John Morton of Trinidad [microform] : pioneer missionary of the Presbyterian Church in Canada to the East Indians in the...

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John Morton of Trinidad microform : pioneer missionary of the Presbyterian Church in Canada to the East Indians in the British West Indies ; journals, letters and papers (1916)
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English
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Morton, John, 1839-1912
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Westminster
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Morton, John, 1839-1912
Église presbytérienne
Missionnaires
Presbyterian Church
Missionaries

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Call number: CIHM 76644 Digitizing sponsor: University of Alberta Libraries Book contributor: Canadiana.org Collection: university_of_alberta_libraries_microfilm; university_of_alberta_libraries; toronto; microfilm; additional_collections Notes: Film/Fiche is presented as originally captured. From online version: http://archive.org/details/cihm_76644

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CIHM Microfiche Series (l\/lonographs) ICIVIH Collection de microfiches (monographies) Canadian Inatituta for Hiatorical Microraproductiona / Inititut Canadian da microraproductlona hiatoriquaa 1995

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Technical and Bibliographic Notes / Notes technique et bibliographiques The Institute has attempted to obtain the best original copy available for filming. Features of this copy which may be bibliographically unique, which may alter any of the images in the reproduction, or which may significantly change the usual method of filming are checked below. r^ Coloured covers / — Couverture de couieur I I Covers damaged / Couverture endommagee I I Covers restored and/or laminated / Couverture restauiee et/ou pelliculee I I Cover title missing / Le title de couverture manque I I Coloured maps / Cartes geographiques en couieur f^ Coloured ink (i.e. other than blue or black) / Encre de couieur (i.e. autre que bleue ou noire) r I Coloured plates and/or illustrations / Planches et/ou illustrations en couieur I I Bound with other material / ReliS avec d'auties documents I I Only edition available / — Seule edition disponible I I Tight binding may cause shadows or distortion along interior margin / La reliure serree peut causer de I'ombre ou de la distorsion le long de la margb jntdrieure. I I Blank leaves ac ded during restoralkjns may appear within the text. Whenever possible, these have been omitted from filming / II oe peut que certaines pages blanches ajouttes lors d'une restauration apparaissent dans le texte, mais, lorsque cela 6tait possible, ces pages n'ont pas t# film^es. L'Institut a microfilms le meilleur examplaire qu'il lui a ete possible de se procurer. Les details de cet exemplaire qui sont peut-Stre uniques du point de vue bibliographique, qui peuvent modifier une image reproduite, ou qui peuvent exiger une modifications dans la m6thode normale de filmage sont indiques ci-dessous. I I Coloured pages/ Pages de couieur I I Pages damag-d/ Pages endommagees I I Pages restored and/or laminated / Pages restaur^s et/ou pellicul^es r^/ Pages discoloured, stained or foxed / — Pages decotortes, tachet^es ou piquees pf Pages detached/ Pages d^tachees ra" Showthrough/ Transparence I j Quality of print varies / Quality inegale de I'impression I I Includes supplementary material / Comprend du materiel suppl^mentaire I I Pages wholly or partially obscured by errata slips, tissues, etc., have been refilmed to ensure the best possible image / Les pages totalement ou partiellement obscurcies par un feuillet d'errata, une pelure, etc., ont He film6es i nouveau de fafon k obtenir la meilleure image possible. I I Opposing pages with varying colouration or — discolourations are filmed twice to ensure the best possible image / Les pages s'opposant ayant des colorations variables ou des decolorations sont film^es deux fois afin d'obtenir la meilleur image possible. D AddHional comments / Commen^res st^jpiementaires; I This inm ii filmad M th< rtduction ratio dMdud below/ Ce docuimnt t film* au tau de reduction mdiqui ei-dK%eui. 12X 2ZX ax 2 24 X

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Th copy fllmad hart has b*n raproduead thanks to tha ganarosity of: National Library of Canada L'aiamplaira film* fut raproduit grica 1 la gtntrositA da: Blbllotheque Rationale du Canada Tha imagas appaaring hara ara tha bast quality possibia considaring tha condition and lagibility of tha original copy and in Itaaping with tha filming contract spacifications. Las imagas suivantas ont ttt raproduitas avac la plus grand soin. eompts tanu da la condition at da la nanata da I'axamplaira film*, at an conformita avac laa conditions du central da filmaga. Original copias in printad papar covars ara fllmad baginning with tha front covar and anding on tha last paga with a printad or illuatratad impraasion. or tha back covar whan appropriata. All othar original copiaa ara filmad baginning on tha first paga with a printad or illuatratad impraasion, and anding on tha last paga with a printad or illuatratad imprassion. Las aiamplairas originaux dont la eouvartura an papiar ast imprimia sont filmis an commancant par la pramiar plat at an tarminant soit par U darniira paga qui comporta una amprainta d'Imprassion ou d'illustration. soit par la sacond plat, salon la caa. Tous las sutras axamplairas originaux sont filmto an commandant par la pramiira paga qui comporta una amprainta d'Imprassion ou d'illustration at an tarminant par la darnitra paga qui comporta una talla amprainta. Tha laat racordad frama on aach microflcha shall contain tha symbol ^^ (moaning "CONTINUED "I. or tha symbol y (moaning "END"), whiehavar appiias. Un daa symbolas suivants apparaitra sur la darnitra imaga da chaqua microficha. salon la cas: la symbols —^ signifia "A SUIVRE", la symbols signifia "FIN". Mapa. pistas. charts, ate, may ba fllmad at diffarant raduction ratios. Thosa too larga to ba antiraly includad in ona axposura ara filmad baginning in tha uppar laft hand cornar. laft to right and top to bottom, as many framas as raquirad. Tha following diagrams illustrata tha mathod: Las cartas, planchas. tablsaux, ate. pauvant itre filmAs i das taux da radi'ction diffarents. Lorsqua la documant ast trop grand pour itra raproduit an un saul clicha. il ast filma t psrtir da I'angla supariaur gaucha. da gaucha a droiia, at da haut an bas, an pranant la nombra d'Imagaa nteassaira. Las diagrammas suivants illustrant la mathoda. 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 4 5 6

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MKaOCOW RESOUITION TKT CHART (ANSI or>d ISO TEST CHART No. 2) 1.0 Ifi^ 1^ ^ '" 1 1.8 mu 1.6 /APPLIED IfvV CE I, J,e5J Eoit Morr 31,,,, H609 us*

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•-^. mm

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REV JOHN MORTON, D.D. 1910

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JOHN MORTON OK TRINIDAD lu llif E..t In.li.n, j„ ,|„, ||,i,i,^ ^^,^^, ,^ ,j^ JoiHNALS. LkttEHH AND PapEHS Ki.ITKD UV SAK E. MORTON With Illustrations and Ma WESTMINSTER COMPANV TORONTO 191

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j PREFACE It is with no assumed diffidence, but with a profound sense of its shortcomings that I venture to present as my last offering to my Church this sketch of mission work. To many readers it cannot fail to t be unsatisfactory ; something more searching, more I comprehensive will be desired. By way of apology ; I will state my reasons for the attempt. Much of the material is only to be found in private letters and papers ; many of these were so delapidated, partly through the effects of a tropical chmate, that they crumbled to the touch and would shortly have become useless. Dr. Morton frequently spoke of the need for some such record, especially of the earliest days It was suggested to him that he should undertake the task more particularly during his furlough of 19091910. He seemed, however, to shrink from it, and mstead turned his attention to the searching of records in the British museum and the writing of what we have caUed Chapters on the History of the Island." At that date and more than once Dr. Morton proposed that I should write some account of our work m Trinidad to be edited by himself. This I vv^ry naturally shrank from considering so long as there remained any possiblity of its being done by himself.

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IV FRBPACB I was brought to decide upon the present undertaking by finding, not till after he had passed away, all his note books removed from their ordinary and secluded corners and piled high in the cer're of a writing table in his office. I then gathered, lected and arranged consecutively my material ai submitted the result to my son, Arthur S. V.,rton, whose assistance made this volume possible. The framing and arrangement are largely his. We are sensible that the result displays the defects incident to its processes, and others due to the desultory way in which the notes were originally recorded. We offer this volume then for what it may be worth in the present dearth of helps to the study of mission work in Trinidad, satisfied that I have at least preserved much that may be found useful, and been able to give a nearer view than is often possible of a missionary at his task. Portions of my material have appeared at date in the Maritime Monthly, called later the Maritime Presbyterian, in the Presbyterian Record and in the Presbyterian Witness ; of these same papers, however, a goodly number are in my possession in Dr. Morton's own hand-writing. A number of the plates for the illustrations were secured by the Mission Council of Trinidad for a sketch published by them on the occasion of the Ministerial Jubilee of Dr. Morton in 191 1. For some we are indebted to the H. Strong Studio, Port of Spain, Trinidad, and for many photographs to Mr. George Adhar, an East Indian photographer of excellence, and a prominent member of the Susamachar congregation, San Fernando. Asto the text, all that is of recent authorship is given in the larger type. The smaller type is devoted to extracts from Dr. Morton's journals, letters, etc.,

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PREFACE y and also from my own letters which are initialled at the beginning, thus S.E.M. Square brackets denote changes or additions to the originals. Lastly, I trust that in the near future such a history of the Trinidad Mission may appear as shall place on record the faithful work of the noble men and women who along with my husband bore the burden and heat of the early days in Trinidad. Toronto, July, 1916. Sarah E. Morton. 4 My part in preparing this volume can be briefly explained. My mother submitted a large number of selections from my father's Journals and Papers. I helped her to sift and arrange them, after which she verified them as far as possible by the originals. My mother had also prepared many notes introductory to individual extracts, and sketches filling in the gaps of the missionary story. By my suggestions I helped her write others, more especially such as concerned the structure of the book. When all was done I gave the usual assistance in preparing the work for the press. The maps are mine and are intended simply to illustrate the text. In many cases it has not been possible to fix the exact spot for the flags representing the schools and stations. These must be taken as being no more than approximately correct. Placenames are in every possible case taken from Messrs. G. W. Bacon & Co.'s "Map of the Island of Trinidad," 1913. Arthur S. Morton. University of Saskatchewan. I

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i I I

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i I CONTENTS PACE Chapter I. I. THE MISSIONARY FINDS HIS FIELD Early and College Days— Called to Bridgewater— Mr. Morton's First Visit to Trinidad— First Efforts for Its Indian Immigrants — His Appeal to the Home Church— His Offer of Himself as Missionary Accepted— The Voyage and Hurricane— The Island — Port of Spain — San Fernando — First Missionary Visiting Chapter II. II. THE ISLAND : HISTORICAL NOTES SELECTED FROM "CHAPTERS ON THE HISTORY OF TRINIDAD" BY THE MISSIONARY The Discovery— The Spanish Occupation— French Settlers— The Conquest by Britain— Negro Population, Slave and Emancipated— East Indian Immigration— The Island at the Missionary's Coming ^ Chapter III. III. lERE VILLAGE Feb., i868-Jui,y, 1871 ARRIVAL AND INDUCTION— Door-step School OUR HOME LIFE. THE VILLAGE— The People-First Efforts. THE FIRST INDIAN SCHOOL-Sabbath School

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viii CONTENTS Chapter III. — Continued page ON THE ESTATES— Visiting and Preaching. BREAKING GROUND— in San Fernando— Arrival of Rev. K. J. Grant — Breaking Ground in Co a — Other Activities. FIRST FRUITS. ILL HEALTH— Removal to San Fernando 37 Chapter IV. IV. SAN FERNANDO August, i87i-Jui,y, 1876 I. COLLEGIATE CHARGE, August, 1871-DECEHBER, 1874 95 (0) Schools — The First Government Aided School — Estate Schools oS (h) Work at the Centre— The Building c the First Church — Training Workers — First Native Evangelists — The First Hymn Book— Books from India 102 (c) lere Village and Neighbourhood 112 (J) Pioneering — Montserrat — Cedros — Couva... 122 ie) Notable Features — Arrival of Rev. Thomas Christie, Missionary for Couva — Epidemic — First Furlough 128 II. PETIT MORNE— SAN FERNANDO, Jan., 1875 -July, 1876 1,15 Division of the Field — Illness — Jordan Hill School — New lere Village Church — Miss Blackadder's Arrival 145 Chapter V. V. MISSION VILLAGE (PRINCESTOWN) July, 1876-FEB., 1B81 I. THE NEW FIELD 140 II. THE NEW CENTRE— Mission House— SchoolServices [56 ill. THE FIELD AT LARGE— Jordan Hill under Kantoo — Morichal under Annejee — Schools in Crown Land Settlements 162

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CONTENTS ix CuAFTEi V —Conlinutd pags IV. A TIME OF TRIAL— Mrs. Morton's IllnessMr. Morton Working Alone — Mrs. Morton's Recovery — Happily at Work 173 V. WORK AMONG WOMEN ,85 VI. CALL FOR MORE MISSIONARIES loi VII. TRAINING NATIVE HELPERS— Two for the Ministry — Intoxicants igj VIII. TRINIDAD'S LOSS INDIA'S GAIN— Native Workers Leave for India joo IX. INTERPRETERS FOR GOVERNMENT SERVICE ,04 X. FOURTH MISSIONARY AND FOURTH FIELD. J07 XI. LEAVING THE PRINCESTOWN FIELD 214 XII. NOTABLE FEATURES— (i) Arrival of Rev. J. W. Macleod, Fourth Missronar> — (2) The Mission Village Changes Its Name — {3) An Unseen Danger ji; 1 Chapter VI. VI. TUNAPUNA— 1881-1889 I. THE NEW FIELD— The New Home Built— General Characteristics of the Field — Tunapuna Village — Difficulties and Hindranc -Winning Favour with the People 323 II. NEW WORK ON OLD LINES— isi.mg the Estates and Villages — Mrs. Morton and Fanny Sufaaran among the Women 216 III. PLANTING THE SCHOOLS AND STATIONS — The Difficulty of Gathering in Scholars — At Arouca — Curfipe — Tunapuna — Caroni — Orange Grove— Furlough (i88j1— Field Divided and Rev. John Hendrie Appointed to St. Joseph — SchoolHouse for Arouca — Tacarigua — Miss Blackadder — Mausica— Red Hill — Monitor at D'Abadie — St. Joseph J.J IV. GENERAL REVIEW OF SCHOOL VilRK— The Place of the School— Native Work ra— Canadian Lady Teachers 250 V. NATIVE HELPERS and Their Taning— Visiting Immigrant Ships — Building of Aramalaya Church 268

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X CONTENTS Chaptek VI.— Continued page VI. MISSIONS TO EAST INDIANS IN OTHER WEST INDIAN COLONIES : (i) St. Lucia — Mr. J. B. Cropper — Mr. Morton's Preaching Tours — Schools J75 (3) British Guiana. 393 (3) Grenada 39S (4) Jamaica 301 VU. THE TRINIDAD FIELD AT LARGE : (a) The First Native Ministers jot (b) Difficulties and Successes in Keeping up the Staff— Mr. Christie Retires—Death of Mr. Macleod 303 (c) Rev. Alexander Falconer Leaves the Island. 307 (d) Mr. Morton Obliged to go on Furlough 308 Chapter VII. VII. TUNAPUNA— SECOND PHASE I 889-1 900 I. THE SUGAR CRISIS— Rice and Cacao 315 n. EXTENSION OF THE FIELD : (i) South, towards Couva 321 (2) East, towards the Atlantic 328 (3) North into the Valleys 334 (4) Wesi, about Port of Spain 334 III. HOME FOR GIRLS— Its Aim. Routine and Teaching — Courtship and Weddings — Religious Work of the Girls — Deborah Talaram 343 IV. A TUNAPUNA BIBLE CLASS— Happy Ussons — Some Scholars 3 5q V. SCHOOL SYSTEM COMPLETED— Governor Gordon's School Ordinance — Amendments of It — The New School Ordinance — Great Extension of Mission Schools — Training School for Teachers — Secondary Education — Naparima College — Greater Efficiency of Teachers 362 VI. COMPLETION OF A SYSTEM FOR TRAINING NATIVE WORKERS— Informal Training by the Missionaries — The Fifth Missionary and His Sphere — Question of Preachers' Training College — Its Opening — The Staff and Organization — Pen-Pictures of Students — Three Students Ordained — Paul Bhukhan — Andrew Gayadeen — Mr. Morton Feels the Burden of Work. 370 f

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CONTBNTS xi Chaptei VIL—Coxliniud pagi VII. NOTABLE FEATURES : (0) Offer of Foreign Miuion Secretaryihip 389 (6) Semi-Jubilee of the Mission 391 (c) Doing Citizens' Duty— Interest in Agriculture —Agricultural Society — Cane-Farming — Road Board — Commission on Education and the Like. 3QJ (d) The Home — Youngest Son Leaves for Edinburgh—Fondness for Books 398 () Furlough, 1894— Death of Mr. H. B. Darling 401 (/) Need of Assistance in the Field 404 (1) Opposition 407 Chapter VIII. VIII. TUNAPUNA— THIRD PHASE I. COLLEAGUE AND SUCCESSOR— Rev. H. H. Morton — Greater Freedom to Visit Outlying Districts 411 II. THE CHANGING FIELD— Migration and Return to India — Roll of the Baptized — Concerning Native Congregations — Districts for Catechists and Ordained Men — Paul Bhukhan — Andrew Gayadeen 417 III. PRINTING AND OTHER ACTIVITIES— Carpentering— School Gardening — Last Years at the Preachen' College 424 IV. ON SICK LEAVE 428 V. PRINTING, ETC., AGAIN— The Girls' HomeNight School 431 VI. EXTENSION— San Juan and Santa Cruz— Cumuto — Cunaripo — Grosvenor — Btche — Plum Roan — Last Appeal for Extension 437 VII. NOTABLE FEATURES— Last Visit to British Guiana — Changes in the Mission Staff — Last Visit Home — In Canada — In Britain 446 VIII. LAST YEARS— Summing Up the WorkStatus of the East Indian Element — Separation of Christians and Non-Christians — ''Hidden Ones" — Celebration of Jubilee — Last English Address — Last Illness 451

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*>i CONTBNTS net APPENDICES STATISTICS FOR THE WHOLE FIELD: A. Table of Stattitics for igi i 481 B. Ordained Minionaries from Canada — Native Miniteri 48, C. Canadian Lady Teachen 483 D. Table of Comparative Statiatict 484 T t

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T ILLT.'STRATIONS I Riv. JOBH MotTOH, D.B., I9I0 Fronlitt^, JOHH MoiTON, u a Student JOBW MottOH— About 1861 J Saiab Ett Siivii (Mn. Morton) Rev. GioioE Biodie j A Boca — Seen from GaspariUo ,. HiOH Sheet, San Feenando ,, Rev, Geoeoe Lahbeet ,, MnnoH PiEiniES, Ieee Vuiaoe .J Me. Cutbbeet \ H. B. Daxuho, Esq ?, A ViiiAOE Hoke A JEWXUEO MaTBOK 5, Peanbie— An E. I, Orphan .'.'.'.'...'.'.'. W". 61 Selal — An early Scholar j. A SnoAB Estate and Factobv '......'. g ScGAE Cane in Abeow 4„ SCSAUACBAE ChHBCH g. Rev. Kenneth Jakes Geant, D.D ,0! Mas. K. ;. Gbani \Z Rev. Thomas Cubistie, B,A „| Mbs. Thohas Chxistie 1,0 Rev, Lai Bibabi Benjaioh Baiabah „, David Mahabib. ,,^ Rev. AiEXANDEB Faiconeb, D.D ,,, Rev. John Wilson McL' od, M.A ,,g St. Andbew's Chdbch, Pbincestown. ji. Rev. John MOBTON, 1883 ,5^ Mbs John Mobton, 1883 ,5, The Unpeetemtious School-House .'.'.'.'.'..'..... 160 Tacabiooa School— Miss Blackaddee. 361 Aeahalaya Chdbch „, Miss Biace:addeb ..'.'....'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'... rn (xiii)

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siv luvinunoNt MOB Poiiintii Snoot, 8i. Ldcm 171 Riei Fuio j,j Cacao Shabid iv Ruiiu Tun • m Cacao Ti— Showing Poi— Drying Beam ... ... Glti O? tH Horn— TUNAPUKA ji DIIOIAH Taiaiah— Bible-woman 157 MU. TBOUnoN AND GllLI 0> CODVA HOHX j60 Mi. Morion's Daiiv Bible Clasi <{| Teachee'i Txainino ScHOOl CtAU tjt PlEllYTEUAN COI'.EOE, SaH FeINANDO .7. MliSION HOOIE, TONAfUNA ]g( Rev. Andiew Gayadeeh ', j^ A CiAU or Gnu— Ieie Hohi ug A FoET Tke with LlANEI 44, A FoEEST Home ^, Rev. H. H. Moetom and Woe 45. CbAELES ClAIENCE SoODEEN 4J4 Hindu Tempie, Tonapona 4.7 MOETON MeMOUAI CBUICR, GuaICO 4]| t MAPS TO ILLUSTRATE CHAPTERS (l) Ch. 3— IeEE ViLtAOE 40 (1) Ch. 4 — San Fernando ^ (3) Ch. 5 — Mission Viiuoe 1,1 (4) Ch. 6— TUNAP.JMA, 1881-1880 JM (5) Ch. 6-Si. Lc-IA .'.'.'.'.'. ,,t (6) Ch. 7— TONAPUNA, 1890-1000 jtt (7) Ch. 8 — TUNAPUNA, 11)00-1911 4,8 (A General Map of the Island)

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I. i 1

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.THE MISSIONARY FINDS HIS FIELD

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I

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t Chapter I. THE MISSIONARY FINDS HIS FIELD Early and College Days vonla' '^"'" ^^^ "^^^" J"*"" Morton came as young man and maiden from Scotland WaUam Which carHe^them'^r stXTs trCa^da'^S were married and ttled at the AlWon Min farTo T. ^™^"^"^"'^ ^h-y removed to a h/.? A-derson's Mountain, where their family became known for a God-fearing one. Later Mr Morton was elected to the elde-ship of Knox Church o^'fTnUeTcrcT T^^''"', ^-' <="^at; Xnhrrer:rt^"anm''oc:ttS^.'. t^ son's Mountain. ^"nage, AnaerHrl„'"' ^J'^"" attended school first at Little H^onr' r" *f""^^ds at the Albion Mines. Hs "cXwrit^r '''^^^^"-™f Nov':

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4 MORTON OF TRINIDAD "It was about 1852 or 1853 that John Morton and I attended a private school at Stellarton, then called Albion Mines. The teacher was a young Scotch medical student named William Wells, a most lovable man. I am sure that Dr. Morton never forgot him. Deacon Morton, as the father was called, although living on the farm, worked at the .Vlbion Mines. Father and son lodged or boarded together. Both returned to the farm, a distance of six miles, on Saturday and back to /Ibion Mines Monday morning, one to his work and the other to school. I cannot speak positively but I think they walked both going and coming." Mr. McGregor continues : "The intimacy between us formed at school continued, and respect for each other grew stronger, until death called the doctor to his reward." The Rev. John Forrest, D.D., late President of Dalhousie University, who was for a time a fellowstudent at the College, Gerrish Street, Halifax, says of Mr. Morton : "When he entered the Free Church Collfge in 1855 as a lad of sixteen years he was well prepared for his work, having had a much better preparatory training than most of the students of that day. Under the faithful teaching of Dr. King, and Professors Lyall, MacKnight and Smith he proved a diligent and successful student, one of the best who had ev r passed through the College... He was a leading spirit in all the College Societies as well a; in his classes. "At this time there was a wave of missionary earnestness passing over the College. George N. Gordon was just finishing his course when young Morton entered. Donald Morrison was with him the whole way through, while James D. Gordon and Kenneth Grant attended during his last year. The missionary meetings conducted by the students were

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JOHN MORTON As a Student

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THE MISSIONARY FINDS HIS FIBUD j c: a most inspiring character and in all of these Morton took an active and prominent part His professors had a very high regard for him, and he was a favourite with his fellow students." On completing his course ini86i Mr. Morton was sent as a probationer to Bridgewater, Lunenburg County and ordained to the charge of that congregat on on Dec. 5^h of the same year, when barely twenty -two years old. Two years later he married Sarah, second daughter of William C. Silver, of Halifax who was of the Anglican Church. The young wif^ might have seemed to herself and to others, at 20 years of age little fitted for the vicissitudes that were to be their lot. When asked in later years how she learned to be a missionary, Mrs. Morton was wont hJ*^\^ i^ companionship of a good man and by the things I suffered." rhe life in the neat manse, on the banks of the beautiful La Have river, was a happy one for the young pastor. The attachment between himself and his congregation, a warm hearted and religiousminded people, might be described as love at first sight. Beginning with his ministry among them it continued till his latest years. At the celebration of his ministerial Jubilee, in far Tutiapuna, of all the honors poured upon him none moved him so visibly BrirttLT*"*f'"i''" ^*J''''"'^ congregation, Bridgewater of an affectionate address accompanied by a valuable gift of money to supply the pulpit Chuich" contemplated "Morton Memorial h ^w". l^'^.P™* pf Bridgewater, ships bound for the West Indies with their cargoes of lumber and ^ndo^?''^ l^ """' ''"^y ^"y^se before the windows of the cottage-manse The "Micmac" was one of these, a small-sized brigantine. On a certain November day in ,864 she carried as a passenger John Morton, who was, all unconsciously

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O MORTON OR TRINIDAD setting out to the discovery of his life work as founder of the Canadian Mission to the East Indian, in Trinidad. One who knew Mr, Morton well at this time furnishes this memory portrait. "Of little more than medium height, of straight and firmly-knit frame, hts presence conveyed, though in no oppressive way, an impression of strength of body and purpose of mind. The fine expressive eye, so often flashing with merriment, would quickly deepen to the touch oi higher thingi. With pleasing features, broad and full forehead, and plentiful brown hair, he had the look and bearing of one with lofty aim, one who might well become a leader and uplifter of men." How John Morion Found His Life Work h„ t^''f ''" J*"="'" •<> Poreign Missions was awakened i/,^ L^ • '.7" ^'' ">' '"'"I ''™"<^t her interest ™„r f V '."""'8'=".'^= ^-d •>" self-denial in laying aside money for foreign m,ssi*,s. When a school-boy my interest was very much deepened by reading the letters of Dr Geddie of Aneityum. Later I was much impressed by an addi .ss of Rev George N. Gordon, before he left for Erromanga ,„ l^h ^ 1
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JOHN MORTON— ABOUT 1862

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SARAH ETTER SILVER-HALIFAX, 1863

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THE MISSIONARY FINDS HIS UttUD 7 The East Indians were brought by the Government from India to labour on the sugar estates. A lady who entertained Mr. Morton at that time afterwards recalled how burdened he seemed to be with the thought of those ao,ooo heathen people, brought into a Christian country and none to care for their souls. "To think," he would say, "of these people living in a Christian community for years, making money, and returning to India without hearing the Gospel of Christ! What a stain on our Christianity I" He set himself at once to have that stain wiped out. I His First Ejffort — in Trinidad The United Presbyterian Church of Scotland had three ministers in the Island, namely, George Brodie, George Lambert, and WilUam F. Dickson ; the Free Church had one, Henry Vieira. These formed the Presbytery of Trinidad. I urged the Presbytery to apply to their Church in Scotland for a missionary, toward whose support Messrs. Gregor TumbuU and William F. Burnley* had olfered £joo per annum. Second Ejffort— in the United States After a stay of four months in Trinidad, and having completely recovered from his throat affection, Mr. Morton made his return voyage in a schooner bound for Philadelphia, that he might plead the cause of the East Ii-dians there. He interviewed Rev. Dr. Dales, Secretary of the Board of Foreign Missions of the United Presbyterian Church of the United States, urging that the abandoned mission of that Church to negroes, at lere Village, be reopened as a mission to East Indians. •Both of Glasgow, Scotland, proprietors of sugar estates.

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MORTON OF TRINIDAD Third Ef art— tn His Own Church About one month after his return to Bridgewatcr Mr. Morton laid the rullowing letter before the Secretary of the Board of Foreign Miuions of the Presbytenan Church of the Lower Provinces of Bntish North America ; MANir, BHIDOEWATEI, „ Mojr 10th, iM^ J'.v '^"^ ,!" .""""* >'" '" '" <"'•' Btttntion to the Mate of the Coohc* in the Uland of Trinidad u affording a fine II J misKionary enterprise of our Church. On thii Island of 80,000 inhabitants there are nearly jo,ooo cooliei from Madras and Calcutta-a few Sepoys and two or three thousand Chinese, imported by the Government, and indentured a> agricultural labourers for five years ; they are left, so far as their spiritual mterests are concerned, almost wholly uncared for. A Coolie Orphan Home" under the tlircction of the Church of England with 58 orphans in it, and some desultory efforts of a Metho
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THB MISSIONARY riNDS HtS FIBID 9 Jjry of Tri„.d.d i( "hVy c„"d aTclTu'rch'' '" "" '^'T MUtion. Rev. George Br' "" """' ^"'^ would be comramively siair"' """"'"'' '" ^ "' ->". u.. t^rriist.-ji^s^iiy^'^r::;-''' '>' ^ojh^^s ita^^j-ii^-tj-tr-rtir two -nths. visitVL^nTttl-ntt^r^di/giragreS^ i..erL:i^%rti:izri?ors;:
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lO MORTON Ol TRINIDAD No doubt there will be drawbacks and hindrances, but caste, that great obstacle in India, is to a ip'e; t extent broken down in Trinidad. .... This letter and the facts it contains you may lay before the Committee who may make any use of it they see fit. I hope they will urge the claims of the poor Coolies on the Synod. I never saw them walking the streets or at work on the estates without feeling sad at their uncared for condition. A month later Mr. Morton supported this letter by pleading before the Synod of the Presbyterian Church of the Lower Provinces of British North America, in Halifax, June-July, 1865, as shewn by the Minutes: "Rev. Mr. Morton was heard in support of a mission to the Coolies of Trinidad being undertaken by this Synod." "Took up the subject of a mission to the Coolies of Trinidad when it was resolved that the proposal of a mission to Trinidad be referred to the Board of Foreign Missions, with instructions to enquire further into the subject, and to report to the next meeting of Synod." At the meeting of Synod in the following year, held in St. David's Church, St. John, there was no reference to Trinidad in the Foreign Mission Report. The following minute was adopted ; "On motion it was resolved — 'That the Synod direct the Foreign Mission Board to consider the necessities of the island of Trinidad as a sphere of Foreign Mission operations for this Church and report at next meeting of Synod.' John Morton, Missionary A minute of the Foreign Mission Board, dated October 2nd, 1866, shows that "The Secretary was directed to correspond with J. Morton, Dr. Dales, (of Philadelphia], and with fRev. Dr. Somerville] Foreign Mission Secretary '[ the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland."

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THE MISSIONARY FINDS HIS FIELD 1867, "John Morton offered to On >Iarch 27th, go to "rinidad." ,^J\ ^'T"^ "l ^y"'"'' ""'t in New Glasgow .867, show that, The Board submitted correspond^ ence ansmg out of an offer of Rev. John Morton to TJ t "^l.'T "" '^"" the island of Trini dad should the Synod undertake such an enterprise and consider him a suitable agent. (i) Mr. Morton's tender of service (2) Letter from Rev. Mr. Brodie of Port of Spain Tnmdad, to Dr. Dales of Philadelphia ^ ^i^ ."" ''"' ^"^ Mr. Lambert, San FernanUniteH'p 'k • •''"' '"''' '^"ers urging the United Presbyterian Church of the United States to resume their mission to the Coolies, and secure possible Mr. Morton's services. (4) Information furnished by Mr. Morton re tfo^ of"?he rr'^^'^'"?^'"' '^^ 'P-tual^^titution of the Coohes. Finally, a letter from Dr Dales tslt -^ Presbyterian Church of the United ~ ^,'h'"^ ''f "' ""y '"^y f^'t '' impossible to resume their interrupted Mission to the Coolies recommending the field to the Synod, and offering Village "" '" ""^ ^^"'^ '"'" P'*™'^-t I-f 'On motion of Mr. Robert Murray, it was, after an expression of opinion from brethren, agreed T^^rll'r'^TJ'r'' '"^ ^"< '" "t-blish CooHe „ T ^'^ ll "•' 'P^"'*' '^"^fit f the ti2 Lo ^ f ^"" ^ '^"^ J"""" IBaxter, a short time was devoted to special prayer, that the Divine blessing may rest on the mission now resolved on th^ „ff ? '"•*'" '' "'^^ unanimously agreed, That the offer of mission premises at lere Village, made by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Un ted Pres and the cordial thanks of this Synod be returned

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'* MORTON OK TRINIDAD It was also agreed unanimously that the choice of a Missionary be remitted to the Board." On July 3, 1867, Mr. Morton was chosen by the Foreign Mission Board. On the 5th of August he was loosed from his congregation at Bridgewater. He then visited many congregations in the west of Nova Scotia and in New Brunswick, giving information and pleading the cause of the new Mission. On the 15th of October his designation services were held in Knox Church, New Glasgow, his former pastor, Rev. John Stewart, being in the chair Revs. David Roy, George Walker, Dr. Bayne George Patterson, J. A. F. Sutherland, and Mr.' Roderick McGregor were among those present. The Voyage A friend of the young missionary, Andrew Gow, Esq., who was an elder in the congregation at Bridgewater, made offer of a free passage from that port for Mr. and Mrs. Morton and their little daughter, aged three years, in the brigantine 'Aurora," 227 tons, sailing to the West Indies with a cargo of lumber and fish. The offer was accepted, the captain very kindly giving up his own cabin, the only one, for their use. We were but nine souls on board, the crew consisting of five seamen besides the captain. We climbed on to the little deck over piles of lumber, which, occupied the spaces that might otherwise have been devoted to deck-chairs. On Saturday, November 30th, we left Bridgewater and boarded the "Aurora" at Middle La Have. The wind oblif-ed us to remain in port that day. On Sabbath morning, at daybreak, we weighed anchor and put to sea. On Thursday, Dec. sth, we were about 450 miles from INova bcotia. At one o'clock a heavy squall, with lightning and ram, passed over us. Soon we began to feel uneasy

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THE MISSIONARY FINDS HIS FIELD 13 A passage from the Journal describes vividly the growing terror of the hours. forcn^^tiVw "'T'7 ^:^?"'' '"•™' """'"^ """< during WowTJl. 7" "'""'' r'"* ".""^'''d at noon, and beRan to blow a gale Lay to under a close-reefed main-sail and staysail at o clock a heavy squall with lightning and rain 2 p.m.-Storm continued and increased ; stay-sail taken in to give''way~ ^^'""'"^ '''"' ^ ^""''^"^ • "-=''" begins 4 p.m.— Hurricane fearful and night closing in Main-sail blown to tatters A drag thrown out ,0 keep the ship's head to windward^ Begin to throw over deck-load The moon tt^'eTe:l7'es/X"*'^^''"^"!^^^''P'*^-™butadd,"g™ tne tearfulness of the scene. A low livid mist seemed to sweeo ^t^stnd't^erril'' tI"' '""i"'^"'' ^"^ '"^'^^ and whlrt! d Tver the l^fl v, ?' 'f "^^ P=^' '" mountains and swept theTr eL,r h'". ''''"? '^""^he slow hours dragged on tZ^TS ^i^^ *'"''' ^'""i ™'W commended our" selves and our shipmates to God. (To the Foreign Mission Secretary,! Again and again I visited -he deck to see if I could brine and the Invest.? ^"^ the lumber being thrown overboard, Md the incessant pumping, these did not encourage our hopes We longed and waited for twelve o'clock, and as the slow hou^ We thought of the prayers that had been offered for our safe passage before we left Nova Scotia, and that perhaps at that raS;ivrar''"vJ'"fH''^r """ "'^^^'"^ fo; ':rs Tou^d th do ffis work ^H ""'"S'" "^-'^^e going, at God's bidding, to do His work, and so we hoped and pled. But at ten o'clock eit thrt'ouTvei^^r Tr"" i"^ '"^^ "' ^'o™' -^ telt that our vessel could not weather it long. We looked to our Wr?c,'„" ""' ?l''"?.^' ^"y moment swallowed up The hurricane came like a whirlwind over the sea, making it as white :: wiihTtrfurV^Th" ^'t^^^ "pp^'^""^ ''^"^"'^1 r.„T A "''i"'^yThe captain stood by the forestays, axe in hand. Onward ,t came and seemed to press the Auror?" under lee s S ^a"^: ^t^ ';"= /"""/"^ "''' "-^ "^^''-'-d on the could not^!l advantage of a heavy list to windward, she could not bear up agamst the storm. Over she lay more and

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•4 MORTON OF TRINIDAD more till the water was far over the lee rail, up the dead-eyes on the niw.-rigging and beginning to flow in at the cabin doors. Uien the captain cut ; away went the spars with a crash and the vessel nghted. Another hour of wearing anxiety and the storm abated, at midnight. By one o'clock tl'c vessel was pumped clear of water, which encouraged our hopes. The wind came round to the north-west and blew very heavily all night ; our vessel rolled and groaned tremendously. 1 tried to eat, for fiom sea-sickness I had eaten little smce I came on board, and nothing since noon, but I could not eat. Wearied out I slept for three hours— the only one who slept on board the ship that night, except our little girl. At 4 a.m. all hands assembled in the cabin and we offered our united and heart-felt thanksgiving to (;od for ou.common deliverance. [S.E.M. to Mrs. John Hebb. wifeofiin elder it Bridgewater.) Bridgetown, Barbados, Dec. iS, 1S67. The Etorni was very terrible and it listed so long. Through the afternoon every time we saw the captain he told us it was just as bad as it could be, and still it grew worse and worse At the time the masts Rcrc cut away the captain wanted to ask the mates advice but. with his mcuth to the other's ear It wa.s impossible to make him hear the loudest thunder could have added nothing to the nois>; as we heard it We remained in the berth all the time. O.irc when we heard water rushing into the cabin we thought the end was near ; one of the doors had blown oiT the hinges ; we were half under water at the time. After being nearly washed away the steward succeeded in fastening it up. Our mate, who has been at sea tw-enty-four years, had only once before seen such a storm and then it K-isted but three hours. The sailors all vowed never to go to sea agam, but, no doubt, they have forgotten it by this time. Sixteen long hours they all worked drenched and without food. [They were secured with ropes attached to the ves.sel and were washed off and on the deck.) (To the .Secietary, continued.) The "Aurora ...resented a desolate appearance m the morning. The main-mast stood with ihc m.iin-top gone • the forera^t broken oft ar the top, fore-top, top-ealiant and royal gone and the ]ib-boom carried away. The foreyard and sail swung desolately by the broken mast and one or two stay-sails remained

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i THE MISSIONARY FINDS HIS FIELD 15 By the parting of a hawser we lost our drag about daylight and there being no sails to steady the ship and the deck-load very much to windward, the heavy sea made us roll in a most distressing manner. At two o'clock on Friday the fore-sail and the mam-stay sail were set and we began to move on gently before a strong N.W. breeze. Two vessels were sighted from aloftone a brig dismasted like ourselves, and near her a baraue apparently all right. -.,M ^?*"''''^J' morning we were hailed by the "Charles Miller of Boston, bound for St. Thomas, with her main-boom and main-sail and top-gallant sail carried away .... During baturday an old main-sail was put on in place of the new one which was blown away, and the deck-load trimmed so that we began to irove on more steadily and with better speed. Other light sails were rigged and set in due time. Even our boat-sails were called into service. We were favoured with fair winds till yesterday, but it is dying away to a calm in the calm latitudes north of the trades. Bridgetown, Barbados, Dec. 25, 1867. For a week after the above was written we had very light winds and mostly from the south, so that at times we thought we would be obliged to go to St. Thomas. Since hearing of a dreadful hurricane and the breaking out of the yellow fever at St. Thomas we feci as if a special providence had prevented this At 24 North Lat. we caught the trades very strong and a httle north of east, and the "Aurora" being a capital sailer we got along fast, averaging seven knots an hour for three days. Last night we lay tossing in a heavy sea and strong wind to windward of Barbados, waiting for daylight, it being unsafe with our sail to attempt making port at night. And now, after a passage of twenty-four days, we are here safely, so far on our journey .... [S.E.M. to Mr.s. Hebb, continued.) Christmas morning brought us within sight of land We dined at 12 o'clock on fried dolphin, and about 3 p.m. entered the hMbour. Agnes enjoyed the voyage very much [except when, during the storm, she was disturbed in the berth by showers of sea-water, which would cause her to jump up and shake herself and say, "I don't want to be drowned. Oh I don't want to be drowned.") It was amusing the care she took of me C* deck she would say, "You'd better let me fix your chair

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16 MORTON OF TRINIDAD you'll roll over and the dolphins will eat you." Her kitten came to an untimely and mysterious end. After patiently submittrng to very rouRh treatment for a fortnight it quietly disappeared.* The fate of her chicken was little better. Its health suffered from confinement at first. It had just begun to recruit when, sad to tell, it was blown overboard. We lost most of our water supply in the storm, the casks, 021 deck, containing it having been swallowed by the sea ; we were requested to make our toilet with salt water and to drink no more than was necessary, which restriction, my husband asserted increased his thirst perceptibly. Shortly afterwards the captain ordered out a boat to bring us some from a passing brigantine, also some molasses and some yeast, both of which had been lost by oversetting The sea was very rough at the time ; the sailors cursed and swore about the small chance they had of regaining their vessel, but came safely back to us with the much needed supplies. Some nights when the vessel was rocking in the most distressing manner I passed most of the time sitting on the floor. From the morning of the storm, Thursday, the 4th, till Sabbath morning the ?th, I had no sleep whatever. Try as I would, even tying a folded veil over my eyes, no sleep would come. On Sabbath morning I said to Mr. Morton : "Oh I am so tired I wish I had time to rest." He rephed : Well, this is Sunday ; you can rest all day." I looked at him, rather scornfully I fear, and said, "The captain cannot spare me ; he would not hire sailors if he did not want them to work." My brain was beginning to suffer from all I had gone through. Shortly after sleep visited me ; the danger was past. It was months, however, before I regained the usual sleep. •Sailore regard cats as bringing ill-luck to a vessel.

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REV. GEORGE BROOIE Qreyfriars Church, Port of Spain i

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..

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THB MISSIONARY FINDS HIS FIELD ,7 eavy WMther. We have no news of the "Steven McKean." left Doi-t w^'h" "'* three-masted schooner that had left port with our own vessel and on the same route Three years later her hulk was found at Bermuda bottom up. All hands were lost. The "Aurora^'' s.ghted her for the last time on the day of the storm Steven McKean must have been overset. w!',"i; „ ''" f SP"'". Jan6. '868. .,„ "7. '?'' passage [from Barbados] in a little slooo ciIIpH th. w^sfp-;;:^rr.:-i-^=^L--tS? sXs'''rw:'frnH'"*' ^^^ ""^'^^'^'^ o p^vrd^tr'ou"! becalmed m one of the Bocas or mouths as the ?ro™T "^^f ^d^which lead into the Gulf of Paria clothed for the most part in the richest of greens a^t^ rP; their towering heights our Httlf Saft at their foot seemed still more a thing of frailty lor wonder and worship. =.„^*''™ ''" ^^ 'P''^" "P^t*'' skirting Gasparillo and some other islands inside the Gulf, we c"me ra''wr "'h"""' r ^''P'*^ f Trinidad sttuatTd which ^-S ^5 ?T ?"* ^"""nded by many hills, wh ch. indeed, might be caUed mountains. Far away to the south a hill-top appeared, at whose foot tley sa^d we should find San Fernando, and six mill lereluTd.*''' ""' '"^ ^'''^''' ""='' -""

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I8 4 MORTON OF TRINIDAD Trinidad Trinidad is the most southerly of the chain of islands extending from the coast of Florida to the mouth of the Orinoco. It lies close to tla continent of South America with the Gulf of Paria between, the two coast-lines approaching each other at a distance of only nine miles on the south and twelve miles on the north. Here the channel between the two is divided by a chain of islands into four passages, the widest of these is less than six miles and is called the Dragon's Mouth. The southern entrance is named the Serpent's Mouth. Into the Gulf of Paria, which forms the harbour of Port of Spain, are poured the waters, more or less muddy, of the Orinoco river. The situation of the Island at the mouth of this river gives it great commercial possibilities as a place for the transhipment which will always be necessary in reaching the northern countries of the South American Continent by the Orinoco and its many tributaries. Trinidad lies between lo degrees 3 minutes, and IP degrees 50 minutes North Latitude ; the climate is therefore very hot, and it is also very damp. The rainfall is about seventy inches. There are but two seasons, the wet and the dry. The dry season begins in January and ends in May ; the remaining months are the wet season. The average length of the island from north to south is forty-eight miles ; the average breadth is thirty-five miles. The area is about 1,800 square miles. At first view the country appears very mountainous, but there are lovely valleys, wide rolling plains, and great stretches of flat land ; also extensive forests abounding in valuable timbers. It is an agricultural country, the main products being sugar, cocoa, from which chocolate is manufactured. i 1

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THE MISSIONARY FINDS HIS FIBLD 19 and coco-nuts. Port of Spain is the capital and aan Fernando the second town. The Government is that of a Crown Colony that IS, under the direct control of the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The executive power is vested in the Governor who is assisted by an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council of official and unofficial members appointed by the Crown. The population in 1867 vms about 80,000 by the census of 191 1 it was 333,552. The people to whom the Canadian Mission was to be directed were natives of India, brought to Tnnidad by the Government under agreement by which they were indentured to the sugar estates to labour for a term of five years during which they were paid ordinary wages by the day, or for a day's task with care and free medical attendance in the Estate hospital when sick, and a free passage back to India, should they wish it, after the terms of their indenture were fulfilled. Many were returning to India, but an increasing number were settling in the Island where they were free to reside and to work as thev pleased. The number of East Indians in 1868 was about fS.ooo ; in 191 1, including those born in the Island It was about 110,000. Tk J^' ''=="^'""' P of Spain on the morninE of Jan. 3rd, 1868 The harbour-master mformed us that the Rev. GeorRe Brodie tinrAT V ^' T ^'" '''™' ^•''^h "^ did. n'i received a cordml welcome. When our things were transferred in Barbados, we found that our largest box of dothing and sundries had been wet very much in the storm. We had it, therefore unpacked at once m Port of Spain. Almost everything in the .wv"^,'"'"''''^' ^""^ ^"^ """8^ '""^h "^l bedding and tablehave escirdh",'"/" ™'"'''^^ ""'"= "' P'^™ '"' ^^^ have escaped, but at present wc cannot have them opened. On Sabbath I assisted Rev. George Brodie with his Communion We found Port of Spain a well laid-out city, with wide streets, and very picturesque suburbs approach-

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'" MORTON llF TRINIDAIl iiiK the back(trounccte.l in the West Indies, Jnst in front of Mr. Hrodie's is a nice square* neatly l,ii,l out with a fountain in the middle, completely -lieltered by beautiful trees and enclosed with an iron railing. thoiiRh at all times open to the purihc. S.E.M. : San Fernando, Jan.. .868. -We had a plea.'iant stay in Port of Spam. Mr. Brodie and Mr. Morton dineil at it. Anne s with the (iovernor, Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon (afterwards Lord Stanmore. We were informed that His txcellency had been expectinR with interest the arrival of :i missionary for the East Indians.) The next inorning about half-past six Mr. ami Mrs. Brodie took us for a drive to see the public gardens at St. Anne's and the water-works at Maraval about four miles from Port of Spain by which the city is abundantly supplied with very good water It was a delightful drive. The road winds around the base of 1 .1 i".*" 'Z"" """ ""ousand feet high, very steep and clothed to the summit with abundant vegetation. Arrived at the waterworta we found ourselves so completely shut in on all sides by these h.lls that although the sun had been up two hours all we saw of him was a reflection on the top of the hill at the western side. In the valley there are two reservoirs walled round with stones and filled by the St. Anne River. The water is thence conducted by pipes to Port of Spain. The gardens were not very pretty. Flowers were scarce but we saw a great many splendid shrubs and trees. We returned to Mr Brodie's, breakfasted at half-past nine and left m a steamer to come down the coast to San Fernando. •Brunswick Square.

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TH8 MISSIONAHV FINDS HIS F18LD 3, At San Ferttattdo fh. nl!?* ''k'* "f Spain, San Fernando is situated on the Gulf shore but about thirty miles to the south W,. found thehttle town lying at the foot of a single peak, the one we had seen in the distance from the tlfifi : ^^-PPhire." There was net much of it been h!^1 V "'"?'' 'P"" J"^' ''' *""Kh had been cleared from the sugar cane that well-nigh surrounded .t. We found it to be. however, a pkce of some importance with a brisk trade, especially iVf^ T^ ^^^"' ^'" ""^ "'"'"^' '" and port Na art a^"' '"""'' *"""'* '" ""^ '''^"''' <^a''e<> the eret'^b7R„'!?"^-"'"', "V™''"' "' San Fernando and clZT 1 k t. ?"'^'^ Lambrt of the United Presbyterian Church and by h,s wfe. who took us to their hearts and horn. Here we have been two weeks and are likelv to he „. m. 1 lon.e^ while .he Mission House a, Z V' na^ is '^nSr^i^^ wri^lflf '"''''"'" '" saying that San Fernando presents a wretched appearance to a stranger. The situation is beautiiu and picturesque, but there is scarcely one building with anv pretensions to architectural beauty. 5 felt very hoL ck for some days, and even said to Mr. Morton : can never stay here or two weeks." |I was suffering from nervous strain and • rule th? T""T"""" ""^ "™>' ™>'^^Later I coSlS say 1 like the place better every day."| S.E.M.-Peb. ist. The Presbyterians are few in number They are mostly Scotch merchants and their wives, educated refined, not wealthy perhaps, but exceedingly comfortable and very warm-hearted. We have had every kindness shown us Every mormng we take our Hindustani books and a basket to bnng home fruit and flowers and go out for a missionary walk^ We meet an East Indian in some shady place or enter one of their httle shops and bidding them "Sala.am,begin a conversation by asking them if they come from Calcutta or '^^'^' """^ '""' 'o-K "go. If we find it possible to be mutually •Or 'Salaam ho" i.,., Peace be with you." i 1 i ( t I } I n

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J MORTON OK TRINIDAD understood Mr. Morton unfolds to them the simple Gospel story. They always seem pleased to hear. We return about half-past nine to breakfast. We have fallen among very kind friends. Among them are Mr. and Mrs. Cuthbert and Mr. and Mrs. Alston. The houses are very comfortably furnished, but still look strange to me vrith the floors bare and, sometimes, walls neither painted nor papered. Some of the gentlemen I have met seem to be "jolly good fellows," generous and warm-hearted, able to polish off their glasses of wine or brandy and water, — "liking Trinidad," one of them said jokingly to me, because one is always thirsty and there is plenty to drink." The ladies here think nothing of going backward and forward to Britain, a distance of 4,000 miles. They take their children there to be educated People say that the climate is fairly healthy. J.M. — Jan. 7th. This morning Rev. George Lambert drove me to lere Village. We took a carpenter with us to estimate the cost of necessary repairs on the house and church. [Later.) Estimates have just come in — putting house in good repair, covering the principal ridge with galvanized iron, and repairing church and covering the one side with galvanized iron, $600.00, that is Spanish dollars, equal to $635.00. (The American Church had contributed about half of this amount toward putting the buildings in order.] First Recorded Visits to Sugar Estates Jan. 20th. — Visited Union Ball and Lts Efforts with Mr. Lambert. At Les Efforts fell in with two Babujees,' one a fine looking Brahman about twenty years of age and only nine months in the Island. Men of all castes crowded around us. One boasted that he ate beef and pork and everything, on the principle that God made all— beef and rice and rum. My teetotal friend playfully told him: "No.— Devil make 'em rum." His ready answer was : "Then, I devil's man." One of the Babujees argued against eating beef in this style : "When I little picknie" mumma give me milk. I grow big — so, — [with gesture indicating height}— cow give me milk; no kill and eat mumma ; no kill and eat cow." I replied ; No all cow give milk." And my friend : "Why no eat bull-calf ?" He replied : "He come from cow. Milk come from cow." He then •Priests. ••Or picaninny, meaning a child.

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HIGH STREET, SAN FERNANDO At an Early Date

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REV. GEORGE LAMBERT Of the Scotch Church," San Fernando

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THE MISSIONARY WNDS HIS FIBLD 23 ^^"* '"' J l""""' """'^ "' reasoning to show that the ammals were of the same nature and that if would neverlo lug m au tnis there is man's conscious sinfulniiM ,. :j 1 propitiation by sacrifice-by bloi^-^H th. h^' ''™ a|.^toUoyonthevi.^^^^1esh-^^^-^--bT^^^^^^

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THE ISLAND : HISTORICAL NOTES

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f

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Chapter II. THE ISLAND : HISTORICAL NOTES „.^!'^*? f™" "Chapters on the History of Tnmdad, written by John Morton in 1910. Coh.^h,^''^^ T-^,^''™™"" on Sfy 31st, .498, by Christopher S^i H Lm a, ^u^ ''T''" "^" '"• "= Candies he hdd sailed far to the south and fallen into the calm zone The vr yage had been tedious and his ships had lain for days idle under a tropical sun. His stores had been damaged by the intense heat and his water supply had been all but exhausted. The navigator meanwhile believed that he was near the Caribf^f^Jw A ''.^^^'.'' f '"' had sprung up, and this, and the flight of birds led him to hope that he would soon sight some of ind wSeTr W ? ""' ""^ """ ''"' '"''"' "' "^ — The writer has been eighteen days at sea on a very limited supply of water, and can testify that the mere thought of such a shortage of dnnk creates an increase of thirst. Amid all their misery a joyful cry is heard from the topmast, Land, land 1 That land, lert to the Indians, became known to our world from that afternoon as Tnnidad. Washington Irving describes the incident in his own inimitable way : "About mid-day a mariner at the mast-head beheld the summit of three mountains arising above the horizon. As the ships drew nearer it was seen that the three mountains were united at the base. Columbus had

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It MORTON OF TRINIDAD determined to give to the first Und he should behold the utrae of the Tnnity. The appearance of these three mountains, united into one, struck him as a singular coincidence, and with a solemn feeling of devotion he gave the island the name of 'La Tnnidad,' which it bears at the present day. These three mountains arc believed to be the Three Sisters in the Southern Range. Columbus landed on Trinidad probably ut Moruga. His first care was, of course, for a supply of water, but he noted on the sandy beach human footsteps, and on the hills 'thatched huts and patches of cultivated grounds.' Sailing along the southern coast he caught his first sight of the continent of South America, but supposed it to be an island. At Icacos, the south-west comer of Trinidad, he anchored, and here twentyfive Indians in a large canoe approached his ship ; they even communicated with one of the smaller vessels, but were evidently apprehensive. They were well-formed with long hair and somewhat fair complexion, without clothing save for a short tunic of coloured cotton and a head-covering of the same material. They earned bows and arrows and, for defence, squa.e bucklers, but they were not a warrior people. These Indians have been wrongly called Caribs. They were Arawaks, a less warlike, yet vigorous race which had proved able to drive back the conquenng Caribs, invaders of their shores. In writing from Hispaniola to the King of Spain, Columbus reported that in Tnnidad 'he beheld stately groves of palm trees and luxuriant forests, which swept down to the seaside, with fountains and running streams beneath the shade ; the shore was low and uninhabited, but the country rose in the interior, was cultivated in many places, and enlivened by hamlets, and scattered habitations— in a word the softness and purity of the climate, and the v-rdure, freshness and sweetness of the country appeared equal to the delights of eariy spring in the beautiful province of Valentia m Spain." Part of this is no doubt literally true, but part is coloured by the memory of the blistered decks and brazen skies of a few days before. Trinidad on the first of August is scarcely "equal to the delights of eariy spring in Valentia." Columbus spent nearly a fortnight exploring the Gulf of Pana around some of the mouths of the Orinoco which open into the southern end of the gulf, and along the northeast coast of South Amenca called Paria, still supposing that he had to do with an island. On August 14th he sailed by the Dragon's Mouth past the north-western point of Trinidad into the Caribbean Sea and on to the island of Margarita, sighting on the way both Tobago and Grenada. i I

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THE ISLAND HISTORICAU NOTBS 19 In ijjo Don Juan Ponce, a native of San Domingo, was authonied by the King of Spain to conquer and govern Trinidad, but the brave natives, the swarms of mosquitoes, added to the tropical heat and rain, slew the majority and drove away the rest. About 1584, however, Don Antonio De Berreo, who had failed in his search for El Dorado in the Valley of the Orinoco, succeeded in securing a permanent foothold i.. the Island. He built the town of St. Joseph and established the seat of Government there. At this point a noted Englishman comes on the scene. '" March, 1595, Englan
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i" MORTON OF TRINIDAD brought in, and the hUnd attained its first real prosperity and became the home or a thriving community, so that settlers contmued to be attracted to its shores. of fi,^^""i*"? ','" f*'?''* "'"" '" S" Domingo, in a time of fierce cvdstnfe, had to escape from the blacks, "many o( them followed their French compatriots to Trinidad, where they speedily began to retrieve their fortunes, several of them sucCMding in estabhshing sugar estates especially in the Naparimas." The population thus acquired was likewise as a rule of a respcc table, mdustnous and law-abiding class. A year or two later a r„. f "If;:".''' ^'T*' ^'^'""^' *>>' British led the Republicans of all shades and colours to take refuge elsewhere. A very arge number came to Trinidad and were represented to be "a turbulent and intriguing faction." aericuk,!?i"„H' ""'' """ ^^"^ ""^ '""'''" ""' ""d'^ in agriculture and commerce. The population in 1796 was made up as follows Whites ,^a^ „ 3,000 Free coloured .*,t ?';f :::::::::::::::. oiJ^ 'adans ,^„jj Total ,,4 The acres in cultivation were j7,q6o. r <;„,^^'"'u'';'''' ul '''™ declared between Great Britain and Gener'a? sS Rafl' 'H^" Rar-Admiral Harvey, and with him general Sir Ralph Abercromby, entered the Gulf of Paria February ,6th, 17,7. It consisted of seven ships of the line and TooTiml" '"''''' ""'' '""' '""^P^^s, carrying 6,700 men Spain had sent four ships of the line, a frigate and 800 men for the defence of the Island. The bpanish Governor, Don Josd Maria Chacon, was a gentleman of steriing worth and bravery but re s 'ance was useless, especially in the face of a d...ded and somewhat turbulent population. Admiral Apodaca burned his ships to prevent them falling into the hands of the British. General Sir Ralph Abercromby landed his troops and soon I'ort of Spam was practically in his hands.

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r TUB ISUAND : HISTOUCAI, NOTRS 3' He then Hnt an officer to Governor Chacon with a Bai
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3> MORTON OP TKINIDAI) wntHryl ii diiputablc. It is enough that the ireat Act
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THB ISLAND : HIRTIIRICAL NDTBS 33 ... ThoM who pliiccd theraiclvRi under contna, bciidni houwf nnil waxes iind medical comforti, had a monthly lupply o( (oal, ond a libtnil yearly lupply o( clothThe men who preferred their liberty were reduced to hu ; ji, mg. On April ijth, 1848, Eorl (ire^ .luuiated to Lord Harrii lOovirnor at the time|, the upenion of the ichemc of immijETation. ... In rcadinK over the diipatchex I have tome to the conclution, that both the planters and the immigrants were unduly blamed. The system that formed no tic between the Indian Immigrant, so far from home, and his manager, beyond, al the most, a yearly controct, and with but the shadow of Government inspection was fore-doomed to failure. Hud masters and men been all Solomons, Jobs or Daniels it might have been otherwise, but personifications of wisdom, patience, and justice seldom appear simultaneously in any one clime. Up to this point everyone has been touching the nettle with linger tips and has been stung. Lord Harris and Earl Grey proposed to grasp it firmly. But why not drop it once and forever Because that mean! ruin to Trinidad, for the abandonment of Bast Indian Immigration was not the only misfortune the Island had to face. Great Britain, by a strange twist of economic conscience, after spending twenty million pounds sterling to free the slaves, decided, in the interests of free trade, to abolish the deferential duties penalising slave-grown sugar. Here, surely, the exception might have proved the rule and the strictest free-trader have been justified in CiJling free trade in slave-grown sugar bad trade For inconsistency in ethics is surely worse than inconsistency m economics. I entirely sympathize with our sugar planters in their complaint thot Parliament had suddenly resolved to admit the produce of slaves and freemen on equal terms thus giving at once additional prosperity to the slave merchant and to the slaveholder, and increased discouragement, and diminished resources to the depressed British Colonist." On April 5th, 1848, ten years after Emancipation, Lord Harris wrote to Earl Grey : It is pitiable to witness a fine colony daily deteriorating, a land enjoying almost every blessing under heaven suffering from a shock from which it does not rally ; but the deepest pang of all. to an Englishman, is to sec the hearts and affections of a whole population becoming gradually alienated from the country ho loves. ... It is impossible for me to express too forcibly the present distress." I i i\

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34 MORTON OP TRINIDAD In the face oC Lord Harris's strong representation the Home Government felt obliged to do something. They would not reverse their economic policy but consented to reopen Indian Immigration under much more stringent terms for both employers and labourers. .... The most important points to be noted in the new arrangements were, that contracts should be made before embarking and be binding in the Colony ; the contract should be for five years, three of them on the same estate, after which the immigrant might indenture himself yearly to the same or another employer till his term of five years was completed, or he might commute his fourth or fifth year by a payment of three pounds for each year. .The distance from India being so great, it was enacted that immigrants should not be entitled to a return passage till they had completed ten years of industrial residence, and should be encouraged to commute their return passage by receiving a grant of crown land, and that a strict Government surveillance should be exercised over the planters to ensure that the rights of the immigrants should in no way be infringed. A new era soon' dawned. Planters, immigrants and Government worked hopefully together. Large numbers of East Indians were introduced and the Island began to flourish. Ten years later Governor Keate on the 26th of September, 1858, wrote Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton: "The Island is mainly indebted to Indian Immigration for its progress." ... -By ordinance of No. 5 of 1857, in order to guard the immigrant from being turned off at the end of his three years* indenture because he was weak and unfit for work, all contracts were to be made for five years, still leaving the immigrant the option of purchasing his release from the fourth and fifth years. If hurt or maimed he was to be supported by the Estate till the end of his indenture. Dr. Morton then goes on to describe as I Saw It in 1868.*' Trinidad .Indian Immigration had been introduced, and made a success so that the labour question had ceased to be a daily anxiety. The population was steadily increasing, sugar was prosperous and trade active. The Colony had been divided into Wards with administrative machinery for collecting local taxes, for building roads and administering poor relief. Each Ward had one or more Government schools. In the capital were Normal and Model Schools, and the Queen's

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THB ISLAND : HISTORICAL NOTES 35 i Collegiate School. Churches dotted the landscape with their white grave stones, beneath the shadow of graceful palms. During the dry season over loo factory chimneys flung their "meteor flags" to the breese ; long lines of mule carts rattled over the country bringing the canes to the mill yard, where busy labourers headed them into the factory, for there were no railways, and no mechanical cane carriers in those days. Smiling women and boys, spread, turned, and dried the megass* over the wide yard, while the sweet odour of boiling cane-juice greeted the traveller across the fields to a considerable distance. In the Naparimas and Savana Grande there were over fifty sugar factories. In the wet season the fields were delightfully green but every road from San Fernando, after the first five or six miles, ended in a quagmire of mud. In the dry season, however, one could drive past Victoria and St. John villages east to The Mission (now Princestown) and back by lere and Mount Stewart Villages. There at a rise on the road above Mount Stewart Village the vievi over the undulating country to the left, and down the green Guaracara Valley in front, and up to the Point 4 Pierre and other hills on the right, and out to the placid Gulf of Paria on the western horizon, was a sight to quicken the feelings afresh at every view. In this landscape the factories at no great distance apart, and the cottages of the labourers around them resembled each a small settlement or village with the comfortable and sometimes stately residence of the planter overshadowed by graceful palms and other trees standing out in marked contrast to the broad fields of waving cane. In these residences hospitality abounded, it being the custom with some always to set an extra place at the table for a possible stranger guest. There was no railway, no news by cable, only two small weekly papers costing 7Xd. each, and often several days behind date. But life was more restful, and the country more picturesque. usedT'' 5^'*^~S'"* "^' remains after the canejuice is pressed out ; I

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CHAPTER III. lERE VILLAGE Feb. 1868— July 1871 Arrival and Induction During the weeks spent in San Fernando we acquired a growing sense of its importance as a centre — the key to the Naparimas. The great sugar district so-called was intersected by well-planned roads, all converging upon the town. One of these followed the coast northward through Pointe i Pierre and Couva to Port of Spain, and southward in the direction of the Pitch Lake, Irois Fc st, and Cedros. Three roads constituted highway; to the eastwards, one passing through lere Village two others uniting at Petit Morne Estate, passed through Jordan Hill and met with the first at a village called The Mission. This scheme of roads so far helped our work and affected its shaping that it would be well for the reader to bear it in mind.* There was also a tram-way from San Fernando to The Mission and a steamer service along the coast. Starting from San Fernando in an easterly direction the ro ad to lere Village lay for the most part 'See map opposite page 40. 39

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40 MORTON Of TRINIDAD between walls of sugar cane past Palmyra Estate, and on through Mount Stewart Village. Here and there were little homes, with their provision gardens, suggesting to the new-comer a bit of tangled underwood, rather than the neat kitchen garden of more northerly climes. While enjoying the hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Lambert at the United Presbyterian Manse in San Fernando we took various trips to lere Village to watch the repairing of the rather delapidated house and chapel that had been handed over by the American Church, with the understanding that the little coloured congregation they had gathered in would be ministered to by the missionary. The locality had been considered unfavourable t* the health of Europeans, but we were starting in high hope. Friends helped and encouraged us, yet there were not wanting those who said : "Oh, you will not stay long at lere Village. Nobody does." Or, You will find it a hopeless task to convert those Indian people." Mr. Morton was inducted to the charge of the lere Village congregation, January 29th, 1868, by the Presbytery of Trinidad, of which he had become a member. Rev. George Lambert writes at the same date ; Mr. Morton's arrival has excited a great deal of interest among all classes. We had excellent services in connection with his induction." On the 2nd of February Mr. Morton took his first service in his new charge with a congregation of thirty-two persons. On the 21st of February, 1868, the repairs to the house being finished, the missionaries took possession. By correspondence with headquarters, December, 1915. we have learned that the American Church opened its Mission at lere Village in the summer of 1843, In 1844 two out of the first three agents died, and are buried there. Another sent in 1845 returned in 1846, on account of failing health. In 1847 another i

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I / isK y A NARARIMA i V' \ o uusTK.Tt CHAP.M lERE VILLAGE ^ IS8-ia7l r f RICULAH SCHOOt. IrioulAR TIMPOHART Cl*SSf5 J *"'"• .. t *nOITIOHALMt*TS WITH < (t) 1

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T MISSION PREMISES— lERE VILLAGE iSkotched after description of S. E. M.) i

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IBRE VILLAGE 4> ti, 1868. Moved to lere Village. 10. Getting settled. Visiting .some of the Ea.st agent went out, but returned in 1848. "The Synod did not find anyone who was willing to go and in the spring of 1851, Mr. Banks, [the only miMionary on the field), finally left it on account of m-health. In that year another was sent, but his report to the Board was not encouraging, and by Its advice, he returned in the autumn of the same year." No more Americans were sent ; anything done was by means of agents of other Churches on the ground. Little wonder that we heard : No one stays long at lere Village." The small congregation of negroes gathered at such a cost by the American Church had previously to Mr. Morton's arrival been ministered to by Rev George Lambert. As the inducted minister of this charge Mr. Morton made it his first care. Feb, Peb. .,. ^ ^,,„^ Indians and blacks all the week i,h" "' """"i-K they selected a hymn with headline, "Seeking a Pastor," when they had just got a brand new one. Every Thursday afternoon, in accordance with a provision of the school law, Mr. Morton gave rehgious instruction at the Ward (i.e. the Government) school. The missionary's reports show a large attendance. The children were all black and coloured, called Creoles— "coloured" being used to denote a mixture of white blood. Owing to race

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4 MORTON or TRINIDAD prejudice there was scarcely an East Indian child to be found in school in the whole Island. I have just got the black con(re(ation wttled and the Sunday School at work. Yetterday there were thirty-three at Sabbath School. They sing exceedingly well and moat o( them have been very well taught. I must now try to get a claia of East Indian children. These words bring back memories of the twentythird of March, 1868, when the missionary, holding a little girl by each hand with a larger brother pacing somewhat shyly ahead, passed through the sunshine from the little hut seen in the memory slcetch to our door-step facing the chapel. Producing a card with a, b, c, looming largely and brilliantly before them he invited the trio to pronounce the unwonted sounds. Then and thus the first school for East Indians was started. Though it looms large in our story we take it up, not here but later, in order to be able to follow it the more fully. Our Home Life S.E.M.— March j, 1868. Our house is comfortable and, for a West Indian house, not bad looking. The front door opens into a room of fair size with papered walls ; this is the parlor, or, as it is called here, the hall. We have it furnished much in the same way as at home. Our bed-room opens off on one side, also nicely papered. On the other side are the dinmg-room, and a study and spare bed-room in one, with painted walls. At the back is a nice pantry and a little open gallery where we sling a hammock and recline at ease. This is the whole house. The kitchen is in the yard with a small servant's room opening off. The buildings all faced the main road ; behind them was a stretch of rough and broken land, about three acres in all, part of which was in use as a graveyard. Here, already scarcely legible, two of the i

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IMS VILLAOB 43 tones neareit the chapel recorded the names of Rev. David Gordon and of Mr. George Kerr, former occupants of the Mission house. They died at their posts, of fever in December, 1844, Mr. Kerr, a lay missionary, having been only two weeks in the Island. The stones were in a crumbling state and have since been removed. We found that some servants were terrified at sleeping so near graves. The little church stood about forty yards from the house, a rough and weather beaten structure, with a square door, square windows, and seated with plain forms. Between this and the house was a scarred tree, in which a small bell was suspended, as we have tried to show in the sketch. In very novel surroundings we were to shape out our new home. We were sorely tried by loss on the goods brought with us from Canada from damage by salt-water. Between rust and mildew nearly everything had become worthless. The last to be unpacked was a fine Broadwood piano, a wedding present from my father. It would not sound a note, and was never after of any account, though we spent a good many dollars trying to restore it. Suitable food was not to be had nearer than San Fernando, six miles away. The small shops of the village were better supplied with rum and tobacco than with more wholesome fare. Their stale cornmeal, inferior flour, and bad salt-fish found an unwilling way to our table on the frequent occasions when there was nothing better on hand. The dark and sour substance they called bren', raised with stale dough for leaven so far as it cou.d be said to be raised at all, did duty instead of the real article. A boy and basket were sent to San FTnando as often as seemed prudent, having regard to the size of the missionary purse. Every article was e.^pensive ; coming as we had from Lunenburg County — a land M 4

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* MOTilN or TRtNIDAt) flowing with milk and auer-krut-it was a novel experience. We bought a goat to give us a little milk Mr Morton notes "Arrived home to find our goat stolen, We thought a sheep would be economical and company for us Our purchase came to us lookmg well, but died the next day, causing my husband to write up in expenses for the month "One dead sheep, td.oo," Indians (of a certain low caste) dragged It away and, to our horror, we found that they had eaten it Though there was not much to cook we had an Indian boy with a classic name to cook it I remember Henry Martyn better by his concertina than by his cooking It was a very good one and he devoted his time more willingly to it than to his work Henry s mother had died on the passage from India • his father had been sent back by the Government as a disabled man. Henry and a small sister were cared for by the manager of a sugar estate Notwithstanding that he carried so revered a name Henry loudly invoked the heathen deities in every case of disaster, such as a pot boiling over. He was rewarded with board and four dollars a month for doing very little. Before the end of the year I found myself obliged to call in "Rosanna for part of the day to help him do it. She was the daughter of one of the black elders. As she could not understand my Enghsh and I could speak neither Congo nor French patois, we wasted no time in conversation I returned from a walk one evening to find Rosanna at one of my trunks with the contents strewed around her on the floor, having nearly reached the bottom She had taken the keys from their hiding place where 'nought she had been too stupid to find them. The ebony-skinned Rosanna was succeeded by Jane, a rather fine looking mulatto, descended from American emigrants and priding herself on the fact as well as on her professional skill. I said to her one

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IBIW VILLAOB 4S day, "Jane, you need not wait at tea." "Very well, uiadame, I will not ; it is not fashionable." Jane was stung by a scorpion in the kitchen ; she screamed lustily, and, as she afterwards told me, said her prayers, thought of everything good, and repeated the tines : "The wouii I i.ir.ked and soon were healed. The jii"!!); • reu',n* • diiv" She once fcui.M i [.annil;i .1 1 er room : tarantulas are enorn, s •ipidcC(jveriMl .>1th long hair either black or ; 1 .1 e ci.lourr'l I „ ir bite is popularly supposed to .( fat..,, tli,.iu I. tlvre seems to be some uncert!i;Mty as tn wlrili.r lije creatures bite at all. At all I V. nts t H ; v.c very hidious and I should not like to try thi 11, 'une elated her experience thus, Madamel When f fl.si ^.n.v l,im I was too frightened, but I prayed U,i i,„ili and fortitude and with that I jumped on him and ground him to powder." S.E.M. |To a sister.)— June igth, 1868. 1 would not have you imagine that the only drawbacks to life in the West Indies m the litter of rose leaves and the noise of nightingales." House-keeping is an endless trouble. The ants are 10 thick at night that every thing, unless great care be taken, is covered with them. All food has to be tightly covered or else set in water. In the daytime you might think there was scarcely an ant or a cockroach in existence, but set down a piece of meat or anything eatable and in an hour it will be black with ants If you hang it up they will crawl down the string. We have .i hanging safe with a sort of little funnel-shaped attachment to the stnng filled with pitch oil which the would-be intruders will not pass. Our house having been shut up for years, we frequently came upon a centipede or a scorpion. Our little Agnes came to complain that there was something in her shoe ; I took it off and found a good sized scorpion. The sole of the foot is the most dangerous part of the body to receive a sting, but the creature had been too much flattened out to strike. i

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46 MORTON Of TRINIDAD F I went to my little pantry and, after cutting a piece of salt cod-fish to soak for breakfast, took up a damp cloth to wipe the knife. I never saw my enemy but I knew that I had been stung by a scorpion at the tip of the third finger. I applied ammonia at once and suffered exquisite pain for two hours ; suppuration continued so long that it was with difficulty the nail was saved. We had not sufficient cleverness to stuff the holes m the dining-room floor, but the snakes had enough to find them out. One evening while at prayers the dog barked and a large but harmless snake called a crebo, that comes about where there are chickens, was seen crossing the room, evidently in search of a meal. While wi still gazed at our visitor, his ugly length dib.ippeared down one of the many holes. Needless to .say our devotions had been somewhat disturbed. We succeeded !' purchasing a second hand American buggy ,^, half price, and a horse with broken knees, some means of travelling being altogether necessary for the work ; the horse proved an excellent bargain ; Jack soon became as well-known as his master. Henry Martyn, notwithstanding his grand name, now became a "groom," as they say in Trinidad ; "stable boy" would have been more appropriate to Henry's duties. When Jack came in covered with mud to the ears and the buggy in a similar condition, if Henry were engaged with his concertina he was obliged to leave it to remove the sticky mud before it should harden. Twice every day he travelled to an estate about a mile away, to water the horse and bring his chop-chop, which means cane-top cut up finely for fodder. These, with other small duties, enabled Henry to pass with himself for a rather hard worked young man. Later I write: "The first four months we kept a horse we had four grooms. The first (Henry) left with a sore foot, the

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!J '1 MRS. WILLIAM CUTHBERT San Fernando — Now of Ayr. Scotland

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H. B. DARLING— "THE LOTHIANS" I

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IBK8 VIIXAGE 47 second with a sore leg, the third with fever and the fourth with his throat cut," as will be related. Rev. George and Mrs. Brodie, of Port of Spain, who had been our kind hosts there, came to see us. They were a clever and estimable couple. Their names are still revered, very specially by the congregation of Greyfriars Church, where Mr. Brodie ministered until his death in 1875. Rev. George and Mrs. Lambert also came to see us at lere Village. They had a large family ; Mrs. Lambert took them home to Scotland for their education in 1868 ; they never returned. Mr. Lambert remained at his post for a time and then retired permanently. Universal regret was felt at their loss. The names of Brodie and Lambert remain closely intertwined with the early story of our mission. Mr. and Mrs. William Cuthbert and Mr. and Mrs. Alston, all of San Fernando, have been mentioned on a previous page. They helped us personally over many a rough place, encouraging and assisting in our work as well. While we were still in San Fernando during the repairing of the lere Village house Mr. Harry B. Darling called upon us and invited us to visit "The Lothians" sugar estate, of which he was resident proprietor. It was situated near a village called "The Mission," afterwards named Princestown. It seemed to us a strange journey. We travelled among cane-fields, on the tram-road of which we have spoken, in a car drawn by mules to the terminus at the Mission Village ; then through more canefields in a mule cart sent by Mr. Darling and provided with chairs, the deep mire of the road not allowing of a lighter conveyance. One of the mules fell in the mud ; the driver not at all concerned, merely paused for him to struggle to his feci Mr Darling was an Irish gentleman, field In honoMr ("t tilt

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*" MORTON OF TRINIDAD high Christian character and for his efforts in every faWe'rr'Hrhad"^ "l 'l",'"' "' "' East iS laoourers. He had a school for some years for the children on his estate, sending to India for teachers S^.nttJ^^si^^S---ci: date of our v.s.t to him tiU his lameited deaS, in s'up'^rttrortrl^^*'""' '^-^ -' ~ th A''! '" ""' ^^*^ ''''''' '•"e tended to monotony wi h?h^ rro^*"*"*, "' "^ "^y """ that"onS with the progress of our pupils in a,b,c As the sun toItarH^ *%"'""'• ^'""'''^'"'' on the ma^roaS 1 ?l *^' "' """ """ths in the year ; everywhere were nti^h'^r "1."' """ "'"^'^^ -^^^ wISr w: were neither too old not too stoical to feel an occa sional straining at the heart-strings as ,^ taUcS^^f ?nTh?dl'™"'^ "''" '"' •""^ -' caneraroun^us In the diy season we could walk in the traces or c^t roads which differed from the main road h„s S ^at there were fewer huts and more canes m" ^ThiaLr"'^ occasionally ride over from The We Zh.^"^^ "^^^ "' ^""^ ^^o^' for the school We made one other acquaintance, the b^chetor manager of Corial Estate. After a year or so a w^te 17^1 ""Z '" ^." ^"""""^ Estate about a mikand a half on the road to San Fernando. Mr and Mrs Dickson proved good friends in sickness. Also we TboutT: '"'" ".'"""^ ^ ''^^y """> -dio^d^tTr ibout the same distance from us, but in the mud TtThttlet^''^'''-^''' '"* ""^ came to L":^ just a httle beyond our house Notwithstanding the loneliness, we were ouite happy ,n our little home, scorpions ad alf countT reca^lft^^h" "' r"'" """'" ""' -lu:™^ I recall tfce hours when I reclined in a hammock in

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IBRB VILLAGE 49 the httle open gallery at the back of the house, taking peeps at a sky wonderfully bright and charmingly blue, hstening to the creaking noise with which a near clump of bamboos answered to the wind, and teaching httle ones sent over to me from the school. Mr Morton s work in the old chapel was more prosaic— the children being noisy and troublesome at times Our Village It consisted of two rows of cottage homes, one on each side of the main road, our own premises and those of the Ward school occupying their place in the line and contributing an air of respectability to the whole. Most of the homes were little mud-plastered huts with thatched roof of grass or cane-leaves. A lew of better class were built of wood and covered with galvanized iron. In some of these lived the elders and members of our congregation. On one side that fronting the mission house, the canes of Malgretout Estate narrowed the view and approached very nearly the line of cots. Behind us the land was more broken, affording a somewhat wider view of the fields .>; Corial Estate. There were a few small shops with a rather more pretentious one kept by a thmaman, offering rum and groceries for sale hqualor and dirt no doubt there were, but so veiled by kind nature with luxuriance of vegetation as to render the whole a not unpleasant scene In the mornings there was little stir in the village Later many homely scenes were enacted at the doorsteps. Women might be seen washing the family clothing, husking rice by pounding it in a mortar or perhaps grinding corn in true Scriptural fashion by turning one flat stone upon another, often singing as they turned. A mother grabs a naked child and pours over it a bucket of water, using her hr,nds for

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30 MORTON OF TRINIDAD cleansing by way of a sponge. A man is being shaved, or having his hair cut ; another is engaged in goldsmith work, with his customers squatted around carefully watching lest he mix any baser metal with their coins which he is turning into jewelry for them. Such were the homes of the people 'he missionary had come to serve. Among them lie would pass from door to door, trying to win confidence, that they might send their children to his school, and be willing themselves to listen to his message. Thi I'crlc S.E.M. [To a fritndl.— Feb.. i86S. The Indians are small in figure, bm graceful. Their feature? are much like those of Euroiicans, for they belong to the .same race. As to clothing It IS occasionally very scant, but many dress well and taiftefuUy. You will sometimes sec the men with nothing more than a straight piece of cotton wrapped about them in an ingenious way to resemble as far as possible a pair of trousers, but it seldom reaches below the knee. In addition to this the ordinary dress IS an upper garment (also of white cotton] shaped much like a tishcrman's .shirt, and sometimes neatly trimmed. On the head they wear a turban formed by a straight piece of cotton folded and wound round and round the head with the ends hanging behind to the waist or lower. Some wear, instead, a little cap of white linen, muslin, or black velvet, shaped much like a boat and placed jauntily on the crown, or on one side of the head. I am sure you would admire some of them dressed .as I have described, in spotless white with, perhaps, a crimson scarf thrown over the left shoulder .and hanging nearly to the ;;round, the snowy turban or dainty little cap contrasting so well with the raven black hair combed very smoothly .ind shining with cocoanut oil. Some of them carry themselves as proudly :is if they were independent chieftains. The women are not so good lookirR as the men the young girls are sometimes very pretty but they seem to lose it very soon. Their usual dress is a skirt falling to the ankles with a tight jacket reaching only to the waist and having very short sleeves. When they go on the street |or speak to a stranger] they throw over them j straight piece of some light material [either white or colouredl coloring the head and gracefully T (

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t i;^ A VILLAGE HOME— SHOWING SHED ACCOMMODATION Cou'lony nf h'„-r .,.,,1 H*.

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A JEWELLED MATRON '~.b,0„,„A„.,s.„p.,„„^

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IBRU VILLAGE 51 Cnlike the men they prefer very draping the whole figure. Ray colours. The little (;irls sometimes come to school with one piece of cotton fastened straighi round them to look like a skirt and another piece, or perhaps j pocket-handkerchief, spread over the shoulders and tied round the neck by the two upper corners. (Jften the boys ha%c nothins hut a little round shirt comine barely to the waist. The children arc usually stout ami healthy-looking I think It IS because they use so much cocoanut oil; they arc rubbed with It daily all over the hmly. 1 have wim-'Ssed the process with young babi.s and they seemed to cnioy it exceedingly 1 asked one young mother why she ilid it ; she answered "Suppo.sc no lio'em so, picknie no gefem fat." Suppoii: is .1 favourite wonl with them ; they use it on all occasions I asked a woman to sell rac one of her bracelets ; she said: "Suppose want 'em naugi (food) must sell'em ; no want em mange, no sell'em ; too much naked arm." They melt their silver coins* and wear them on the arms and ankles also stnng them round their necks till they look quite weighted down Earrings, nose-rings, head-bands, etc., are often made of gold and with very delicate workmanship, by their own countrymen. Mr. Morton thus describes a shopkeeper's wife : She waa beautifully dres,sed according to the style of India and loaded with ornaments. She had seventeen bracelets of Sliver and one of gold on each arm ; these were mostly of solid metal, two of them being very massive an 1 of fine workmanship Around her neck were thirteen silver neck ornaments mostly solid, some being as much as three-quarters of an inch square in the front and tapering toward the back of the neck. With Mteen finger-nngs, four heavy rings to each ear, and over the head and shoulders a showy veil-you can imagine the effect rhe girls are sometime, married when four or five years of age but they do not then go to live with their husbands (this is therefore more like a betrothal|. Marned women are marked with a red streak down the parting of their hair, and seem to me to have a sad, unhappy look. They never eat with their husbands. Turning a page in the note book we find what might be t ranscribed under the heading : "This is now forbidden by law.

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s MORTON OF TKINIDAD Character of the People PkyiuaUy—titA •tnm(. Woro/Zy— Unprinciplid. (o) Untruthful. () Reventeful and fond of law. (t) Huibandi and wivea unfaithful. M) Love money and jewelry, (t) Believe in "followini! the cuitom." Kidtimtnt ftalurti : (o) Pond of their children. Brat, thereby becoming more intelligent and stable Chnstians, if won to the Gospel. reliJnn ""fj^^'y f ">^ people were of the Hindoo wo^h^^ ^^ "!;'' ''^"P''' Gatherings for worship were conducted at any selected SfKit by their Brahmans or priests, called also god-fathers ; each pnest had his own disciples ; part of his duty was to read to them from their sacred books the wonderful and questionable exploits attributed to their gods. There were, however, many priests who were unable to read. Mohamm'edans"^ hale fdris iinlf "''^ ?'"'• ""^ ^"''' '^ """*" i" different dialect and character from those of the Hindoos. They oppose bitteriy any message that would weaken the claims of Mohammed ; for this reason they are more unwilling listeners to the Christian missionary than even the idolatrous Hindoo. who "^?i,';i,'/i'i ^^"'' f: ^^ "'^y Mohammedans here Who ^rJ.. themselves on their superior religious knowledge and belitf o! ^me of these disciples of Islam U comprised in the ^ Wthem^'^ "^ """ '^'"''-"^d riJoihet • The H^H^ ^' ,"' "'" '''"'^ ""^ "" of J< Christ. The Hindoos are idolaters and may be .wen carrying their eock woTlfo "thetTJ^h^'d"'-' '".'-";"•;!- "' 'S loin lo'^ work of their own hands, saying 'Deliver us for thou art ourGod."

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IMI VIU^oi Around the Village 53 ^^ they to.7^^^7s^'„" ch,ss*r?;;'"d.^r^jr ttood. When I read i7.. k 1; ^ '""'i'™ alwayg underth. m™ laugh .nil /SalG^,"".^? T"' '•"band./' wivM" it i. th.n ^'^ Jt'ncniia [Good]. "Hiubands love your .It IS then the women's turn to chuckle Ujether near tL groJn'drd^oo'S-eS ftTh"e sis t?^",?: far into the S At ,7nJ Y u'" """-™ ting till and acc.pt*th7otrin'^g\"then'rh'e u'J'^^^r'''' ^^^ Ne,*/:la;2;nt^rverarpf:eL'%^:™'":^ him when he would die I toldWm r^ "'f".''"'<'
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MICROCOPY RESOIUTKW TIST CHART (ANSI ond ISO TEST CHART No 7] 1.0 Ij. ^2 III 2^2 iJ m m I 1.8 1.6 /APPLIED IM/1GE Ini 1653 fail Mom Stfwt Rocheiter, Htm Ian U609 uW (7t6) *B2 QJOO-Plorre (716) 2BB5989 -Fa.

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T 54 MORTON OF TRINIDAD sitting up in u row and one lying down in the corner. The canopy wa. painted with figures of men, fish, etc. One wa^ Ram as might be expected ; another was Seeta, the wife of Ram of Ram, but others said he was Pam's brother. Seeta had a large ring m her nose such as many of the Hindoo women wear They were gaudily painted-red, and blue, and green The a"lledTm'H',''Hr""","••'^^' "^'^ ""-" "-'""' 'hey called him Haldhar, and saui he was a monkey. His body was tZTjit 1"^"^^ -' r'''"'y '"' *="" 'heir burden that I rnight see an.l a crowd gathered round. After they had tZ tCJ 7"^^ I "*"" •'^••"" *"h them on'^their lolly. They admitted that no man had seen God, and that all thmgs were made by Him. I then asked how mai could make .nt; I "". '"""^^ ^ "™ *™ He had no body. The Bearer, of the idols then asked for money. Mrs Morton pointed to our little church and said. "Christians give thdr shoulders "'• "^"7 ""=" '""'* '""^ "urden upon th i shoulders and moved away-four men carrying four gods. I then iddressed the crowd. Several of them laughingly said it th"m He""""T '"f^ "••'" Parson'man to make into it must ^ '' '"''^ """""y^""y P^'^" "ho looks o^ nuX? ^,f f.'f 't-^"''"^ "P 'he street and read itmo^tT. > f u'^"^ f ™' ""^ ''^'"^All speak with the res"ect ^'"''' ""'' ''"'•™' "' '"^"^ '•''™™ ^ On„ i'"^ '^' ^'''1''^ '" ""^ forenoon among the Indians. One man sent out for some rum to treat me. Of course I exthrpeoptr "'™' '''""'' '"^""^^""" '' '^'" ™'== "> had ^n"' H^"''''.'"'l^'" "=""" """" "P 'he street and had an audience of about twentyfour Indians. Some one or two were partly drunk. Some assented. One said it was absurd to say that God had a Son. All talked a^ea dea among themselves. ^ June 14. Had an audience of several Indians up the villace One man from Palmiste offered to be baptized if f wouM gte h.m a quarree [,.,. three and one-third acres) of land. As early as March 6, Mr. Morton writes • 'The Indians are very friendly, sending us little presents. They call me Buckra [white] parson.' One came to

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lERIv VIUIAGE ,e the kitchen ind throwing down some ears of corn said, 'For Massa to manger [to eat) They also began to call him in to see their sick. The First Patients m,,ch sick ; h,„, no sabhy speak "went at oncel""" T sick man who lives <,u,te near I found him a sf i/h" J"' a word. At s o clock he came home quite well but soo, felt coM ^nd began to shuer ; by six he was very il„ and in shor t^^ ?nd-s"om^et::ry' ^^^rnVcur^h^ S™^^ ^or'-ustt^^l^r t,, t„li „t "'"""> '" "" n"r he began to speak. He tried to tell of some busmess matter This n,„„ ,it nt trjia nTlet m^eTo horn"' '""" ^"^ ""^ *= -" -"^ wel,rt^efuft^:^--^----^--ng rivel's::;:!^!— Lio^-— -"-^ sehoo^^Klti and^mTfev":^ ^o'^der^r^ ^"ot ^h" n'lj^ 1^ evening went and gave her some medidne ""' '" "" Her fT r Le J^t^S Z,:"^. ^ll^ ^ ^^ -r^r c^^ervfn yTJl^tr-^' ^"^ -"^ ^"^^^^" at a?:a[S'7ate' ""''' ^'""^ ^'"='' '"""^"^ -'"-^ .,1) ;=l !'!

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5f> MORTON OF TRINIDAD April 24, 1868. An Indian named Ramjee called with some figs \i.t. bananas] for Agnes, and asked if I would take care of money for him while he was trying to save enough to return to India. Firsl East Indian School March 23, 1868. Began to teach Kunjah's three little children on our door-step. In the afternoon went through the village inviting others to send th^ir children. March 14. Four children ; taught them in the church. March 25. Five children. March 27. Twelve children. March 28. Sixteen children ; taught them three hours at intervals. March jo. School from 1 1 till 12, and from i till i o'clock. No. on roll, twenty-one. Present, eighteen. Mrs. Morton assisted by taking the smaller class. April 6. Only ten at school in forenoon. Went out at breakfast hour (i.e. noon] to beat up the children. One or two are sick ; one or two I found naked while their kapra (pronounced, kaapra — clothing] was getting washed, and some professed not to have heard the bell. In the afternoon there were twenty to teach, and three or four to play and make a noise. Mrs. Morton and Henry came to assist. April 7th. School children very noisy and restless. Felt very tired; what need of patience and faith I Thankful that the children come We sow the seed. The Lord bless and water it and make it fruitful and make us wise to win souls. April 17. Almost a rebellion in the school from my not having been able to obtain books. April 2 2. Several of the children down wiin fever. May 23. Indians sowing their rice all the week ; attendance at school not so good. June 10. Great trouble with the boys cursing one another. Among the first words (of English] these children learn are words of cursmg and swearing and they use them freely, giving us not a little trouble. One curses another's mother, which is considered a great insult. The other becomes enraged and strikes back, a blow for a word. This occurs even in class. Some of them are exceedingly smart and handsome, but they

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lERE VIIXAGE 57 are all disgustingly vulgar among themselves. Most of them are half or more than half naked ; others dress very neatly and there seems to be an improve-nent in this respect since they came to school ; at any rate we get them to wash thtir clothes more frequently. June II. After dinner visited Mount Stewart (a village about one mile from lere on the main road to San Fernando] ; trying to get the children to come to school. Many fair promises as on a former occasion. June 17. Three scholars from Mount Stewart. June 26. Thirty-one at school. June 2gth. Two or three boys have gone to work but six came to-day from Mount Stewart Village. Thus encouragements and discouragements meet and balance each other. So reads the last entry in the note-book for 1868 with these other words appended : December. Have neglected this book too long through fever and work. To the Foreign Mission Secretary. Aug. s, 1868. From sickness, and the dropping off of some of the smallest and least promising among the children, the average attendance has not increased. The progress made has, in some instances, been very pleasing ; several are reading New Testament stories, such as Jesus walking on the sea and raising the son of the wic ,f Nain. S.E.M.— Sept, .jer 5, 1868. Some of the children are begraning to read pretty well [in English). I assist in the school but somewhat irregularly ; often I teach twice a day, sometimes once, and occasionally not at all according to the number of scholars, the state of my health, and the number of my engagements. The only rewards distributed in our school are, what do you think ? Pins. Almost every day some of the children ask for pins ; I think they play some game with them besides using them for fish hooks. The First Indian Sabbath School With the opening of the door-step school an effort was made to get the children on the Sabbath. We were rather surprised to have quite a number

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S8 MORTON OK TRINIDAD gather at lo p.m., their appointed hour, and fifteen more at 2 p.m., the hour for the Creoles. Henry Martyn and myself assisted in teaching. ^^y '7 A very good attendance of Indians at Sabbath School. June j8. Sunday. Mr, Darling came at 11.30 a.m., and stayed till 4. He examined the Indians during their hour, anil taught them during the hour for the Creoles. A few Indians, adults and children, always came in to the English services for the Creoles. March ig, 1868. [Service at n a.m.) Creoles, 48; one Indian, a Mussalman, sat on the floor, following the attitudes of the congregation ; 14 Indian children— who really behaved very well. Before the first prayer I told them, "Chup raho," (Keep quiet) which seemed to have a good effect. Of purely Indian services Mr. Morton says : Oct. 3, 1868. With respect to the village I thought ii better not to attempt gathering the Indians into church, where they would feel less at eaie and where the discourse being more formal I might fail to gain their interest through want of ac(luaintance with the language. I therefore meet them in companies in their own ho'.iws, o' sometimes by the road side. Last Sabbath I had two galliprings, neither of them large, but one of them was very interesting. They listened with great attention while I gave them a sketch of Bible History with a view of bringing them to the point that all sacrifices were rendered useless and abolished by the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. Toward the end of the first year Mr. Morton began to bold afternoon services in the chapel for Indians ; these were interrupted for a time by illness and only became regular from about July, 1869, with an average attendance of forty-two. Mr. Morton's strength was considerably taxed at this time by supplying the Presbyterian congregation of San Fernando in the absence of Mr. Lambert, who visited Nova Scotia, "stirring up our

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lERE VaUAGE 59 Church in the interests of the Trinidad Mission, for which service he received the thanks of the Foreign Mission Board, August 5, 1869. Toward the close of 1868 we began the instruction of Juraman, a fine looking young Hindoo, whom wc had taken into our personal service. He was of rather fair complexion, lithe and graceful in form, and with soft and pleasing manners. While about his duties he appeared to be a model of self-restraint and discretion. He was, in truth, a promising pupil notwithstanding adverse influences behind the scene such as too often thwart the most promising efforts. Jan. 24, i860. Jane informed me, whtn I optned the door this morning, that juraman, the groom, had sent word that I was to go to see him as he had his throat cut during the night. Rode to Malgre Tout Estate where Juraman's home is and found it too true. His neck was cut to the bone ; .m eighth of an inch further forward wouhl have been instant death. The man who did it, Priti, had been tnken up. When the wound was dressed Juraman was carried (o the estate hospital. The Indians were talking of the cutting as quite a small matter. "If a man did that sort of thing he would be taken up and get his four or five years in jail, that was all." Another said, "God made it so ; God made Priti come home and sit down, folding his arm^, when he might have ran away, or destroyed his bloody clothes. Got' told him to go and cut Juraman and he had to go." "Oh no !" I said, "God told him no such thing, and God did not make him sit down and fold his arms ; God left him alone and he did it. When we set ourselves to do evil the devil helps us." I went on to speak of the certain punishment of sin. One said, "I am a good man ; I feel safe." "But," I said, "it is only a few months since you stole another man's married wife and she is with you yei." He smiled and replied, "True, but I every day ask God to forgive my sins ; that is only one thing ; every thing else being good God will not mind that. Plenty men all about take other people's wives.*' We found that Juraman's house door had been fasteiied with ?. hook ; that Priti had inserted his cutlass, lifted the hook, and entering had used the cutlass on J'.raman's neck, the cause being that Soobhie, Priti's wife, had gone to Juraman's house three successive times, knocked, and said, "I am coming to live with you," Juraman says, "I had to take her in ; my book commands^that_^if a •'I I li .-it

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to MORTON OF TRINIDAD woman does so the man must take her in ; it would be a shame and a crime not to do so." Juraman had taken Soobhie in and had had his throat cut for it. Next day he was carried to the San Fernando Hospital. (Juraman recovered and we shall find him again in these pages.) A Visit from Canon Kingslcy S.E.M.— Jan. i8th, 1869. Last Thursday there van an Agncultural Exhibition in San Fernando. The Governor, Sir Arthur Gordon, was there to distribute prizes. Seeing Mr. Morton, His Excellency sent an aide to say he wished to speak to him ; It was to inform him that he was coming to see us and the school this week. On Saturday they came to The Lothians Estate to visit Mr. Darling— the Governor, his nephew and Private Secretary Arthur Gordon, and Canon Kingsley, who is paymg a visit to Trinidad and has been the Governor's guest for a month. Kingsley's preaching has been creating a great sensation. He preached at The Mission Village on Sunday, only three miles from us, but Mr. Morton was obliged to do duty for Mr. Lambert, in San Fernando, so it was impossible for us to hear him. Yesterday they came over to see us— the Governor, Kingslcy, Mr. Darling, his nephew Lindsay Darling, the Governor's nephew, and Mr. Darhng's manager, Mr. Hodges. They were all riding, as the roads between here and The Lothians are impassable for a carriage. They were to have come cs.-ly in the morning but the weather was very wet. At eleven o'clock a Darling sent a note saying that if it cleared they would be over and that Canon Kingslcy was most anxious to meet Mr. Morton. They came about half-past two, paid us a visit at the house first and then went to see the school. The Governor enquired particularly as to my health and said he had heard I was very unwell a short time ago. Canon Kingsley's figure IS large and awkward ; his nose is ho ..-d and prominent, both nose and cheeks very blooming. H, was dressed in grey cloth with a box nn his back. I suppose for curiosities \ they were going to thu Mud Volcanoes after they left us. He apologized for his unclerical appearance. Mr. Morton was dressed in white linen from top to toe and said to Canon Kingsley, You see that I am not particular on that score myself." No," said the Governor, "you are the most sensible clergyman I know in Trinidad." Kingsley expressed himself pleased with the situation of our house ; he said it was a delightful spot for a person of retiring disposition. He might have said "very retiring" and underlined it. They were much interested in the school. Kingsley said, "I have seei something to-day which I •1

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•1 IBRE VILLAGE 6l •hall relate with interest when I return to England." It was •musing to see him skip across the church to sec one of the Indian scholars point out Trinidad on the map. Kingsley thus describes this visit in his "At Last." "On through plenty of garden cultivation, with all the people at their doors as we passed, fat and grinning ; then up to a high-road, and a school for Indians kept by a Presbyterian clergyman, Mr. Morton— I must be allowed to mention his namewho, like a sensible man, wore a white coat instead of the absurd regulation black one, too much affected by all well-to-do folk, lay a? well as clerical, in the West Indies. The school seemed good enough in all ways. A senior class of young men including one who hai his head nearly cut off by misapplication of that formidable weapon the cutlass, which every coloured man and woman carries in the West Indies, could read pretty well ; and the smaller children— with as much ciothing as they could be persuaded to wear —were a sight pleasant to see. Among them, by the by, was a little lady who excited my astonishment. She^ was, I was told, twelve years old. She sat summing away on her slate bedizzened out in gauze petticoat and velvet jacket— between which and the petticoat, of course, the waist showed iust as nature had made it — gauze veil, bangles, necklace, nosejewel, for she was a married woman, and her Papa (Anglice, husband) wished her to look her best on so important an occasion."* It may be taken as proof that Hi? Excellency the Governor was interested in the school as an experiment in Indian education that in the following month Mr. Morton had occasion to make the following entry : Feb. i6, 1869. Had a visit from Mr. Guppy, Inspector of Schools, and Mr. Keenan, Commissioner of ditto. Mr. Guppy stood by w hile the Commissioner examined all the children in 'Another charming pen-picture by Kingslev is th.it of 'Frankie oee page 6a. .' ;! ^ 'I

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62 MORTON OF TRINIDAD reacling :nd wnting and I did the same in religious knowledge. He took topious notes and full intorniation on every matter lonnected with the school, down to the salary of the assistant and his ri'li({ion. Of the assistant Mr. Morton writes : .Ian., i86g. We have at Ia.st succeeded in getting a teacher for our school, a German lad, to whom we pay twelve dollars a month. [Laterl. Inncquainted with the language, inexperienced m teaching and a Roman Catholic withal, the arrangement was far from being all that could lie wished. It left all the religious instruction, and indeed the whok caie of the school, or rather schools, for we had two,* in the dry season, still upon me. Yet I had reason to value his assistance for, looking on every hand. It seemed all that was avaUabh. This young man remained with us till the end of June when he left to attend the Normal School. We taught the school without help for the month of July. The First hijian Teacher i860. Charles Clarence Soodeen took charge of the school on the first of August and has given mc much satisfaction. Soodeen was early left an orphan in India. He has been in the service of one gentleman ever since he came to Trinidad, some eight years ago, and two of these years have been spent in Bntain. A servant all the time, he had but indifferent advantses in the way of education, and no experience in teaching. e hope, however, that he will prove of great service to the Mission and our aim will be to help him forward. He was baptized by Rev. Willi-,m Dickson, of Arouca. Last Sabbath he sat with us at the Communion table. From the first Soodeen 's studies in both languages received solicitous attention with the result that he became increasingly intelligent and helpful. His former master was a gentleman of high Christian character and a friend of the East Indian. In depriving himself of Soodeen's faithful services he indiilged the hope that he might become a blessing to his countrymen ; this hope was more than realized. Soodeen may have missed at times his old life on the •The second at Mount Stewart Village. r

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FRANKi^ AN EAST INDIAN ORPHAN DESCRIBED BY CANON KINOSLEY i

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SELAL— AN EARLY SCHOLAR if

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IKRK VIl.l.Ali 63 luaiitiful cacao estate of Mausit|ua. hut he became at once our friend and helper and such occupies an honourable place all throURh our paRes. At the end of urly two years' stuilv in h