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Metadata Research and
Management of Digital
University of Central Florida Libraries
* Access to the online information
* Seeking information
* Web 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0
* Why metadata?
* The importance of metadata
* Use of metadata standards
* Metadata guidelines
* Additional resources
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 2
Access to the Online Information
* Google and other search engines have
revolutionized the way our patrons access
* As per the commonly applied saying by the 21st
century consumers in regard to any information,
which actually applies perfectly to digitized
... if it's not [described] online, it does not
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 3
Based on a report by Cathy De Rosa et al.:
Students started their searches using a search engine, i.e. Google:
* Only 48% ended up at a library Web site.
* Of which only 41% went on to use the library Web site.
* But only 10% indicated that the library Web site fulfilled their
* While 27% indicated that they had to use other resources.
De Rosa, Cathy et al., "College Students' Perceptions of
Libraries and Information Resources: A Report to the OCLC
Membership. A Companion Piece to the Perceptions of Libraries
and Information Resources," Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Online
Computer Library Center, Inc., 2006. [cited: 06-02]. Available at:
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 4
Students started their searches
using a search engine, i.e. Google
* Ended up at the library
Went to use the library
The library website
fulfilled their needs
* Had to use other
* Computers use network protocols to communicate in
* The Internet is a huge network of computers that use
TCP/IP to communicate
* The Web is a system of interlinked documents
accessed via the Internet
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The Evolution of Web
* Web 1.0 was the content Web -people could easily
access the documents which was the largest source of
* Web 2.0 has generally been regarded as the social Web
-people started to share photos and videos; interact in
social networks; publish content in blogs; contribute in
wikis; use tags and RSS this is the read-write Web
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The Free Encyclopedia
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Die freie Enzyklopadie
928 000+ Artikel
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585 000+ voci
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La enciclopedia libre
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S* sk haku cerca nouyK ara hieddni* kereses cAutare suk seriu seg hradat *
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* Web pages are written in HTML, which describes the
structure of information
* If computers can understand the meaning behind
they can learn what we are interested in
they can help us better find what we want
* This is Web 3.0
* Today's Web is about documents
In Iasf o
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Web 3.0 defined as:
the location-aware and moment-relevant
the creation of high-quality content and
services produced by gifted individuals
using Web 2.0 technology as the enabling
a third generation of Internet-based
services, i.e. "the intelligent Web" (John
Markoff of the NYT)
a highly specialized information silos, moderated
by a cult of personality, validated by the
community, and put into context with the inclusion
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 14
Web Evolution and Its Impact on E-Commerce and Online Advertising
Source: Yankee Group. 2008
Web 1.0 is about
connected via the
"Here is what we
Online Ad 1.0:
Static portals and
(e.g.. display and
Web 2.0 is about
Share and interact
with others in the
"People who bought *
this also bought that"
Online Ad 2.0:
Web 3.0 is about
Receive the right
content at the right
time from anywhere
We believe this is what
you are looking for
Online Ad 3.0:
display based on
* The primary purpose of descriptive metadata is to:
Assist researchers in the discovery of
resources relevant to their research objectives.
Assist general and/or potential audience in
discovery of resources relevant to their needs.
No Digitization Without Metadata
* Metadata is the backbone of digital curation.
* Metadata is essential!
* Without metadata a digital resource may be irretrievable,
unidentifiable or unusable.
* Metadata is descriptive or contextual information which
refers to, or is associated with, another object or
* Metadata consists of a structured set of elements which
describe the information resource and assist in the
identification, location and retrieval of it by users, while
facilitating content and access management.
* Metadata standards formalize the element structure to
ensure that the aims of a user community can be
Basic Decisions about Metadata
* What kind of information do you need to describe each
* What do your users need to know about what the
resource is, where it came from, who created
* How much detail do you need to go into?
it, what its
* How will
users find resources in your collection?
* What will they be looking for?
* What aspects will they be interested in?
* At what level do you need to distinguish
resource from another, and at what level do you
want to bring like resources together?
Using standards for inputting your data is very
Standards insure consistency, which:
* increases coherence and intelligibility of description
* enhances reliability of retrieval
* enables compatibility with other collections (cross-
* makes maintenance and possible migration of data
Data should be formatted in a standard way. Actually,
which format you choose may not be as important as
always using the same format for data in the same field.
* In a field called "Date" make sure that dates are always
formatted in the same way.
* In a field called "Photographer" the same person's name
should always appear in the same form.
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 22
* Similarly, the resources about the same topic
should have the same term used to describe them.
* For example, a user looking for images of retail
stores using the field "Subject" should be able to
do a single search to find all the relevant images.
* If different terms are used, the user may not even realize
that more than one search is necessary.
* This is where a "controlled vocabulary" or "authority file"
can be useful.
* A standard list of authorized terms can eliminate the
ambiguity that arises from synonymous terms,
homonyms, variant spellings and other pitfalls.
* There are controlled vocabularies that already exist for
many subject areas and disciplines, or you could create
your own standardized list of terms if it were reasonably
short and you needed something very specialized for
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 24
* Either way, with a controlled vocabulary you
don't have to monitor your own consistency as
you input metadata--the act of adhering to the
list in itself will create the consistency you need.
* This is especially useful if more than one person
will be inputting metadata in your collection.
Use of Metadata Standards
Ensures rich, consistent metadata which will
support the long-term discovery, use and integrity
of digital resources.
Ensures effective searching, improved
digital curation and the possibility of sharing.
Enables interoperability--metadata from a
variety of sources can be integrated into other
technical systems or machine read by compatible
The potential for resource discovery is
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 26
There have been many attempts at defining the concept of
interoperability. A few examples are given below:
* "Interoperability is the ability of multiple systems with different hardware and
software platforms, data structures, and interfaces to exchange data with
minimal loss of content and functionality" [NISO, 2004].
* "Interoperability is the ability of two or more systems or components to
exchange information and use the exchanged information without special
effort on either system" [CC:DA, 2000].
* "Interoperability: The compatibility of two or more systems such that they
can exchange information and data and can use the exchanged information
and data without any special manipulation" [Taylor 2004, p. 369].
It is becoming generally accepted in the information community that
interoperability is one of the most important principles in metadata
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 27
Types of Metadata Standards
* Effective implementation of metadata standards needs
early consideration of the structure, content, functionality
and links between digital objects and metadata instances
* Different types of metadata standards are used
interdependently to achieve the following aims:
Metadata structure standards ensure consistent
structure across individual entries; enable data
searching to be implemented and data sharing
across a discipline.
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 28
- Hierarchical structure standards enable
context as well as content to be described.
- Metadata content rules enable consistent data
entry for effective searching.
- Content rules include: controlled vocabularies, authority
files, thesauri, and classifications.
* CONTENTdm has the capability to search multiple collections at
once. In order to achieve this, CONTENTdm uses underlying
mapping to simple Dublin Core (DC) elements to create a crosswalk
between similar fields with different field names in different
* The Dublin Core is an internationally agreed upon basic metadata
scheme that defines 15 general descriptive elements, for example,
Creator, Title, Date, Subject, Publisher, etc.
* You may map each field in your collection to a corresponding Dublin
Core element. Or you could choose not to map certain fields to any
DC element if the fields did not fit well into the DC schema, or if you
didn't want to make these fields available for cross-database
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 30
* The fields in the table below are from
and all somehow represent the name
organization) involved in the creation
of a person (or
of a resource.
* Since all these fields have been mapped to the Dublin
Core element "Creator", a cross-database search across
multiple collections in the field "Creator" will retrieve the
appropriate resources from whichever collection they are
in, no matter what the collection-specific field name is.
Metadata Mapping Table
* Levels of metadata:
Determining the granularity, or detail, of
metadata description is essential when
developing a digital project.
* Types of metadata:
Descriptive: facilitates discovery and describes
Administrative: facilitates management of
digital and analog resources.
Technical: describes the technical aspects of
the digital object.
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 33
Structural: describes the relationship within a
Preservation: supports long-term retention of the
digital object and may overlap with
technical, administrative, and structural
"Flattening Complex Reality"
* CONTENTdm's database structure right now is flat. There is no way
structurally to distinguish between metadata for different physical
manifestations of a resource, for example, between the original
object, the photograph of the object, and the digitized scan of the
* The UCF Libraries has not attempted to follow a strict 1:1
correspondence between metadata and the particular manifestation
of the resource.
* Whatever information seemed important for users of a particular
collection was included in the metadata.
* For example, in a collection of photographs of buildings, both the
photographer and the architect are important for searching, so both
fields were included and both were mapped to the underlying Dublin
Core element "Creator". The name of the person who did the
scanning was not considered significant and was completely left out.
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 35
Setting up CONTENTdm Field
Properties for Your Collection
You can set up your metadata fields in the CONTENTdm Server
Administration module under "View/edit collection field properties."
CONTENTdm allows you to:
* Have as many fields in the description as you want
* Create your own field names
* Decide whether each field will be searchable or will display
* Put the fields in any order you want
* Make fields available for cross-database searching
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 36
Field Properties Table
* To set field properties in CONTENTdm, use the Server
Administration module, and select "View/edit collection field
* Shown below are the default values for field properties as they
appear in the CONTENTdm Server Administration module.
* Remember, the field properties as they originally appear in the
Administration module are just a starting point--you can add, delete,
and reorder the fields in any way, without affecting searching within
the collection or across multiple collections. (It is the DC mapping
that controls searching across multiple collections, not the order of
6/7/2010 Laila Miletic-Vejzovic 37
Fednm D DtBifil Seral Hden C to
mapig tye o
* Ensure metadata consistency and uniformity by
Metadata guidelines for digitized material and
collaborative projects among different institutions.
Best Practices for development of digital
* Develop mapping guidelines for topical collections.
* Provide training opportunities.
* Train the trainers.
Thank you for your
For more information, please feel free to
contact me at:
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A Framework of Guidance for Building Good
Digital Collections, 3rd., Dec 2007
A NISO Recommended Practice, prepared by the
NISO WG with support from IMLS
A FRAMEWORK OF GUIDANCE FOR
BUILDING GOOD DIGITAL COLLECTIONS
A digital collection consists of digital objects that are
selected and organized to facilitate their discovery, access,
and use. Objects, metadata, and the user interface together
create the user experience of a collection. Principles that
apply to good digital collections are:
I Collections Principle 1:
A good digital collection is created according to an explicit
collection development policy.
" Collections Principle 2:
Collections should be described so that a user can discover
characteristics of the collection, including scope, format,
restrictions on access, ownership, and any information
significant for determining the collection's authenticity,
integrity, and interpretation.
0 Collections Principle 3:
A good collection is curated, which is to say, its resources
are actively managed during their entire life-cycle.
0 Collections Principle 4:
A good collection is broadly available and avoids
unnecessary impediments to use. Collections should be
accessible to persons with disabilities, and usable effectively
in conjunction with adaptive technologies.
I Collections Principle 5:
A good collection respects intellectual property rights.
0 Collections Principle 6:
A good collection has mechanisms to supply usage data and
other data that allows standardized measures of usefulness
to be recorded.
Collections Principle 7:
A good collection is interoperable.
Collections Principle 8:
A good collection integrates into the users own workflow.
Collections Principle 9:
A good collection is sustainable over time.
A number of excellent resources take a holistic view of digitization
projects, covering topics ranging from selection, capture, and
description to preservation and long-term access, and finally to
metadata research. The following are highly recommended:
* UKOLN, Good Practice Guide for Developers of Cultural Heritage
Web Services (2006)
* Anne R. Kenney and Oya Y. Rieger, Moving Theory into Practice:
Digital Imaging for Libraries and Archives (2000)
http://www. ibrary.cornell.edu/preservation/tutorial/ An online tutorial
of imaging basics in English, French and Spanish
* Metadata Research Center
Library Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Northeast Document Conservation Center, Handbook for
Digital Projects: A Management Tool for Preservation &
Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS), Guides to Good
A series of guides to covering collection, description, and
digitization for specific types of materials, such as GIS,
performance resources, and virtual reality.
Washington State Library, Digital Best Practices website
Susan Schreibman (editor), Best Practice Guidelines for
Digital Collections at University of Maryland Libraries, 2nd
Selected web site resources:
* North East Document Conservation Center
* Society of American Archivists (SAA):
* Rare Books Manuscripts Section (RBMS):
* Association of Research Libraries (ARL):
* National Archives and Records Administration (NARA):
* Library of Congress (LC):
Selected Controlled Vocabularies
Thesauri available online
Library of Congress (LC) Subject Headings database:
LC Thesaurus of Graphic Materials 1: Subject Terms (TGM-1):
http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/tm 1 /
LC Thesaurus of Graphic Materials II: Genre & Physical Characteristic
The Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN):
The Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus:
The Getty Union List of Artist names:
http://www.getty.edu/research/conducti n research/vocabularies/ulan
Rare Books & Manuscripts Section (RBMS) Controlled Vocabularies:
http://www.rbms.info/committees/bibliographic standards/controlled vocabula
Some Metadata Standards:
* Dublin Core (DC):
* Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standards (METS):
* Metadata Object Description Schema modsS):
* Describing Archives: A Content Standard (DACS):
* Encoded Archival Description (EAD):
* EAD Help pages: