agreables et il jouit de la
sympathie gen6rale tant A Port au Prince que dans les
autres villes de la Republique o6 il est fort populaire.


won the prize against all other competitors. He speaks
French and English. His office hours are from nine to
twelve and from two to five.
Mr. Baussan belongs to all the clubs of Port au Prince.
His courtesy and genial and sympathetic personality secure
his popularity in Port au Prince, as well as in the other
towns of the Republic.


PALAIS NATIONAL NATIONAL PALACE
Architecte-GEORGES BAUSSAN-Architect
Port-au-Prince, Haiti






I


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I


Vol:






Constantin Benoit
Secretaire d'Etat des Relations Exterieures et de la Justice


N6 aux Gonaives (Chef-lieu du Departement de l'Artib-
onite), le 4 Janvier 1876, de Pierre Henry L6o Benoit,
notaire, et de la dame Catherine Moore Grice de Baltimore
(U. S. A.), il fut orphelin de pore et mere avant 1'age de 3
ans. Sa famille fut ruinee par l'incendie du 17 Aoft 1879;
cependant ses parents firent des sacrifices pour lui donner
une bonne instruction et une education soign6e. II com-
menga ses etudes aux Gonaives, a l'Institution priv6e
de Monsieur Saint-Val REY et au Lyc6e National du
lieu, il les acheva A Port-au-Prince, au Seminaire Collage
Saint-Martial en 1896. Rentr6
aux Gonaives, il fut nomm6 pro-
fesseur de math6matiques au
Lyc6e et de Belles-Lettres A l1'cole
secondaire des demoiselles. II
suivit les course de l'Ecole Na-
tionale de Droit de Port-au- '
Prince pour en sortir avec le titre
de licenci6 en 1902; quoique in- .
scrit au Barreau des Gonaives de
1903 A 1908, il ne milita qu'au
Barreau de Port-au-Prince, ou il
sut, inspires par son activity, sa
morality, la confiance et la sym-
pathie A tous, s'attirer une bril-
lante clientele et se creer une place
distingu6e parmi ses confreres.
Son esprit d'initiative et d'or-
ganisation lui valut de presider
pendant plusieurs annees, le Cer-
cle Catholique de Port-au-Prince
qui eut son 6poque de splendeur;
Vice-President et un des fonda-
teurs de l'Union Catholique;
Membre du Conseil de Fabrique
de l'Eglise Cath6drale de Port-
au-Prince.
Inscrit au Barreau de Port-au-
Prince en 1908, il fut 6lu deux
fois Batonnier de l'Ordre des av-
ocats de Port-au-Prince.
Pendant qu'il faisait ses 6tudes
de Droit a Port-au-Prince, il fut
nomm6 professeur A l'Ecole sec-
ondaire de Gargons puis au Lyc&e
National; il travailla pros de deux
ans au Bureau de l'enregistre-
ment A la capital.
En 1906, il fut nomm6 pro- CONST
fesseur a l'Ecole Nationale de Secrtaire d'Eta
Droit ou il enseigna le Droit
Civil, le Droit Criminel et le
Droit administratif; en 1915 il fut promu Directeur du
dit 6tablissement; c'est de ce dernier poste qu'en 1918 (30
Septembre,) la haute confiance de S. E. le President d'Haiti
I'a 6levi6 la dignity de Secretaire d'Etat de la justice et
des Cultes; peu apres, en Novembre, le portefeuille des
Affaires 6traugeres lui fut confi6.
De sa sortie de Classe en 1896 jusqu'A son arrive au min-
istere, on peut dire que monsieur Constantin Benoit ne
s'est occupy que de l'enseignement et de l'exercice de sa
profession d'avocat.
La vie civil de Monsieur Constantin Benoit peut 8tre
offerte comme module aux g6nirations presentes et A
venir: inlassable labeur dans l'initiative personnelle; con-
fiance en soi et foi robuste en la religion maternelle.
Sa carriire politique vient de commencer: elle est toute
neuve; mais il s'agit de remarquer que les brillantes
qualit6s natives qui distinguaient M. BENOIT, ont telle-
ment conquis la confiance du chef de l'Etat, qu'il l'a ap-
pel6 au porte-feuille ministeriel le plus important de ce
jour: Celui des Affaires 6traugeres. Cette Haute dis-
tinction est tout A l'honneur de l'ex-Batonnier de l'Ordre
des avocats.


TIN
tions I


The son of Pierre Henry Leo Benoit, a notary, and
Catherine Moore Grice Benoit, of Baltimore, U. S. A.,
he was born in Gonaives, the principal town in the De-
partment of Artibonite, on January 4, 1876. Before he
was three years old he lost both father and mother. His
family was ruined by the great fire of August 17, 1879.
Relatives, however, made sacrifices to bring him up and
educate him. He began his studies in Gonaives at the
private school of Mr. St. Val Rey. later going to the Lycee
National. He finished his studies at the Saint Martial Sem-
inary at Port-au-Prince in 1896.
Returning to Gonaives, he was
appointed professor of mathemat-
ics at the Lycee and of belles-
lettres at the Girls' High School
(Ecole secondaire des demoiselles).
Pursuing a post-graduate course
in the Ecole National de Droit of
Port-au-Prince, he received the
degree of licentiate (bachelor of
laws), in 1902. Although a mem-
ber of the bar of Gonaives from
1903 to 1908, he never practiced
outside of Port-au-Prince where
his activity and character, his
confidence in and sympathy for
everybody, acquired for him a bril-
liant following and a distinguished
and enviable position among his
colleagues.
His spirit of initiative and his
Methods of organization won for
him the presidency of the Cercle
Catholique of Port-au-Prince, a
position he held for several years.
He was also one of the founders
and the vice-president of the
Union Catholique and a member
of the Fabric Committee of the
Cathedral of Port-au-Prince. He
became a member of the bar of
Port-au-Prince in 1908 and was
twice elected president of the
Corps of Barristers of the city.
He was still studying law in
Port-au-Prince when he received
his appointments as professor in
the Girls' High School and the
qBENOIT Lycee National. He was also
Extrieures et de la Justice employed for almost two years at
the Registration office (Bureau de
l'Enregistrement) of the capital.
In 1906, he became a professor at the National Law School
where he lectured on civil, criminal and administrative
law, later, in 1915, being promoted to the principalship of
the school. The high esteem in which he was held by his
Excellency, the President of Haiti, caused him to be raised
to the dignity of Secretary of Justice and Public Worship.
This was on September 30, 1918. In November of the
same year, the Portfolio of Foreign Affairs was entrusted
to his care.
Constantin Benoit's civic life might be offered as a model
for present and future generations. It consisted of un-
tiring labor, and showed personal initiative, self-confidence
and the firm belief in maternal religion. Aside from this
was his unapproachable honesty in the practice of his pro-
fession, modestly followed, but in which he was very suc-
cessful. His political career has just begun; it is practically
a new one. But there is in his favor his brilliant native
qualities, which have so acquired the confidence of the
President that he was called to the most important portfolio
of the day-Foreign Affairs. Such a high distinction re-
flects much credit on the former president of the Corps of
Barristers.






Monsieur Dantes Bellegarde
Ministre de l'Instruction publique et des Cultes


N6 a Port au Prince le 18 Mai 1877. Arriere-petit-fils,
par son pere, du general Jean Louis de Bellegarde, duc et
mar6chal de l'Empire de Faustin 1, et, par sa mere, de
Jacques Ignace Fresnel, fondateur de la Franc-Magon-
nerie d'Haiti. Appartient a une famille de professeurs:
Son pere, Louis Bellegarde, fut Directeur du Jardin Botan-
ique de l'Ecole Nationale de Medecine et a laiss6 sur la
flore haitieine, des notes pr6cieuses qui malheureusement,
n'ont pas 6t6 publi6es;-Sa grande tante, Madame Argen-
tine Bellegarde-Fourreau, une haitienne des plus re-
marquables par l'esprit et le coeur, dirigea pendant plusieurs
ann6es, le pensionnat National de demoiselles de Port-au
Prince; son Frere ain6, Winsoor Bellegarde ancien 61lve de
l'Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris, Ancien professeur de
Rh6torique au Lycee National
de Port au Prince, est au-
jourd'hui, Inspecteur g6n6ral
de l'Instruction publique, son
jeune frere, le Capitaine Cle-
ment Bellegarde, un brilliant
Officer, 6galement professeur
au Lyc6e, mourut primatur&-
ment alors qu'il commandait
la Compagnie d'Instruction
du Centenaire, qui devait
constituer le noyau de 1'
Arm6e Haitienne modernis6e.
Monsieur Dantes Belle-
garde fit ses 6tudes classiques
au Lyc6e National de Port au
Prince. Pourvudesonbaccal-
aureat es-lettres et es-sci-
ences, il voulut devenir
Ing6nieur; mais comme il n'y
avait pas alors en Haiti
d'Ecole de g6nie, il rentra en
1897 a l'Ecole de Droit d'ou >
il sortit trois ans apres, licen- '
ci6 en Droit. Commissionn6
Avocat en 1901 il se fit in- -
scrire au Barreau de Port au
Prince. II pref6ra toutefois A
la profession d'Avocat la car-
riere de l'enseignement. R-
p6titeur, puis professeur au
Lyc6e de Port au Prince, a
consacr6 a cet 6tablissement MONSIEUR DA:
les plus belles ann6es de sa Ministre de 'Instruct
vie. Il y professait la phil-
osophie, quand il fut appel6 en 1904, au poste de Chef de
Division au d6partement de l'Instruction publique, ou il
fitypreuve d'une tres grande activity sous le minister de
Monsieur Murville F&r6re: Il contribua pour une large
part a la creation du Lycee de J6r6mie et de l'Ecole mena-
gere Elie Dubois. Revoqu6 en 1906 par un Chef d'Etat
ombrageux, pour avoir essays de fonder une Soci6t6
d'6tudes sociales compose des plus hautes notabilit6s du
pays, il fut quelques temps apres nomm6 par le meme
gouvernement, revenue de son erreur, professeur de droit
civil a l'Ecole Nationale de Droit. L'activit6 de Monsieur
Bellegarde ne s'est pas seulement exerc6e au Lycie et a
l'ecole de Droit, II professa au College Louverture, etablisse
ment secondaire moderne; a l'institution de Madame
Auguste Paret, une Excellente Ecole secondaire de filles; a
1'Ecole des Sciences Appliqu6es, ou il occupa la chaire
d'6conomie industrielle et don't il est devenu l'un des
Administrateurs, Monsieur Bellegarde, qui est un chaud
partisan de l'Mducation populaire avait prelud6 a cette
brillante carriere universitaire en se faisant inscrire encore
tout jeune Lyc6en comme professeur non retribu6 A l'Ecole
de l'Association du Centenaire, ouverte aux ouvriers et aux
"Analphabets."
En 1911, Monsieur Bellegarde fut appel6 a la Banque
National de la R6publique d'Haiti comme sous Chef de


NTEi
ion i


Mr. Bellegarde was born in Port au Prince on May 18,
1877. He is a great grandson on his father's side of General
Jean Louis de Bellegarde, Duke and Marshal of the Empire
of Faustin I; on his mother's side of Jacque Ignace Fresnel,
the founder of Haitian masonry. He comes of a family of
scholars, his father, Louis Bellegarde was a director of the
National School of Medicine and of the Botanic Garden,
and at his death left unpublished some valuable notes on
the flowers of Haiti. His grand-aunt, Madame Argentine
Bellegarde Foureau was a Haitian woman of remarkable
intelligence who was for many years head of the Pensionat
National des Demoiselles (Girl's National Boarding School)
of Port au Prince; his elder brother, Windsor Bellegarde, a
former student of the Ecole Normale Superieure (Superior
Normal School) of Paris, was
Professor of Rhetoric in the
Lycee National of Port au
Prince, and at present is In-
spector of Public Instruction.
His younger brother, Captain
Clement Bellegarde, a bril-
liant officer, who was also a
professor at the Lycee, met
San untimely death while in
command of the Compagnie
d'Instruction du Centenaire
(Centenary Training Com-
r pany) which constituted the
nucleus of the modern Haitian
Army.
Mr. Dantes Bellegarde
received his education at the
Lycee National of Port-au
Prince, graduating as Bach-
elor of Law and Bachelor of
Science. He turned his mind
toward civil engineering, but
as there was not a school of
engineering in Haiti at that
time he entered a school of
law in 1897, from which he
graduated three years later,
and in 1901 was commis-
sioned a lawyer. He did not
follow the profession of law,
however, preferring to be a
S BELLEGARDE teacher. At first he was a
publique et des Cultes private tutor, but later be-
came a professor at the Lycee
of Port au Prince. To this institution Mr. Bellegarde
devoted the better part of his life, he being a teacher of
philosophy when called in 1904 to the post of Chief Clerk
at the Department of Public Instruction, and was very
active under the administration of Mr. Murville Ferere. He
contributed in a large measure to the creation of the Lycee
of Jeremie and to the Elie Dubois School of housekeeping
Discharged in 1906 by a suspicious President for attempting
to found a society for social studies, composed of the
leading men of the country, he was shortly after cleared of
suspicion and appointed by the same government as a
professor of Civil Law at the National School of Law.
Mr. Bellegarde's activity did not confine itself to the
Lycee and the School of Law. He taught at the College
Louverture, a modern high school; at the institution of
Madame Auguste Paret, an excellent girl's high school;
at the Ecole des Sciences Appliques (School of Applied
Sciences), where he lectured on industrial economy and is
at present a member of its board of directors. In addition
to his brilliant career at the university, Mr. Bellegarde, who
is an enthusiastic promoter of popular education, had
achieved some prominence by enrolling while still a young
man as an unsalaried teacher in the penny school of the
Century Association, a school which was established for
the working classes.







Service. Comme il n'avait et n'a toujours que peu de goOt pour la
politique, il abandonna A centre coeur cette function pour devenir en
Mai 1911-sur les pr6sentes insistances de son ami personnel, Monsieur
Michel Oreste, Chef du cabinet particulier du President d'Haiti. Le 28
Janvier 1914 Monsieur Michel Oreste quitta le pouvoir Quelques mois
apr6s, Monsieur Bellegarde retournait A la Banque come Chef de
service. C'est A ce poste que le President Dartiguenave, r6formant
le cabinet et voulant avoir au Departement de l'Instruction publique
un Ministre qui fut avant tout un specialiste, est alley le chercher en
Juin 1918 pour l'associer A la grande r6forme morale et economique
entreprise par le gouvernement.
Dans l'espace de six mois A peine et au milieu de difficulties financieres
sans nombre, Monsieur Bellegarde a pu r6aliser dans l'instruction
publique, des r6formes de grande importance. Premi6rement il a r6alis6
une reforme s6rieuse des Lyc6es, en augmentant les appointments
du personnel et en substituant au programme de l'enseignement secon-
daire de 1893 a base de latin et de grec, des programmes plus modernes,
mieux adapts aux n6cessit6s nationals et aux conditions de la vie
contemporaine. Deuxiemement il a cre6 l'Ecole du Batiment, pour la
preparation des ouvriers charpentiers, macons, menusiers, couvreurs,
etc.; L'Ecole Industrielle pour la preparation des mecaniciens, Electri-
ciens, sculpteurs, dcorateurs, etc. Ces deux ecoles ont eu un success
imm6diat considerable: De nombreux el6ves s'y sont fait inscrire.
Troisiemement il a r6organis6 I'Ecole Nationale de Medecine qui, avec
son nouveau service de clinique de l'hospice Saint Francois de Sale est
devenue une veritable ruche scientifique. Quatriemement il a institu6
au Ministere de l'Instruction publique un organisme nouveau: la
Direction generale de l'Instruction publique, qui 6tudie toutes les ques-
tions d'enseignement et assure la continuity dans les r6formes. Tout
l'effort de Monsieur Bellegarde se porte en ce moment vers I'enseigne-
ment primaire qu'il voudrait organiser de la fagon la plus serieuse,
parceique cet enseignement s'adresse A la grande masse du people encore
plong6e dans l'ignorance. Ici la bonne volont6 du Ministre se heurte
au manque d'argent; car il en faut beaucoup pour r6aliser les quatre
points principaux du programme du gouvernement: preparation des
Maitres par l'organisation de nombreuses classes normales; rel&vement
des salaires du personnel primaire; construction de maisons, d'icoles;
creation de plusieurs &coles professionnelles dans le pays. Le courage
ne manque pas A Monsieur Bellegarde pour border ces graves prob-
lmes et il espere obtenir bient6t quelques bons r6sultats. DejA, pour
une meilleure preparation de maitres, il a institu6 des conferences p6da-
gogiques sur toutes les matibres de l'enseignement, et pour encourager
la fr6quentation des classes, il a institu6 dans chaque commune la
caisse des icoles ayant pour but de donner des secours en vetements ou
en fournitures aux el1ves necessiteux, Cette derniere institution a recu
un chaleureux accueil.
Nous assistons A ce spectacle interessant d'un homme qui, ayant beau-
coup ecrit sur les questions d'instruction publique, s'efforce maintenant
qu-il est au pouvoir, de r6aliser la plus grande parties possible de ses
id6es.
Monsieur Bellegarde a en effet beaucoup ecrit et sur de nombreuses
matieres, ayant derriere lui une longue carriere de journalist et de con-
firencier. II a donn6 une collaboration r6guliere de plusieurs ann6es aux
Journaux Le Soir, et le Nouvelliste, au Revue La Ronde et Haiti politique
litteraire et scientifique don't il fut le R6dacteur en chef. 11 a prononc6
de tres nombreuses conferences et ecrit des 6tudes sur des sujets d'6duca-
tion, de psychologie, d'histoire, de critique: On regrette qu'il n'ait pas
pens6 jusqu'ici A les reunir en volumes.
Monsieur Bellegarde a eti Pr6sident de I'Association des Membres
du Corps enseignant de Port au Prince; Secr6taire g6enral de la Soci6et
de Legislation, il est membre de la Soci6te du Droit International, filiale
de la grande association don't Monsieur Brown Scott est le Pr6sident,
Delegu6 g6enral de l'Alliance Francaise. 11 a regu du Gouvernement
Francais en 1908 la palme d'officier d'Acad6mie et il vient de recevoir
celle d'officier de l'Instruction publique pour sa belle attitude alliophile.
Monsieur Bellegarde prononga en 1918 un vigoureux discours contre la
propaganda boche en Haiti. En Juin, il entrait au Ministere et le 12
Juillet suivant, il s'associait au Pr6sident Dartiguenave et A ses col-
lIgues pour la declaration de guerre de la petite R6publique d'Haiti a la
puissante Allemagne, A c6t6 des amis traditionnels de la nation Haitienne
La France et les Etats Unis.
Cette conduite s'accordait exactement avec ce que Monsieur Belle-
garde 6crivait le 5 Avril 1912 A l'occasion de la visit A Port au Prince,
du Secr6taire Americain Knox: (Les Etats Unis et la France A cause des
interets politiques et commerciaux qui nous unissent aux premiers, des
liens intellectuals et 6conomiques qui nous attachent A la second,
doivent avoir une place sp6ciale dans nos priocupations ext6rieures).
On peut conclure sans s'aventurer, que Monsieur Dantes Bellegarde
est une des pures gloires haitiennes et que maintenant plac6 au poste
preeminent de chef de l'Universit6, il est A l'apog6e de sa carirre civique,
que sfrement il ne manquera pas de couronner en concr6tisant, pour le
bien de l'instruction publique, les fortes et g6enreuses idees qu'il, a
toujours mises en vedette pour la r6alisation de la grande r6forme
scolaire qui devra, d6sormais, fixer d6finitivement, le caractAre du
people haitien.
Monsieur Bellegarde aura rendu un service immense A son Pays.


In 1911 Mr. Bellegarde was appointed Deputy Chief Clerk of the
National Bank of the Republic of Haiti. Being always adverse to
politics he very reluctantly relinquished this position at the earnest
request of his personal friend, Mr. Michel Oreste, and became chief of
the private office of the President of Haiti. In January 1914, on the
retirement of Mr. Oreste, he resigned and returned to the bank as Chief
Clerk. He remained there until President Dartiguenave, who was form-
ing a new cabinet and anxious to have as the head of Department of
Public Instruction a man who was a specialist in education, called him
to associate with him in the moral and economic reforms undertaken
by the Government.
Inside of six months, and in spite of financial difficulties, Mr. Belle-
garde managed to establish these momentous reforms: 1. He has in-
creased the salaries of the teaching force of the Lycees and substituted
for the old program of past years, based on Latin and Greek, the
modern high school which is better adapted to the necessities and
conditions of the present day. 2. He has created a school of building
for the training of carpenters, masons, joiners, roofers, etc., and an
industrial school for the training of mechanical engineers, electricians,
draftsmen, sculptors and designers. These schools met with instant
success, a large number of pupils being enrolled in each. 3. He has
reorganized the National School of Medicine by introducing new
clinical ideas at the hospice of St. Francois de Tales, thus making it a
school of real scientific education. 4. He has instituted in his depart-
ment a new departure which tends to create and assure a continuity
of the process of reformation of all matters pertaining to public instruc-
tion.
At the present time all of Mr. Bellegarde's efforts are concentrated
upon the problem of elementary instruction, which he is desirous of so
organizing as to bring the great mass of the people out from the plane
of ignorance under which they are now laboring. In this connection
the great reforms of the minister are greatly hampered from lack of
finances. The fact is that money is needed to realize the four principal
points of the Government's educational program: the training of teach-
ers for the numerous normal schools about to be established; the con-
struction of new schools; increase of pay for the teachers of elementary
schools and the creation of vocational schools throughout the country.
Mr. Bellegarde is not at all discouraged by the serious problems which
confront him, but feels assured that in the near future some means will
be found to solve these problems. With a view to better training of
the teachers he has instituted a series of pedagogic lectures on all educa-
tional topics, and to promote a greater school attendance he has estab-
lished in each commune a school fund with the object of distributing
clothes and school supplies to the pupils of the poorer classes, this latter
is a decided innovation and has been favorably received.
All possible assistance should be given to a man who has devoted so
much of his time and ability to the question of public instruction, and
it is to be hoped that his ideas will be realized to the greatest possible
extent. Mr. Bellegarde has written a great many articles on various
subjects, during his long career as a journalist and lecturer. He has
contributed regularly to the newspapers. Le Soir and Le Nouvelliste,
the Review la Ronde and the Journal of Literature, Science and Politics
of Haiti, of which he was chief editor. He has delivered a great many
lectures and has written essays on educational subjects, psychology,
history and criticism. It is to be regretted that so far he has not
published any of these in book form.
Mr. Bellegarde has been President of the Association of Members of
the Teaching Course of Port au Prince; General Secretary of the Society
of Legislation; is a member of the Society of International Law, a
branch of the great association presided over by Mr. Brown Scott, and
General Delegate of the Alliance Francaise. In recognition of the
services he has rendered his country, he has been honored by the French
Government with the decoration of Officer of the Academy. Just
previous to the entry of Haiti into the War, and at a time when the
country was overrun by German agents seeking by every means in
their power to arouse the sympathy of the people in favor of Germany,
Mr. Bellegarde toured the country, vigorously denouncing this insidious
propaganda. That his efforts were crowned with success is now a
matter of history, for on July 12, 1918, President Dartiguenave de-
clared a state of war existed between the little repubilc of Haiti and the
powerful German government, and pledged the country and its re-
sources to the cause of the Allies. For his services in this matter he
has been awarded special recognition.
This action of Haiti was strictly in accordance with an article written
by Mr. Bellegarde on April 5, 1912, on the occasion of a visit by Secre-
tary Knox of the United States to Port au Prince and from which the
following is a quotation:
"The United States and France, on account of the political and com-
mercial interests which bind us to the former, and the intellectual and
economical bonds by which we are attached to the latter, should have a
special place in our foreign considerations."
In conclusion let us hope that as a climax to his career Mr. Bellegarde
be chosen Chief of the University in which position he can still further
work out those great educational reforms which will prove of immense
benefit to the young people of the country.







Monsieur Barnave Dartiguenave
Secretaire d'Etat au Departement de l'Interieur


Les traits caract6ristiques de la vie tant priv6e que pub-
lique de Monsieur Barnave Dartiguenave, peuvent se re-
sumer ainsi: moderation, patience et une philantrophique
am6nit6, allant jusqu'a la douceur.
Ce sont assurement ces rares et precieuses qualities du
parfait gentleman, don't nous sommes heureux de publier,
ici, la biographie, accompagn6e d'un fiddle cliche photo-
graphique qui, lentement, mais surement, normalement et
sans heurt aucun, lui ont valu des succes dans l'activit6
politique de son Pays,-cette terre feconde et b6nie, helas,
jusqu'ici, si peu connue du monde et qui, pourtant recile
de si consid6rables resources naturelles, demeur6es com-
pl&tement inexploitbes .
Monsieur Barnave Dartiguenave
est heureusement au pouvoir, et
occupe le portefeuille de l'Interieur,
ou il apporte une effective part de
collaboration au gouvernement
progressiste de Son Excellence,
le President Sudre Dartiguenave,
son frere. Aussi peut on juste-
ment augurer qu'avec l'effort com-
mun et inlassable d'hommes de
cette trempe, 6clair6s et bien p6n6-
tr6s des vrais int6r&ts de leur pat-
rie, Haiti ne tardera assur6ment
pas a b6neficier de l'6volution qui
l'attend, sous les heureux auspices
des encourageantes perspectives
que peut indeniablement offrir la
conclusion prochaine et rationnelle
de la Paix mondiale.
N6 en la ville de l'Anse a Veau
(D1partement du Sud) le 13 Mai
1864, de l'union de Louis Andr
Dartiguenave et Belleza Maignan,
Monsieur Barnave Dartiguenave
fit de fructueuses 6tudes au Petit
Seminaire, Coll6ge Saint Martial,
a Port au Prince. Ses 6tudes ache-
v6es, il rentra dans sa ville natale,
ou il embrassa la carri6re de la
justice et se livra, a 1'6tude du
droit, II obtint bient6t, le dipl6me
de licencii et devint avocat.
Il eut l'honneur de fonder avec
Messieurs Bance Pierre Jacques et
Sudre Dartiguenave, l'Ecole de
Droit de 1'Anse a Veau, ou plus MONSIEUR BARN
tard, il fut nomm6 l'un des profes-
seurs. Sur ces entrefaites, il fut
commission sous-Inspecteur des Ecoles, de la circon-
scription de Nippes. Elu D6put6 au Corps Legislatif en
1914, S6nateur de la Republique en 1917, il a 6ti appel6
au ministare de l'Int6rieur et des Cultes, en Juin 1918.
Aujourd'hui, il occupe exclusivement le portefeuille de
l'interieur. Nonobstant la vie politique de Monsieur
Barnave Dartiguenave, d6ej si bien remplie, comme on
vient de le voir, il s'est aussi de longtemps adonn6 au
commerce et A la speculation en products du sol, aide en
cela par sa d6vou6e et distingu6e spouse, nee Ml6a Pres-
soir, don't l'intelligente et laborieuse initiative a 6t6 notoire
et g6neralement appreci6e.
De cette heureuse union, contracted a l'Anse A Veau, en
Octobre 1890, naquirent quatre enfants, don't trois filles:
Luce, Am6lie, mariee a M. Jules Malebranche; Therese et
un gargon, Lys.
Par son louable souci du bien public et l'avancement de
son Pays, Monsieur Dartiguenave est l'homme qui con-
vient actuellement au poste eminent et d6licat, ou I'a plac6
la sagacity bien connue du President de la R6publique, A
qui est naturellement assure tout le devouement fraternel
et patriotique du distingue titulaire au D6partement de
l'Interieur, auquel est souch6 le Service Sanitaire, don't le
chef est l'Ingenieur hygieniste, Dr. Mc.Lean.


IAVE
Depa


Moderation, patience and gentleness, these are the out-
standing features in the public and private life.of Mr.
Barnave Dartiguenave, whose portrait and biography we
take pleasure in presenting herewith.
Born in the town of Anse a Veau (Department of the
South) on May 13, 1864, from the union of Louis Andre
Dartiguenave and Belleza Maignan, he early entered upon
his studies in the Petit Seminaire, College Saint Martial,
Port au Prince. Upon the completion of his education he
returned to his native town and took up the study of law.
Receiving his degree of licentiate, shortly after he was
commissioned a lawyer and rose rapidly in his chosen pro-
fession.
Mr. Dartiguenave's success in the
political activities of his country
was slow but steady, and was at-
tained only after arduous and care-
ful study and training. At present
he holds the Portfolio of Secretary
of State for the Home Department
of the Interior in the administra-
tion of his brother, His Excellency,
President Sudre Dartiguenave.
By the efficient co-operation and
untiring efforts of such men as
these, alive to the true interests of
their country, and capable of ad-
ministering its affairs efficiently,
Haiti, a country of fertile land and
unbounded natural resources, but
unfortunately so little known to
the world, will soon enjoy the ben-
efit of her approaching evolution
under the happy and enduring con-
clusion of a world peace.
Mr. Dartiguenave, in conjunc-
tion with Messrs. Bance, Pierre
Jacques and Sudre Dartiguenave,
had the honor of founding the
"Ecole Libre de Droit" (Private
School of Law) of Anse a Veau and
later became a member of its staff.
Meanwhile he was appointed
Sous-Inspector des Ecoles (Deputy
Inspector of Schools) for the divi-
sion of Nippes; elected Deputy to
the Legislative Corps in 1914; Sen-
ator of the Republic in 1917, and
rDARTIGUENAVE in 1918 was appointed Secretary
rtement de lInterieur for the Home Department and
Public Worship.
As will be readily seen from a perusal of this short
sketch, the public life of Mr. Dartiguenave has been an
exceedingly busy one, yet he has always given unsparingly
of his time to the study of philanthropy and to the welfare
of his fellow men in whom he is deeply interested.
In October, 1890, he was married to Miss Mela Pressoir,
and as a result of this happy union there are four children,
a son, named Lys, and three daughters, Luce, Therese
and Amelie, the last named now married to Mr. Jules
Malebranche.
In addition to his public duties he is engaged to a large
extent in commercial enterprises, and more especially to
the product of the soil, in which he is largely aided by the
efforts of his devoted and distinguished wife, whose intelli-
gence and initiative is well known and highly appreciated.
By his commendable care of the public welfare and the
advancement of his country Mr. Dartiguenave is eminently
fitted for the high and honorable post to which he has been
called and the President of the Republic can rest assured
of the unswerving loyalty and whole hearted devotion of
the Secretary of the Interior.
Of a quiet and retiring disposition Mr. Dartiguenave has
easily won the friendship of his brother secretaries and the
thousands of government employees.







Fleury Fequiere

Secr6taire D'Etat des Finances et du Commerce


Monsieur Fleury F6quiere est un des Haitiens les plus
prestigieux. Il a su par un labeur persistent et courageux,
gravir les plus louables &tapes de la vie.
Esprit m6thodique, intelligence active, sa ligne de con-
duite A travers les contingencies multiples de l'activit6
social, fut toujours mesur6e, normal et tendue vers le
"Go ahead", l'en avant. C'est ainsi qu'il a pO rendre de
grands services a son Pays, jusqu'h son arrive au Minist&re
des Finances, oh il est parfaitement a sa place et pourra
rendre a la communaut6,
le plus de bien qui lui
sera possible d'accom- ""'
plir, D'abord, commer-
qant, il connait a fond
tous les besoins du Com-
merce, et financier, il
salt exactement ce qui
peut-&tre tent& pour
am6liorer la situation
financiere tres tendue de
son Pays. On peut
donc 16gitimement fond-
er de l'espoir sur un
homme tel que Mon-
sieur F6quiere.
N6 a Petit-Trou de
Nippes, le 19 Aofit 1860.
il commenga ses 6tudes
a l'6cole primaire de sa
ville natale, les continue
chez les Freres de l'In-
struction Chr6tienne at
l'Anse a Veau, et les
acheva, a Port au Prince
chez Pierre Eth6art en
1877-1878.
Nomm6 employ au
Ministere de la Marine,
en October 1880, Chef
de Bureau en Janvier
1887, et Chef de Divi-
sion en Novembre 1887.
II demissionna en D-
cembre 1888. Elu mem-
bre de la Chambre des
Comptes en Juin 1895;
r6ilu en Juillet 1896,
Membre de la commis-
sion former en AoOt
1897 pour la verification
des Effets publics ar-
riir6s, il devint Pr6si-
dent de la Chambre des HENRY FLE
Comptes en 1898.
Elu Deput6 de la Cha-
pelle aux elections g6nerales de Janvier 1899; D6put6 de
Petit-Trou de Nippes en Juin 1902; r66lu par la meme popu-
lation en Janvier 1905. II fut membre de la commission
d'Enquite administrative (1903-1905). Dl66gu6 & la Con-
f6rence de Buenos-Aires, en 1916; Pr6sident de la Commis-
sion de verification de la Dette flottante (4 Novembre
1916-11 D6cembre 1918).
Monsieur F6quiere a collabor6 a plusieurs journaux,
notamment le "Nouvelliste", le "Bon Sens" et la "Patrie".
II fonda et dirigea le Journal "Le Temps" (1902).
I1 est aussi publiciste et a 6dit& les "Promenades a 1'Ex-
position" (1902); "Le Jeu en Haiti", la "Morale et le Code"
(1899); "Une nuit de noces", drame local en un acte et en
collaboration avec Monsieur Henri Chauvet. Sa derniere
oeuvre est "L'Education Haitienne" (1906). Monsieur
F6quiere entra depuis 1891, dans l'Industrie et le Commerce,
A la firme si r6put6e de S. M. Pierre, qu'il dirigea de tout
temps, comme int6ress6 (1896), associ6 (1909).


URY


Mr. Fleury F1quiere is one of the most intellectual
Haytians. He has the reputation to be a courageous and
persistent worker. Guided always by a disciplinary and
common sense, being intelligent and active his life's prin-
ciple has always been "Go ahead".
That is why, before his appointment as Secretary of
State he has always rendered valuable services to his
Country. He is the right man to be our Minister of Fi-
nance in which position he will be able to contribute as
much as is in his power
to the improvement of
existing conditions. Be-
ing first a commercial
man he knows exactly
the needs of our Com-
merce, and as financier
he will find the means to
ameliorate our stretched
financial situation. For
these reasons the coun-
try can put all confi-
dence and hopes in a
man like Mr. F1quibre.
Born on August 19,
1860, at Petit-Trou de
Nippes, he started his
studies at the school of
that town, to continue
afterwards at the Insti-
tution of the Fathers of
"I n s t r u c t i o n
Chr6tienne" at Anse-A-
Veau and finished them
at Port au Prince, at the
institute of Pierre Eth&-
art from 1877 to 1878.
He started his politi-
cal career in 1880, when
he was employed in the
office of the Secretary of
State of the Navy; in
1887, he was appointed
chief clerk in the same
office and in November
of the same year he was
promoted to confidential
clerk of the Minister.
In December 1888, he
tendered his resignation,
which was accepted. In
June 1895 he was elected
member of the commis-
FQaUIERE sion in charge of audit-
ing the State's accounts
and was reelected in
July 1896; in August 1897 he became a member of the special
commission appointed to verify Public Debts and he was
elected President of the commission in charge of the State's
account in 1898.
During the elections of 1899, (January) he was elected
Deputy of the District of La Chapelle; in 1902 Deputy of
the Commune of Petit-Trou de Nippes and was reelected
to represent the same district in January 1905. From
1903 to 1905 he was a member of a Special commission ap-
pointed to investigate into the Government's administra-
tion. In 1916 he represented Haiti at the Conference of
Buenos Aires. From November 4, 1916 to December 11,
1918 he presided a Commission for the verification of the
Floating Debt.
Mr. Fequibre has also written for several newspapers
specially for "Le Nouvelliste", le "Bon Sens" and "La
Patrie"; in 1902 he organized and directed a newspaper,
"Le Temps" (The Times).








Monsieur Louis Roy

Secr6taire d'Etat des Travaux Publics.


Le Secretaire d'Etat des Travaux Publics, Monsieur Louis Roy, n'a
que quarante sept ans, 6tant n6 A Port au Prince, le 27 F6vrier 1872
de Mr. Charles H6rard Roy et de Madame, n6e Marguerite Magloire.
Son pere lui a legu6, A d6faut de fortune, un des noms les plus honorables
et les plus respects du pays, un nom auquel les d6boires commerciaux
et les injustices de la politique n'enleverent pas la moindre parcelle de
son prestige, ce qui est rare. Avant de mourir, il eut la satisfaction
de voir ses nombreux enfants prendre dans la soci6t6 une place tris
large et belle, grace A I'education solide qu'ils avaient revue. Particu-
lierement, Louis Roy, le Ministre actuel, apres avoir fait, avec beau-
coup de succes, ses 6tudes secondaires au College Saint Martial de
Port au Prince, apris avoir pris des lemons de Math6matiques sp6ciales
d'un excellent maitre, Monsieur Castera, partit pour Paris. LA, les
6tudes qu'il avait deja faites le dispens6rent de rechercher l'enseigne-
ment preparatoire indispensable pour
obtenir l'acces de la plupart des hautes
ecoles et, sur la demand de sa L6ga-
tion, il s'inscrivit A l'Ecole des Mines.
II passa ses examens remarquablement
bien et, au bout de trois ans, il reqevait
son dipl6me d'Ing6nieur civil A l'Ecole
National Superieure des Mines de
Paris.
Rentr6 dans le pays, il ne trouva pas
A employer dans des activities relevant
de sa spfcialit6 professionnelle, parce-
que jusqu'A ce jour, Haiti ne s'est pas
encore occupfe de l'exploitation de
son opulent soussol. Fagonnf par
son education A la pratique exclusive
des arts lib6raux et des applications
industrielles qui repugnent A l'intrigue
dans les communautes stables et organ-
isfes, Mr. Louis Roy s'abstint, malgr6
toutes les sollicitations, d'entrer dans
la politique hazardeuse et souvent
amoindrissante des dernieres p6riodes
troubles d'Haiti. II se content pen-
dant longtemps de travailler dans l'in-
dustrie du batiment pour la clientele
priv6e. En F6vrier 1902, il contribua l
A la foundation de l'excellente Ecole des
Sciences Appliqufes. Il y exerqa dif-
f6rents course sp6ciaux et continue
d'etre jusqu'a ce jour le Secr6taire-
General du Conseil d'Administration.
Le Dfpartement des Travaux Publics
ne tarda pas cependant A s'assur6 ses
services en obtenant du Chef de l'Etat
sa nomination comme l'un des In-
gfnieurs du Gouvernement. A ce
poste,il s'occupa avec un succes con-
stant d'oeuvres ferroviaires, de con-
struction de chauss6es et de ques- LOI
tions d'hydraulique. En Juin 1906,
il epousa une jeune fille tres distingu6e, Mademoiselle Louise Henriette
Denis, la fille d'un Instituteur renomm& de Port au Prince. De ce
marriage lui sont di6j n6s huit enfants don't quatre int6ressants gargons:
Herard, Albert, Adrien et Raymond.
En Janvier 1913, la population de Port au Prince, d'accord, d'ail-
leurs, avec le sentiment particulier du Pouvoir d'alors, voulut mettre A
profit, pour l'embellissement et la modernisation de Ia Capitale, I'Anergie
constructive et les connaissances techniques sfrieuses et varies don't
L. Roy avait si souvent donnA la preuve. II fut 6lu Magistrat Com-
munal de Port au Prince. C'est alors qu 'il essaya de rembre Port-au-
Prince unc des plus saines et des plus agr6ables villes des Antilles.
En 1916, il revint au Ministere, comme Chef du Service technique
indigene appel6 A mettre en oeuvre la cooperation avec les Ing6nieurs
Americains, prevus par la Convention de 1915. C'est A ce poste que la
confiance du Prfsident Dartiguenave alla le chercher, en Juin 1918,
pour lui confier les portefeuilles des Travaux Publics et de l'Agriculture.
Avec un professionnel de la valeur de Monsieur Louis Roy, il faut recon-
naitre que si un Conseiller technique stranger est indispensable pour
Haiti, dans la branch des Travaux Publics, il faut que ce Conseiller
soit vraiment hors de pair pbur que le Ministre actuel ait un besoin
reel de ses cotinaissances speciales. II a prepare et le Pr6sident Darti-
guenave a soumis au vote du Pouvoir Legislatif toute une s6rie de mes-
ures legislatives pour mettre en fonctionnement fructueux la collabora-
tion Americano-Haitienne dans les Travaux Publics. 11 a galement
elabore tout un programme de grands travaux A portfe immfdiatement
reproductive: R6seau routier, ports, system d'irrigation, amfnagement
des Eaux et Forets, etc. 'a hantise, c'est que les resources ordinaires
d'un Etat n'ayant jamais nulle part au monde servi A constituer un
pareil outillage economique, le Gouvernement Amfricain donne A
Haiti, sans plus de retard, l'aide promise pour engager le capital Amer-
icain A s'investir ici, dans les belles entreprises que comprend ce plan
general de grand travaux. "Car, nous a dfclare Monsieur Louis Roy,
je n'ai jamais "ete, je ne veux pas devenir un homme politique. Au
D6partement des Travaux "Publics of m'a appel6 la confiance de Mon-
sieur le Prfsident Dartiguenave, "je ne veux rester qu'un professionnel
de bonne volontf."


JIS I


The Secretary of State for Public Works, Mr. Louis Roy, is
but 47 years of age, being born at Port au Prince, on the 27th
of February, 1872 son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles H6rard Roy. His
father has left to him, instead of fortune, one of the most honor-
able and most respected names of the country, a name from which
the commercial contact and the injustices of politics detracted
nothing which is rare. Before his death he had the satisfaction of
seeing his children occupying an important position in society, thanks
to their splendid education. Particularly Mr. Louis Roy, the actual
Minister after having completed with much success, his studies at
College St. Martial of Port au Prince, and after having been tutored
by an excellent master, in Mathematics, Mr. Castera, went to Paris.
There his previous studies exempted him from further preparatory
studies to enter most of the Universities, and upon the demand of his
Legation, he was inscribed as student
at the School of Mines. He passed his
examinations remarkably well, and
after three years of studying received
his diploma of Civil Engineer of the
National School of Mines of Paris.
On his return to Hayti, he found
no opportunity to put his knowledge to
practice, because, even now, Hayti has
not started to develop its natural re-
Ssources. By virtue of his education
having been confined to the exclusive
practice of art and industry which are
foreign to the intrigue common to all
communities, Mr. Louis Roy, refused
Sin spite of all solicitations, to become
involved in the often degrading politics
of the recent disturbed periods of

long time to the building industry for
private customers. In February, 1902,
he contributed to the foundation of the
excellent School of Applied Sciences.
He gave there several courses and is to
the present time the General Secretary
of the Council of Administration. The
Department of Public Works lost no
S time in securing his services, by obtain-
ing from the Chief of State his nomina-
nation as one of the Government engi-
neers. As such he was very successful
in railroad works, construction of roads
Sand hydraulic works.
In June 1906 he married a very dis-
tinguished young lady, Miss Louise
Henriette Denis, the daughter of a
Professor of high repute, of Port au
Prince. From that marriage eight
children are born of whom four are
ROY interesting boys: H6rard, Albert,
Adrien and Raymond.
In January 1913, the population of Port au Prince, agreeing with the
pronounced sentiment of the Government of that time, wished to avail
themselves of the constructive energy and invaluable technical knowl-
edge of L. Roy of which he had so often given proof, in the beautifying
and modernisation of the Capital, and he was elected mayor of
the city. One must bear in mind that at that moment of his life,
he tried to realize his idea, that is to say to make of Port au Prince
one of the most delightful and sanitary towns of the West Indies; it
was only necessary to surround by a line of quays the part of the bay
on which it is situated. Since, everybody has become a partisan of
this idea, but its realization is waiting for an amelioration of the financial
resources of Port au Prince.
In 1916, he returned to the Ministry as Chief of the National Tech-
nical Service, called to effect the cooperation of the American engineers
provided by the Convention of 1915. It is in that office that the confi-
dence of President Dartiguenave sought him, to entrust him with the
portfolios of Public Works and Agriculture. With a professional man
of Mr. Louis Roy's value one must recognize that if a foreign
technical counsellor is indispensable for Hayti, in the branch of
Public Works, it is necessary that this counsellor be really above
all competition, if the present Minister should need his knowledge.
He prepared and President Dartiguenave submitted to the vote
of the Legislative Power a series of legislative measures to put
in profitable operation the American-Haytian collaboration for the
benefit of the Public Works. He has also elaborated a program
of work with the view of immediate execution: net-work of roads,
ports, system of irrigation, development of Rivers and Forests, etc.
His pet subject is that while the financial resources of a State have
nowhere served to build such an economical system, the American
Government gives to Hayti without any delay the promised help to
engage the investment here of American capital in the fine enterprises
included in this general plan of works.
As declared to us Mr. Louis Roy, I have never been and I do not want
to become a political man. At the Department of Public Works to
which the confidence of President Dartiguenave has called me, I want
to remain a professional man of good faith.






Monsieur Seymour Pradel


Parmi les haitiens qui, dans la politique, la litt6rature,
et la vie civique en g6enral, se sont particulirement dis-
tingu6s, on ne saurait ne pas ouvrir l'oeil sur Monsieur
Seymour Pradel, don't 1'existence, un moment tourment6e
par les malheureux 6venements qui, longtemps, ont boule-
vers6 le pays, est aujourd'hui stable et assure, grace A un
effort, on ne peut plus louable vers le labeur m6thodique;
l'exercice consciencieux et tres avis6 de la noble profession
d'avocat. Aussi, en peu de temps a t-il pu s'assurer une
serieuse et important clientele.
Monsieur Seymour Pradel est un fils de la ville de Jac-
mel, surnomm6e "la vail-
lante," A cause des sieges h6- -
roiques, qu'au course des peril-
leuses vicissitudes haitiennes,
elle a eu souvent victorieuse-
ment A soutenir. Il y prit .
naissance le 10 Juillet 1875,
de Orfila Pradel et Euterpe Jn
Baptiste.
II fut un des plus brillants
6elves du Lyc6e National
de Port au Prince d'oi, ses
6tudes achev6es avec un
6clatant succes, il sortit pour .
entrer a l'ecole de droit of, .
en 1900, il passa heureuse-
ment sa these et rebut son di-
pl6me de Licencii en Droit.
Monsieur Pradel est c6liba-
taire. II a 6t6 tour a tour pro-
fesseur d'6conomie industri-
elle A l'Ecole des Sciences ap-
pliquees, ancien President de
la D61egation d'Haiti A la
Conference financiere Pan-
Am6ricaine, tenue a Buenos
Ayres, S6nateur de la R6pub-
lique en 1917. II occupa, en
outre, trois fois, le porte-
feuille de ministry de
l'Int6rieur et de la Police
G6nerale. II est actuellement,
professeur de Rh6torique au
Lyc6e National de Port au
Prince.
Membre de la Societ6 de
Legislation, de la Socit6
Haitienne de Droit Interna-
tional et de la haute Com- MONSIEUR SE
mission financiere Pan Amer- Avocat
icaine, Monsieur Pradel ap-
partient 6galement aux Cercles Bellevue et Port au Princien.
Ce distingu6 gentleman parle l'anglais, l'Espagnol, et
naturellement son tres pur Francais, qu'il ecrit a la per-
fection; sans en avoir l'air, il sait aussi taquiner avec du
talent, l'instrument d'Erard.
Le chalet de Monsieur Pradel est situ6 au charmant
quarter de Bois Verna o6 de meme qu'A Turgeau et a Peu
de Chose, l'on peut admirer tant de jolies villas, aux par-
terres somptueusement fleuries et ofi des coins d1licieux de
verdure, cette luxuriante verdure tropicale-invitent a
toutes les jouissances captivantes de la vie.
Le cabinet d'Avocat de Monsieur Seymour Pradel, est
au No. 52 de la Rue Ferou anciennement Rue des Miracles.
Les heures de bureau sont de 9 a midi et de 2 a 5 p.m.
Monsieur Pradel a voyage aux Etats Unis, dans les
Antilles et dans l'Am6rique du Sud (Br6sil, Uruguay,
Argentine).
JOURNALISTE de marque, il fonda la "Jeune Haiti",
revue litteraire et l'Appel. Il collabora en outre a divers
autres journaux et revues. Il a ecrit aussi quelques
poesies d'une inspiration l6ev6e et dl6icatement ciselhes.
Monsieur Pradel est un des Haitiens les plus aptes A
contribuer A l'6volution definitive d'Haiti vers le progr&s
qui doit forc6ment venir par une saine et active propaganda
en faveur de ce pays enchanteur.


YM
-La


Among the Haitians who have especially distinguished
themselves in politics, literature and civil life in general,
Mr. Seymour Pradel cannot pass unnoticed. During the
long period of unhappy events which cast the whole country
into confusion, his very existence, as was that of many
others, was endangered. Yet he was always calm and
methodic, carrying on his noble profession of law in a
conscientious manner and rapidly acquiring a very im-
portant clientele.
Mr. Pradel is a son of Orfila Pradel and Euterpe Jn.
Baptiste, and was born on July 10, 1875, in Jacmel, named
the "Valiant" because of the
sieges she victoriously resist-
ed in a heroic manner during
the perilous vicissitudes of
Haiti.
He was one of the most
brilliant pupils of the Lycee
t National of Port au Prince.
SAfter completing his primary
studies he entered the School
of Law and graduated from
there with the highest honors,
receiving the degree of Legum
Licentiate.
Mr. Pradel has been suc-
cessively Professor of Indus-
trial Economy at the Ecole
des Sciences Appliques
(School of Applied Sciences),
President of the Haitian dele-
gation to the Pan American
Financial Conference, held at
Buenos Aires, Senator of the
Republic in 1917, and has
held the Portfolio of the Home
Department, and General Po-
lice. At present he is honor-
ary Professor of Rhetoric in
the Lycee National of Port au
Prince.
A member of the Society of
Legislation, the Haitian So-
ciety of International Law
and the Pan American High
Financial Commission, Mr.
Pradel also belongs to the
"Bellevue" and "Port au
Prince" Clubs.
OUR PRADEL This distinguished gentle-
awyer man is an accomplished lin-
guist, speaking English, Span-
ish, and, as a matter of course, and in the purest manner,
his mother tongue, French, which he also writes to perfec-
tion. He is also a musician of high attainment.
Although a bachelor, Mr. Pradel has a beautiful bunga-
low located in a charming quarter of Bois Verna, one at
Turgeau and another at Peu de Chose, a delightful place
with handsome villas surrounded by rich flower gardens,
with beautiful walks covered with the luxuriant verdure
of the tropics. Each of the villas are handsomely fur-
nished.
A remarkable journalist, he founded the "Jeune Haiti,"
a literary review, and the "Appel," and has contributed
to a number of other publications. He has also written
some verses which are worthy of note. As a traveler, Mr.
Pradel has visited the United States, the West Indies and
Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina.
Mr. Pradel is a Haitian than whom there is none better
fitted to contribute to and conduct an active propaganda
to bring about the onward and upward progress of Haiti.
Mr. Pradel is easily the most noted corporation lawyer
in the Republic of Haiti, and has gained for himself a most
enviable reputation in the last few years by assisting new
business interests to locate themselves properly in Haiti.
His offices are at No. 52 Rue Ferou, formerly Rue des
Miracles, and his hours are from 9 to 12 a.m. and 2 to
5 p.m




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