An American legacy in Panama


Material Information

An American legacy in Panama
Physical Description:
Johnson, Suzanne P
Panama Canal Museum ( donor )
Directorate of Engineering and Housing ( Fort Clayton, Panama )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 27199739
oclc - 35036146
System ID:

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 1a
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The stage is set
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    The canal construction era
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    The Panama Canal Zone
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Canal defense
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    U.S. Army medical activity
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Department of Defense dependents schools
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Back Cover
        Page 98
        Page 99
Full Text





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An American Legacy

T his publication, a lCI acV Resource Maae-
ment Program demonstration project, wx as pre-
pared for the linited States Armiy South
(1. JSARSO) through the Directorate of lFnoineer-
ing and I lousing, Jnited States Armx Garrison-
Panama. b' Graxes +Klci. Architects. 1Inei-
neers of Pensacola. F'lorida. The purpose of this
brochure is to provide an overviexx of' t nited
States D)oD installations in the Panama Canal
Area. Future in-depth studies of individual Dol)
installations are under development.

and Compiled by:
Suzanne P. Johnson,
Cultural Resources Specialist
Consultant to Graves+Klein

Richard M. Houle
Chief, Engineering Division,
Directorate of Engineering and
Housing, USARSO

Technical Advice:
Ivan Klasovsky
Chief, Plans and Property Branch,
Directorate of Engineering and
Housing, USARSO

Don Carlos/John Klein/James Mattern
Architects Engineers

Cover Photograph. "Four US. Air Force A-3 7s
make a Jormation pass over the Mirc lores
Locks" US. Air Force Photograph, 5 Decem-
ber 1970.







Any information or additional sources of
documentation Would be greatly appreci-
ated and should be forwarded to:

Suzanne P. Johnson.
Cultural Resources Specialist
Richard M. Iloule
Chief, Engineering Division

fIQ US Army Garrison Panama
Unit 7151. BOX 51
APO AA 34004-5000

Publication Ir formation

/)( c 2~I -


Introduction .......................................... 4

The Stage Is Set ................................. 5

The Canal Construction Era ........... 12

The Panama Canal Zone ................. 19

Monument at Quarry Heights

Canal Defense ................................... 27

Pacific Division,
East Bank Installations .................... 31

Pacific Division,
West Bank Installations ................... 41

Atlantic Division
Installations ..................................... 4 9

Installations ..................................... 5 8

U.S. Army
Medical Activity ............................... 67

Department of
Defense Dependents
Schools ................................................ . 7 5

Barracks at Fort Clayton

Theater at Fort Clayton

page 3



__________ j

Since Columbus' *discovery" of the Nex World.
it was inevitable that the history of what is nov
called the Republic of Panamra would be linked
with that of other nations. The country's pri-
mary natural resource, a strip of land at places
barely fifty miles wide, links the Western I lemi-
sphere and separates the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans. The dream to cut this Isthmus and link
the two oceans began over 350 years ago.

One of the first to recognize the commercial po-
tential of a canal across the isthmus was the
Spanish explorer Vasco Nufiez de Balboa, the
'discoverer' of the Pacific Ocean. After serious
consideration, Spain's King Charles I rejected
the proposal, concluding that "if God wanted
the oceans to meet lie would have built the ca-
nal Himself."'

In the late 1880s, La Compagnie Universelle du
Canal Interocdanique, a French company headed
by Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, arrived on the
Isthmus to begin construction of a canal.

Tropical disease and economic failure of the
company led to the capitulation of the French.

\vho "old the ui- ht' tu CoI tt I D2 l
I unitedd St ites in 190)t

In the fIrst decade of the 2)t' ,e, tu ihe 1 i
States. led by the S. Xr\ Mk e (-orps d
the Corps of Engineers. tamed the isthmu aid
completed the canal, the 't ighth Wonder of the
World.'" Over the last 90 N ears, hundreds otthou-
sands of U.S. citizens have been involved vxith
the construction. operation. and deltcnse of the

By noon. December 3 1. 1999, control of the
Panama Canal and its support aind defense sys-
tems xx ill rexvert to the Republic of Panama. ol-
loxing final implementation o f the Panama Ca-
nal Treaty o1' 1977, a unique \merican experi-
ence xvill haxe come to an enrd. The miflitarx
bases, schools and hospitals located throughout
the Canal area will remain as a physical legacy,
a reminder of the U nited StIte< presence i1
Panama. I here is a great need to properly docu-
ment these installations. The majority of these
installations are of historic and archlieetni il
niicance, and represent v N UN uq we er in t-
social history of both the U rited -tatesa

( Or(;"~til Pu rh an (i t t



The Stage Is Set


I he history of the Republic of Panama is closely
tied to its geography. As the link between North
and South America. the Isthmus was fated to
become a tocal point of European exploration
and a transportation corridor for goods from the
New World. Indigeneous Indian tribes had es-
tabl ished a passage trail across the Isthmus long
heltre Colonial invaders established their own
trade routes.

Spanish Exploration

Spain, the first of the three major Colonial set-
tlers, established Panama City in 1521 on the
Pacific coast. It became one of the three richest
cities in the New World. Goods from Central
and South America were transported to Panama
('ity by ship. and from there along the eighteen-
mile iLas Cruces Trail to the town of Cruces,
near the present town of Gamboa, and down the
Rio Chagres. Along the route, part of which
ran through what is now Fort Clayton, fortified
outposts were constructed to provide protection
to the Spanish mule trains carrying goods. On
the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus, the city of
Portobelo was established as a port for Spanish
galleons which sailed once a year to the Mother
(ountry with treasures plundered from the re-

Las Cruces Trail

English Piracy

By 1572, England was silently watching the
Spanish Empire grow rich at the expense of the
New World. With the assistance of native Indi-
ans, who had been much abused by the Span-
ish, English pirates such as Sir Francis Drake,
Captain Cook, and Henry Morgan raided not
only the Spanish galleons as they set sail for
Spain, but also the cities of Portobelo and
Panama as well. Following a raid, they often
hid out on Perico and Taboga Islands. Taboga
"being that favorite anchorage of buccaneers." 2

I/h' ~hJLW I~ \'~ f)cJgL' 5

page 5

Thcv Stagc, /s NSc


Fort San Lorenzo

The Panama Railroad

Spain reacted to the pirating by building fortifi-
cations including Fort San Lorenzo at the mouth
of the Chagres River and Fort San Felipe at
Portobelo. By 1746, due to continued raiding,
the Spanish were forced to re-route their galle-
ons around the tip of South America. The result
was a temporary decline in interest in the Isth-
mus as a passage route.

In 1821, the Isthmus gained its independence
from Spain and became a province of Nueva
Granada (the Republic of Colombia).

Fort San Lorenzo today

The discovery of gold in California revived out-
side interest in using the Isthmus as a transpor-
tation corridor. In 1847, three New York entre-
preneurs began construction of a second trans-
portation system linking the Atlantic and Pa-
cific Oceans, and on January 28, 1855, the West-
ern Hemisphere's first transcontinental railroad
was completed.

Although initiated by a United States mail con-
tract, hundreds of would-be goldminers made
the sea voyage from the east coast of the United
States to the Atlantic port city of Colon where
they rode the Panama Railroad to the Pacific
port city of Panama. A second sea trek took
them to their final destination-California. Sur-
prisingly, this route was faster than crossing
overland from the east to the west coast of the
United States.

Once again, the Isthmus of Panama regained its
place as the "crossroads of the Western world."'

Th tgeI etpg

I I [f

The Panama Railroad

page 6

The Stage Is Set


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din to) bu ild
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Count Ferdinand de Lesseps and
Friends at Cristobal

Remaining section of the French Canal




1171 ~



After attaining independence from Spain in
1821, Panama allied itself with the Republic of
Colombia. Unsatisfied with the status ofa De-
partment' of Nueva Granada, political leaders
of the Isthmus tried repeatedly (no less than 50
times between 1850 and 1902) to gain their in-
dependence and establish sovereignty.

In the late 1890s, the desire to improve com-
merce of the country and effectiveness of the
military led to the United States' decision to
build a transoceanic canal. After debating on
the most economically sound route, it was de-
termined that the Isthmus of Panama was the
most practical location. Negotiations with the
representatives of the failed French company
were begun, and terms agreed upon. Colombia,
hoping for more than the $10,000,000 offered
by the United States, commenced a ploy to hold
out until 1904 when the French concession was
due to expire, after which they would be able to
demand more for~the right to construct a canal
at the Isthmus of Panama.

The U.S.'s determination to build the Canal,
combined with Panama's need for military sup-
port in their quest for independence from Co-
lombia, set the stage for a unique partnership
between the two countries. On November 3,
1903, Panamanians revolted and proclaimed
their independence from Colombia. The United
States, acting in accordance with the terms of
the 1846 Mallarino-Bidlack Treaty, which gave
the U.S. "the right of way or transit across the
Isthmus of Panama... free of all encumbrances

or restrictions whatsoever,"'4 anchored nax al
warships at the Atlantic port city of Colon, with
orders to "'protect the Panama Railroad. Ma-
rines landed in Colon, and prevented Colom-
bian troops from marching to the city ofPanama,
the headquarters of the Panamanian rex olution."5
On November 6, 1903, the Republic of Panama
was formally recognized by the United States.

On November 18, 1903, amidst controversy, the
Isthmian Canal Convention (also referred to as
the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty) was signed. This
agreement gave the U.S. the right 'in perpetu-
ity" to construct, maintain, and defend an inter-
oceanic waterway across the Isthmus over which
the U.S. would exercise rights, powers and au-
thority "as if it were Sovereign of the territory."
This document also granted to the United States

Pacific Squadron Visits Panama, 1909

Th Stg sStpg I

I ---I

page 8

The Stage Is Set



the right to control the sanitation of the Panama
Canal Zone and the two port cities of Panama
and Colon. 1he French company received
$40,000,000 for its concession to build a
transisthmian canal and for its properties on the
Isthmus. The Republic of Panama received an
initial payment of $10,000,000, an annual pay-
ment of $250,000 beginning in 1913, and a guar-
antee of independence.

The United States of America, represented by
the Governor of the Panama Canal Zone, offi-
cially proclaimed occupation of the Isthmus of
Panama on May 19, 1904. Lieutenant Mark
Brooke, United States Army, "received the keys
and formally took possession on behalf of the
United States."'



Panama iity oday

Ilk' *~Ic!gc I~ N~ page 9

1 _71

lh Stage" Is ;ct

page 9



Jimmy Carter and General Omar Torrios sign-
ing the 1977 Treaty

Controversy over the conditions surrounding the
signing of the 1903 Treaty resulted in continu-
ous friction between the Panamanian and U.S.
governments, and although there were numer-
ous other conventions and treaties signed dur-
ing the intervening years, the original treaty was
not renegotiated until 1977.

While the Canal's importance to trade and rapid
military transit between the East and West coasts
of the United States remained vital, by the mid-
1970s the probability of successfully defending
the Canal against an enemy attack had decreased.
The defense of the canal was deemed "hardly
possible against either sabotage or missiles. It
was decided that the best protection of the Ca-
nal was to assure Panama's own vital interest in
preserving its greatest natural resource."'

Increasing political pressure. growing Panama-
nian nationalism, and social unrest within
Panama resulted in an agreement calling for the
negotiation of a newx treaty with a "fixed termi-
nation date."8

President Jimmy Carter, representing the U_ united
States of America, and General Omar Torrijos.
representing the Republic of Panama, signed the
Panama Canal Treaty and allied agreements on
September 7, 1977. Those documents became
effective on October 1, 1979, ('Treaty Day').
and govern the future operation and defense of
the Panama Canal until final implementation at
noon, December 31, 1999.

Under the Treaty of 1977, the Department of
Defense retains control of certain installations,
known as 'Defense Sites.' These are: Corozal,
Albrook Air Force Station, Howard Air Force
Base, Rodman Naval Station, the Cocoli hous-
ing community, Camp Semaphore, Forts
Clayton and Kobbe at the Pacific end of the
Canal, Galeta Island, and Forts Davis and
Sherman at the Atlantic end.

The DoD maintains and controls other installa-
tions in Panama known as 'Military Areas of
Coordination,' where authority is shared with
the Panama National Police (PNP). These ar-
eas include: Quarry Heights, Fort Amador.


The Stage is Set /)t1~C ]()

page 10

The Stage Is Set





Cargo ship in Miraflores Locks

(horgas Army I lospital, (iurundu housing com-
munity. Naval Station Rodinan-Fort Amador,
( 'hiva ('hiva. Summit Naval Radio Station and
I'mpire Range on the Pacific side, and Fort
(Wulick on the Atlantic Side. Also included are
most of the department of Detnse dependentss
Schools (l)l)l)S).

On December 31, 1999, when the Panama Ca-
nal Treaty terminates, U.S. presence will cease
and Panama will assume full control and respon-
sibility fbr the operation, maintenance and de-
fense of the Panama Canal. All DoI) property
will revert to the Government of Panama.


page I I



I hc Sl 1 c I's S .1

The Canal Construction Era


After officially claiming occupation of the Isth-
mus of Panama on May 19, 1904, the United
States, in the form of the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission, was able to count as its assets an odd
assortment of French maps, surveys, drawings
and more than 2,000 buildings, "all insect-in-
fested and out of repair,"9 in a country that was
"ca howling wilderness, pestilential and death-

The Isthmian Canal Commission, a Federal
agency which reported directly to the Secretary
of War and the President of the United States,
was charged with the construction of the Panama
Canal. The first Commission, which was ap-
pointed by President Roosevelt on February 29,
1904, arrived on the Isthmus in September of
that year, and after a two week visit, left instruc-
tions for surveys to be initiated and "hurried
back to Washington... duly impressed with the
mighty responsibility resting on their collective

John F. Wallace

The first to hold the title 'Chief Engineer of the
Panama Canal' was John Finley Wallace. Mr.
Wallace accepted the $25,000 a year position,
and arrived on the Isthmus in late June 1904.
He was greeted by 746 laborers who had been
half-heartedly continuing the work begun by the
French at the Culebra Cut.

Wallace began his term by repairing the dilapi-
dated housing left by the French and initiating
surveys necessary for the engineering work to
be accomplished. The citizens of the United
States, however, "wanted something more than
announcement of plans," 1' they wanted to see
the dirt fly. Wallace's previous position as gen-
eral manager of the Illinois Central Railroad pre-
pared him for many of the challenges he faced,
but not for the constant pressure to get on with
canal construction, nor for the red tape from

John F. Wallace

In order to appease the public's demand, Wallace
set the laborers to continue digging 'the big
ditch,' although at the end of the day they had
no option but to go home to a deserted railroad
boxcar or a shanty in the jungle.



Thi aa osrcinEa1

page 12

The Canal Construction Era


Wallace brought with him a "lurking dread that
before he could finish the canal, the canal would
finish him.' lie was terrified of the unhealthy
tropical environment which had taken the lives
of so many during the French construction era,
and brought with him to the Isthmus two cas-
kets one lbr himself and one for his wife 'just
in case.' After serving as Chief Engineer tor
one year, Wallace succumbed to the pressure and
complications emanating from Washington and
his fear of contracting yellow fever or malaria.
lie resigned on June 28, 1905.

John F. Stevens

Following the resignation of Chief Engineer
Wallace, the Isthmian Canal Commission was
reorganized. It was required that the Chief En-
gineer and the Governor of the Panama Canal
Zone, both members of the Commission, actu-
ally reside in Panama. The newly established
board included several Army and Navy offic-
ers, whose appointments included orders to re-
side on the Isthmus.

On June 30, 1905. President Roosevelt named
John F. Stevens as Wallace's successor. Upon
arriving on the Isthmus on July 25, 1905. Stevens
halted work on canal construction. le deter-
mined that construction of the canal could not
be accomplished until three main issues had been
dealt with.

The first issue was the sanitation of the Canal
/one. Until the area was healthy, thousands
would die. Although not entirely convinced of
the Chief Sanitary Officer's (Dr. Gorgas) sci-
entilic findings, Stevens whole-heartedly sup-
ported his sanitary eflbrts.

[he second issue was the preparation of the or-
ganizational groundwork. Construction of fa-
cilities to accommodate the vast number of la-
borers and engineers expected on the Isthmus
was begun. Commissaries and dining facilities,
recreation and religious facilities, piers, machine
shops, police stations, jails, a cold storage plant,
schools, fire stations, bakeries, laundries, hotels,
mess halls, harbor installations, housing, and a
sewage disposal plant were constructed. A tele-
phone system was laid out, and repairs were
made to the old French hospital. The railway
system, which had fallen into disrepair, was re-
habilitated for transporting the large amount of

John F. Stevens


Ize('u 1((PJu(r afUC 1


page 13

11/1" (Cail Cot) ruc'tion [),0ro


waste and spoil from the Culebra Cut and other
areas. Having provided a substantial and healthy
infrastructure, Stevens redirected his efforts to
the construction of the canal itself.

It had still not been determined which type of
canal sea-level or lake-and-locks would be
constructed. In June of 1905, a panel of thir-
teen engineers was appointed by President
Roosevelt to study and recommend the type of
canal to be built. Chief Engineer Stevens, based
on his evaluation of the construction site, sub-
mitted a report favoring a lock-type canal, but
the determining panel recommended a sea-level
type. Despite the advice of the panel, Congress
and the President officially endorsed a lake-and-
locks-type canal. The third major issue had been

Despite his success in laying the necessary
groundwork for canal construction, Stevens, like
Wallace, was continually frustrated by Wash-
ington, and on March 31, 1907, he resigned.

George W. Goethals
Following the resignations of his first two Chief
Engineers, Roosevelt decided that
"henceforward the work should be done by army
and navy officers, trained to go where the work
was to be done and to stay there until recalled...
The government [would] be the sole contractor,
the only employer, the exclusive paymaster,
landlord and purveyor of all that was needful on


Chief Engineer Goethals in front of the
Miraflores Spillway

the Zone. In short he had planned for the Canal
Zone a form of administration which came to be
called socialistic and gave cold chills to those
who stand in dread of that doctrine."'14

Colonel George Washington Goethals a1d the
[Third] Isthmian Canal Commission Board

Th aa osrcinEafic 1

The Canal Construction Era

page 14

] ,,; ,, + ;"7

Roosevelt appointed Lieutenant Colonel George
\Washington Goethals. tJ.S. Army Corps of En-
gineers. to the position of Chairman of the
Isthmian Canal Commission, thereby moving
control of the Commission from Washington to
the Isthmus. (ioethals was also appointed Chief
I nginecr of the
l)anama Canal
and President of '
the Panama Rail- .
road. Never had 2:
this much author-
it,, been vested in
a1 sileperson oilr,- i '--

a project the sizc W1
of the construe-

Panama ('anal.
In a single day. .U
~4# 4
(ioethals bec me Goethals Memorial Celebration
-the supreme ar-
biter of the destinies of all men and things on
the Canal Zone thereby earning him the title of
Benevolent l)espot."'

Reaction on the Isthmus to the announcement
that the U1.S. Army would construct the canal
was anything but positive. Shortly after his ar-
rival on March 14, 1907, Goethals eased the
minds of his work force when he announced that
he would be leading '*the Army of Panama,
\x hose enemies were Culebra Cut and the canal's
locks and dams. The division engineers already
in charge wxere to be his colonels, the foremen
his captains, the men who dug his private sol-

diers.'"" Together they would defeat the enemy
and build the Panama Canal.

Following the completion of the Panama Canal,
the office of Chief Engineer was eliminated, and
Goethals was appointed Governor of the Panama
Canal Zone, a
post he held until
1916 when he re-
signed from the
Army to establish
a private engi-
-or neering practice.
His plans were
.thwarted, how-
0! ever, by the
U.S.'s entry into
-" -' ,World War 1. In
1917, Goethals
was reinstated
into active duty,
serving as acting quartermaster-general of the
1U.S. Army. He was awarded the Distinguished
Service Medal and received honors from Great
Britain, France and China as well.

Major General George Washington Goethals
died in New York on January 21, 1928. Flags
in the Panama Canal Zone flew at half staff un-
til after his interment at West Point. On March
31, 1954, dedication ceremonies were held for
the unveiling of' the monument erected in his
honor at the foot of the Panama Canal Adminis-
tration Building in Balboa.

I 2? 1 ]J

I;i ( vi i/ ( n~it a. fin / ta page 15

Fhc ( *Cmcl/ [1'ra

page 15


President Theodore Roosevelt William C. Gorgas

Although three United States presidents were
actually involved with the acquisition, construc-
tion and opening of the Panama Canal, it is Presi-
dent Roosevelt who is most often recognized for
his association with what he called 'the big
ditch.' Roosevelt was the first to travel outside
of the United States while serving as President,
and it should be no surprise that he left the U.S. A
to visit the Panama Canal Zone and to judge for !.,
himself the progress of the canal. On Novem-
ber 14, 1906, Roosevelt, his wife, and a small
party arrived on the Isthmus. Having sailed on
the US.S. Louisiana, Roosevelt met with the
leader of the Republic of Panama, President
Manuel Amador, spoke publicly from Cathedral
Plaza in Panama City, and inspected various ca-
nal construction sites before returning to the U.S.

Doctor William C. Gorgas

Sanitary conditions on the Isthmus in 1904 were
extremely poor. Panama was, in fact, consid-
ered to be "the unhealthiest place in the trop-
ics."'7 From the onset of U.S. occupation, Presi-
dent Roosevelt was concerned about the health
of Americans in the tropical climate. A posi-
tion was created as early as May 19, 1904, for a
Chief Sanitary Officer of the Canal Zone. The
first to hold this position was an experienced
officer of the naval medical service,"X L.W.
Spratling, who was succeeded shortly after by
Doctor William Crawford Gorgas, a personal
appointee of President Roosevelt.

President Theodore Roosevelt inspecting the
Canal works

The Canal Construction Era

page 16


4' -~

Based on his experiences in ('uba during the
Spanish-American War, Dr. (orgas knew pre-
cisely hoxv to combat malaria and yellow fever.
)uring his first year on the Isthmus, however,
he was prevented from implementing proper
procedures by those in authority who felt that
a'the whole idea of mosquitoes carrying fever is
the veriest balderdash."'

With the support of Chief Engineer Stevens,
(iorgas was able to begin a campaign to screen
windows, clean up and pave streets, clear brush,
fill in swampy areas and remove free-standing
water. By January of 1906, yellow fever was
nearly eliminated from the Isthmus, and within
the next few years, malaria was also u,-1- -on-

trol. Dr. (iorgas's recognition of the causes of
major diseases in Panama would have a pro-
fIund effect on the design requirements for the
facilities constructed there.

Brigadier General Gorgas was named Surgeon-
General of the United States Army in 1914, and
on March 4, 1915, in recognition fbr his ser-
vices in connection with the sanitation of the
Panama Canal Zone, he was promoted to the
rank of Major General in the Medical Depart-
ment of the United States Army.

-~ ~

Tourists in the ('ilebra Cut

Jib ( !: f~tl tfl1Upg

page 17

Thc Coas tructioll Era



Former British Ambassador James Bryce per-
haps best described the construction of Panama
Canal when he stated that it was "the greatest
liberty Man has ever taken with Nature.'2u By
the time it was completed, the Panama Canal
had involved the construction of the largest man-
made earth dam Gatun Dam; the largest man-
made lake Gatun Lake; the largest excavation
in history Culebra (Gaillard) Cut; and the con-
struction of the largest locks Miraflores, Pedro
Miguel and Gatun in the world.

A total of $387,000,000 was spent by the 1, unitedd
States on the Panama Canal. The cost lor the
construction itself was $310,000,000. \x ith
$10,000,000 paid to the Republic of Panama.
$40,000,000 to the French company, and
$20,000,000 for the sanitation of the Isthmus.

The U.S.S. Arizona transits the Canal, February 23, 1921

The Canal Construction Era /)UM / ~

" 1, ", 11 S


The C'anal Construction Era

'he Panama Canal Zone


By 1906 the design de-
A partnment of the
Isthmnian Canal Com-
mission (ICC) had pre-
pared plans for seven-
teen housing types, all
O)f \\hich xxcrc based upon the isthmian climate,
the inaterial available, jandl the character of the .
building sites, with the necessary restrictions ir-
posed by the sanitary department. and the offi-
cial status of the emploees." -

Early temporary hous- French housing, Aneon
ing types (intended to
last only tbr the dura-
tion of the Canal con-
Sstruction era) mira-
icked the earlier French
prototypes. Structures
Scire raised above the ground on stone or con-
crete loundations, xhich offered some protec-
tion from termites and moisture and allowed air
to circulate around the structure. Copper-
screened verandas offered protection from mos-
Cluitoes, the carriers of yellow fever, and cre- Screened veranda at Quarry Heights
ated exterior living spaces which captured avail-
a b le b re e z e s -1

The wood frame struc- vw
tures typically had
steep roofs of corru-

gated metal and were
clad xx ith painted wood
siding on both the in-
tenor and exterior sun-
~tccs. Manx of these early wood frame build-
inesatestil inuse oda' inPanma.Raised structure with metal flashing serving
I ,s are stil IIn use today In Patlarna. a e mt h et
as termite sh ielp

Ill++ ,,,lhfl.a u H+ + pcl,"I 1i 19


-(W A

Residential community at Fort Clayton

The ICC designers soon learned how quickly
the harsh conditions in Panama could destroy
these early wooden structures, and during the
final years of Canal construction the Isthmian
Canal Commission turned its attention to design-
ing and building permanent communities.

Funds were appropriated by Congress to the
Canal Commission for the construction of bar-
racks, family housing, administration buildings,
and support facilities for the U.S. Army and
Navy throughout the Isthmus of Panama. A
Board of Officers was appointed to determine
the types of quarters and other buildings to be

Design guidelines were established for both per-
manent communities and military installations.
Based on the need for durability and economy,
as well as sanitary regulations issued by Dr.
Gorgas, buildings were to be of reinforced con-
crete with clay tile roofs. They were to be 'rat-

proof to prevent the possibility ol'a plague ut-
break and 'mosquito-proof to combat the exer
present mosquitoes. The resulting uniform
building type is easily identifiable throughout
the Canal area. These early per-manent facili-

Tile hood and 'Ietdia Agua'


The Panama Canal Zone

I ----I



ties continued the history of open-air designs
started by the French including: generous
screened porches, an abundance of windows, and
a classical design influence.

Chief Engineer
Goethals was deter-
S..mined that the perma-
Srnent towns and mili-
tary installations
would be communities
where the residents would be proud to live.
When presenting his estimates on the cost of
constructing the new town of Balboa to mem-
bers of Congress in 1913, Goethals justified his
request by stating: "I want to make a town there
that will be a credit to the United States govern-

of Building 519, Fort

In keeping with this
idea, the permanent fa-
cilities were more apt to
incorporate rich details,
such as the bronze and
marble entry and lobby

Oversized bronze doors to building #519, Ft.

Over the last four decades, many of the early
buildings have been radically modified. Porches
have been enclosed to increase useable floor area
and reflect the introduction of air conditioning.
The modifications,
.. usually easily identifi-
able, are typically at
odds with the open-air
, environment envi-
sioned in the original

To complement the architectural staff, Mr. Otis
W. Barrett, a landscape architect, was brought
to tile Isthmus to supervise the beautification of
the new communities. Mr. Barrett pointed out
that "no place in the world offers better oppor-
tunities tir this purpose, as the climate of pe-
rennial summer allows plants a continuous
development to more and more attractive
torms." -'

page 21



Ac /'(11141111(1 C 111a/ Zolic


Panama's tropical cli-
mate and abundant
k rainfall allows for an
unusually large variety
of tropical and sub-
tropical plants. Exotic
species from Africa, Asia, and Europe have been
colonized in Panama. Mahogany, Rubber trees.
African Tulip trees, Royal Palms, Banana trees,
Banyans, Flame trees, Mangoes, and Norfolk Is-
land Pines are just a few of the major plants used
for landscaping.

In order to relieve the concrete communities of
the rr"giiSLng n, ne_'24 and to "conceal
[their] angularity,"25 ornamental plants, trees and
shrubs were made available to residents free of
charge. Decorative incandescent streetlights,

Typical residential street with original
lamp post

specially ordered from the United States, pro-
vided security lighting as well as a lovely detail
along the paln-lined streets.

Landscaping at Fort Amador

The Panama Canal Zone INIML' 2?



The Panama Canal Zone


The Panama Canal Zone, as designated by an
act of Congress on April 28, 1914, was a strip
of land "and land under water'26 five miles wide
on either side of the canal. In 1928, President
Calvin Coolidge referred to the Panama Canal
Zone as -one of our outlying possessions.27
While inaccurate, the statement was one per-
ceived by citizens of the U.S. to be correct.
Those who lived within the Zone lived with the
same basic rights as any other U.S. citizen liv-
ing in the United States. The Canal Zone was
not, however, a democracy. There were no elec-
tions, and hence, no elected officials. The gov-
ernment within the Canal Zone was administered
by the Canal Zone Government, in the form of
the Department of Civil Administration.

For 'Zonians' (U.S. citizens living within the
Canal Zone), the Canal Zone was "a great gov-
ernment reservation,'28 inclusion into which was
restricted. Only those connected with the ad-
ministration, operation, maintenance or defense
of the Canal were allowed to live within the
Canal Zone. At the highest echelon of the Ca-
nal Zone hierarchy were the Commissioners, the
commanding officers of the military installa-
tions, and their families.
i ito '(,artr (G i at the
a) rt 1 madur Lie, ( Tah Housing was provided for all persons employed
by the U.S. Government, and electricity and
other utilities were available either free of charge
or at very low rates, rates compatible to "what it
cost to produce them. If at the end of the year
the balance-sheet show[ed] a profit, the cost of
the current [was] reduced.2

page 23


Boy Scouts ofAmerica Local Headquaters

Private ownership of land within the Panama Ca-
nal Zone was prohibited, and while housing was
provided, square footage was based on one's
ranking within the Canal Zone hierarchy. Dur-
ing the early Canal construction era, "white
Americans lived in airy wooden structures with
screened verandas; unmarried European and
black laborers had to be content with unscreened
mass quarters; black families could choose be-
tween American-built barracks (also unscreened
and crowded) or shacks of their own in derelict
native villages.

Housing conditions thus became a mirror im-
age of the social order on the Isthmus. As a
contemporary observer put it: 'Caste lines are
as sharply drawn as in India. Every rank and
shade of man has a different salary, and exactly
in accordance with that salary is he housed, fur-
nished and treated down to the last item."''
While housing conditions for non-white employ-
ees improved during Chief Engineer Goethals's
administration, segregation remained the order
of the day.

The Panama Canal ZOne pa~c' 24

l & 4


The Panama Canal Zone


. n N i i e p rov ided 1 stut s. xxith prices
usual ly compatible with, but sometimes lower
than. those in the United States. While many
items -'cre broi uht to the /one from the U.S.,
plantations and farms within the Zone prove ided
fIesh fruits, vectables, beet' poultry and pork.
" he plan of eventually making the Canal Zone
independent of outsid sources for its food sup-
ply [xas] developed and arrangements [were]
perfected so thatt [The Panama Canal] would be
able to support ourselves in case we should for
am, reason be cut off from all outside food sup-

Recreational opportunities xvxre also provided.
Oi ymnasi urns. sxv imming pools, golf greens, ten-
nis and volleyball courts, and baseball fields
xxere located throughout the tone in various
communities. Athletic competitions, such as
baseball tournaments and boxing matches. were

Deep sea fishing Pacific Ocean

o-- il 4 ie 1 w

Bftumehat teamsu oj iite Panama ('aal /one

II _

pag 25




Government owned and operated clubhouses,
where one had access to "reading rooms, writ-
ing rooms, pool and billiard tables, bowling al-
leys, moving pictures, free telephone service,
barber shops, beauty parlors, lunch and soft
drink rooms and places for dancing,"2 were also
erected in most of the permanent communities.
For a special 'get-away' weekend, the Hotel
Aspinwall, located on the off-shore island of
Taboga, was available. Medical facilities, po-
lice and fire stations, churches, post offices and
schools were also located in nearly all Zone and
military communities.

The Annual 'Ocean to Ocean' Cayuca Race, sponsored by

Former Canal Zone EYM.C.A.

the Explorer Scouts


Th aaaCnl oe/U22

page, 26

The Panamia Canal Zone

Canal Defense

Guns guarding Canal entrance

l)uring the construction phase the question of
whether or not the Canal should be fortified was
debated by the American public, Congress, and
the world at large.

Itw as decided that the monetary investment, and
the ability of'military ships to quickly pass from
the PaciIic to the Atlantic, be defended. To that
end, by August 1, 1914, an additional
$12,050,825 had been appropriated and spent
on fortifications for the Panama Canal.

T he Treaty to Facilitate the Construction of a
Ship Canal (more commonly referred to as the
I lay-IPauncef te Treaty) established that "the
canal shall never he blockaded, nor shall any
right oflxwar be exercised nor any act of hostility
be committed within it." Ships of all nations


were to have equal access to the canal, during
both war and peacetime, and in order to guaran-
tee equal access, the United States was "at lib-
ertv to maintain such military police along the
canal as may be necessary to protect it against
lawlessness and disorder."

The end of the Canal Construction Era coincided
with the development of political uncertainty in
Europe, thereby transforming the role of the mili-
tary in the Canal Zone from one whose duty it
was to maintain law and order to one whose duty
it was to defend the Canal against any threat of

Construction of battery fortifications at Forts
Sherman and Randolph at the Atlantic entrance,
and Forts Grant and Amador at the Pacific en-
trance, were begun as early as 1913, under the
direction of the Isthmian Canal Commission.
Additional batteries were constructed in the late
1920s to aid in coastal defense.

When the Panama Canal opened in 1914, the
"Panama Canal Guard Force" (the term used to
identify military troops in the Canal Zone) in-
cluded a Marine Battalion, an Army Infantry
Regiment and three companies of Coast Artil-
lery stationed in the Canal Zone. In all they
averaged a personnel strength of 797. By June
of 1915, that force had been increased by two
additional Infantry regiments, a company of En-
gineers, a company of Signal Corps, an ambu-
lance company, four more companies of Coast
Artillery, and a detachment of the Hospital


page 2 7




Map of the Panama Canal Zone

Canal Defense page 28

Canal Defense

page 28



Battery Morga in, Fort de Lesseps, 1939

(orps, with a total strength of 6,248. Accom-
panying the troops were their family members.
including 37) women and children.

Ilhe ma ority of these troops were located on
the west ank of the canal, in the fonner Isthmian
('anal (ommission construction towns of
(ulebra, limpire, and Las Cascadas. Since they
k\ere not needed by the ICC, they were turned
over to the military.

Na al 'Ioccs \were also stationed on both sides
of ttc Isthm s. ( )n the Atlantic side, the (oco

Solo Submarine Base was established, on the
Pacific side. at the request of the Secretary of
the Navy, part of the Fort Grant-Fort Amador
harbor Defense Installation was set aside for
naval use.

In 1917, local and stateside miitary authorities
insisted that certain areas be officially set aside
by Executive orders as military reservations,
under the authority of post commanders. It was
determined that during wartime, or ifever it were
determined, in the opinion of the Iresident, that
war w,,ere imminent, the Presidcnt of the UJnited


page 29


l"1a ) /'1(


States had the authority to appoint an Army of-
ficer to "assume and have exclusive authority
and jurisdiction over the operation of the Panama
Canal and all its adjuncts, appendants and ap-
purtenances, including the entire control and
government of the Panama Canal...33 During
peacetime, however, the Governor of the Canal
Zone had final jurisdiction over the Panama Ca-
nal Zone, including U.S. military reservations.

Headquarters for the U.S. Army was initially
located in what would eventually become the
Panama Canal Company's District Court Build-
ing in Ancon. After a short stay, the Command
made plans to move again temporarily to a
site on Ancon Hill where rock had been quar-
ried during Canal construction. Quarry Heights
was not planned as a permanent site, as it was

Newly sited Housing

thought that the area was not large enough for a
permanent headquarters. Instead of building per-
manent facilities, temporary wood structures
were relocated from other Canal Construction
Era communities.

Moving buildings by Flatcar

Canal Defense JxIgc' 3(1

page 3 0


Canal Defense

Pacific Division

Pacific Ocean

page 31

Pac ific ivion lnstal//atimpTs


D i i i


Quarry Heights

The first military troops to arrive on
the Isthmus of Panama were the
United States Marines, 1,400 of whom
"were landed during the insurrections
of November 1903. This contingent
of troops was detailed to keep the Panama Rail-
road open to traffic and protect U.S. Govern-
ment property .''3 A reservation was established
on a man-made terrace on the western side of
Ancon Hill, adjacent to the Panama Canal Zone
capitol city of Balboa, to accommodate the

S ~**. U





Wood frame building at Quarry Heights

Plans for the layout of the Quarry Heights Mili-
tary Reservation were determined by naval au-
thorities, and included several 150-men bar-
racks, officers' quarters, administrative build-
ings and a parade field.

Following the transfer of the Marine detachment
on February 21, 1914, to take part in the upris-
ing ia Mexico, Quarry Heights was designated
temporary headquarters of the military forces
in 'he Canal Zone. This site was most suitable,

* I
* 1v
* a

I Ig

Quarry Heights

Quarry Heights from Hydrographer's Tower

Pacifc Divsion ag743

Pacific Division

page 32


EL] [I [lii Cu
[f~ H ]n~rq Fl H


Ancon Quarry

it wxas fell, because of its proximity to the
!Linarma ('anial Commi ssion headquarters in

:ornally established on December 22, 1919,
()uarry I ti ghts Res'ervation took its name from
the rock quarry on the side ofAncon 1lill, stone
from xx hich 'Nx as used in the construction ol the
Miraflores and Pedro Miguel Locks.

As the need arose 1'(or housing military person-
nel and their families at Quarry heights, old
Istlhmial Canal commission n houses were dis-
mantled and re-erected at Quarry I lights. One
ol'the first such buildilngS to be moved to Quarry

Interior of Olficers'% Quarters

Residential quarters at Quarry Heights

Heights was Quarters #1, the now official resi-
dence of the Commander in Chief.

There were, at one time, nearly two hundred of
these 'construction camp' wood houses, which
were originally built around 1906. In the mid-
1,930s, however, all but those at Quarry Heights
and the official residence of the Administrator
of the Panama Canal Commission (formerly the
official residence of the Governor of the Panama
Canal Zone) were demolished and replaced with
more modern buildings.

One of the most unique DoD facilities in the
Canal area is the tunnel located at Quarry
Ileights. The plan for the construction of the
structure was initiated on March 27, 1940, by
lieutenant General Daniel Van Voorhis, Coin-
manding General of the Panama Canal Depart-
ment at that time. General Van Voorhis justi-
fied the need for the bombproof structure,"for
use in case of emergency and vital to the secu-
rity of important data."' 7 The Command Post
facility, completed by January 20, 1942, was
constructed "under 200-eet of native porphyry
rock and was built of reinforced concrete"' at
a cost of $400,)00.

page 33


Fort Amador/Fort Grant

Located on the east bank of the Panama Canal
on the Bay of Panama, Fort Amador and Fort
Grant were among the first of the permanent
Panama Canal fortifications to be planned and
constructed. Fort Grant, which was named in
honor of General Ulysses S. Grant (United States
Army, and President of the United States from
1869 to 1877), consisted of the causeway break-
water, the connected islands of Naos, Culebra,
Perico and Flamenco, and the off-shore islands
of San Jose, Panamarca, Changarmi, Tortolita,
Torola, Covoviceta, Cocovi, Taboga and


~A ~\







Venado in the Bay of Panama. On each of the
four connected islands were constructed batter-
ies, whose guns guarded the Pacific entrance to
the Panama Canal.

Fort Amador, named in honor of Dr. Manuel
Amador Guerrero (President of the Republic of
Panama from 1904 to 1908), consisted of hous-
ing, administrative facilities and support facili-
ties for the Coast Artillery troops associated with
Fort Grant as well as their family members. Over
time, the causeway islands ceased being referred
to as Fort Grant.

Fort Amador was originally an area of coastal
swampland and mangrove stands. In-fill was
begun around 1908 using material removed from
the Culebra (Gaillard) Cut during its construc-
tion. Construction of the breakwater, including
the connection ofNaos, Culebra, Perico and Fla-
menco Islands, was completed in September of

ROC', %A1 )(:)SM


~L ~ ~K

Fort A mador/Fort Grant

Palm-lined street of Command Staff Quarters
with Band Stand at foreground

Pacific Division


page 34


I ----


'1 14. N ore than 2.141.53( cubic \ rds o'xx aste
..a e deposited during the breakxx ater vrqmct

I I..d]UaII> br theC [S. \rIliv Iorccs in the
l .l AI anakl I Ii xx located at Fort A\llldor
ntitI 'I reatx Dax) '. () tober 1. 1070. \N hen al
Ithe calse,\ islands and parts of Fort
Amador rex erted t0 the Republic of Panama in
inmpiian c ''\,ith the Ianama Canal Treaty of
I)-- At that time the remainder of Fort
\mador. '\ hich consisted oimih housing and
n,,inun lx, serxices 1: tivities. became a Nlili-
ar,, Area ,,1Coordination, Armyt headquarters
',,0\ ed Iro :, Building 1= 1 Fon \mador. to Build-
in 5 1o lax ton.

cttadquarters, U.S. Naval Station Fort
I ,ador

U.S. Naval Station -

Fort Arnador

(.)ne o1 the earliest naxal installations set aside
in the Canal area xx as the Balboa Naval Radio
Station. F stablished around 1914. the land fbr
the installation x as separated from Fort Amador
" or the exclusive use of the Naxv." The name
of the naval station xxas changed shortly after to
the Fifteenh \axal District Hteadquarters.

In latei \ears. the Fiteenh Naval District Head-
anters included the "1 S. Naxal Forces South-
ern Command Fifteenth Naval District Ilead-
quarters. t. S. Naxal Communication Station
Balboa. a residential area. Enlisted 'Men Bar-
racks and a branch Nax Exchange situated on
a 05.5 acre site.

Residential quarters, I. S. .Vaval Station Fort
.4 nador

pace 35


Fort Clayton

Fort Clayton opened in 1922, and
was named in honor of Colonel
Bertram T. Clayton (Quartermas-
ter Corps, U.S. Army), who was
killed in action in Europe on May
30, 1918. Located directly across
from Miraflores Locks, Fort Clayton was con-
structed to accommodate one regiment of Infan-
try on in-filled land called the 'Miraflores

=_=, ,o

4 t -'t t -!
3--i I
.1 -!:It -
/ 3 j~l


- S ,.. -,
.S I ...S';

Funds were allocated on April 23. 1919, to "lhe
Panama Canal for the construction of Fort
Clayton. Construction of the post, w hich origi-
nally included a headquarters building, battal-
ion barracks buildings and family housing
(Quarters #1 through #26 and Quarters i800 and
4801), was completed by July 1, i920.


Residential quarters at Fort Clayton

In 1926, Fort Clayton was 'home' to the Pacific
Motor Transport Pool and two Motor Transport
companies. The post also sponsored a polo team.

During World War II. Fort Clayton served as
the headquarters for the Panama Mobile force
and the Security Command. The installation
became headquarters for the Army component
of the Southern Command on "Treaty Day.'

Fort Clayton


Pacific Division /Xi~C? 36

Page 3 6

Pacific Division


The miniature replica of the Statue of Liberty
which h welcomes visitors and residents of Fort
Clayton to .armin Field was a gift to the Panama
('anal Zone Boy Scout Council, made on behalf
of scouting enthusiast Morris Hoffman in May
of 195 1. TFhe original Statue of Liberty was pre-
sented by Ferdinand de Lesseps to the Ameri-
can ambassador to Paris on May 21, 1884, dur-
ing the height of the French canal construction
e ff rt.

The industrial sub-area of Corozal and the ci-
vilian housing area of Curundu became parts of
Fort Clayton by amendments to the original or-
ders in 1942, 1954 and 1955.

, I

- 4
SI-- -


A sub-installation
(4thLW P1 of Fort Clayton, the
LPost of Corozal was
named for the
Corozo grove which grew in the area. A Corozo
is variety of palm tree which produces a small,
oily fruit.

Towards the end of the Canal construction era,
the Isthmian Canal Commission abandoned most
of the Corozal settlement and turned over the
use of its buildings to the Army.

Corozal is divided into West Corozal and East
Corozal. West Corozal, located on the west side
of Gaillard Highway, includes the original En-
gineer Depot which served one regiment of en-
gineers and the Quartermaster Depot (currently
the Directorate of Engineering and Housing).

This area also supports the 106th Signal Bri-
gade which "evolved from the crude resources
of the 3d Platoon, Telegraph Company H, Sig-
nal Corps, the first signal unit to serve in the
Canal Zone. Upon arrival on March 25, 1915,
the 3d Platoon of Company H was initially sta-
tioned at Camp Gatun on the Atlantic side of
the isthmus,"9 but relocated to its current loca-
tion shortly after.

Corozal and the Panama Canal Town of
Los Rios

page 3 7

I Ci)ilC )iVisiol


Engineering Compound, 1952

East Corozal, located on the east side of Gaillard
Highway, includes enlisted personnel barracks
and the Civilian
Personnel Office
Training Center, all
of which are housed
in buildings con-
structed by the
Isthmian Canal
Commission and
Panama Canal
Commission. East
Corozal served as
the Panama Canal
Zone's "psychiatric
care facility".
Former stable entry door


The Corundu Military Reservation was estab-
lished December 30, 1919, although it was not
officially named until May 21, 1934. The spell-
ing of 'Corundu' was later changed to

The original reservation consisted of Fort
Clayton, the Panama Ordnance Depot (formerly
the Panama Arsenal), the Engineer Depot, the
Post of Corozal, Paraiso Camp and Albrook
Field. The Panama Ordnance Depot had been
previously established in 1916. With the cre-
ation of the Curundu Military Reservation, the
Ordnance Depot fell under its domain.

Albrook Field was separated from the Curundu
Military Reservation and established as a sepa-
rate installation in 1924. Camp Paraiso, a sub-
post of Curundu Military Reservation, was lo-
cated near the Panama Canal Company town of
Pedro Miguel.

Former bachelor housing at Curundu


i :, ....... ... MENE M.. .....

Pacific Division

page 38


[/\< /X~

\,b<.re recently, the ( urindu Army Reservation,
\\hIch at one time included a total of 779.20
aes. consisted of family and bachelor housing
and command and community support facilities.
lost of ('urUndu reverted to the Republic of
Panama in 1982.

Albrook Air Force Station

SAlbrook Air Force Station, origi-
nally called the Balboa Fill Land-
ing Field, was separated from the
Curundu Military Reservation and
formally established as an independent installa-
tion in 1924. It was the first installation on the


1AibrotA Iho, iW

A lbrook Air Force Station

I'd l/j vI)

page 39


Hangars, Albrook Field, C.Z.

Pacific side of the Isthmus to be reserved spe-
cifically as an airfield. A runway had already
been constructed for the Army at France Field
on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus, but it was
felt that there was a need fbr a second runway
for "air protection in the Pacific sector.""

Balboa Field was renamed in honor of First
Lieutenant Frank P. Albrook (Air Service, U.S.
Army), who on March 16, 192 1, was assigned
to the 7th Observation Squadron (under the com-
mand of Captain I-lenry I. *flap' Arnold) at
France Field. Lieutenant Albrook was respon-
sible for activating and assuming command of
the 8th Air Park at the Balboa Fill Landing Field
before his untimely death on September 17,
1924, from injuries received in an airplane ac-
cident at Chanute Field, Illinois.

Construction of administrative and support fa-
cilities and barracks and family housing units at
Albrook was begun shortly after the comple-
tion of the landing fields.

With the transition from the Army Air Corps to
the United States Air Force, the field became
Albrook Air Force Base.

View down residential street, Albrook Field, C.Z.

Pactiw Division fklgL' 4()


page 4 0


Pacific Division

Pacific Division


Fort Kobbe

Located on the Bay ol Panama on the west bank
of the Panama Canal. Bruja (Witches) Point
Nliiitary Reservation was established on August
11, 1928. Although the i,804-acre tract was con-
sidered a "permanent military post,' Fort Bruja
vas "'incorporated as a subpost of Fort
Amador"' by a General order of the War De-

a - *


In the late- 1920s, early defense positions at Bruja
Point included batteries Haan and Murray. Bat-
tery Haan, which consisted of two 16-inch "na-
val-type rifles on barbette, or fixed mounts,"42
was named in honor of Major General William
C. Haan; Battery Murray, which also consisted
of two 16-inch guns, was named in honor of Ma-
jor General Arthur Murray. "Both Murray and
Haan served as members of the original Joint
Army-Navy Panama Canal Fortifications Sur-
vey Group of 1910.""3

In 1932, the name of part of the reservation was
changed to Fort Kobbe, in honor of Major Gen-
eral William A. Kobbe. General Kobbe, hav-
ing served with the 3rd Artillery during the Span-
ish-American War, died on November 18, 193 1.
The remainder of Bruja Point Military Reserva-
tion became Bruja Point Air Base.

On February 25, 1940, the reservation's bound-
aries were expanded to 3,953 acres, and on June
20, 1941, the status of Fort Kobbe changed from
that of a subpost of Fort Amador to an indepen-
dent post which included what was then called
Howard Field.

* --
.- I
~ ~ A
-~, .<~ x


tort Kobbe

Former Batter, at Fort Kobbe

page 41

1' z :/: /)IVI r;

I - -



Residential quarters, Fort Kobbe

Batteries Haan and Murray, which were origi-
nally manned by the Fourth Coast Artillery Regi-
ment, were deemed obsolete following World
War II, and were subsequently scrapped.

In 1952 that portion of Fort Kobbe used as an
air field (Bruja Point Air Base) was officially
separated and redesignated Howard Field.

Residential quarters, Fort Kobbe

Howard Air Force Base

SOriginally part of Bruja Point Mili-
tary Reservation, on December 1,
1939, the name of Bruja Point Air-
field was changed by General Order
of the War Department to Howard Field, in
honor of Major Charles H. Howard (Air Ser-
vice, U.S. Army). Major Howard served a tour
of duty with the 7th and 25th Observation Squad-
rons at France Field on the Atlantic side of the
Isthmus. Major Howard died on October 25,
1936, in an airplane accident near Bryans Mills,

Howard Field was redesignated Howard Air
Force Base in 1962.

-- -tl

X 4

Howard Air Force Bs Ca- Z
i "" .. ... ...... :'

Howar AirorceBaseCana Zon

Pifi iiio1ae 4


Pacific Division

page 42


Ilousi~lg ait l owardI Air korce' Ba~se

Of icer'., ( hb at Itoiard Air Force lase TeateIr at Ho ward Air Force Base

page 43



U.S. Naval Station Rodman

U.S. Naval Station-Rodman xwas named for Cap-
tain Hugh Rodman, U.S. Navy, who served as
Marine Superintendent and as Superintendent
of Transportation of the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission/The Panama Canal.

Originally a "tidal marsh of approximately 20
and 30 feet of soft organic clay overlaying firm
soil,"44 a license was granted on May 19, 1932,
to the Navy Department for the construction of
the first of the west bank naval facilities. Con-
struction of the piers and other facilities was
completed around 1937.

Former barracks

U.S. Naval Station Rodman

The Rodman U.S. Naval Reservation encom-
passed, at one time or another, several naval
holdings on the west bank of the Panama Canal,
including an Ordnance Department, the U.S.
Naval Station-Rodman, the Marine Barracks, the
Lacona housing area, Camp Rousseau and the
Cocoli housing community.

Pacific Division page 44


page 44


Pacific Division


Farfan Housing Community

The U..S. Naval Radio Station. Farfan, was
construted on an 820-acre reservation in 1941-
1942. durim, which time the naval holdings
throughout the Canal Zone were increasing.
Between 1947 and 1948.78 units of family hous-
ing wxere built on part of the Farfan reservation
property which ,vas then made an Annex of
Naval Station Rodman.

IV,,tily housing at Farfan


LUIIIiI~ Iiuiixiii~ (it far/au

I' i i/i I)ix I 1 JkJgc 45

F-- I

Res ieu.ial quarters at Rodmnu

page 45


U.S. Naval Station -
Marine Barracks

Single Family Housing

Little is known about the establishment and early
years of the U.S. Naval Station Marine Bar-
racks. Most of the structures located at the Ma-
rine Barracks pre-date World War II, and include
single- and four-family residences, unaccompa-
nied personnel housing, electrical distribution
buildings, and multi-purpose buildings.

Entry, light/gate detail

Administration Building

PaiicDviin Li I'4

page 46

Pacific Division


Cocoli Housing Community

The Third Locks Project was abandoned in 1942
(after spending $75,000,000 on the project) due
to the more pressing demands on manpower and
materials associated with the United States' en-
try into World War II. Although studies were
made and other plans were submitted following
the conclusion of war, the Third Locks Project
was never executed.

The Cocoli family housing community origi-
nally consisted of two housing communities,
Cocoli Gold (for U.S. citizens) and Cocoli Sil-
ver (for non-U.S. citizens). The Panama Canal
constructed these communities in preparation for
the expanded housing demand associated with
the Third Locks Project.

Cocoli Housing Community

By the time the Panama Canal was twenty-five
years old, its interoceanic commerce capacity
was becoming outgrown. In 1936, the Gover-
nor of the Panama Canal Zone was authorized
by Congress to investigate a plan to modernize
and increase the capacity of the Panama Canal.
After cost estimates and plans were drawn, a
report was submitted to Congress in 1939, and
the Third Locks Project was approved.

The plan basically called for the construction of
a '*third flight of locks directly alongside the
existing locks."'*1 Fxcavation to expand the
Niraflores Locks was begun, as was the erec-
tion of txwo 'construction cities' Diablo on the
cast bank and (Cocoli on the west bank in an-
ticipation ol the influx of laborers for the project.

Multi-Family Housing at Cocoli

1 g 7

page 4 7

Pacific Mvoioll


Cocoli Housing Community

The U.S. Navy acquired the Cocoli housing
Community from the Panama Canal Company
in 1951, at which time the area included 360
housing units "and other buildings, facilities, and
utility systems."4" On July 1, 1965, the U.S.
Army, whose housing requirements had in-
creased, received Cocoli from the Navy. At the
time of the transfer, the Cocoli Housing Com-
munity included 275 housing units -and other
buildings."47 While documentation is unclear as
to why the number of housing units decreased
between the transfers, most likely termites and
fire took their toll on the wood-frame buildings.


Gas station at Cocoli

Pacific Division

ptage 4 8

Atlantic Division



* 11








,-ST. WC.




A tlantic Division

page 49

. .



I __

Fort Sherman

Located at Toro Point on Limon Bay. adjacent
to the northwest entrance to the Panama Canal,
Fort Sherman was one of the first three installa-
tions planned for the harbor defense of the
Panama Canal. Although not formally estab-
lished by an Executive Order until March 25,
1918, Fort Sherman Army Reservation was
named on November 24, 1911, in honor of Civil
War leader General William T. Sherman, United
States Army. Construction of the coastal de-
fense batteries and the buildings of the installa-
tion were begun in January of 1912. The com-
manding officer arrived on the Isthmus in May
1914, and the troops arrived nearly a year later,
in February 1915.

Batteries Howard, Stanley, Mower, Kilpatrick
and Baird, consisting of 14-inch and 6-inch guns,
guarded and protected the Atlantic entrance of
the Panama Canal from Fort Sherman.

Ferry slip at Fort Sherman (1950)

Fort Sherman

At/antic Division I f~ZU i()

in-'. u-~







Battery' Kilpatrick




r"Igc 50

Atlantic Division



Barrak, (it Fort Shernan (1950)

Fort Shermnin has alx, iaxs been the most isolated
I the ]iiI :rv posts in the (anal area. Duri ni
the early days. helore roads connected the in-
stallation xx ith other I.S activities, school chil-
dIen resiiing there xx cre transported by boat to
tlhe neah, ort de ILesseps. Irom where they
xxaltLed to thc School inI (ristobal. (overnment
a hoi )l dj ismade daily trips, at no charge to
.S citizelhs

Fort Sherman Post Theater

In the mid-1970s, Fort Sherman (xx hich then
consisted ol 12.171 acres) Was used principally
as the training area for the U .S. Army School of
the Americas' Jungle Operations Training Cen-
ter x, hich provided "cyclical unit-level instruc-
tion in the techniques ol jungle survival and op-
erations fbr battalions from the Continental
UJnited States."'

Hu{ lhe/or (hwru'r, x t loro Point (Pre 1913)

page 51

lii Ut Ii /)




Fort Davis

Initially referred to as 'Camp
Gatun,' Fort Davis is located on
Gatun Lake near the Gatun Locks
at the Atlantic entrance to the Ca-
nal. Officially established on De-
cember 22, 1919, the reservation was named by
General order in honor of Colonel William D.
Davis, 361 st Infantry. Colonel Davis served in
the Panama Canal Zone "in maneuvers and stir-
vey work, which formed the practical bases for
defense.'41 He died in action in France on No-
vember 1, 1918, one month prior to being
awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for
"extraordinary heroism in action near Gespes,

Camp Gatun

# I-


I r
I .' ~

Fort Davis

Housing at Fort Davis

Atlantic Division

jug", 52




.. .WIN -

Fort Da is

l)uring fiscal year 1920. the Secretary of War
to The Panama ('anal allocated fundings for the
Army's construction program that included a
provision fbr the construction of quarters and
barracks fbr one regiment of Intntry at Fort
I )avis.

Ihe area of Iort Davis was enlarged in 1939,
during \ which time the A.1 1. greenn area was con-
structed. Barracks construction and "general
improvement of the post"5 was implemented
during \\ orld War II to accommodate the in-
crease in nmber ol personnel stationed there.

Octagonal Theater at Fort Davis

)age 53

'11/c/1111c Oivislml


Fort Gulick

Located "on the western shore of the Quebrada
Ancha Arm of Gatun Lake,52 the Fort Gulick
Military Reservation was established by Execu-
tive order on April 16, 1941. Fort Gulick was
named in honor of Major General John Wiley
Gulick, Chief of the Coast Artillery from 1930
to 1934.

Former u... ciOI01 oj tie Americas

-1 0
- -

-" r


Fort Gulick

Fort Gulick was home of the U.S. Army School
of the Americas, "where hundreds of Latin
American officers and enlisted men [were]
trained in technical military skills, leadership and
doctrine. The school [drew] students from most
of Central and South America.153 Established

in 1949, the school at Fort Gulick graduated
more than 34,000 students before moving to Fort
Benning, Georgia, in 1984.

In compliance with the Panama Canal Treaty of
1977, Fort Gulick became a 'Military Area of
Coordination* on October 1. 1984. At the same
time, all of Fort Gulick, ,vith the exception of
family housing, the ammunition storage area.
and a number of community service facilities,
reverted to the control of the Republic of
Panama. Building 400. the former School of
the Americas which was originally constructed
in 1942 as a Sector Hospital. was included in
the turnover.

Those portions of Fort Gulick over xxhich the
Republic of Panama gained control were re-
named Fort Espinar. in honor of General Jose

Atlantic Division page 54


I~__ _ _

'oi I: G(iW circa 19 78

I )a>~ii u I 'I ->pilir, 11im i In the Santa Atia sec-
tion of Parhm (it, (icncral Ispinai played a
SP-llil-cant o l( e tile !,Clt)dqc otf (olollbia's
\ 1 n dcpcn Vnc t. hm Spain in 1821 Af-
Li I fghtin ,ir Si inui ,oaivat in Peru and

Bolivia against the Spanish Crovox, Espinar be-
came the commanding general of the Isthmus
of Panama in 182 1. The name change did not
a11'ct the remaining U .S.-controllcd portion of
Fort Gulick.

page 55

Ei[-- -
Allt l<; ik /)f '.


Coco Solo

The Coco Solo Naval Reservation was officially
established by Executive Order on April 9, 1920.
"to the uses and purposes of a naval reserva-
tion, to be under the control of the Secretary of
the Navy."54

Construction of the original Coco Solo Subma-
rine Base began as early as 1919, during which
$630,627.39 was expended by The Panama Ca-
nal from an appropriation of the Navy Depart-

In 1957 (as part of a series of name changess,
the U.S. Naval Station, Coco Solo, became the
Coco Solo \nnex oI' the U.S. Naxal Station.
Rodman. At the same time, the Canal /one
Government -acquired 229 acres of Coco Solo
land together xxith 285 Plublic Quarters and a
considerable number of other buildings and Ia-
cilities \xxhich w crc excess to the requirements
of the Naxy."' The complex xxas transferred in
1968 to the U.S. Nax al Security (roup Activ-
itv, Galeta Island.

Coco Solo Submarine Base


AtI tcDvso ~~'5

pagc 56

Atlantic Division


Former Administration Building


I _ _
1 /u+ifl I) !liW -+


page' 5,7

Former Installations
Fome Intlain

Since World War I1, numerous installations have
been closed down and the facilities transferred
to the Republic of Panama. These bases played
various roles in the Department of Defense's
military mission of guarding and defending the
Panama Canal.

Col. Goethals reviewing the Marines at
Camp Elliott

Camp Elliott/Camp Gaillard

In 1904. two Marine camps were established on
the Isthmus of 1)anama. One of these wxas Camp
Elliott, which was located near the town of
Culebra on what is now the west bank of the

Following the completion of the Panama Canal,
the Panama Canal government began a policy
of giving the Army its excess buildings and prop-
erty in former construction-era communities.
Two of the communities no longer required at
that time by The Panama Canal were Culebra
and Empire.

Empire was 'taken over by the Army') on No-
vember 25, 1914- Culebra was transferred to the
Army on March 25, 1915. The land and build-
ings of both of the abandoned ICC communi-
ties were incorporated into Camp Elliott.

Marine Post at Camp Elliott


page 58


Former Installations


Camp Gailard, 1920

Camp [ lliott \as renamed *Camp Gaillard' in
honor of Colonel David D. Gaillard. As chief
of the Central Division during canal construc-
tion., ('ol. (iaillard was responsible 1br the con-
struction otlthe Culebra Cut, which was also re-
named in his honor after his unexpected death
Ilrom a brain tumor.

I Ione ol the 20th Brigade, C(amp Gaillard was
manned by Puerto Rican recruits land]
o'l icered hv Americans"" 7 under the command
ot Brigadier generall Fox Connor, vho during
World War I had been chief of operations at
generall Pcrshing's field headquarters. When
he recciv'ed orders for Camp (iaillard, General
(onner ol lered the position of lIxecutive Officer

to a young officer personally recommended by
General George Patton Major Dwight D.
Eisenhower. Major and Mrs. Eisenhower be-
gan their two year tour at Camp Gaillard in Janu-
ary of 1922.

On October 8, 1927, following the completion
ofthe permanent military installations at the ter-
minals of the canal, Camp Gaillard was deacti-
vated. The remaining buildings were either
moved or demolished, and the land was con-
verted to an artillery practice range, called Em-
pire Range. In September 1994, parts of Em-
pire Range were transformed into temporary
camps for Cuban migrants during Operation
Safe Htaven.

page 59


I, or'mct [hlgtlliioz

r T IV.7


Camp Otis

Panama Air Depot

U.S. Marine and Bugle Corp at Camp Otis

Camp Otis, the second of the two original U.S.
Marine installations, was located east of Camp
Gaillard. Camp Otis included a detachment of
the U.S. Marine Drum and Bugle Corps.

Initially developed by The Panama Canal Con-
mission in 1931 as an industrial area "where w ill
be the motor car repair shops and garage. the
district quartermaster's shops, the constructing
quartermaster shops, and the municipal division
shops and storage,'x the Panama Air Depot
(PAD) was initially referred to as the *Corundu

By 1939, the area had been reassigned to the
jurisdiction of Albrook Air Field. In later years,
the area supported the Defense Mapping Agency
Inter-American Geodetic Survey and a number
of tenant activities which used the PAD ware-
house facilities.

The Panama Air Depot was transferred to the
Republic of Panama on 'Treaty Day,' October
1, 1979, in compliance with the Panama Canal
Treaty of 1977.

U.S. Marines participate in an Isthimian
Canal Commission 4th of July Athletic Event,

Former Installations pagc 6()

Fortner Installations

page 60


Camp Rousseau

Camp Rousseau wx as named for Commander
I larry 11. Rousseau, an experienced engineer and
a "personal appointee of President Roosevelt""9
\\ho served as a Board Member of the third
Isthmian Canal Commission.

On March 4, 1915, Commander Rousseau was
recognized by the U.S. Congress for his "distin-
guished Service ")' in connection with his work
on the Isthmus. By order of the President of the
United States, Commander 11.H. Rousseau was
promoted to the grade of Rear Admiral of the
Lower Nine, United States Navy.

)uring the early 1940s, a hospital facility was
constructed at the 50-acre Camp Rousseau.
Between 1947 and 1948, the hospital was con-
verted into 72 housing units. The entire facility
\\-as demolished in 1962.

Since 1979, the area has been used by the U.S.
Army under permit from the Navy as a storage
and staging area for exercises.

j ......

Fort DeLesseps

A small installation located adjacent to the Ho-
tel Washington within the city of Colon, Fort
DeLesseps was named in 1911 in honor of Count
Ferdinand de Lesseps, the 'builder' of the Suez
Canal and the man who led the French attempt
to build the Panama Canal.

The property on which Fort DeLesseps was con-
structed was acquired by the U.S. Army from
the Panama Railroad Company. Jurisdiction
over the post, however, was never formally
ceded to the United States.

The Coast Artillery post, whose population in
1936 was 190, included eight sets of Captains'
quarters, a Headquarters barracks which accom-
modated 84 men, three quadruplexes for Non-
commissioned Officers, a 200-seat 'Recreation
Pavilion,' and a 3-bed medical station. These
properties, in addition to the guns of Battery
Morgan, were located on an area comprised of
3.7 acres.

ttousinig at Fort DeLesseps

I -- I

page 61

I I j

Fort Randolph
The 1955 'Treaty of Mutual Understandings and
Cooperation with the Republic of Panama' pro-
vided for the transfer to the Republic of Panama
of Fort DeLesseps, which was no longer con-
sidered "required for canal purposes."" "
o___- o% -4

Ho using at Fort DeL esseps
Fort Ran dolpht

Fort Randolph was established on Margarita and
Galeta Islands (near Coco Solo) on April 9.
1920, and was named in honor of Major Gen-
eral Wallace F. Randolph, U.S. Arny.
On January 31, 1933, the Fort Randolph Army
~Reservation wvas increased to 3,691 acres, and
']l Jton September 13, 1940, "the Secretary of War
i iI!transferred to the Navy Department a tract of
: :......... j land containing approximately 1,250 acres
which included a portion of Fort Randolph.''2

i q rIncluded at Fort Randolph were coastal artillary
2 :.barracks, family housing. and administrative
Fort DeLesseps Dock Facility

Former Installations page 62


'ort Randolph Quartermaster Stables Fort Randolph RSO Office and Warehouse,
May 1916

In 1 953, part of the Fort Randolph Army Reser-
vation \w as transferred to the Navy to be used by
the Naval Security (iroup Activity. By 1970.
the reserve ationl. c-onsisting of only 233 acres, had
becn declared inactive.

I,7ort Randolph Largo Reno Bunk House Fort Randolph One-Family Lieutenant's
(20-man), 1915 Quarters, December 1915

page 63

Vol-Incr bw(dhltioll"


France Field

The first troops at France Field

The 7th Aero Squadron, under the command of
Captain H.H. 'Hap' Arnold, arrived on the Isth-
mus in 1917. The Squadron, with a total of 51
men, was stationed temporarily at Corozal and
Camp Elliot before being transferred to Fort
Sherman in August of 1917.

Recognizing that aircraft accommodations at
Fort Sherman were inadequate, the 7th Aero
Squadron was moved in February of 1918 to
the newly constructed France Field Reservation,
"the first real air base in the Canal Zone.""
France Field Reservation, encompassing 634.68
acres on Manzanillo Bay near Forts Randolph
and DeLesseps, was formally established and
named by Executive Order on April 9, 1920.

Buildings constructed at France Field during
1920 included officers' quarters and barracks,
-one steel hangar, 110-foot span by 200 feet
long, and one steel hangar 66-foot span by 140
feet long.64

Air mail service bet, een the I nitcd States and
the Panama Canal /one \X as implemented on
February 6. 1929, wx ith bi.-monthly lights by
Pan-American Airways lying between Miami
and France Field. Pilot of the first flight w\as
Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh (t J.S. Army Air
Corps), **who conducted a lone flight over ap-
proximately the route of this sort in January,
1928, as part of a good w,'ill tour through the
course of the Caribbean area.'

By 1956. it had been determined that France
Field was **excess to Air Force requirements.''
and in 1957 the 1.653-acre France Field was li-
censed to the Army "for training purposes."0,

Jurisdiction over France Field was transferred
to the Coco Solo Navy Reservation on August
27, 1964. By 1970, the property had been trans-
ferred back to the U.S. Army. and on 'Treaty
Day' the property was turned over to the Re-
public of Panama.

The 'Spirit of St. Louis piloted by Col. Charles
A. Lindbergh circles France Field, January 23,

Former Installations

)age 64



Rio Hato

The lI..S. began negotiations with the Republic
ofl Panama as early as 1939 to obtain land out-
side of the Panama Canal Zone fr military use
and in particular for [ J.S. Air Force installations.
In a pact signed in 1942 between the two coun-
tries, more than one hundred tracts of land to be
used by the tJ.S.
were identified
throughout the Re-
public of Panama
and its off-shore is-
lands. In exchange
bor the use of these
sites until "'one y ear
after the signing of
the definitive
World War 1
treaty of peace."' -7
the U.S. agreed to
turn oxer tile xrater
supply facilities of
Panama City and
Colon and more
than $12 million in
railroad property to
the Republic ofl g Rio Hato Tit
Panama. The U.S. also assumed Pananla's debt
of $2.5 million, and agreed to fund the con-
structioli ofa tunnel or bridge across the Panama

()ne of the sites identified in the 1942 agree-
merit was the Rio Hato air field, located 75 miles
east of the Panama Canal Zone. Established for
use as a maneuver practice area, Rio Hato of-
t'red a "varied terrain, ranging from high to low,
from woods to open wasteland.


Following the con-
clusion of World
War II, many of the
installations were
returned to the Re-
public of Panama.
By JuLy of 1947, 98
of the 134 sites had
reverted, and the
Defense Sites
Agreement, which
outlined the length
of occupation of the
F remaining 36 sites,
was signed by rep-
resentatives of both
countries on De-
Agareemeit. cember 10, 1947.
The U.S. proposed
long-term leases, with special interest in retain-
ing Rio I lato: hoxxever, Panama's National
Assembly rejected the agreement and it was
never ratified.

page 65

[ flrIcrr /1/,/lUItUlJillS

I - -


Raising the Flag at Rio Hato

Barracks at

Cerro Pelatdo

By January of 1948, all of the defense sites ex-
cept Rio Hato and one other had been turned
over to Panama. Rio Hato remained under U.S.
jurisdiction until the mid- 1960s.

Other former installations include the 126.07-
acre Paitilla Point Military Reservation, located
northeast of Panama City, which was established
by Executive order on September 1, 1920; the
Gatun Lake Military Reservation, which in-
cluded the islands of Zorra and Piedras, and
which was established by a Canal Zone Order
signed by the Secretary of War on December 1,

Cerro Tigre Barracks, June 1930

1946. Tlhe 257.8-acre Cerro Tigre Ordnance De-
pot, located on the north side of the forest pre-
serve near Maddan Dam, was established on
.lune 16, 1930, as an ammunition handling and
storage support facility and reverted to the Re-
public of lanama on 'Treaty Day.' The 278.80-
acre Cerro Pelado Ammunition Depot Military
Reservation was set apart and formally estab-
lished on September 26, 1938. Cerro Pelado is
currently used by the Panama Canal Comiris-
sion under license from the U.S. Army.

Igloo magazine at Cerro Pelado


FomrIsaltin ~~L6


/,,age 66

Former Installations

U.S. Army Medical Activity Panama

El 7.

Among the first set of instructions issued by
President Theodore Roosevelt to the Isthmian
Canal Commission was "that every precaution
be taken to protect the employees of the [United
States] Government against the tropical diseases
that [had] previously caused a high mortality at
Panama. 11 The French endeavor to construct a
canal was defeated because its leaders did not
take into consideration the impact that these
'tropical diseases' specifically yellow fever and
malaria would have on its work force. As a
result, 22,000 laborers died.

In order to carry out Roosevelt's edict, it was
necessary to provide facilities for treating pa-
tients on the Isthmus. The $50,000 rehabilita-
tion of the abandoned French Canal Company
hospital, L'tlospital Notre Dame du Canal, be-
gan almost immediately upon taking possession
of the Canal Zone. Built on Ancon Hill in 1882,
the hospital was renamed 'Ancon Hospital' by
gubernatorial decree in 1905.

Hospital grounds, French Hospital at Ancon

'Line dispensaries' were established at most all
labor camps along the line of canal construc-
tion, and seriously ill patients were transported
by special railroad car to Ancon Hospital.

Following the completion of the Canal, the ICC
implemented a construction program for perma-
nent medical facilities at Colon and Balboa, at
Palo Seco for specialized medical facilities to
treat lepers, and at Corozal to treat the mentally

Culebra Island Quarantine Station

I I ?nl~f'I(4!1 111Iian ae 6

page 6 7

1" Artill Al medical Activill, Panama


In compliance with the implementation of the
Panama Canal Treaty of 1 977, the United States
Army Medical Activity Panama assumed all
responsibility for the operation and management
of U.S. medical and dental facilities in the former
Panama Canal Zone on 'Treaty Day,' October
1, 1979.

Gorgas Army Hospital
One of the most architecturl ax nd historically
signiticant groups of buuldiligs in the trmer
Panama ( anl /one, (Oiroigas 1 hospital wxas con-
structed on the same site as the IFrench con'stuc-
tion era I I hospital N otre )ame dII (anal.

\,.\ i4



Gorgas Ho spital circa 19 78


V ,
( iI

Gorgas Hospital

Administration and ('inics Building -
circa 1920

US. Army Medical Activity Panama



I.. m each. A service section connected the two wards,
"providing toilet accommodations, a dining
room, nurses' rooms, and special rooms on each
floor."7 Section A was completed on May 1,

Section B of building #253 also served as two
ward buildings accommodating 106 patients.
The wards, which were first occupied on April
10, 1917, included thirty-seven private rooms
for "white females'76 and a nursery for infants.
All of the ward buildings were connected to the
Covered passage way, Gorgas Hospital

In 1914. Congress authorized funds for the con-
struction of a hospital complex in Panama. De-
sign was begun with "a great deal of study [be-
ing] given to the design of the buildings in an
effort to decide upon that form of composite con-
struction that would make for economy and yet
meet all the rigid requirements demanded by the
health department as regards character of inte-
ior and exterior finish."72 Construction was
started in August of 1915. At the time of its .....
completion, Ancon I hospital was "the largest and
most modern of any hospital owned by the
United States government. "'3

At the time it was constructed, the complex re-
tainied the namec 'Ancon I lospital.' but wvas re-
named in memory of Major generall William
(rawfbrd (iorgas by Joint Resolution of- Con-
gress in March of 1928.

Section A ol building #255 was originally two
separate ward buildings that accommodated
twenty-nine "xhite American male"' patients Entry to the Mortuary Facility

page 69

U lruS v XAlcticul Aitivitlv I(1an1M


Adniistration and Clinics Building by shel-
tered passage ays -so that operative cases
[could I be transferred to and from the operating
rooms with minimum use of elevators or stair-
xvavs and alxavs under cover.":

,,/ The mortuary is the only building of the (oroas
hospital complex which still serves its original
function. It was the first of the hospital build-
- ings to be completed.
The Superinendent's Residence, Ancon Building f286. the original residential quarters

Hospital circa 1920 for the Superintendent of I hospitals. was con-
structed in 1918. The building is currently the
Headquarters of U.S. Army Dental Activity -


The New A ncon Hospital circa 1920

U. AryMdclAIvt aaapg 7

page! 70

U. Army Medical Activity Panama


Herrick Heights

Ilerrick Itlight, a housing community on An-
con I ill above Gorgas I hospital, consists of farn-
it housing constructed in 1933 and 1934 for
doctors associated with the hospital. The corn-
i1unity was named for Dr. A.B. I-lerrick, former
Acting Superintendent of Ancon Hospital.

Herrick Heights Housing

H derrick tei' ,i

page 71

S rnfk/, (a A l t ~(0(


Corozal Hospital

In addition to providing treatment to the physi-
cally ill, the Isthmian Canal Commission was
responsible for treating the mentally ill. The first
'insane asylum' in the Panama Canal Zone was
located within the Ancon Hospital compound.
After the completion of the Canal, a separate
facility was established at Corozal, on the east
side of Gaillard Highway across from the
Corozal Cemetery.

Coco Solo Hospital

During World War II, several previously estab-
lished Panama Canal area military reservations,
including the Coco Solo Submarine Base, were
improved and expanded. A 200-bed hospital
was commissioned in September, 1942, and the
Coco Solo Naval Hospital was constructed on a
41-acre tract in the southwestern corner of wxhat
was later called Coco Solo Navy Station, just
off the Boyd-Roosevelt Highway.

In 1954, the Coco Solo Naval Hospital was trans-
ferred to the Panama Canal Company. When
the Department of Defense assumed responsi-
bility fbr all U.S. medical facilities, Coco Solo
Hospital was included in the turnover of treat-
ment facilities.

In compliance with the Panama Canal Treaty.
Coco Solo Hospital was turned over to the Re-
public of Panama in June of 1994.

Former Corozal Insane Asylum Building

In the late 1920s and early 1930s, new concrete
walled and clay tile-roofed ward facilities were
constructed to accommodate "patients of all
classes, colored, foreign, enlisted personnel of
the Army and Navy, and Panama Canal employ-
ees and members of their families.7T

Coco Solo Hospital

UI S.Am eia cvt aaaf&tc -

1)(IgC '7

U.S. Army, Medical Activit, Panama


U.S. Army Sector Hospitals

3\, the 1930s it had been determined that, be-
cause of diif rilio hospital requirements between
military personnel and PCC employees, there
\xas a need Ibr independent hospital facilities.
In 1939, Congress approved funding for the con-
struction of three Army hospitals at Fort
('layton. Fort (Itilick and Fort Kobbe.

Ihe U.S. Army designed and constructed sev-
eral 'sector hospitals' at the onset of World War
II in order to meet the local military demand as
xwell as the anticipated expansion of *hospital
requirements of the armed forces"7 associated
wx ith the combat in the Pacific theater.

-The Fort Clayton [Sector] I hospital represented
a significant stage in the advancement of mili-
tary medicine in the Panama (anal Zone. It also
represented a significant stage in the separation

of military and civilian hospitalization services
that had been centralized during canal construc-
tion days and until World War I. Until its con-
struction, military personnel were forced to rely
upon civil authorities for hospital space and treat-
ment." "'

The Fort Clayton Sector Hospital (Building
#519) was completed by 1943, "with a normal
capacity of 700 beds, 100 emergency beds and
a potential expansion of 200 more beds."'"
Building #518, the current Clayton Guest House,
was constructed at the same time to house the
nurses who worked at the hospital.

The Fort Gulick Sector Hospital (Building
#400), which had a capacity of 401 beds, was
converted into an educational/training center
(the School of the Americas). The current Fort
Gulick Guest House was originally nurses' quar-

page 73

l,'ormner Guli-A Sector !tos pital

I, S, A1,111v M1141111(i


Camp Rousseau Hospital

Army Sector Hospital, Building 519, Ft. Clayton

During the early 1940s, another hospital facil-
ity was constructed at the previously established
Camp Rousseau. This 50-acre Naval station was
named for Commander Harry H. Rousseau, a
"personal appointee of President Roosevelt""
who served as a Board Member of the third
Isthmian Canal Commission.

Betx\cen 1947 and 1948, the hospital wxas con-
verted into 72 housing units. The entire facility
wxas demolished in 1962. and the site has since
been used by the U.S. Army, under permit from
the Nav. as a training area fur exercises.

US, Army Medical Activity Panama

page 74

AV 'AW NO.--4

Department Of Defense

Dependents Schools

While the first Isthmian Canal Commission
cmplovees to arrive on the Isthmus were, for the
mst part, **either single or preceded their de-
pendents,"'I by September of 1904 there were
more than 1,000 school-aged children living v 4
within the Panama Canal Zone. With the ar-
rival of more and more family members to the
('anal Zone, it became the responsibility of the
Isthmian ('anal Coommission "to educate the [ HO[L
youth as well as to make the area healthy and to
construct and operate the canal."" SLOWLY i

In September of 1904, the ICC authorized the
establishment of a school system "to meet the
needs of an exceptional American commu-
nitv,', and the first Superintendent of Schools,
)onald C. O'Connor, was hired later that year.
Ihe first Canal /one school opened in Corozal
on Januar\ 2, 1906.

Because communities were located throughout
the line of the canal construction, it was neces-
sarx to establish quite a number of schools, for
both elementary and high school educational
levels. In addition, separate schools were es-

Panama Canal School Sian, 1953

I)('!ar nci l ()// )f /ci'nPv< Il)('1n7 l/ ls Nhools page 75



tablished for the children of Gold Roll employ-
ees (white U.S. citizens) and for those of Silver
Roll employees (all others).

The Canal Zone government was aware of the
impact its educational system would have on
both the Zone and the surrounding communi-
ties. It was felt that "the best possible educa-
tional system [was] required... since the very
existence and future of our form of government
is dependent upon public education, and desir-
able... in order to convey the proper impression
to non-Americans judging American education
by the Canal Zone school system."86 With the
view that future employees of The Panama Ca-
nal would be educated by the Canal Zone
schools, the curriculum included "drafting, ap-
propriate mathematics, elementary mechanics,
shop methods, and business English... Thus
commenced the question of how the Zone
schools would respond to the problem of voca-
tional training needs vis-a-vis Canal training

Curriculum during the earliest years also in-
cluded Spanish as a second language, "the
Palmer method of penmanship"8 and music,
and at the high school level "algebra, geometry,
Latin, Spanish, 'rhetoric,' botany, biology,
physical geography, and general history."89 At
the kindergarten level, activities included "play-
ing, singing, dancing, weaving, bead stringing,
and like activities.9

Following the completion of the Canal, plans
were made lbr permanent school thcilities in
each of the Panama Canal Zone communities,
specifically Balboa-Ancon, Pedro Miguel,
Gatun, and Cristobal. Between 1916 and 19)2(),
a total of $560,000 was spent on new school
buildings. By 1940, however, the number of
classrooms had become inadequate.

Plans for the much needed construction of sev-
eral new schools were initiated. The building
program was precipitated by the Third Locks
Project, which entailed the construction of a new
set of locks at all three lock sites. It was antici-
pated that the school population would increase
dramatically, and to accommodate the increased
number of students, new facilities were required.

With the U.S. entry into World War II, the Third
Locks Project was canceled and "the serene,
isolated, and perhaps innocent atmosphere of the
Zone milieu was forced to surrender its more
parochial concerns for the demands of what was
soon termed the 'war effort."'" Zone schools
were no exception. The construction projects
were suspended indefinitely.

A restructuring of the schools took place in 1954,
when the designation 'White Schools' was offi-
cially changed to 'United States Schools,' and
the former 'Colored schools' were redesignated
'Latin American Schools.' "The change was
more than cosmetic because the old Colored


D e a t etI e e s e e d n s S h o sp g '

Department Of Defense Dependents Schools

page 7 6



Schools had been taught in Einglish, lacked the
upper secondary grades, and stressed vocational
training. The Latin American Schools, whose
students were Panamanian nationals, were op-
erated xx ith Spanish as the language of instruc-
tion, achieved a full secondary system, and ac-
Lui red a curiicul urn that wx as academic and
aligned with the schools of Panama.'''2

In t 955. the student population of the U.S. (En-
glish speaking) schools, kindergarten through
junior college, was 6,799. Children of active
dutx military personnel comprised 3,605 of these
students. There were at that time sixteen U.S.
schools, elev-en elementary, tvwo junior high. two
high schools, and a Junior college.

Panama Canal College

As children of families living in the Panama
Canal Zone graduated from high school, they
were forced to either forsake higher education
or move to the United States to attend college.
-Hoping to delay this early separation until their
children were more mature and better able to
fend for themselves in the United States, besides
enabling themselves better to afford the cost of
a college education, parents began to press for
the establishment of a junior college in the Ca-
nal Zone.93


?1" i

I (rmer Gainboa Eleiietaarr,, School

1,;,~~~~~~~~~~-- Hf() h/ iuI 1'i d .ciu e7

" P

.L ......... i 7

page 7 7




Working in conjunction with the Canal Zone
government, parents were successful in their
campaign to establish a Canal Zone college. On
September 25, 1933, sixty-two students enrolled
as college freshmen. In 1935, twenty-four stu-
dents were awarded "the degree of Associate in

Originally housed in what is Balboa High
School, the Panama Canal College relocated to
La Boca in 1962.

Balboa High School

Because student enrollment increased annually
and schools became over-crowded, the Panama
Canal government began planning for the con-
struction of the present Balboa High School af-
ter receiving funding on August 10, 1933.

Originally intended as a college licility the coim-
plex served both as a college and as a hig school
until 12961 hen tending became available tor
new college flacilities.

Ihe school complex is composed of sex eral
buildings. including three connected buildings
of the Mission Renaissance architectural style.
a shop building, a gymnasium (constructed in
1942) and stadium area, an R.O.TI.C. building
(constructed in 1958) and an auditorium.

Balboa High School was at the center of inter-
national political history on January 9, 1964,
during what has come to be termed the "Flag
Incident.' Student demonstrations over the fly-
ing of the U.S. and Panamanian flags ithin the
Panama Canal Zone had a direct impact on the
renegotiation of the original 1903 treaty.

Balboa High School

I O-

I -

1 _777 1

page 7-8

Department Of Defense Dependents Schools



During Operation Just Cause, Balboa High
School became a tood and clothing distribution
center as well as a temporary home to more than
5,000 local citizens From the Chorillo section of
Panama City. The majority of the refugees were
housed in the gymnasium and stadium area,
while the one-story R.O.T.C. building was used
as a medical clinic.

Curundu Junior High School

Planning for the construction of the Curundu
Junior High School was begun in 1959, and the
five-building school complex was completed in
1964 at a cost of $4,400,000. The most distinc-
tive of the buildings is the geodesic-domed
cat'torium, which was built at an additional cost
of $935,000.

During Operation Just Cause, Curundu Junior
H igh School "was used as a command and com-
munication center, a barracks, and a hospital...
The men slept in the classrooms and in their lei-

('orundu Junior ttigh School

sure time enjoyed school magazines, comput-
ers, television, and other audio visual materials
and equipment. The teachers' lounge became
the headquarters for communication while the
cafetorium served as a hospital. The school
grounds were used as a storehouse for many
types of military hardware."'5

Courtyard Balboa Elementary

page 79

Ih'p41r1tneill ()/ I)'c/clc I)cl('fNnt'1tfs Schools


I 77



Balboa Elementary School

Constructed in 1917, Balboa Elementary School,
located in Balboa at the end of the Balboa Prado,
is one of the most architecturally significant of
the buildings located in the former Panama Ca-
nal Zone. Three stories in height, the center of'
the structure is a "full-height open atrium"I'6 typi-
cal of the Italianate Renaissance style.

For many years, elementary level classes were
held on the lower floors of the structure, while
high school classes were held on the third floor.

Curundu Elementary School

Located near the rear gate of Fort Clayton, con-
struction of the Curundu Elementary School was
initiated in 1965, with classes opening to stu-
dents in 1968.

Curundu Elementary School

Diablo Elementary School

Diablo Elementary School was constructed in
the community of Diablo Heights in conjunc-
tion with the Third Locks Project of 1939. The
main school building and the gymnasium of
wood siding were completed in 1940, with ad-
ditions to the school made in 1959 and 1963.

The elementary school facilities were tempo-
rarily used as a junior high school facility from
March of 1961 until the completion of Curundu
Junior High School in 1964.

Balboa Elementary Schoolhouse

page 80

Department Of Defense Dependents Schools




Fort Clayton

Elementary School

Located on Fort (laxtoi's Soldiers" Field, di-
rcctly opposite Building #95. construction of the
building that houses the Fort Clayton Elemen-
tarv School was completed on January 13. 1940.
Originally the building served as a 180-man bar-
racks for the Headquarters and Service Corn-
pany, I I th Engineers. The three-story building
was converted to its present use at an unknown

Los Rios Elementary School

Comprised of three single-story buildings, the
Los Rios Elementary School is located in the
housing community of Los Rios, between
Albrook Air Force Station and Fort Clayton.

Fort Clayton Elementary School

Fort Kobbe And Howard Air
Force Base Elementary Schools

The Fort Kobbe Elementary School is a single-
story building of modern construction. The
three-story Howard Elementary School, con-
structed around 1949 as a high school, is located
on I toward Air Force Base.

I ~ia{~imi~ ~IE~4 ~

page 81

l)N Ur1t1clti ( )/ I 0Nl11sc /i "pelu / / t1I s schoolss



ttotvard Elemientary School



Cristobol Junior -

p Senior High School
FVunding I or he original (0istobal .1unior-Senior

tt1ih School caine in 1933 from tle Natisonal
I Industrial Iecoverv Act. ( onstruction of the
lacilitv in the Panama ('anal go\eminent corn-
....munitx ofNe ristobal yeas begun almost ir-
imiediately and \Xas completed in September.
Fort Kobbe Elementary School
In !959. the school \\as relocated to a remod-
eled Naxv barracks building at the lfrr-ner Coco
Solo Naxal Base.

.. Thj....... Fort Davis Elementary

4 B I7 Construction of the single-stor\ Fort Davis El-
ementarv School complex located on t'ort Davis
was completed in 1964.

PCC Football Team and Cheerleaders

4A -

Aerial View of the first Cristobal High School New Cristobal High School

Department 0f Defi'nse Dependents Schools

p(lge S2


I LaFeber, Walter. The Panama Canal: The Crisis in
Historical Perspective. New York: Oxford University
Press, 1978, p. 5.

2 Kilbey, C.W. Panama Potpourri. New York: Vantage
Press, 1968, p. 36.

3 laFeber, p. 12.

4 Nicolay, ftelen. The Bridge of Water: The Story of
Panama and the Canal. New York: D. Appleton-Century
Company, Inc., 1940, p. 119.

5 English, Peter. Panama and the Canal Zone in
Pictures. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1975,
p. 32.

6 Nicolay,p. 160.

7 LaFeber, p. 194-195.

8 lbid, p. 184.

16 Nicolay, p. 204.

17 Laval, Jerome D. Images of an Age: Panama and the
Building of the Canal. Fresno, Californa: Graphic
Technology Co., 1978, #40.

18 Letter of the Secretary of War, Transmitting the First
Annual Report of the Isthmian Canal Commission.
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1904, p.

19 "John F. Stevens." Panama Canal Review, Fall 1972.
Panama Canal Company: La Boca, Panama Canal Zone,
1972, pp. 4.

20 Abbot, p. 8.

21 Annual Report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for
the Year Ending December 1, 1906. Washington D.C.:
Government Printing Office, 1906, p. 100-101.

22 Abbot, p. 144.

9 Nicolay, p. 160.

10 Core, Susie Pearl. Trails of Progress or The Story of
Panama and Its Canal. New York: The Knickerbocker
Press, 1925, p. 85.

11 Lee, W. Storrs. The Strength to Move a Mountain.
New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1958, p. 93.

12 Ibid, p. 95.

13 Abbot, Willis J. Panama and the Canal in Picture and
Prose. New York: Syndicate Publishing Company, 1913,
p. 148.

14 Ibid, p. 160.

15 lbid, p. 162.

23 Canal Record, Volume VIII. Balboa Heights, Canal
Zone: The Panama Canal, p. 327, May 5, 1915.

24 Ibid, p. 327, May 5, 1915.

25 lbid, p. 327, May5, 1915.

26 "Military Reservations: Canal Zone," U.S. War
Department, 1942, p. 13.

27 LaFeber, p. 76.

28 Ibid, p. 220.

29 Nicolay, p. 279.

30 Keller, Ulrich. The Building of the Panama Canal in
Historic Photographs. New York: Dover Publications,
Inc., 1983, p. 29.


page 83



31 Annual Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1917. Washington
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1917, p. 161.

32 Core, p. 153-154.

33 Regn, Elmer M., compiler. "Fort Clayton, Canal Zone:
Master Plan Analysis of Existing Facilities". March
1972, p. 16.

34 Various fact sheets. Office of the USARSO Histo-
rian, Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama.

35 Ibid.

36 Ibid.

37 Land Holdings of the Armed Forces and the Federal
Aviation Agency in the Canal Zone. Published jointly
September 1970, p. 1.

38 Ibid, p. 2.

39 Wesley, I LT Gonzales A. 1915-1994, Signal
Soldiers, Families Celebrate 79 Years in Panama." The
IMA Bulletin. (Volume V, Number 2, April 1994) Fort
Clayton, Republic of Panama: DCSIM Printing and
Publications Management Office, 1994, p. 3.

40 McDonald, MSgt. John W. "Out of the Swamp and
Jungle A History of Albrook AFB." Caribbean
Breeze, October 15, 1954, p. 7.

41 "Military Reservations: Canal Zone," p. 28.

42 De Mena, Dolores. "Kobbe Cannons Guard
Atlantic." The Tropic Times. May 8, 1992, p. 8.

43 "Kobbe Cannons," p. 8.

44 "Historic Resources Assessments for Treaty Related
Activities, Panama, C.A." [Draft] Prepared by the
Environmental Resources Planning Section, Mobile
District Corps of Engineers, July 1993. p. 83-84.

45 Annual Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1929. Washington
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1929, p. 7 1.

46 Land Holdings, p. 2.

47 Ibid, p. 2.

48 Annual Historical Supplement FY82. 193d Infantry
Brigade (Panama), 1982, p. 3.

49 "Military Reservations," p. 34.

50 Ibid, p. 34.

51 Various fact sheets, Office of the USARSO Historian.

52 "Military Reservations," p. 25.

53 Scanlan, Tom, assistant editor. Army Times Guide to
Army Posts. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Stackpole
Company, 1966, p. 26.

54 "Reservations Military Naval: Descriptions and
Executive Orders." File copies of Executive Orders,
maintained by real estate office (Plans and Property
Branch, Engineering Division), DEH-Panama.

55 Land Holdings, p. 2.

56 Annual Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1915. Washington
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1915, p. 238.

57 Brandon, Dorothy. Mamie Doud Eisenhower: a
Portrait of a First Lady. New York: Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1954, p. 135.

Footnotes page' 84

page 84


58 Annual Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1920. Washington
D.C.: Govermnent Printing Office, 1932, p. 77.

59 1 askin, p. 140.

60 Annual Report (1915), p. 512.

6 1 Background )ocuments Relating to the Panama
Canal. Prepared by the Congressional Research Service,
Library of Congress. 95th Congress, 1st Session.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office,
1977, p. 1024.

62 "Military Reservations: Canal Zone," p. 33.

63 Land Holdings (1970), p. 1.

64 Annual Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1920. Washington
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1920, p. 53.

65 Canal Record, Volume XXII. Balboa Heights, Canal
Zone: The Panama Canal, 1929, p. 384.

66 Land Holdings (1970), p. 2.

67 Land Holdings of the Armed Forces in the Canal
Zone. Published by the Panama Area Joint Committee,
I Ileadquarters Caribbean Command, Quarry Heights,
Canal Zone. 1 July 1956, p. 9.

68 Background Documents Relating to the Panama
Canal, p. 954.

69 De Mena, Dolores, compiler. "Raid Prompts Japa-
nese Retaliation." The Tropic Times. May 8, 1992 p. 8.
76 Scanlan, p. 352.

70 Scanlan, p. 352.

71 Letter of the Secretary of War (1904), p. 86.

72 Annual Report ( 1915), p. 264.

73 Annual Report (1917), p. 309.

74 Annual Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1919. Washington
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1919, p. 303.

75 Annual Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1916. Washington
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1916, p. 11.

76 Annual Report (1917), p. 303.

77 Ibid.

78 Annual Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 193 1. Washington
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1931. p. 79.

79 De Mena, Dolores. "Clayton Hospital Advanced
Medicine." The Tropic Times. January 14, 1994, p. 9.

80 Ibid, p. 9.

81 Ibid, p. 9.

82 Haskin, p. 140-141.

83 McDonald, Paul, Jr., ed. Schooling in the Panama
Canal Zone 1904 1979. Panama City, Republic of
Panama: Poligrafica S.A., 1990, p. 27.

84 Ibid, p. vii.

85 Ibid, p. 62.

86 Annual Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1921. Washington
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 192 1, p. 49.

87 McDonald, p, 32.

88 Ibid, p. 7.

89 Ibid, p. 28.


page 85



90 Ibid, p. 9.

91 Ibid, p. 45.

92 lbid, p. 52.

93 Ibid, p. 65.

94 Annual Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal
for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30. 1935. Washington
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1935, p. 127.

95 McDonald, p. 43-44.

96 "Historic Resources Assessments" [Draft], p. 2 1.

I pae -I
Footnotes page 86


B ~0

Abbot, Willis J. Panama and the Canal in Picture and
Prose. New York: Syndicate Publishing Company, 1913.

Acquisition of Land in the Panama Canal Zone: History
of World War II. U.S. Adjutant-General's Office, circa

Actas del V Simposium Nacional de Antropologia,
Arqueologia v Etnohistoria de Panama. lnstituto
Nacional de Cultura, 1978.

"Actuary's Data File: Austin Willard Lord." Avery
Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia Univer-
sit)', New York, N.Y.

Annual Historical Supplement FY82. 193rd Infantry
Brigade (Panama), 1982.

Annual Report of the Isthmian Canal Commission. (1905
- 1909) Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Annual Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal.
(1915- 1935) Washington, D.C.: Government Printing

Background Documents Relating to the Panama Canal.
Prepared by the Congressional Research Service,
Library of Congress, prepared for the Committee on
Foreign Relations, United States Senate (95th Congress,
1st Session). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1977.

Bennett, Ira E. History of the Panama Canal: Its
Construction and Builders. Washington, D.C.: Histori-
cal Publishing Company, 1915.

Bishop, Joseph Bucklin. The Panama Gateway. New
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915.

Brandon, Dorothy. Mamie Doud Eisenhower: a Portrait
of a First Lady. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,

Canal Record. (Volumes I II) Ancon, Canal Zone:
Isthmian Canal Commission Printing Office.

Canal Record. (Volumes Vlll XXII) Balboa Heights,
Canal Zone: The Panama Canal.
Castillero R., Ernesto J. Raices de la Independencia de
Panama. Panama City, Republic of Panama: Talleres de
la Inpresora de la Nacion, 1978.

Core, Susie Pearl. Trails of Progress or The Story of
Panama and Its Canal. New York: The Knickerbocker
Press, 1925.

Davies, Howell, ed. The South American Handbook.
London, England: Trade and Travel Publications, Ltd.,

De Mena, Dolores. "Clayton Hospital Advanced
Medicine." The Tropic Times. January 14, 1994.

De Mena, Dolores. "Kobbe Cannons Guard Atlantic."
The Tropic Times. May 8, 1992.

De Mena, Dolores, compiler. "Raid Prompts Japanese
Retaliation." The Tropic Times. May 8, 1992.

Edwards, Albert. Panama: The Canal, the Country., and
the People. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1912.

English, Peter. Panama and the Canal Zone in Pictures.
New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1975.

Executive Orders Relating to the Panama Canal (March
8, 1904, to December 31, 1921). Mount Hope, Canal
Zone: The Panama Canal Press, 1921.

Ferrell, Robert H., ed. The Eisenhower Diaries. New
York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1981.

"Fort Amador (Includes Fort Grant), Panama Canal one:
Master Plan Analysis of Existing Facilities". Regn, Col.
Elmer M., compiler for the USARSO Command Review
Board, March, 1972.


Btblograpi pge 8


page 87

"Fort Clayton, Canal Zone: Master Plan Analysis of
Existing Facilities". Regn, Col. Elmer M., compiler for
the USARSO Command Review Board, March,

Harp, Susan. "Chief Engineer Directed Canal Project to
its Conclusion." The Panama Canal Spillway, Volume
XXXII, Number 6, March 25, 1994. Balboa Heights,
Republic of Panama.

Harris, Jack C. Dwight D. Eisenhower: A Great Ameri-
can Hero. Racine, Wisconsin: Western Publishing
Company, 1990.

Haskin, Frederic J. The Panama Canal. Garden City,
New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1913.

"Historic Resources Assessments for Treaty Related
Activities, Panama, C.A." [Draft] Prepared by
Environmental Resources Planning Section, Mobile
District Corps of Engineers, July, 1993.

"History of the Military Post of Quarry Heights."
Balboa, Canal Zone: Isthmian Historical Society, [no

"Impact of the Panama Canal Treaty on the United
States Military in the Panama Canal Area." 193rd
Infantry Brigade, Public Affairs Office, Public Informa-
tion Paper, no date.

"John F. Stevens." Panama Canal Review, Fall 1972.
Panama Canal Company: La Boca, Panama Canal
Zone, 1972.

Keller, Ulrich. The Building of the Panama Canal in
Historic Photographs. New York: Dover Publications,
Inc., 1983.

Kilbey, C.W. Panama Potpourri. New York: Vantage
Press, 1968.


LaFeber, Walter. The Panama Canal: The Crisis in
Historical Perspective. New York: Oxford University
Press, 1978.

Land Holdings of the Armed Forces in the Canal Zone.
Published by the Panama Area Joint Committee,
Headquarters Caribbean Command, Quarry Heights,
Canal Zone, 1 July, 1956.

Land Holdings of the Armed Forces and the Federal
Aviation Agency in the Canal Zone. Published jointly
1 September, 1970.

Laval, Jerome D. Images of an Age: Panama and the
Building of the Canal. Fresno, California: Graphic
Technology Co., 1978.

Lee, W. Storrs. The Strength to Move a Mountain.
New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1958.

Len-Rios, Janet. "History of C.Z. Hospitals: A
Chronology of Change." The Panama Canal Review.
October I, 1979.

Letter of the Secretary of War, Transmitting the First
Annual Report of the Isthmian Canal Commission.
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1904.

Lindsey, Claude, compiler. Index to the Reports of the
Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army, 1913- 1917. Wash-
ington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1921.

Lyon, Peter. Eisenhower: Portrait of the Hero. Boston:
Little, Brown and Company, 1974.

"Many Hope Graves Get Moved." SCNews, August 17,

"Marine's Headstone Marker, Dated 1863, Found in
Balboa." Newspaper article, source unknown. Panama
Canal Commission Technical Resources Center, Balboa,
Republic of Panama.

page 88


1 _

MIaster Plan BuLIding Information Schedule: [ort
Amador, Panama (Canil /one (Includes Fort Grant), )A
FORM 2368-R. April, 1973.

NiMaster Plan Buildin g In formation Schedule: Fort
%mador. Panamna. Directorate of Facilities Enigineer-
inte I 93rd Infantry lrigadc (Panama). DA FORM
_q68-R. April, 197.

,NcCUlIonuh, David. The Path Betw,,een the Seas.
New York- Simon and Schuster, 1977.

McI )onald, iSgt. John W. "()nt ofthe S%, amp and
Iungale- A II istor\ oIA Ibrook AIB.-( Caribbean
tBreeze. October I5. I 95.I

McDonald, Paul. .r., ed. Schooling ir the Panama
alonee 1904 -1979. Panama City. Republic of
Panama: Polrkrafica S.A., 1990.

NiMilitary Rescrviations( Canal /one." U.S. War
I)epartment, 1942.

+'Monument \Vii I e Dedicated IHonoring Col. John
,'chbcr,- Southern o nmand News. June 2 1, 1968.

Morrow, J ay J. "A (reat Flood in the Panama Canal.-
The Military~ 'niueCr. (VolIme XVI, Number 86,
March-AptilI 1924.) [Publication information unavail-
able. I

Nike, coin pil(r. Pant mat as a matter of fact...
Paianma City, Republic ol' Panama: Poligrafica S.A,,

-,iCoihohn and I rancis X. lolbrook, -Naval Opera-
ions in the Panama Rc, olutiori 1903, T1e American
Neptuic. Volurne 37, Nuiber 4, October, 1977.

Nicolat, I lclen, The Brid,'e ofWater: The Stor\ ol
Pllanama and the (anal. New York- I). Appleton-
(cntur > (Cornpanix Inc. 1940,

Organization and F'unctions: Panara Canal Company,
Canal Zone Government. [No publishing information,
May. 1956.]

Panama: Sovereignty for a Land Divided. Washington,
D.C.: Epica Task Foice, 1976.

Pierce, Philip N., and Frank 0. Hough. The Compact
tirstorv of the United States Marine Corps. New York:
Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1964.

"Population Reports Fiscal Year 1963." File main-
tained by the Plans and Property Branch, Engineering
Division, Directorate of Engineering and Housing-
Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama.

"PFroposed Five Year Modernization and Rehabilitation
Program for Barracks and Messing Facilities to Meet
Volar and MCA Standards." Prepared by Kemp,
Bunch and Jackson, Architects, Inc. (Jacksonville,
Florida), Administered by Army Engineer District,
Mobile Corps of Engineers, Mobile, Alabama: for
LASARSO, Canal Zone, Panaria. 15 March 1972.

"Reservations Military Naval: Descriptions and
Executive Orders." File copies of Executive Orders,
maintained by the Plans and Property Branch, Engi-
neering Division, Directorate of Engineering and
Housing-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama, [no
date. I

Senate Document N number 146: NMessage from the
President of the United States Trarnmitting a Report by
the Commission of Fine Arts in Relation to the Artistic
Structure of1he Panaria Canal. Washington. D.C.:
(6o, ernment Printing Office, 19 13.

Scanlan, T om, assistant editor. Armrv Times Guide to
Arima Posts. I larrisburg, Pennsylvarnia: The Stackpole
Company. 1966.

jage 89


Small, Charles S. "Military Railroads of the Panama
Canal Zone." Cos Cob, Connecticut, 1982.

Speller, Jon P. The Panama Canal: Heart of America's
Security. New York: Robert Speller & Sons, Publish-
ers, Inc., 1972.

St. George, Judith. Panama Canal: Gateway to the
World. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1989.

Sullivan, Charles J., compiler. Army Posts & Towns:
The Baedeker of the Army. Plattsburg Barracks, N.Y.:
Burlington Free Press Printing Company, 1926.

"Survey Report for Consolidation of Real Property
Maintenance Activities at Military Installations for the
Panama Canal Zone." Regn, Col. Elmer M., compiler
for the USARSO Defense Real Property Maintenance
Activities Consolidation Committee for Panama Canal
Zone, in compliance with directions from the Deputy
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Installations and
Housing), June, 1973.

Temple, Wayne C. By Square and Compasses: The
Building of Lincoln's Home and Its Saga.
Bloomington, Illinois: The Ashlar Press, 1984.

Transactions of the International Engineering Con-
gress, 1915. San Francisco: Neal Publishing Com-
pany, 1916.

"United States Air Force Fact Sheet: First Lieutenant
DIVISION (TAC), Office of Public Affairs, January,

"United States Air Force Fact Sheet: Major Charles
DIVISION (TAC), Office of Public Affairs, January,

"U.S. Army South." Office of Public Affairs, USARSO
Public Affairs Office, October, 1989.

"U.S. Naval Complex Panama Canal Draft Master
Plan." Naval Facilities Engineering Command,
Atlantic Division, Norfolk, Virginia. 9 October, 1986.

USARSO Pam 870-1. "The Fortifications of the
Panama Canal, Part 1: The Defenses of the Panama
Canal." United States Army South, Republic of
Panama, I May, 1973.

Various fact sheets. Office of the USARSO Historian,
Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama.

Wesley, ILT Gonzales A. "1915-1994, Signal Sol-
diers, Families Celebrate 79 Years in Panama." The
IMA Bulletin. (Volume V, Number 2, April 1994.)
Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama: DCSIM Printing
and Publications Management Office, 1994.

Many individuals and agencies provided assistance in
producing this brochure, including Lieutenant Colonel
John T. Lovo, Director of Engineering and Housing-
Panama; Dolores De Mena, Historian, United States
Army South; Robert C. Sullivan, Historian, 24th Wing;
Pablo A. Epifanio M., Heriberto del C. Estribe CH.,
and Alfredo E. Martineau J., Plans and Property
Branch, Directorate of Engineering and Housing-
Panama; and the Panama Canal Commission Technical
Resources Center.

Bib/iograhpy page 90


I - -





Photograph Legend
Photographs supplied by:
[AF] Courtesy Office of the Historian, 24th Wing,
U.S. Air Force
[DEH] Directorate of Engineering & Housing
[G+K] Graves + Klein, Architets, Engineers
[PCC] Photo located at Panama Canal Commission,
supplied by the U.S. National Archives

"Four U.S. Air Force A-37s make a formation pass
over the Miraflores Locks" [AF]

"Monument at Quarry Heights" [G+K]

"Barracks at Fort Clayton" [G+K]

"Theater at Corozal" [G+K]

"Corozal American Cemetery" [G+K]

"Las Cruces Trail" [PCC Vol 9, #846]

"Fort San Lorenzo" [G+K]

"Fort San Lorenzo today" [G+K]

"The Panama Railroad" [PCC Vol 23, #2200]

"French Cemetery, Paraiso" [DEH]

"Count Ferdinand de Lesseps and Friends at Cristobal"
[PCC Vol 23, #2204] [Courtesy of Tracey Robinson]

"Remaining section of the French Canal" [G+K]

"The Pacific Squadron Visits Panama, 1909" [PCC -
Vol 13, 12871

"lPanama City today" [Gf-K]

"President Carter and General Torrijos" [Courtesy of
Jimmy Carter Library]

"Cargo ship in Miraflores Locks" [G+K]

"John F. Wallace" [Courtesy of Panama Canal Commis-

"John F. Stevens" [PCC Vol 22, #2106]

"Chief Engineer Goethals in Front of the Miraflores
Spillway" [PCC- Vol 21, #2071 ]

"Colonel George Washington Goethals and the [Third]
Isthmian Canal Commission Board Members" [PCC -
Vol 17,#1633]

"President Theodore Roosevelt inspecting the Canal
Works" [PCC]

"Goethals Memorial Celebration" Living and working
in the Canal Zone, Sept. 1954. The Panama Canal

"Doctor William C. Gorgas" [PCC Vol 3, #214]

"Tourists in the Culebra Cut" [Photo by Underwood
and Underwood from Panama and the Canal, Willis
Abbot, Syndicate Publiching Co., 1913]

"The U.S.S. Arizona Transits the Canal, February 23,
1921" [PCC- Vol 10, #952]

"French Housing, Ancon" [PCC Vol 15, #1491]

"Screened Veranda at Quarry Heights" [DEH]

"Raised structure with metal flashing serves as a
termite shield" [G+K]

"Residential Community at Fort Clayton" [G+K]

"Typical Tile Hood and Media Agua" [G+K]

"Oversized Bronze Doors to Building 519, Ft. Clayton"

page ,1


I,_ ,

"Landscape at Ft. Amador" [G+KI

"Typical residential street with original lamp post"

"Two 'Cabaret Girls' at the Fort Amador Beach Club"

"Boy Scouts of America Headquarters" [G+K]

"Deep sea fishing Pacific Ocean" [Photograph
courtesy of Georgia Carlos].

"Baseball Teams of the Panama Canal Zone" [PCC -
Vol 14,413381

"Former Canal Zone Y.M.C.A." [G+K]

"The Annual 'Ocean to Ocean' Cayuca Race, Spon-
sored by the Explorer Scouts" [Photograph Courtesy of
Rick Szymanski]

"Guns guarding Canal Entrance" [Photo by Underwood
and Underwood from Panama and the Canal, Willis
Abbot, Syndicate Publiching Co., 1913]

"Map of the Panama Canal Zone" [G+K]

"Battery Morgan, 1939" [ USARSO Pam 870-1.]

"Newly Sited Housing" [G+K]

"Moving Buildings by Flatcar" [PCC Vol 15, #1446]

"Pacific Division Map" [G+K]

LOGO: United States Southern Command

"Quarry Heights Map" [G+K]

"Wood Frame Building at Quarry Heights" [G+K]

"Quarry Heights from Hydrographer's Tower" [DEH]

"Ancon Quarry" [PCC Vol 14, #1348]

Interior of Offlccr's Quarters Showing 'W ooden
Stairway" IGK]

*Residential Quarters at Quarry Heights" [G-- K]

"Fort Amador Fort Grant Map" [G K]

"Paln-lined Street and Command StaffTQuarters with
Band Stand at Foreground" [G iKI

"Headquarters U.S. Naval Station, Ft. Amador" [G+K]

"Residential Quarters, U.S. Naval Station Fort
Amador" [G -K]

"Fort Clayton Map" [G+K]

"Residential Quarters at Fort Clayton" [G + K]

"Corozal and the Panama Canal Town of Los Rios Map"

"Engineering Compound, 1952" [DEH]

"Former Stable Entry Door" [G+K]

"Former Bachelor Housing at Curundu" [G-K]

"Curundu housing" [G+K]

"Albrook Air Force Station Map" [G+K]

"Hangers, Albrook Field, C.Z." [AF]

"View down residential street, Albrook Field, C.Z."

"Fort Kobbe Map" [G+K]

"Former Battery at Fort Kobbe" [G+K]

"Residential Quarters, Fort Kobbe" [G+K]

"Residential Quarters, Fort Kobbe" [G -K]

"Howard Air Force Base Map" [G--K]

Photographs pclge 92

I _ 1

page 92


"Housing at I loxward Air Force Base" [G+K]

"Officers' Club at Htoward Air Force Base" [G-4 K]

Theater at Howard Air Force Base" [G+K]

"-U.S Naval Station Rodman Map" [G+K]

"Former Barracks" [G+K]

"Residential Quarters at Rodman" [G+K]

"Family housing at Farfan" [G+K]

"Family housing at Farfan" [G+K]

"Entry light/gate detail" [G+K]

"Administration Building" [G+K]

"Single Family housing" [G+K]

"Cocoli housing Community" [G+K]

"Multi-Family Housing at Cocoli" [G+K]

"Cocoli Housing Community" [DEH]

"Gas Station at Cocoli" [G+K]

"Atlantic Division Map" [G+K]

"Fort Sherman Map" [G -K]

"Battery Kilpatrick" [G -K]

"Ferry Slip at Fort Sherman" [DEH]

"Barracks at Fort Sherman" [DEH]

"Fort Sherman Post Theater" [G+K]

"Bachelor Quarters' at Toro Point" Panama and the
Canal, Willis Abbot, Syndicate Publishing Co., 1913

"Port Davis Map" [G iK]

"Camp Gatun" IPCC Vol 18, 4f1778]

"Housing at Fort Davis" [G+K]

"Fort Davis" [DEH]

"Octagonal Theater at Fort Davis" [DEH]

"Fort Gulick Map" [G+K]

"Former U.S. School of the Americas" [G+K]

"Fort Gulick circa 1978" [DEH]

"Coco Solo Submarine Base" [PCC Vol 19, #1826]

"Former Administration Building" [G+K]

"Former Housing at Coco Solo" [G+K]

"Col. Goethals reviewing the Marines at Camp Elliott"
[PCC Vol 8, #789]

"Marine Post Camp Elliott" [Photo by Underwood and
Under wood from Panama and the Canal, Willis Abbot,
Syndicate Publishing Co.]

"Camp Gaillard, 1920" [PCC Vol 16, #1552]

"US Marines and Bugle Corp at Camp Otis" [From
Panama and the Building of the Canal, photographs
from the Keystone-Mast Stereograph Collection,
University of California, Riverside.]

"U.S. Marines Participate in an Isthmian Canal Com-
mission Fourth of July Athletic Event, 1912"
[PCC Vol 16, #1529]

"Housing at Fort DeLesseps" [DEH]

"Housing at Fort DeLesseps" [DEH]

"Fort I)eLesseps Dock Facility" [DEH]

"Fort Randolph Map" [G+K]

"Fort Randolph Quarter Master Stables" [DEH]

"Fort Randolph Largo Remo Bunk House" [DEH]

page 93



"Fort Randolph RSO Office and Warehouse, May
1916" [DEH]

"Fort Randolph One-Family Lieutant's Quarters"

"The first troops at France Field" [AF]

"The 'Spirit of St. Louis' piloted by Col. Charles A.
Lindbergh circles France Field, January 23, 1928." [AF]

"Signing the Turn-over Agreement." [AF]

"Raising the Flag At Rio Hato" [AF]

"Cerro Tigre Barracks, June 1930" [DEH]

"Barracks at Cerro Pelado" [DEH]

"Igloo magazine at Cerro Pelado" [DEH]

"Hospital Gounds, French Hospital at Ancon" [PCC -
Vol 15, #1487]

"Culebra Island Quarantine Station" Photo by
Underwood and Underwood from Panama and the
Canal, Willis Abbot, Syndicate Publishing Co., 1913

"Gorgas Hospital Map" [DEH]

"Gorgas Hospital circa 1978" [DEH]

"Administration and Clinics Building circa 1920"

"Covered Passageway, Gorgas Hospital" [G+K]

"Entrance to Mortuary Facility" [G+K]

"The Superintendent's Residence, Ancon Hospital -
circa 1920" [PCC Vol 15, # 1518]

"The New Ancon Hospital circa 1920" [PCC]

"Herrick Heights" [G+K]

"Herrick Heights Housing" [DEH]

"Former Corozal Insane Asylum Building" [PCC Vol
15, #1419]

"Coco Solo I lospital Map" [G K]

"Former Gulick Sector Hospital" [G+K]

"Army Sector Hospital #519, Fort Clayton" [G -K]

"Panama Canal School Sign, 1958" [DEt]

"Former Gamboa Elementary School" [G+K]

"Balboa High School" [G+K]

"Corundu Junior High School" [G+K]

"Courtyard Balboa Elementary" [G+K]

"Balboa Elementary Schoolhouse" [PCC Vol 22,

"Curndu Elementary School" [G+K]

"Fort Clayton Elementary School" [G+K]

"Howard Elementary School" [G+K]

"Fort Kobbe Elementary School" [G -K]

"PCC Football Team and Cheerleaders" [Courtesy of
DODDS Panama]

"Aerial View of First Cristobal High School" [PCC -
Vol 2, 4102

"New Cristobal High School" [G+K]

"Bridge of the Americas" [GK]

"Light House" [G+K]

Phtgah p -g-I9

page 94


Bridge of the Americas


Located oil tile Paci ic side near the mouth of the
Panama Canal, the Thatcher Ferry Bridge, more
commonly referred to as the "Bridge of the
Americas". opened on October 12, 1962. Con-
structed by the United States at an estimated cost

of$20 million, the steel-arched bridge spans the
Panama Canal and links North and South
America. In the foreground, sport fishing boats
are moored at the Balboa Yacht Club, a favorite
watering hole for many locals.

page 95

Canal Light House

1 77:

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