Title Page
 Note on Creole and the literacy...
 Dictionary of basic words: English-Creole,...

Title: You can learn Creole
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081504/00001
 Material Information
Title: You can learn Creole a simple introduction to Haitian Creole for English speaking people. How to pronounce Creole words, the elements of Creole grammar, simple exercises with keys, dictionary of about 2000 basic words, and one hundred Creole proverbs
Physical Description: 106 p. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McConnell, H. Ormonde
Swan, Eugene ( joint author )
Publisher: Impr. de l'E´tat,
Impr. de L'État
Place of Publication: Port-au-Prince Haiti
Publication Date: 1953
Copyright Date: 1953
Subject: Creole dialects -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Haiti
Statement of Responsibility: by H. Ormonde McConnell ; Eugene Swan.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081504
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AHP5732
oclc - 02339209
alephbibnum - 001621158

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Note on Creole and the literacy campaign
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
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    Dictionary of basic words: English-Creole, Creole-English
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Full Text

You Can Learn Creole






Ex-General Secretary of the Committee for the Diffusion of Teaching by Creole

EUGENE SWAN, Jr., B. S., M. A.
Author of .Help in English.



1 -

-. L.

Copyright 1945 and 1952 by the authors
All rights reserved
Teus droits de traduction et de reproduction r6serv6s pour tous pays.


In preparing these lessons, our purpose has been to provide a
practical introduction to Creole, and we have avoided as far as

possible grammatical technicalities.
We do not make any claim to completeness in this work. Many
omissions have been made consciously for the sake of simplicity.
We are also conscious that there are bound to be shortcomings. This
is inevitable, since we are for the most part breaking virgin soil.

We have utilised the Creole phonetics as adopted by the Haitian
Government for the Literacy Campaign for adults, begun officially
in 1943. These phonetics are based on the International Phonetic
System, simplified so as to use only the letters and accents of
the French alphabet, and modified to facilitate the passage to French
by those who learn to read Creole.

We desire to express our thanks to Mr. Roger Dorsinville Per-
manent Secretary of the Bureau de Diffusion de 1'Enseignement
par le Creole, who kindly checked both the lessons and the dictio-
nary. We also thank The Friendship Press for kindly granting us
permission to make a quotation from The Silent Billion Speak.

Port-au-Prince, Haiti
February, 1945


We have been very encouraged by the reception given to the
first edition of this little book, and the increasing demand for it
now makes a reprint necessary. A few typographical errors have
been corrected but otherwise no changes have been made.

The Literacy Campaign referred to in the preface to the first
edition is now being carried on by a Section of the Education
Department of the Haitian Government.

The phonetic orthography used has been approved by Dr. Robert
Hall Jr of Cornell University who made a study of it on behalf
of UNESCO, and it is being used in their Pilot Project for Basic
Education at Marbial.

Eugene SWAN Jr.
H. Ormonde McCONNELL
Port-au-Prince, Haiti
January 1952

A Note on Creole and the Literacy. Campaign
undertaken by the Haitian Government
for the Teaching of Adults to read and write Creole

Creole is the fascinating popular language of about 3,000,000
Haitians. It has a pleasing sound and is colorful and forceful in
expression, and has a rich vocabulary. Although French is the official
language of Haiti, every Haitian is perfectly at home in Creole.
Creole is easy to learn. After a few explanations, a foreigner can
begin to form simple sentences. While the vocabulary is essentially
based on French words, the thought-forms and the order of the
words are not dissimilar to English.
Various suggestions have been made as to the origin and compo-
sition of Creole. It can at least be said that Creole is not just a
debased form of French. Some experts suggest with plausibility that
the syntax and grammar of Creole resemble certain African languages
while its vocabulary is drawn from old French, especially the dialects
of Normandy and Picardy, about the 16th. and 17th. centuries, with
the addition of some African, Spanish, and English words.
It is significant that Creole developed independently in several
different countries (e. g. Louisiana, Martinique, St. Lucia, etc,, as
well as Haiti) and the resulting language is so similar in all these
places that it is claimed that a person from any one of them can
understand and be understood in the others. This suggests that the
formation of Creole followed certain specific principles.
Although there are no exact statistics available, it is reckoned that
about 80 per cent of the population of Haiti is illiterate, in spite of
the very considerable efforts made by the Department of Education.
In May, 1943, The Haitian Government adopted the Laubach
Method of Teaching, previously begun by me with the help of some
Haitian friends in 1940, and perfected by Dr. Frank C. Laubach
himself on his visits to Haiti in May, 1943, and January, 1944.
A Literacy Campaign, of which I have the honor of being the gene-
ral secretary, has been begun officially. Its aim is to teach adults to
read and write Creole, with a view to their passing on to French
afterwards. The exceptional difficulty in combatting illiteracy in

the past is probably due to trying to teach French directly in the
country parts of Haiti. The Campaign is only in its infancy, but
while the statistics of pupils who have learned to read has not yet
passed the 2,000 mark, the results have been absolutely convincing
as to the value of the Method. Some pupils have learned to read in
a fortnight, although it usually takes a couple of months or longer.
The pupils ordinarily have a lesson of about half an hour in the
evening after work. Most of the teaching has so far been done volun-
tarily. The extent of the Campaign is limited only by the means at
our disposal. For over a year the Government has published a weekly
newspaper in Creole in a 3,000 copy edition for the new literates.
A book on Agriculture and a simple Arithmetic have also been
published, and another on Hygiene is ready for the printer*. Other
books will shortly follow.
A project to pay a bonus of $100 to each person teaching fifty
illiterates to read has just been announced by HIS EXCELLENCY,
ELIE LESCOT, PRESIDENT of HAITI, who is taking a deep,
personal interest in this Literacy Campaign. It is likely that the
movement will shortly make much greater progress than heretofore.
It promises to have a far-reaching effect in -opening the eyes of the
blind* in this picturesque land, who form part of the great down-
trodden army of 1,200,000,000 throughout the world who are still
Dr. Laubach has expressed the plight of these illiterates in his
book The Silent Billion Speak (Friendship Press, N. Y.), in
which he says: aYou think it is a pity they cannot read, but the
real tragedy is that they have no voice in public affairs, they never
vote, they are never represented in any conference, they are the
silent victims, the forgotten men, driven like animals, mutely sub-
mitting in every age before and since the pyramids were built. It
is a human weakness not to become aware of suffering unless we
hear a cry. The illiterate majority of the human race does not know
how to make its cry reach us, and we never dream how these
millions suffers.
Officer de 1'Ordre
National oHonneur et MWrites
Port-au-Prince, March 1945
*The book on Hygiene was published in May 1945.

- 8 --


The first three lessons of this book deal with pronunciation.
Although they may seem to be the least interesting, they are of
the utmost importance as they form the basis of what follows. It
should not take more than a few hour's study to master these first
three lessons, but they should not be slighted.


In the phonetic system used in writing these lessons, each letter
has one sound, and one sound only.
The sound of the following letters is as in the English words
opposite each letter:

a is always sounded like a in bar
i is always sounded like ee in need
g is always sounded like g in get
ou is always sounded like o in move
6 is always sounded like o in not
There are a few sounds to be learned, sounds which occur in
Creole but not in English. All other letters are pronounced
approximately as in English.
As a general rule, every vowel is pronounced separately Haiti
is Aiti (Ah-ee-tee).
Vocabulary 1

page paj
there la
the thing, gadget, bay
what-you-call-it y
can (to be able) kapab
yes wi
you (sing. thee, thou) ou
then al6

to give bay, be
he, she, it li
little piti, ti
not pa
person, one moun
they, them yo
we, us, you (pL) nou


Exercise 1

1. You can give. : : 1: Ou kapab bay.
2. You give him the thing. 2. Ou ba li bagay la.
3. He can give them the thing. 3. Li kapab ba yo bagay la.
4. Then they give him the little 4. Alb yo ba li ti bagay la.
5. Yes, they can give it to you. 5. Wi, yo kapab ba ou li.


Some sounds in Creole are nasalized. This means that you speak
them through your nose. In Creole, nasalization, is shown by the
accent ( ^ ) above the letter to be spoken through the nose.
Two of these nasalized sounds found in Creole but not found in
English, are a, 6.

To learn to make the sound A, say mama, while holding the nose.
Without moving the mouth or tongue repeat the last a. Pronounce:
a-a-a-a-a-A-a-A. JA (John), dousma (gently) chajmA (load), na (in),
Apil (much, ample).

To learn to make the 6 sound, say toe. Without moving the mouth
or tongue, repeat the o sound, this time nasalized, that, is through
the nose: Pronounce: 0-6-o-8-o-8-o-6. sitr6 (lime), sav6 (soap), aksi6
(action), k6ta (pleased).
Vocabulary 2

to work travay soap sav8
John Ja the house kay la
good b6 three twa
in, through na to take pra
ample, much, a lot of to wait for tin
plenty of pil gently ((slowly) dousma
lime, lemon sitr6 here isit
pleased k6ta the peanut butter miba la


Exercise 2

1. John waits for us there.
2. They take the peanut butter.
3. She can not take many limes.
4. Give her them.
5. A person cannot work slowly
6. Here in the house we can give
you plenty of soap.
7. Do not work slowly.
8. The load waits for you there.'
9. We can take three.
10. Yes, one cannot take much

1. JA tan nou la.
2. Yo pri miba la.
3. Li pa kapab pr apil sitr6.
4. Ba li yo.
5. Mouri pa kapab travay doirs-
m9 la.
6. Isit nA kay la nou kapab ba
ou Apil sav6.
7. Pa travay dousnim.
8. ChAjmi la tan ou la.
9. Nou kapab pra twa.
10. Wi, moun pa kapab prai pil

Exercice 2-A

1. You can give John three
good limes.
2. He waits for her here.
3. They give him three things
in the house.
4. Yes, you can take much soap.
5. We cannot work in the house.

6. He can't give them much
work here.
7. We take a lot of things.
8.' John waits for him in the
little house.
9. He waits there for many
good limes.
10. He is not able to work slow-

1. Ou kapab bay JA twa b6 si-
2. Li tin i isit.
3. Yo ba li twa bagay ni kay la.

4. Wi, ou kapab pra &pii sav8.
5. Nou pa kapab travay n1 kay
6. Li pa kapab ba yo apil tra-
vay isit.
7. Nou pri apil bagay.
8. Ja tAn li na ti kay la.

9. Li tin apil b8 sitr6 la.

10. Li pa kapab travay dousma.

- 11 -


The other sounds found in Creole but not found in English are
6, 6, and e.

6 is sounded like the first part of a in day, the lips being drawn
back as near the ears as possible. Pronounce: day 6, day 6, day
6, pani6, v1i, r6t6, rald, d6, l1s6, pr6mie.

e is sounded like the e in let with the teeth wide enough apart to
admit a pencil, and the lips drawn back as near the ears as possible.
Pronounce: let 6, let e, let 6, f6, d6y&, k6k, 16s, lw6s, d6zi6m.

To learn to make the 6 sound, say & as above, but this time na-
salized, that is, say it through the nose. Pronounce: 6 e, e 6, e 6, e e,
mwa, Iw6, m&, bi&, ch6.
Vocabulary 3

mw6, m

to want (wish, desire)
to need
to do
to stop
to pull
some (plural)



la (placed af-
ter the noun)

Exercise 3

1. I want to do the first lesson.
2. They need some baskets.

-12 -

me, I
well (good)

3. It stops behind the house.
t. She picks up the beautiful baskets.
5. She waits for some limes.
6. I can stop behind the third house.
7. Yes, I can give her the soap she needs.
8. We stop in the small house but we cannot do the work well there.

Key (exercise 3)

1. Mwe (or) m-vl6 f6 pr6mi6 16s6 la.
2. Yo bezwe kek pani6.
3. Li r6te deye kay la.
4. Li prf bel pani6 yo.
5. Li tan kek sitr8.
6. Mwe kapab r6t6 deye twaziem kay la.
7. Wi, mw6 kapab ba li sav6 li bezwe.
8. Nou ret6 na ti kay la, m6 nou pa kapab f& travay la big la.


The always follows the noun.
The in the plural is always expressed by yo. The horses Chwal
The in the singular may give some difficulty because, in addition
to la, there are three other ways of expressing it. There is, however,
a simple way of avoiding the difficulty. The in the singular may
always be expressed by la after the noun and will be readily un-
derstood, if so translated, by Haitians in all parts of the country.
Examples: The horse, chwal la; the dog, ch6 la; the lesson, -
l6s6 la.
Although la for the is understood anywhere in Haiti, and is used
exclusively in certain districts always to express the in the singular,
in the Center and South there are three other ways of saying the.
It is advisable to master the other forms which at first may be


rather forbidding, but which are not really difficult as they follow
simple, logical rules. These rules are as follows:
The is translated by a following nouns ending in a nasalized voweL
Examples: the dog ch6 a; the bread p6 a; the hand m6 a.
When the word ends in n or m, the is translated by na. Examples:
the woman fam na; the man n6m na; the machine machine n&a
When the word ends in a vowel which is not nasalized, the is
translated by a. Examples: the basket pani6 a; the hole trou a;
the face figi a.

Vocabulary 4

gegn6, g6, gagn-
grA, gro
jodi a (a)

why, why is,
why are;
to come

Exercise 4

1.' They have. ten good horses but they cannot work today.
2. Give me the tools.
3. We do not want the woman to come into the house.
4. He has it under the basket.
5. She wants some good tools.
6. They take the machine, but not the tools.
7. Why does he give them the basket?
8. The first woman has three children.
9. The woman gives the child up on the horse, the basket.

Key (Exercice 4)
1. Yo gegne dis b8 chwal, m6 yo pa kapab travay jodi a.
2. BA mw& zouti yo.


to have
today (the)

kote, ki kot6
ki 16


sou, al6
a ba
a ro

3. Nou pa v16 fam na vini nA. kay la.
4. Li gegne li a ba pani6 a.
5. Li v16 kbk b6 zouti.
6. Yo prA machine ni, m6 pa zouti yo.
7. Pouki li ba yo pani6 a?
8. Pr6mi6 fAm nf gegne twa pitit.
9. Fam na bay ti moun A ro chwal la panie a.

Exercise 4-A

1. Where do you do the work today?
2. When do we give him much work?
3. Why are they in the house?
4. Today ten horses pulled the big machine.
5. Where are the things you need?
6. He wants to come there today.
7. She can't pull the basket far.
8. Pull the load up here, but do not wait for me.
9. Why are the women not able to do the work?

Key (Exercise 4-A)

1. Ki kot6 ou f& travay la jodi a? 6. Li v16 vini la jodi a.
2. Ki 1& nou ba li ipil travay? 7. Li pa kapab ral6 pani6 a lwe.
3. Pouki yo na kay la? 8. Ral6 chajmia ro isit, m6 pa
4. Jodi a dis chwal rale gra ma- tan mwe.
chin na. 9. Pouki fAm yo pa kapab fb tra-
*5. Kot6 bagay ou b6zw& yo? vay la?

NOTE*: As stated at the beginning of the lesson, the Creole word for the always
follows the noun. In this sentence, the phrase .the things you need, is taken
as though it were a single word, and so yo comes at the end of the said phrase.
This is the usual Creole practice in sentences where a group of words can be
taken together as one word.

-15 -


There are three ways of indicating possession in Creole.
1. Pronouns, when they come after the noun, show possession.

I, or me mw&
you, singular ou
you, plural nou
we, us nou
he, she, it li
they yo
*ch6 yo can also mean

my house
your basket
your tools
our machine
his horse
their dog
the dogs>. Yo stands for

kay mw&
paniC ou
zouti nou
machine nou
chwal li
ch& yo*
their or plural

2. Frequently pa (or a in certain districts in the country prin-
cipally in the North) is inserted before the pronoun. Sometimes
this pa has the effect of emphasizing the fact of possession.


my house kay pa mwe (or) kay a mwe
your basket pani6 pa ou (or) pani6 a ou
3. Pou (for). This is usual in questions about possession, but has
also a general usage.


Whose is the dog?
The house is mine.

Ch6 & se pou ki moun?
Kay la s6 pou mwe.

Exercise 5

The horse is mine.
No, it is not yours, it is mine.
Give me my own tools.
She ties the basket on the horse.
I cut my hand.
They cannot pull with their hands.
I can tie it with my hands.
He begins to cut it with my tools.


Key (Exercise 5)

1. Chwal la se pam (pa mwe).
2. N6, se pa pa ou, s6 pam.
3. Ba mwe zouti pam.
4. Li mare paniC a sou chwal la.
5. Mwe koupe me mwe.
6. Yo pa kapab rale avek me yo.
7. Mwe kapab mare li avek me mw&.
8. Li k6m&s4 koupe li avek zouti mwe yo.


In Creole thera are a great many Contractions. Some examples

Mw& vl1 (I want) becomes M-vle.
Li ap vini (he is coming) becomes Lap vini.
Ki ap vini (who is in the act of coming) becomes Kap vini.
But do not confuse Kap with Kapab, which is sometimes con-
tracted to kap or kab or ka.
Nou ap vini (we are coming, or you are coming) becomes Nap vini.
Nou va vini (we will come) becomes Na vini.


> indicates past action. (French c6tait>).
He came Li t6 vini.
He gave us a beautiful basket Li t6 ba nou you bel panie.
He was able to stop the horse Li te kapab rete chwal la.
The woman worked in the house FAm na te travay na kay la.
They tied their horses to the tree Yo t6 mare chwal yo nA pi6
bwa a.
They gave the tools to the man Yo t6 bay n6m nA zouti yo.



(Va) indicates the future.

English Creole Contraction
I will come Mwe va viii Ma vini
He will come Li va vini La vini
We will come Nou va vini Na vini
You will come (singular) Ou va vini Wa vini
You will come (plural) Noui'a vini Na vini
They will come Yo va vini Ya vini

These contractions are formed from the first and last letters:

ma va becomes ma nou va na
li va becomes la yo va ya

He will come Li va vini, or la vini.
They will work in the house Yo va travay ni kay la, or Ya
travay na kay la.
He will stop the horse Li va r6t6 chwal la, or La rtt6 chwal la.
The woman will work in the house FAm na va travay nA kay la.
He will be able to stop the horse Li va kapab rte6 chwal la,
or La kapab ret6 chwal la.
You will cut off a piece with your machete Ou va koupe you
mbso avek machet ou, or Wa koup6 you m6so avek m&cht 'ou.

Vocabulary 6
out, outside, drb6 man n6m men m6si6
together Asm go out soti only shlmn
well bi C go al very tr&
almost presk6 put m6te tomorrow d6m6
see w& leg jam yesterday y&, ay&
north n6 south sid say, tell di
leave kit6 break kas6

Exercise 6
1. We gave the man the oranges yesterday.
2. They will want a lot.


3. He left it outside..
4. Their horses will work very well together.
5. I could not (was not able to) do it.
6. But I shall be able to do it well today.
7. Why did you wait for us?
8. I wanted. to tell you to come with me tomorrow.
9. I will give it to you tomorrow.
10. He said he will give it to me tomorrow.
11. The man saw them take my basket.
12. My men went north yesterday.
13. They have almost finished their work.
14. We needed only ten yesterday.
15. They had almost decided (to work when he had come.

Key (Exercise 6)

1. Nou t6 bay n6m na zorAj yo, y&.
2. Ya v16 Apil.
3. Li t6 kit6-1 d6rb (kit6-1 is a contraction of kite li).
4. Chwal yo va travay tre bie AsAm.
5. M-pa t6 kapab .f-1 (f&-1 is a contraction of f& li).
6. MC, mwe va kapab fe-1 bi& jodi a.
7. Pouki ou t6 tan nou?
8. M-te v1e di ou vini ak mwr dem6.
9. Ma ba ou-1 deme (ou-1 is a contraction of ou li).
10. Li t6 di la bAmn li d&me (bAm is a contraction of bA mwe).
11. N6m na t6 w& yo prA panie mwe.
12. M6si6 mwr yo tal (t6 al6) na n6 y6.
13. Yo presk6 fini travay yo.
14. Nou t6 b6zw& smlmi dis, y&.
15. Yo t6 preske d6sid6 travay, 16-1 (16 li) t6 vini.



In many cases the verb
before an adjective.
The house is not good.
The machine is big.
The horses are lazy.
I am very glad.

is not expressed. For example,

Kay la pa b8.
Machin na gro.
Chwal yo pares4.
M-k6t& Apil.
M-bia k6tA.

But the verb is translated as se& before a noun or pro-
noun that means the same thing as the subject. For example:
I am a chief. Mw& s6 chef.
The horses are stallions. Chwal yo se 6ta16.
He is my foreman. Li s6 f6min mwe.
His men are good workers. M6si6 li yo s6 b6 travaye.
< is used to translate Fr. c'est):
It is a good thing to learn creole Se you b6 bagay pou aprin kreol.
It is easy. Se fasil.
It is useful. Se itil.
It is for me to decide that. Se mwe ki pou d6sid6 sa.
In the same way, (Fr. c'6tairt) is translated .
It was easy. S t6 fasil.
It was useful. S6 t6 itil.

In most other cases, , am
Where are the horses?
Where are they?
Who are you?
At present we are working.

>>, and , are expressed by :
Kot6 chwal yo y6?
Kot6 yo y6?
Ki moun ou y6?
Koun y6 a nap travay (or)
Koul y6 a nap travay.

-20 -

Vocabulary 7

ask mAde other 1lt
because pask6 others 16 zot
day jou quick vit
decide d6sid6 quickly vit
easy fasil show m8tr6
fall t6b6 same mem
for pou useful itil
lazy pare6s who ki
learn aprin worker travayb
Now, at present koul ye a, or
koun y6 a

Exercise 7
1. They are the same tires I saw in his house.
2. When did you see them there?
3. It was Monday or Tuesday.
4. Why didn't he come with the tires?
5. He told me he had had them repaired but they were no good.
6. Where are the tires?
7. They are here.
8. Have them repaired tomorrow.
9. Where is it?
10. Why is the big basket under the tree?
11. The tools are in the house with them.
12. Tie our horses to the tree.
13. Cut off a piece with your machete.
14. Why is her work bad?
15. When were they with you?
16. They cut off many pieces today.
17. Over my house is a big tree.

Key (Exercise 7)
1. S6 mem karotchou mwA t6 wk la kay li.
2. Ki 16 ou t6 w& yo la?
3. S6 t6 l1di ou madi.
4. Pouki li pa (pat6) vini ak (avyk) karotchou yo?


5. Li t6 di mw& li t6 f& r6par6 yo m6 yo pat bS.
6. Kot6 kaotchou yo?
7. Yo isit.
8. Fe r6par6 yo d6m&.
9. Kot6 li y6?
10. Pouki gro pani6 a A ba pi6 bwa a?
11. Zouti yo na kay la avek yo.
12. Mar6 chwal nou yo na pi6 bwa a.
13. Koup6 you mbso ak (avek) m&chet ou (as in French, is
never translated).
14. Pouki travay li move?
15. Ki 1 yo t6 av&k ou?
16. Yo koup6 Apil mbso jodi a.
17. A 16 kay mw& g6 yo gro pi6 bwa.


Continuous action in the present is shown by cap>>. Examples:
I am learning Creole. Map (mwe ap) aprin kr6ol.
They are working in the North.- Yap (yo ap) travay ni nb.
He is beginning to do his work well. -Lap (li ap) k6mas6 f&
travay li bi6.
We are waiting for the others. Nap (Nou ap) tin 16 zot yo.
The horses are pulling the machine. Chwal yo ap rale machine

Vocabulary 8

always toujou to be sorry r6gret
from time to time ti-zA-t5 build bati
then alb to come back toun&
new nkf, nouvo find trouv6, jwvn
old vi6 to help 6d6
this sa a ought dw6
these sa yo if si
early bone leave, stop kit6, sispin


Exercise 8
1. He is cutting the tree.
2. Why are you stopping your work now?
3. I am leaving my work now, because the rain is coming.
4. 0. K. but come back early tomorrow.
5. I am sorry Boss, but I cannot work tomorrow, because I must
find some one to help me build my house.
6. They are finishing their work.
7. Now they are showing us the same thing that they saw yesterday.
8. I can't decide if they ought to go tomorrow.
Key (Exercise 8)
1. Lap koup6 pi6 bwa a.
2. Pouki wap (ou ap6) sispan travay ou koul ye a?
3. Map sispin travay mww koul y6 a, pask6 la pli ap vini.
4. Oke, toun6 bone d64m.
5. M-r6gret, Chef, mw& pa kapab travay d6m-, paske mwe bezwg
jwen you moun pou 6ed-m bati kay mwr.
6. Yap fini travay yo.
7. Koun y6 a yap m6tr6 nou mem bagay yo t6 w& y6 a.
8. Mw- pa kapab d6sid6 si yo dw6 al6 d6me.

<> or < is translated by < or sometimes
gCgn>>. Examples:
There is a man over there G6 you n6m bb la a. (Literally -
Got a man over there. There are too many plants in the row Ge
trop plit nA rij6 a.
Vocabulary 9
Too many, too much tr6p what? ki, ki sa?
plant plat what sa
row (of plants or how much,
the like) raj 6 how many? k6bi6
a you, youn again Ak6
one youn to use sevi avek, ak
there (place) la, b6 la to think s6j6
weeds raj6


Exercise 9

1. There are too many weeds in your row.
2. Tomorrow you ought to weed the first rows again.
3. What are you doing?
4. That's what I am doing.
5. I am cutting down this tree with my machete.
6. You ought to use your axe. A man broke his leg yesterday
because he did what you are doing.
7. When you have finished cutting down the tree, get two horses
to pull it and put it over there.
8. How many machetes have you here?
9. There were seven there yesterday, but there is only one to day.
I cannot find the others at all.

Key (Exercise 9)

1. G6 trop raj6 nA raj6 ou.
2. D6m& ou dw6 s6kl6 pr6mi6 raj6 yo ak6.
3. Ki sa wap fe?
4. S6 sa map f6.
5. Map koup6 pi6 bwa sa a, ak machet mw&.
6. Ou t6 dw6 sbvi ak rach ou. You n6m t6 kas6 jim li y6, pask6
li t6 f6 sa wap fe a.
7. Le ou fini koup6 pi6 bwa a, s6 pou ou g6 2 chwal pou ral6-1 6
m6t6-1 b6 la a.
8. K6bi& michet ou g6gn& isit?
9. T6 gegne set y6, me ge you sel jodi a. Mw- pa kapab jw6n 16t
yo di tou.


Where? Kot6, or ki kot?
When? Ki 16 (Fr. Quelle heure?)
Why? Pouki, or pouki sa?


Exercise 10

Why are you lazy?
When will your work begin?
Why did the others leave today?
Where are your saddles?
Where were you yesterday?
Where are the papers which show the money they pay the
When will you come?
When did you finish weeding your row?

Key (Exercise 10)
Pouki ou par6s6? or pouki sa ou pares6?
Ki 16 travay ou komas6?
Pouki 16 zbt yo t6 kit6 jodi a?
Kot6 sel ou yo?
Kot6 ou t6 y6 y&?
Kot6 papi6 ki m6tr6 lajf yo p6y6 travay& yo?
Ki 16 wa vini?
Ki 16 ou fini s6kl6 rAj6 ou? or ki 16 ou t6 fini s6kle rfij ou?

How many?


Vocabulary 10
What is it?
What thing?


sa li y6?
ki sa? (or) ki

Exercise 10-A
1. How are you?
2. How many rows have you planted?
3. What is that?
4. Who was with you yesterday when I saw you?
5. What will you do tomorrow?
6. What is that?
7. What is your name?
8. What are you doing now?


Key (Exercise 10-A)

1. Kourm ou y6?
2. K6bi6 rfje ou plite? or k6bi& rij6 uum t plante?
3. Ki sa?
4. Ki moun ki t6 av6k ou y& 1I mw6 t6 w& ou?
5. Sa wap f& d6me?
6. Ki sa sa y6? or Sa sa y6?
7. Ki n6 ou? or koumA yo r416 ou? (How do they call you?)
8. Sa wap f6 koul y6 a?

Exercise 11

Where was the book?
Where is the book?
Why are you leaving?
Why did you leave?

Kot6 liv la te ye?
Kot6 liv la?
Pouki wap kit6?
Pouki ou t6 kit6?

5. Who was that?
6. What was that?
7. Who is coming today?
8. Who will be here tomorrow?

;ey (Exercise 11)
5. Ki moun sa t6 y6?
6. Ki sa sa t6 y6?
7. Ki moun kap (ki ap) vini jodi a?
8. Ki moun ka (ki va) isit d6mV?

< is used when the question begins with a verb. Example:
1. Were you there when the man fell sick?
2. Did he see me when he had finished transplanting the roots?
3. Does he know when I will come?
4. Will they ask me for the knife when I have finished sharpening it?
5. Will you be here when* they begin their work.

1. Esk6 ou t6 la 1& n6m nA t6 t6b6 malad?
2. esk6 Ili t6 we mw8 1e ti t6 fini trhsplAt6 rasin yo?
3. Esk6 li k6n& 16 ma vini?
4. Esk6 ya (yo va) mad6-m kouto a, 16-m fini fil6-1.
5. esk6 wa isit 1* ya komis6 travay yo?

*NOTE: In the cases where -when. means -at what times use ki le (at
what hour ?) in all other translate when simply by 16.



Old, --older (or more old) oldest (or most old)

Older, bigger, lazier, better, etc., is expressed by , the adjective.*

1. Her work is better. 1. Travay li pi bt.
2. His house is"larger (or more 2. Kay li pi gr-.
3. He is lazier (or more lazy). 3. Li pi par6s6.

Than> is expressed by adding pas6> after" *he adjective.

1. Her work is better than ours. 1. Travay li pi b6 pasd travay
2. iis house is larger than.mine. 2. Kay li pi gra pas6 kay pam.
3. He is lazier (more lazy) than 3. Li pi pardse paseo ou.
Oldest, biggest, laziest, best, etc. are usually expressed by pas6
tout, or, pas6 yo tout after the adjective, e. g. Her work is best -
Travay li pi b8 pas6 tout.
But, Creole avoids this form if possible, and only uses it when
there is a special reason to bring out the idea of the superlative, so
the above example might simply be written: Her work is best -
Travay li pi b6. (Her work <).
Further examples:
His house is largest. Kay li pi gri paseo tout. (Or simply: kay li
pi grA (his house more big.)
He is laziest. Li pi pares6 pas6 tout. (Or simply: Li pi par6se,
he is more lazy).

*More is translated by .plis instead of .pli. when it comes at the end of a
sentence, and in -more than..
I have no more: Mwe pa g6 plis.
It is more than that: Se plis k6 sa.



pre only
f6 sharp
pes, plAtwa stake
trou finger
p6pini& straight

Exercise 12

The stakes are closer together than in
Make a deeper hole with your dibble.
The first row is straighter.
His machete is the sharpest.
Cut the biggest plants only.
Pierre is his best foreman.
Cut it further back.
He collected more than I.

the bigger nursery.

Key (Exercise 12)
1. Piket yo pi pre isit pas6 nA pi gr& p6pinie a.
2. F6 you trou pi f6 ak (avyk) pes ou.
3. Pr6mi6 rAj6 a pi dwat.
4. Mach6t li pi fil6 pas6 tout.
5. Koup6 pi gri plit yo silmh.
6. Pie, s6 pi b6 f6man li.
7. Koup6 li pi deyL.
8. Li t6 k6yi plis paseo mwe.



The Creole word for , meaning also, has been borrowed
from the English. In the phonetic spelling it is written tou>.





John came too. JA t6 vini tou.
Do you want the empty basket tsk6 ou bezwe pani6 vid la tou?
meaning ctoo much is translated by <. Examples:

I gave him too much. Mw& t6 ba li trop.
You asked too much money for Ou t6 mid6 tr6p laja pou travay
the work you do. wap f& a.
But the

is omitted before an adjective. Examples:
They told me that it was too far Yo te di-m k6 s6 t6 trb Iwe pou
to walk in one day. (you moun) mach6 na (or p&di)
you sel joun&.
The load is too heavy for my ChajmA A trb lou pou pik-6p
pick-up. mwe.


Less is expressed by <
There is less work in the dry GA mwas travay nA sechres.
Fewer weeds grow at that time. GA mwAs mov6 zAb kap pous6
ni tA sa a.
Why do you find less latex from Pouki ou jwen mwes lateks nA
the plants in the second row? plft nA d6ziem rAj6 yo?
But the < of > is omitted before an adjective, in the same
manner that the

> is omitted from >. Examples:
Was it less dry here in the month tsk6 s6 t6 mw& sech isit nA mwa
or February? f6vri6?
My horse is not so good as (i. e. Chwal mwe mwe b6 k6 pa ou.
is less good than) yours. (or simply, Chwal mwe pa si bA
k6 pa ou).

eVery, is expressed by tr&> or Apib>. Apill is the stronger
expression: Very very tired; very very late, etc. -Examples:


How are you? Koumi ou ye?. -: '
Very well thank you. Tre bid, mesi.
He was very much annoyed. Li t4 fach6 Apil.
Your coffee is excellent. Kaf6 ou b6 Apil.
alone, is < or <. is or k>> Examples:
Your work is not so good. Travay ou pa si b8.
I did not know that you had so Mwe pat k6n6 ou t6 g6 t6lmh
much. april.
He worked so hard that he fi- Li t6 travay tIlma di k6 li t6
nished in one hour. fini n5 in & d6 ta.
less mwes, mw6 tight, taut ser6, 6twat
so si, telma soon talk, ava 18tI
so that si ke, telma k6 walk mach6
empty vid in, during ni, pada
also tou heavy lou
money laji dry season s6chres
hour 6 find jw6n
to empty vid6 annoyed fach6

1. When did you finish your first job?
Ki 16 ou t6 fini pr6mi6 travay ou?
2. I asked him to come earlier tomorrow so that we can finish
before noon.
Mw6 t4 mid6-1 vin pi b6an dem&, pou nou kapab fini avA midi.
3. In each nursery the most experienced workers made the worst
NA chak p6pini&, s6 travay& ki ge pis 6sp6rias yo ki t6 f& pi
mov4 fbt yo.
4. Only the sharpest knife can do the work best.
S4 s6lmi kouto ki pi fil4 a ki kapab f& travay ki pi b6.
5. Drive the straightest stakes you have deep into the ground at
the corners of each field.
F6s6 pik&t ki pi dwat ou g6gn& yo ni ti nA kw6 chak jade.


6. Has he reported to you since this morning?
iske li te fi ou you rapb depi mat& a?
7. Why didn't they come too?
Pouki yo pat vini tou?
8. How many of farm D's dibbles will we need?
K6bie pes Fem D6 yo nou va bezw6?
9. When will you know the answer?
Ki (Ie ou va (or-wa) k6ng r6p6s la?
10. There are less men here today.
G6 mwes gas6 isit jodi a.


would, could, should, might, etc.

eTa> indicates the conditional. Examples: He would come. Li
ta vini. He would stop the horses. Li ta r6t6 chwal yo.
In simple sentences, Creole makes no difference between the
present conditional and the past conditional.

He could come. Li ta viai.
He would have come. Li ta vini.
He could have done it. Li ta kapab f-1l
He would cut off a piece if he Li ta koup6 you m6so si li t6 g6
had a machete. mach&t.

Where ta is used in the completing sentence, the idea of the
econditional> is thereby further stressed.
He could have done it if he had time. Li ta kab f6l si-d ta g6 ta.
May is translated by kapab (to be able): might is translated by
ta kapab.

It may rain tomorrow. La pli kapab vini d&ma.
He may corne. Li kapab vini.
He said that he might have come. Li t4 di k6-1 ta kapab vini.


Vocabulary 13

to decide d6sid6 to mind (your)
harm, to harm f& mal business j
monkey makak untie demar6
boat baton
to desire v1

Exercise 13

1. They decided on what they should do.
2. I should not like him to say I did him harm.
3. The man would do better to mind his own business.
4. I cannot see what more I could desire.
5. I would have done it if I had been able.
6. We may finish the work tomorrow.
7. If we did not get there in time, he might have untied the boat.

Key to Exercise 13

1. Yo t6 d6side sou sa yo ta fb.
2. Mwe pa ta rem& li di mwe f&-1 di tb.
3. N6m nA ta f& pi bi6 okip6 af& pa-l.
4. Mwe pa w& sa mwe ta kapab v16 Akb.
5. Mw ta f&-1, si-m ta kapab.
6. Nou kapab fini travay 'la d6em.
7. Si nou pat riv6 la a ta, !li ta kapab d6mare bato a.

A sentence in the passive voice in English is generally turned
into the active voice in Creole.
To say: , you turn the sentence
around to: Che & te mod4 ti moun ni.
<, becomes not to go there>. Yo te di nou pa al la.


They were killed, becomes Thbey* killed thenn. Yo ti touy6 yo.
, becomes, He will find a jobs. Li va
jwin you travay, (or) They will give him a job. Yo va bay li
you travay.
, becomes yesterday.
Vocabulary 14
corpse kadav kili touy6
drag tr&n title tit
nominate n6me teach m6tr6
bite m6d6 lose pedi

1. The corpse was dragged through the street.
2. Dessalines was nominated chief of the country.
3. He was given the title of emperor.
4. The soup was brought by the boy.
5. They were taught to read.

Key to Exercise 14
1. Yo trtn& kadav la n ila ri.
2. Yo t6e nm6 D6salin chef p6i a.
3. Yo t6 ba li tit AprL.
4. Gas6 A t6 pot6 soup la.
5. Yo t& m6tr- yo li.
But note the following examples:

1. The river was dried up. Rivi& a t6 skch.
2. The house was burned. Kay la t6 bou46.
3. The money was lost. LajAi t6 p6di.

(The grammatical explanation is that in cases where the passive
is shown by a past participle used adjectively, the active voice
has a passive meaning).

(*NOTE: The -they, in such sentences is impersonal, like the French -on-).

- 33-

THIS THAT THESE THOSE -used as adjectives
i. e., as qualifiers of nouns

This: sa a.
That: sila a.
These: sa yo.
Those: sila yo.

Example: This house
Example: That house
Example: These houses
Example: Those houses

THIS THAT THESE THOSE--used as pronouns
i. e., standing alone without modifiers

This: sa Example: This is a good house Sa sB you b6 kay
That: sa Example: That is a good house Sa s6 you b6 kay
These: sa yo Example: These are good houses Sa yo sB b6 kay
Those: sa yo Example: Those are good houses Sa yo s6 b6 kay

Vocabulary 15

like better than (or) prefer.
to make, to give birth (to
to be born

pito (or) ram6 plis
b6 Apil

Exercise 15
This is the house that Jack built.
These oranges are good.
I like this house better than that one.
I like that house better than this one.
This is the house where I was born.
Are those the best bananas you have?
He was very much pleased by these people.
That coffee is excellent.

Key to Exercise 15
1. Sa, s6 kay Jak t6 bati a (or) Kay sa a, s6 kay Jak t6 bati a.
2. Zoraj sa yo bS.
3. Mwe pito kay sa a pas6 sila a.
4. Mw& pito kay sila a pas6 sa a.

-34 -

Kay sa a.
Kay sila a.
Kay sayo.
Kay sila yo.

5. S6 ni kay sa a mw& t6 fMt.
6. bsk6 fig shla yo s6 pi b6 ou gegn&?
7. Li te k6t& Apil ak moun sa yo.
8. KafM sila a b8 apil.


Generally is translated by < French quelque.
Examples: Give me some oranges: Ba mwe k6k zoraj.
You will buy some flowers: Wa achti kek flM.
In the plural, is translated by exceptions.
Examples: He sold me some of his chickens:
Li t6 vin mwe kek ni poul li yo.
We must send him some of the bananas.
Nou g6 pou nou voy6 ba li kek ni fig yo.
In all these cases translates to a pant of the whole. Some of all the bananas. Some of all the
When some> comes before a singular word (some work, some
cloth, some bread) instead of >, a word indicating a part or
a piece must be used (you m6so, you pati).
Examples: Give me some bread; Ba mwe you moso p&.
Other examples: He said that some men work hard.
Li t6 di k6 g6 d6 moun kap travay di.

(< is often translated in Creole by < formation of the French <. Many Creole scholars, however,
maintain that the use of d6 should be kept down to a minimum
and avoided altogether if possible, as it seldom if ever occurs in
the language of the peasant).


He said that some men he knows work hard.
Li t6 di k4 kek, (ze) mesi4 li k6n.-(ap) travay di.
Note that the difference between the general and the specific
case is clearly brought out by the use of g6 in the former, and
kek in the latter case.

Reading Exercise

Tras na sevo.

Chak fwa ou f6 you bagay, sa 16s6 tAkou you tras na sevo ou.
SL& ou f6 m&m bagay ila plizi6 fwa, tras la vin pi f8. SE pou tet sa
tout bagay ou abitu6 f&, ou f6-1 pi fasil, pask6 bagay la g6 chem&l
tou tras4 nA l1spri ou.
Ou kapab mache sA ou pa b1zwe s6je k6 wap mach6. Pouki?
Pask6 ou abitue mach6 ddpi k6bie an6, sevo ou bay mim ou yo
16d mach6 sA ou pa k6ne, sIlmA ou vl1 mach6, 6 ou w& wap mache.
M6, 16 ou t6 ti moun, s6 pat m&m bagay. Ou pat g& tras pou sa
tou pare na sevo ou. Ou t6 b6zw- fbm6 tras yo; Avi mach6 a pat sifi
M6, pou chak aksi8 ki g& na mach6, ou t6 oblige bay tet ou you l6d

Tracks in the brain

Each time you do a thing it leaves as it were a track in your
When you do the same thing many times the track becomes
deeper. It is for that reason every thing you are accustomed to do,
you do it more 'easily because that thing has got its road ail traced
in your mind..
You are able to walk without your needing to think that you are
walking. Why? Because you are accustomed to walk for so many
years your brain gives your members the order to walk without
your knowing (how), only you want to walk, and you see you
are walking.
But, when you were a child, it was not the same thing. You had
not got tracks for that all prepared in your brain; wanting to
walk was not sufficient. But for each action which walking has,
you were obliged to give your head an order.


Mwe vl fe bagay pam.

You ti fi d6 4 & di m~im li: Mw6 pa vld f6 sa wap di-m n6!
Mw6 vie f6 bagay pam. Wi, s6 bi& vr6 sa.
Chak moun v16 f6 af4 pa yo. Tout moun, s6 k6 sa yo y6. Yo v14
f6 bagay yo rem& f&. Yo pa vi6 f6 bagay yo pa rAm.

I want to do my own things
A little girl of 4 years said to her mother: < what you are teeing me! I want to do my own things>.
Yes, it is very true, that.
Each person wants to do their own affairs. Evtetrybody is like that.
(Lit. ). They want to do the things they
like doing. They do not want to do the things they do not like

- 37 -






In the following combinations, pronounce u
its sound as short as possible:

as though it were w making

ui (e g. in nuit)
u6 (e. g. in sue)
ua (e. g. in pesuade)
In the Creole newspaper Limi6-Fos-Progr6, which provides additional rea-
ding matter, and in other publications in Creole, the short o is not always dis-
tinguished by an accent (6), as in these lessons, but the reader who is familiar
with Creole will easily determine from the context whether an o is long or


a you
able kapab
about zal&tou; a p6 pr6; sa 4 lA
above A ro; A 16; pi ro pas6
abroad a ltrfj6; i d6ro
absent absi; pa la
absolutely k8pl6tmr; n6t; abs6-
accept aks6pt6
accident aksidI
according to s616; dapr4
account k6t; kalkil
accuse akiz6; blame
accustom abitu4
ache n. doul6; v. f6 mal
across A trav6
act n. zak, aksi6; v. f6, jw6
actual rel6; vr6
add ajout6
address n. adres, kot6 moun r6-
t6; v. adr6s6.
admire adnmir6
admit adm6t, aks6pt6
adopt adopt
advance n. avas; v. vis6
advantage avitaj
adventure n. avati; v. risk
advertise f6 r6klam
advice k6sey
affair zaf6
afford kapab
afraid p6
after apr6
afternoon apr6midi
again Ak6

against k6t; tou kole ak (jam-
med up against)
age laj
ago g6 di ta d6 sa; g6 16tt (long
agree dak6
agriculture agrikilti; kilti la 4t
ahead d6va; an av&
aim n. bi; v. viz6
air 16
airplane avi6
alike sabl4
alive viva; a vi
all tout
allow pmet -
almost pr6ski
alone sal
aloud fb (strong)
aloud a rot vwa
aloud pale f6 (speak aloud)
already d6ji
also tou; osi
although biW k6; kwa k6
altogether tout asfm
always toujou
ambition abisi6
among nA mitA; pami
amount vail, kitit6
amuse amize
ancien vi6; asi4
and epi; e
angry fach4; kol6
animal animal; pl. zAnimo
annoy- nuiy6; d&raj6; fach6.


another you lbt
answer repos
ant fr8mi; foumi
anxious ekie
any young (lit. one)
anyhow ka mem
apart a pa; sdl; sou kot6
apology 6skiz
appear part
applaud bat bravo
apple p6m
appoint n6m6
approve aprouve
april avril
argue diskitM
arise 16v6; kap6 (stand up)
arm n. bra; v. am6
army 'lame; jadamri
around tout otou
arrange raj6
arrest ar6t6
arrive riv6
arrow flech
artichoke aticho
article bagay; atik (in news-
artificial ki pa natiril
as takou; kbm
ash san
ash tray sadrie
ashamed r6t
aside a kote; a pa
ask mid6
asleep ad6mi
associate asosid
astonish s6zi
astonishment sezisma
at nA (lit. in)

attack n. atak; v. atak6
attempt eseye
attend asist6; v6yd, fA atasi6
(pay attention)
attract atir6
audience asistis
August ou; daou
aunt tit
authority otorit6
average mwayen
avoid &viMt
awake n. rev6y6; v. live
away pa la; abs&; d&ro; lw ,
awkward goch
axe rach
baby b6b6
back n. do; deye; v. fe bak.
bacon b6k6n; la
bad mov6
bag sak
bake kuit (cook)
baking powder poud (6levasiS):
baking soda bikabonat
balance n. balas; v. balas6
ball bal; boul (toy)
banana fig
band ban (group); djaz (mu-
bar n. ba, brik (of soap etc.);
v. bare
barber kwaf&
bare vid (empty); ni (nude)
bargain n. b6 af&; v. diskit6 pri
bark 6kbs (of tree)
barrel barik
base baz
basin kivet; base
basket pani6

-42 -

baste rouz6 (a fowl)
bath n. bMgn; v. bggne
bat chov-sourit (the mammal)
bathe begne
battle batay
be egzistW (to be)
beak bek
beam rey6
bean pwa; pwa rouj (red beans)
bear n. lous; v. pot6 (carry),
sipote (to endure)
beard bab
beast bet
beat bat
beautiful bel
because pask6
become vini; tounm
bed kab&n
beetle ant6
before devi (place); ava (time)
beg mid6
begin k6bmAs
behave k6dui tet
behind dey&
bell kloch
belong pou (lit. for); pa (see
lesson 5)
below & ba
belt seti
bend n. koub; v. koub6, ploy6
beneath A ba
bereaved dey; A dey
berry grin
beside a kot6
besides a plis; &k6; tou
best pi b6 pas6 tout
better pi bW; miy6; m6ye
between at; ni mita

beyond pi lw6 pas6
bicycle bisildet
big grA; gro
bill n. bedro; papid
bind mare
bird zwazo
birth ns&is; l1- fet
bit mbso, pati (part); mb (har-
ness); vilbreke (hit brace);
m6ch vilbreke (bit tool).
bite m6bd
bitter amn
black nwa
blade 1am
blacksmith fojr8
blame n. r6proch; v. blimn
blanket ln
bless b6ni
blind aveg
block bl6k
blood sA
blossom v. fl6ri
blow n. kou (strike a); v: vi&t
blue bl6
board bwa; plAch
boast vate
boat kinbt (small); bato, bati-
mi (ship).
body k6
boil v. bouyi
bold radi
bolt boul6
bone zo
book liv
border fr&ti6
born f&t (made)
borrow pr6t6


both tou 1 2
bottle boutey
bottom f6; A ba
bound b6; so; v. fe you so
boundary limit; bbn
bow v. salu6; v. koub6
bowl bal
box n. bwat
boy ti gas6; bway
brain sevo; s6vel
brake fr6 (on car); fr6 a m6
emergency brake)
branch brAch
brass kuiv
brave bray, kouraj6
bread pe
breadfruit lab v6ritab; labap6
break kas6
breakdown pan
breakfast ti dejend (every meal
is maj6)
breath souf
bribe bay laji
brick brik
bridge p6
bridle brid
bright kl6re; briyA
bring pot6
broad laj
brother fr6
brown mar6 (light) br6 (dark)
brush br6s
build bati
bull toro
bumper d6fis
bunch r6jim (bananas)
bundle paket
bureau bif6t

burn v. boul6
burst v. 6klat6
bury atere
bus kami6
bush raj6
business zaf6; okipasi6
busy okip6
but m6
butter b6
button bout6
buy acht6
by pa; a kot6; b6
cabbage chou
cage kaloj
cake gato
calculate kalkil6
call r616
calm trAkil
camera kodak
camp kA
can n. mamit, fe blA, kanist6
(tin); v. kapab
can opener bagay pou louvri
bwat f6 bla
canal kanal
cap kasket
capital capital
captain kapit6n
car dto; vwati (carriage)
card kat
care sw6; k6b6 k6 ou, v6y6 zo
ou (take care)
carriage bos
carrot kar6t
carry pot6
cart kabwUt
case ka; k6s (wooden. box);
pros6 (law)


castle chato
cat chat
catch pr&
cattle betay; b&t
cause koz
caution pr6kosi6
cave kaven
ceiling plafo
cent k6b; satim
centre miti; milieu
century siek
ceremony s6remoni
certain s6t&; si
chain chin
chair chez
chalk la kr6
chance chas
change n. chajma; m&6n; v.
chfj6 (alter)
character karakt6
charge pri
charcoal chab8
charcoal brazier richo
charm n. wAga; f4tich; v. cham6
chauffeur chof6
cheap b6 mache (inexpensive)
cheat trich6
check n. ch&k; v. kbtrol6
cheer n. bravo; v. bat bravo
cheese fromaj
chest pwatrin; 1esltmak
chicken pouil
chief chef (boss)
child pitit, ti moun
chimney ch6mind
chisel bir&
choose chwazi
chop koupe i ti m6so (wood

christmas noBl
church 16gliz
circle r6n; s6k
city la vil
cinch sag
civilize siviliz6
claim r6klam6
class n. klas; kalit6
clay t6
clean pr6p
clear kl1
clerk Aplay6; moun kap travay
nr you biro
clever -tdlija; g6 16sprit; f6
cliff fal1z
climb gr6p6; m6t6
clock pdil; 616j
close v. fm6
cloth tisi; 6t6f
clothes rad
cloud nuaj
charcoal chab6
coarse grosi6
coast kot
coat palto; v6s
coconut kokoy6
coffee kaf6
coin pi6s; mon&
cold fwet; fr6di
collar kbl
collect ramas6
college '16k61
colony koloni
color koulM
colt poul6
comb n. p6gn; v. p6gn6
combine srsidt6; v. m6t6 asam;
mach6 asam


come vini
comfort k6sdlasi6
command n. 16d; v. kbmid6.
commerce komes
committee komit6
common bdin&
companion k6pagn; zAmi
company moun (lit. people);
sosi&t6 commerciala)
compare k6par6
compassion piti6
competition k6kou
competitor k6kirA
complain f& pl6t; plegn&
complete n. fini; v. k8pl6t6
complicated k6plike
compose fe (make)
concern n. chajm& d6 t&t (a
condition k6disi8
confection b8b8
confess k6f6sk
confidence k6fiis
confuse m6elij
confusion troub
congratulate k6plimite
connect k8n6kti; kol6 (stick);
rasabl6 (gather together)
conquer v6k; bat
conscience k6siis
conscious k6ne; g8 k6n6sfis
consider k6sid6re; kalkil6; s8-
je (think)
contain prA (take); k6b6 (hold)
g6gn6 (get)
content k8tA
continue k6tinu6
control k6tr6l
conversation koz6; kozmf; pal6

cook n. kuizini&; v. kuit
cookie biskuit
cool fr6
copper kuiv
copy v. kopi6
cork n. bouch8
corn mai
corner kw6; koub (bend)
correct kor6k
cost n. pri; v. kout6
cottage kay (house)
cotton kotO
cough v. tous6
council komite
count k6t6
country pei
courage kouraj
course ch6m6 (road)
court tribinal
cousin kouz6 (m); kouzin (1)
cover n. kouv6ti; v. kouvri
cow vach
coward kap6; lach
crack fit
crash gro bri (noise)
cream krem
creature kr6ati
creep rap6
crime krim
critic moun kap kritike
crop r6klbt; v. r6kblt6
cross n. kwa; v. trav6s6, jAb6,
kwaz6, adj. fach6 (angry)
crow kao; k6bo
crowd foul
crown n. kourbn
cruel m6chA (wicked)
crush kraz6


cry v. kri6
cucumber k6k8m
cultivate kiltive
cup tas
cupboard gad-maj6
cure n. xr6md; g6ri
curious kirie; fouyapot
curl bouk (ch6ve)
current kourA (of water)
curse n. madich6
curtain rido
curve koub
cushion kouse
custard &f-o-l1
custom koutim; abitid
cut v. koup6
damage n. d6ga; domaj; v. do-
damp mouy6; imid
dance n. dAs; v. dAs6
danger daj6
dare oz6; g& odas
dark t6neb; nwa (black)
date dat
daughter fi; pitit fi
day jou
dead n. m6; v. mouri
deaf soud
debt dMt
decay pouri (rbt)
deceive tr6p6
December d6sim
decide d6sid6
declare d6klar6; di
decrease vini mwes; vini pi piti
deed aksi6
deep f6

defeat n. d6fet, kal; v. bat (beat)
defend d6fin Cused also in sen-
se of to fend, to provide for,
to look after the interest of)
degree diplom (scholastic)
delay n. r6ta; v. mizd, m6t6 A
delicate dilika; feb
deliver d6livr6; pot6 bay
demand made
department d6patmA
depend d6pf; k8t6
descend d6shn
describe 6splik6; f& p6tr6
desert savAn d6zol1
deserve m6rit6
desire n. d6zi, Avi; v. d6zir6
desk biro
despair n. d6zespwa; v. d6z6s-
destroy d6twi
detail d6tay
determine d6sid6
develop d6vlop6
devil diab; sait
dew la roz6
diamond diamA
die mouri
dictionary diksi6n&
differ g6 dif6ris; pa mem
difficult difisil
dig fouy6
dinner dine; maj6
dip pl8j6
direct v. diTij6; adj. dirAk
dirt salt
disappoint d6kouraj6
discipline 16d (order)


discover d6kouvri
discuss pa 1 6; palmat6; diskit6
disease maladi
disgust n. d6goutis, d6gou; v.
dish asiet; plat
dish-towel t6ch6
dismiss r6vok6; ravoy6; r6m6si6

distant Iw6
distinguish r6kon6t
district distrik
disturb d6raj6
ditch f6s; fos6
dive p16j6
divide pataj6; s6par6
do f6
doctor dokt&
dog ch6
dollar dola
donkey bourik
door pbt
dot pw&
double doub
doubt dout; doutis
down ba; A ba
dozen douz6n
drag trene; rail (pull)
drain dr6
draw f& potr6 (a picture)
drawer tirwa
dream rev, s6j
dress rbb
drink n. bwas6; v. bw6
drive n. promnad; v. k6dui
drop n. gout; v. 1se t8be, kit6-1

drown n6ey
drum drom (oil drum); tAbou
dry sek; s6ch; chech; v. s6che
due to gras a; a koz; pou tet
duck kUna
dull s8m
during pAdA
dust n. pousie; v. siy6 (wipe,
duty d6vwa
each chak
eager avi
ear z6bry
early bon&
earn gagne (get, gain)
earnest s6ri6
earth t&
east l&s
easy fasil
eat n. & v. maj6
edge bb
educate 6dike; bay &striksi6
effect U6f; k6sk&is
efficient kapab
effort ef6
egg ze
eggbeater batez
eight uit
either young ou lt; nepbt
elastic kaotchou
eldest 16n6; pr6mie; pi grA
elect f6 e16ksi8
electricity 616ktrik
eleven 6z
else 1bt
emery paper papi6 6m6ri
employ Aplway6; bay travay
empty vid


enclosed andA (within)
encourage akouraj6
-end fM; v. fini
endive chikor6
enemy 'lUnmi
engine machine; mot6
english agl1
enjoy pr& plezi
enough as6
enter .tre
entertain r6s6vwa
entire ati6
envelope &vl6p
envy jalouzi
equal 6gal
escape sove; sov6 k6 li; sov4

especially 6sp6sialmn
essence 6sAs
even m6m (though); sifas plat
evening sw&; asw&
event 6v6nma
ever jame
every tou, tout (all)
evil mal; adj. mechA
exact 6gzak
examine 6gzamin6
example 6gzAp
excellent tr& b6; b6 Apil
excess trbp; a plis
except eks6pt6
exchange chij6
excite 6ksite
excuse &skiz6
exercise 6gz6sis
exist 6gzist6
expect 6sp6rd; tin

expense dipis
experience 6sp6rihs
experiment v. 6sWy
explain 6splik6
explode sot6; p&6t
explore egzamin6; vizite
extend k6tinu6
extra &ak; d6gi
extreme pi
eye j6
face n. figi
factory izin
fade fAng
fail mak6
faint v. pedi k6nesas; adj. feb
fair jis (price); adj. kl1
fall v. tab6
false fo
familiar 6din6; sep
family fami
famous fame
fan n. 6vAtay; vftilat6 (engine)
far lw6
farm fem; abitasi6
fashion m6d
fast vit; v. f6 jan, pa nmje
fat n. gras
fate d6stine
father papa; pe
fault fbt
favor fav6
fear 1a pe; kr&tif
feast f&t
feather plim
February f6vri6
feed ri. maj6 (for animals) v.


feel siti
fellow gas8
female f6m61
fence fatouray
fertilizer agr6
fever la fiev
few kek; kek z6
field chi; jade
fierce f6rbs
fight n. batay; v. goume
figure chif (numeral)
fill plt
film fim; sin6ma (movie)
find v. jw6n
fine fin; b'l beautifulu)
finger dwet
finish fini; kaba
fire di fe
firm fbm, solid (solid)
first pr6mie
fish pwas8
fit n. a fom; v. ajist6
five s6k
fix rij6
flag drapo
flame flam
flash z6kl&; limii
flat plat
flavour gou
flesh ch&; vian
float flot6
flood lavalas
floor plAch6
flour farin
flow koul1
flower flM
fly n. much; v. vold
foal poulich

fold ploy6
follow suiv
food mAj6; nouriti
fool fou
foot pid
for pou
forbid d6fin
force v. fis6; oblij6
ford pas
foreign 6traje
forefoot pi6 douvA
forest bwa
forge fbj
forget bli6
forgive pad6ne
fork fouchkt
form n. f6m; v. f6m6
former Asie
fortunate 6r6
forty karat
forward An avA
four kat
frame kad
free lib
frequent ki fbt souva
fresh fr6
friend zami
fright fr6ey; s6zismA
from d6 (use as seldom as pos-
front d6vA
fruit fwi
fry fri
frying pan pw616
full pl&
fun distraksi6; amizm&
funeral lAtemA
furniture meb


future avni
gain n. benEfis; v. g6, geg
gallon gal6
game jwet
gap brech; trou
garage garaj
garden jade
garlic lay
gas gaz
gasoline gazohin
gate bariL
gather .rimas6
gear chijmi vites
general j6n6ral
generous don&
gentle jAti; dou
gentleman msi6
get g&, gegn&, gagn6 (have)
'ginger j6jAm
girl ti fi
give ba; bay
glad k6tA
glass vit; ve
glory glwa
go al6
go out soti
goat kabrit; bouk (buck goi
God B6-Die
gold 16
good b6
good-bye or6vwa
goods bit; machAdiz
govern gouvebn
grace gras
gradual piti piti
grain gr6n
grand magnifik (beautiful)



grape r6z-
grapefruit chadek
grass zib
grateful r6k6n6sA
grave n. tom; f6s. adj. grave
grease gres
great grA; gro
green vet
greet salu1
grey gri
grind mouie
grindstone mMl
ground te; Ia te; adj. moule
group group; kategori
grow pous6
guard gad
guess dvvin6
guest &vitH
guide n. gid; v. gid6
guilty koupab
gun fizi (rifle)
habit abitid
hair chiv6
half mwati6
hall pies
ham jAb8
hammer mato
hand m&
handkerchief mouchwa
handle mAch
hang pin
happen riv6
happy k6tA
harbor rad
hard di
hardly a p6n; prisk4 pa
hardship difikilt Ila vi
harm v. nui; f& mal


harvest n. rekbit
haste viths
hat chapo
hate rai
hay z6b chech
he li (he, she, it)
head tkt
head light l&p
heat n. challk; v. chof6
heal geri
health sft6
heap pli
hear tAde
heart ke
heaven sil1
heavy lou
heel tal6
help n. k8kou; 6d; v. 6d6
here isit
hesitate 6zit4
hide n. po b6t; v. kach6
high ro
mountain mon (hill)
hinder jen6
hire ilw6
his pa li (a li)
history istwa
hit frap6; bay kou
hoe n. rou; v. s6kl6 ak rou
hold n. kal (of a ship); v. kab6
hole trou
holiday vakAs; fet
hollow kr6
holy se; sakr6
home la kay (house)
honest 6net; s6ri6 (trustworthy)
honour 6nk
hoof zago

hook n. krok; z6 (for fishing);
v. krok6
hope n. 6spwa; v. 6sp&rb
horizontal plat; kouch6 plat; a
horse chwal
horseblanket lAn
horse-shoe fe
hospital lopital
host met kay la
hot cho
hotel otOl
hour 6; 16
house kay
how koumA; k6mh
hull k6k (of boat)
human moun (person)
humane ki g6 b8 ki
humble sA pr6tisi6
hundred sA
hungry grfgou
hunt n. la chas. v. chas6
hurry v. kouri (run); f6 vit;
adj. pr6se
hurt v. bls6; f6 mal
husband maria
hut ti kay
I mw6
ice glas
ice-box glasi& (also frigid&)
ice-cream krem a la glas
idea lid6 (chje6 'lid6, to change
your mind)
idle v. fline; adj. flfn&
if si
ill malad (sick)
imagine imajin6; s68j (think)
imitate imit6


immediate tout suit
immense gro gro gro; gr& gr
gr; laj laj haj
important &p6ta
improve fe pi bit
in na; la
inch pous
include mete la da
increase ogmnat; f6-1 vini pi gr&
indeed in ef6; tout b6 (truly)
independent -AdpadA
indoor in da
industry &distri; travay
influence Wflias; pist6; moun pa
inform bay nouvMl
ink lak
in-law bo; bo-pi (father-in-law);
bo-fre (brother-in-law); bil-
me (mother-in-4aw); b l-se
inn kafi; r&stora
inner tube cham
inquire pra Tisegnmi
insect ti bet
inside An dA
instant moma; 1A (at that ins-
tant, 16 sa a; in an instant, na
you moma)
instead o lie; a la plans de
instrument apariy; 6strima
insult n. joumi; v. AsiltW; jour6
insure asire
insurance asiras
intend gA dlidf; fe lide
interest n. fter6; v. eterese
interfere ml66
interrupt draje6; Wtbr6p

into lada
introduce pr6zAtA
invent Avitk
invite AvitA
inward An da
inward parts zatray
iron fA
irrigate rouz6
island il
its pa-1; pou li
jam k6fiti
jammed up against tou kole ak
January javi6
jaw machwa
jealous jalou
jewel bijou
join mete Asam; kole Asam
joke blag
journey vwayaj
joy jwa
judge jij; v. jije
juice ji
jury jiy6
jump n. so; v. sot6
June j6; jua
just jis
keep kebb; gad6
key kl6
kick kout pie
kill touy6; tu6
kind jiti; emab
king rwa
kiss bo; bobo
kitchen kuizin
knee j6nou
knife kouto
knock frap6
knot n6


know k6n6
lack mak6
ladder n6ch1e
lady madam; dam
lake 16ti
lamb mout6
lame bw6t6
lamp ,lap
land t6; p6i
landmark b6n
language lag
lantern fanal
lard m&atg
large laj
last d6ni6
late ta; a r6ta
laugh ri
law la Iwa
lawn mower t6dez
lay mete (put); d6poz6 (putt
down); (ili t6 kouch6, he lay
down); (p6n you z6, lay an
lazy par6s6
lead n. p18
lead v. k6dui
leaf fby
leak koul6; (ge you fuit, in a
lean v. pach6 (bend); adj. mig
learn apran
least mwas; mw&
leather kui
leave kit6
leg jim
lemon sitr8
lend pr6te
less mwes

lesson 16s6
let kit6 (allow); Iwe (house)
letter 16t
lettuce ~1ti
level n. nivo; v. plAni
liberty libet6; lib (free)
library bibliotek
lid kouve
lie n. mati (falsehood); v. m&ti,
bay mati (tell a falsehood);
kouch6 (lie down)
life la vi
lift 16v6
light n. limi&; adj. 16j6 (not
like v. r6m6 (love); sabl6 (si-
likely g6 16; (It is likely to rain,
g6 16 la pl va vini)
limb mam
lime sitr6
limit limit
line lign
lips 16v; po bouch
liquid !likid
list lis
listen kout6
literature liv (books)
little piti; ti
live viv
living viva
load chajma
loaf n. p&; v. flan6
loan v. pr6t6
lobster r6ma
local adj. p6i
lock s6ri; kadna (padlock); v.
feme a 161

-54 -

lodgings pAsi6; (where can I
find lodgings? ki kote-m ka-
pab d6san?)
log bwa
lonely sPl
long '16g
look gad6
loose lach
lord s6gn&
lose pedi
lot n. lo; adv. Apil (much)
loud f6
love amou; v. reme
lovely b~l
low ba; A ba
loyal fiddl
luck chis
lucky ki g6 chis
lump mbso
lunch mAj6
lungs poum6
machete michet
machine machine
mad fou (crazy)
mail la p6s
main pr6sipal
make f6
male mal
man 6m; 6m
manage rAj6; okip6 (look after)
mane krini&
mango mago
manner ja; manie
manufacture fb
many plizi6
map kat
March mas
mare jima

mark mak
market mach6
marry mari6
master met
mat nat
match alim6t; zaiimet
material materiel
May m6
meal farin (flour); mAj6 (food)
mean v. signifi6; adj. af6rie
means mwayA
meanwhile an atadA
measure n. mezi; v. m6zire
meat vian
medicine m6dikama
meet rAk6tr6
melt f6n
member mAm
memory memwa
mend r6par6
mention di (say)
merchant machine
mercy miz6rik6d
merry g6
message k6misi6
metal m6tal
middle mitA
might fbs (strength); kapab
mild f6b; dou
milk l1t
mill mouli
million mili6
mind 16spri; v. okip6 (take' care
minister minis
minute minit (time)
minute piti piti


mirror glas
miserable miz6rab
miss mik6
mist farina (lit. to flour> rain)
mistake fat; 6r6
mix m6lijd
model n. mod6l ;v. bay fbm
moderate r6z8nab
modern nouvo; a la m6d (mo-
dern in fashion)
modest s6p
moment mom&
Monday ldi
money lajf; kbb
monkey makak
monkey wrench klk agl6z
month mwa
moon la lin
mop v. siy6 (wipe)
moral moral; b6; jis; 16s
more plis
morning malt
mosquito moustik; maregw&
mother mama
motion mouvmA
motor mote
mountain mon
mouse sourit
mouth bouch
move m6t6 (put); bouj6 (budge)
chgj6 plas
Mr. (mister) msi6
Mrs. madam
much Apil
mud la bou
mule milkt
multiply miltiplid
murder tu6 moun; asasinA

music mizik
must dwe, f6k
mustard moutad
my pam (see lesson 5 on pos-
mystery mister
nail klou
napkin sevi6t tab
name no
narrow 6twat
nation nasi6
nature nati
near pr6
neat prop
necessary nes6s6
neck kou
need b6zws
needle z6gwi
neglect v. n6glij6
neighbour vwaz6
neither ni
nephew n6v6
nest nich
net s&n (fish)
never jram
new nouvo
next apr6 (after); l6t (the o-
ther); a kot6; kol6 ak
nice b&1
niece nies
night nuit
nine n6f
no no
noise bri
none na pwe
noon midi
nor ni
north n6


nose n
not .ia; n n6
note not; biy6
nothing ay&; aria
notice r&mak6; aviti (to gih
notice, to warm)
November novam
now koul y6 a; koun y6 a
nuisance traka .
number nim6ro; chif
nurse Cfimi
nut nwazUt; 6krou (of a bolt)
oar ram
oats avwan
obey obei
object n. bagay; v. prot6st6
observe remake; wk (see)
occasion okazi6
ocean lame
o'clock 1.
October Akt6b
of d6
off nA
offend lf6s6; pik6 (wound)
offer ofri
office biro; plas
often souvA
oil luil
old vi1
omit bli6 (forget); n6glij6
on sou
once you fwa
one youn
onion z6y6
only sel (alone); adv. slma,
open ouve; v. ouvri; ilouvri
operation op6rasi6 (med.)
opinion lid6

Opportunity okazi6
opposite vi-za-vi; A fas; ktr6 'r
or ou; ou bi&
range: zoraj .
re orange juice ji zorij
order n. 16d; v. bay ild, kom&d,
organ 6g :
ornament 6nd m
otherwise sA sa; sin6
ought dw6
our pa nou (see lesson 5)
out dero
outline plA (plan)
oven fou
over sou
overcome bat (beat)
owe dw-
own pos6d6; gegn-
ox bf
oyster zuit
pack n. paket v. rasibl6
pad tAp6
pail bokit
pain n. doull&; v. f& ina!
paint n. peti; v. p8tir6
pair p&
pale pal; blm.
pan kasr6l
papay papay
paper papi6
parcel pak6
pardon pad6; v. pad6ne
parent para; fami (relations)
park pak; plas (public park)
part n. pati; mbso; v. kite
(leave) al1 (go)
particular spesial


party fMt
pass v. paseo
passage koulwa
past pas4; nA tf& 16t (long, long
paste v. kol6
path ch6me
patient malad (sick person);
you moun ki g6 pasias (a
patient person)
patriot patriot; moun ki rnm&
pattern model; plf
pause v. poze
paw pat
pay n. lajf; v. p6y6
peace la p6
peanut pistach
peanut butter mnba
pearl pel; grrn koli6
peas pwa
peculiar sp6sial
pen plim
pencil kr6y8
penny sek k6b (5 cents Hai-
people moun
pepper pwav; pimf dous (green
pepper); pimf (red pepper)
perfect total
perform f& (do)
perhaps plt&t
permanent ki la tout ta
permission pemisii
person mount
persuade pesuad6
pest pes
photograph potr6

pick n. pik; v. k4yi (flowers
etc.); ramask (gather together)
pick ax pikwa
pickles pikliz
picture p6tr6
pie pay
piece m6so
pig pouso; koch6
pigeon pij6
pile n. katite; v. Apili
pillow or6y6; z6ri6
pillow case sidori6 ;te dor6y6
pin z6peg
pinch n. you ti gout, you ti kras
( a small quantity); v. pech6
pineapple zanrna
pink roz
pint d&mi lit (half litre)
pipe tiyo; pip (tobacco)
pity pitie
place n. adwa; kot6; v. m6te
plain n. plan; adj. bdin'
plan pla
plane rabo
plank plAch
plant n. plA; v. plate
plantain bAnan
plaster n. plat; plaster (med.)
v. pliatr4
plate plat; plato; asiet
please fe plezi; soupl4 (if you
pliers pes
plenty apil
plow n. chari
plumb line fil a p16
pocket pbch

-58 -

point pwe; pwkt (of land)
poison pwaz6
police la podis; jidem
polish n. & v. poli
polite poli
political pdlitik
pool 6ta lakeke; base (for ba-
poor pbv
popular popill
position kote (place); plas (job);
mt& nA plans (put into posi-
possible posib
post poto; la Pbs (Postal ser-
vice); d6poz4 you 16t la Pbs
(past a ~ttter)
postpone kite pou d64m
pot pot; chodi6
potato patat (sweet potato); p6m
d& te (Irish potato)
pound liv (weight); v. pile
pour video
poverty mize
powder poud
power f6s
practical pratik
practice v. 6gzes6
praise n. lwaj; k6plim&; v. k6-
pray la pri6; pri6 (rare usage)
preach prech6
precious; presie; you bagay ki
ge you grA vale
prefer pito
prejudice prljij6
prepare par6; pr6par6

present n. kado (gift); pr6z*
(here); koul ye a (now); v.
bay (give); prez&tk
preserve n. k6sev; v. k6sev6
president prezid&
press v. sr~6; pasi, r6pase (clo-
thes) (n. b. pris6 means tin a
pretend f6 siblA
pretty bZl
prevent Ap&chM
price pri
pride 6gey
priest p6
prison priz6
private sel; a pa; kote ki pa g&
prize pri
probable probab
problem problem
procession prosesi8
produce v. f& (make); d6ne
(give fruit)
profession mati6
profit benkfis
program plA
progress prog'r
promise n. prombs, agajmf
prompt tout suit; a 16
pronounce di (say); prose
proof prev
proper k6rek
property propri6te
propose propoz6
protect proteji
proud fie
prove prouv6
provide ba; bay


prune v. debrich rake rato
public piblik rank grad
pudding pouding rapid vit
pull raMe; trnr rare ra
pump p6p; v. p6&p rat rat
ptinctual a R rate pri (price); vits (speed)
pumpkin jouroumou rather pito (prefer)
puncture pan kaotchou raw kri
punish pini ray rey6
pupil 61vv razor razwa; jilt
pure bi6 pr6p reach 16j6 (stretch); riv6 (fis*l
purple violet la kapab riv6 la ba, the string
purpose bi; lid6 will reach over there)
push n. & v. pous6 read Ei
put m6te ready park; pr6
puzzle v. Abaras6 real r66l; vr; tout b6 (istwa sa.
quality kalit6; ki kalite (whaL a te pas6 tout b6; that story
kind) ? really happened)
quantity kAtite reason r6z6
quarrel diskisi6; k6t receive r6s6vwa
quart bit (litre) recent ki fet 16t jou
quarter ka (fourth) recognize r6konMt
queen ren recommend r6k6mfd6
question k6sti6 record liv (books); plak (pho-
quick vit nograph); v. note; 6kri (write)
quiet trAkil; dou kUbl not
quite toutaf&; net red rouj
race ras (breed); kous (contest) reduce redui; diminu6
radiator radiate refer voy6 (send)
radiator cap bouch6 radiate reflect s6j6 (think); r6fl6chi
radio radio refresh rafr6chi
radish radi refuse n. fatra
rail ray refuse v. refiz6
rain la pli; la pi ap t6b6 (it is regret regr6t6
raining) regular r6gilid
rainy season sez6 la pi rein ren
raise 6lvW rejoice rejwi
raisins reze sek relation f&mi


relieve soulaje (pain)
religion r6liji6
remain rit6
remark v. r6make
remedy r6med
remember s6j6
remind soje
rent Iway6
repair r6par6
repeat r6p6t6
replace riplas6
reply n. r6p6s; v. r6p6n
report n. rap6; v. f& you rap5
replant replite
represent r6prizatW
republic r6piblik
reputation repitasi6
request n. d6mid; v. mAdf
rescue sove
reserve rez6v6; gad6
resign bay d6misi6
resist r6zist6
resistance rezistAs
respect n. rpsp6; v. rpsp6kt6
responsible r6sp6sab
rest r6po; res (remainder); v.
restaurant restorA
result r6zilta
retire kouch6 (go to bed)
return v. tount
reverse v. f? bak (e. g. in car)
revenge n. revfch; v. prA r4-
review n. parad (military); v.
k6trol6 (examine)
reward rek6pis

ribbon rib&
rice di ri.
rich rich
rid d6baras6
ride n. plas; v. m6te (horse etc.)
rider kavali
right dwat
ring n. bag; r6n; sik; v. s6ri
ripe mi
rise v. 16v6
risk n. ris; v. risk
rival k6kira
river la rivi6
rivet rivet
road ch6m6; rout
roar r6l. f6
roan roua
roast n. roti; v. f6 roti
rob vole
rock roch
rod bat8 (stick)
roll n. roulo; ti p6, (rol of
bread); v. roulm6
roof twati; tet kay
room chim; la sal; plans
rooster kbk
root rasn
rope k6d
rot n. pouriti; v. pouri
rotten pouri
rough brital; sovaj; grosi4
round r6
row n. k8t, diskisi6 (dispute)
row n. raj6 (of things); v. ra-
m6 (boat)
royal rwayal
rub frot6
rubber kaotchou


rubbish fatra
rude mal 61v6; grosi6
rug tapi
ruins ruin
rule r6g; v. gouvena
run kouri
rush v. pr&s6; a16 pr&s6
rust rouy
sacred sakr6
sacrifice sakrifis
sad tris
saddle s61
saddle-bag sak6ch
saddle-cloth chabrak
safe bid; adj. sov6
safety site (surety)
sail vwal
salary salk; p6mA
sale vat
salt s1l
same mem
sand sab
sand-paper papi6 sable
satisfy satisfy
Saturday samdi
sauce s6s
saucer soukoup
saucepan kasril
save sove
saw n. si (tool); v. siyd
say di
scale n. balas; kal (fish); v.
p6 (climb)
scarce ra (rare)
scared s6zi
scatter gay4

scene s6n
scent pafe
school 16kol
science siAs
scissors sizo
scold blAme; r6primfad
scorn v. meprize
scorpion sk6pi6
scrape grat6
scratch grate
screen rido; paravA; v. bar6
screw vis; v. vis6
screw-driver toun a vis
scullery ofis
sea dimn
search v. chache
season s6z6 (time of year)
seat bA (bench); chez (chair);
second d6ziem
secret s6kr6
secretary s6krkte
see we
seed gren
seem sfble
seize prA (take); kebe (hold)
seldom rami
self mem (mwe-mem, myself;
Ji-mgm, himself; nou-mem; yo-
mem, etc.)
sell vin
send voy6
sense 16spri intelligence) ; sis
gr"- (meaning)
sentence fraz; sAtas (judgement)
v. kSdan6
separate adj. & v. spare
September s6pt.m


serious s6ri6
serve sevi
set m6t6 (put); poz6 (place)
settle rfj6
seven set
several plizie
severe s6ve
sew koud
shade 18braj; abajou (lamp)
shadow 16braj
shake souk6; s6kw6
shallow pa f6
shame r6t
shape f6m
share pa; v. pataj6
sharp file
shave fe la bab
she li"
sheep mout6
sheet dra
shelf 6taj&
shell koki
shield v. protj6e
shine briy6
ship bato; batimAf
shirt ch6miz
shock s6zisma
shoe souli6
shoot v. tir6; fizi6
shop n. boutik; magaze
shore bo la m&
short kout
should t6 dw6
shoulder z6pol
shout n. ral; v. r616
shovel pel
show n. espozisi6; v. m6tr6
shower farinaj la pli (of rain)

shower-bath douch
shut f6m6
sick malad
side kot6
sign sign
signal signal
silence silas
silk swa
silver lajA
silverware ajftri
simple sep
since depi
sincere s6s6
sing chWte
single s6p (not double); s6l
(alone); you s1d (one only)
sink f6s6; koul6, s6br6 (boat)
sister s&
sit chita
situation sitiasi6
six sis
size tay; grAde
skid patina
skill adr6s; k6n6sas (knowledge)
skin po
skirt jip
sky sidl
slave 6sklav
sledge-hammer mas
sleep d6mi
slice koup6e trAch
slide v. glis6
slight adj. piti; v. m6priz6
slip n. chi; v. glis6; t6b6
slope pit
slow A; dousmA
small piti


smell n. ode; paf6; v. siti
smile ri; souri
smoke n. la fime; v. fime
smooth 6gal, poli (surface)
snake s6pi; koulyv
snow la nej
so si; k6 sa
soap sav6
society sosi6et
sock choset
soft mou
soil n. t6 (earth, land); v. sal
soldier sdIda
solemn s6ri6; solanel
solid slid
solve r6gl6
some kek
sometimes pafwa
son pitit gas6
soon tal&; avA l16t
soil n. t& (earth, land); v. sal
sorry v. r6gr6te
sort kalit6
soul nam
sound s6; bri (noise)
soup soup
sour si
south sid
sow mama koch6


kaotchou d6 r6chAj (tire)

special sp6siail
speed vit6s
spell wAga (charm)
spill video

spend d6pWse
spin fil6 (yarn); vir6 (turn)
spirit l6spri
spit v. krach6
spite rikin
splendid mev6y6; b6l april
split n. fat; v. fan
spoil gat6
sponge 6pbj
spoon kuiy6
spot tach
spread r6pAn; gay6; laji
spring n. r6s6 (m6tal); sous
(water) v. sot6
spurs zepr6
square kar6
stable 6kiri
staff bat6
stage sen (theatre)
stain tach (spot)
stairs 6skali6
stallion 6tal6
stamp tem (postage)
stand v. kAp6
standard stAdad (uncommon)
star z6twall
start k6bmas
state 16ta (The State); 6ta (con-
state v. d6klar6 (declare)
station ga (railway); stasio (bus
stay r6t6
steady fem
steal vbl6
steel f&
steep a pik


steer k6dui
steering-wheel vola
step n. pa; v. mache; fb you pa
step n. mach (stair)
stew ragou
stick bat6; v. kol1
stiff red
stir bras6
stirrups zetri6
stock stbk
stocking ba
stomach l1st6mak; vat (belly)
stone roch; pie
stool tabouret
stop n. stasi6; v. retk
store n. boutik; magaz6; v. ga-
d6 (keep); k8sev6 (preserve)
storm loraj; sikl6n; tipbt
story istwa; k8t
stove fou
straight dwat; tou dwat (ahead)
strange 6trij
stranger 6trfj6 (foreigner)
strap n. kui (leather); v. mar6
straw pay
strainer paswa
stream ti rivi&
street la ri
stretch 18ji
strict 6gza
strike v. frap6
string fisel1
strip wetd (remove); retir6 (take
stripe lign linen)
strong f6
struggle n. k6ba; lit; v. lit6
study 6tidie

stuff n. 6tof; v. toufm
stupid bet; fou
success sikse
such te1; si; tlmi
suck sous4
sudden sibit
suffer soufri
sugar sik
suit kostim (clothes); v. k6vni
summer ete
sun slbey
Sunday dimich
supper n. & v. soup
supply n. kititk; v. founi
support n. sip6; v. soutni
suppose sipoze
sure si; sete
surface sifas
surprise sirpriz
surround vir&ne
suspect sispbk; v. sispekt6
swallow n. ir6dbl; v. val6
swear sbmi; madich6 (mal6dic-
tion); v. f& s6ma
sweat n. sub; v. sub
sweep n. & v. ba~l
sweet dous
swell g6fle
swim naj6
swing v. bals-6
sword n6p6
sympathy sepati
system sist&m
table tab
table-cloth nap
tail k6
tailor tay&
take pra


talk n. & v. pal, kozi
tall gra tay; ro
tame dou (gentle)
tank tak (gas)
tap n. robin; v. frap6 (strike)
taste n. gou; v. gout6
tax takes
taxi la lign
tea t6
teach m6tr6; afign6
tear n. dlo na j6 (lit. water in
tear v. chir6
telegraph tl16graf
telephone t61l6fn; v. t6ilf6ne
tell di (say); rak6t6
temper im& (humour); kole
temperament tAp6ramA
temperature cha46 (heat); tfip-
temple tip
tempt tAt6
ten dis
tend okip6
tender dou
tent tait
term k6disi8
terrible t6rib
test n. 6prev; v. 6s6y6 (try)
thank di mesi; r6mbsi6
thanks r6mesimi; m6si
theater t6at
then a16
there la
therefore s6 pou sa
they yo
thick epe

thief v61k
thin m6g; m6s
thing bagay
think s6j6; pfs6
third twaziem
thread fil
thirsty swaf
thirteen trez
tlis sa a
toast p6 griy6
tomato t8mat
tool zouti
thorn pikA
thorough atie; net; pafe
thousand mil
threat n. menas; v. m6nas6
three twa
throat g6j
through pa
throw j6te; voy6
thumb pous
thunder loraj
Thursday j6di
thus k6 sa
ticket biy6
tide mar6
tidy pr6p
tie kravat (neck-tie)
tie v. mar6
tight s6r6 (taut)
till jis, jouk 16 (until)
time ta; 16
tin f& bla
tip bout (end); kado (present)
tire kaotchou (auto)
tired bouk6; fatig6
title tit


tobacco taba
today jodi a
toe z6tey
together ashm
tongue *lig
tonight aswe a
too tou; osi
tool zouti
tooth da
top a l16; tet
total total; tout (all)
touch miy&
tough di (hard)
towards ni sis (in the direction
of); ve; b6; bb kort6
towel soviet toch6 (dish)
town la vil
toy jwet
track tras; ti ch6m&; v. suiv.
trade k6bms
train tr6; v. 6kzes6; 6Iv6
translate tradui
transplant trasplit6
trap n. piej; v. pr& (take)
travel vwayaj6
tray bak; plato; kabar6
treasure n. trzb6; ja lajA (bu-
ried); v. k6sev6 kbm you ba-
gay ki pr6si&
treat fet (party); v. tr6t6
tree pi6 bwa
tremble n. trAblemg; v. tribl!
tribe ras
trick n. trik; riz; v. tr6p6
trip n. vwayaj; v. tob6
trouble n. traka; troub; v; trou-
bl1; (pa draj&-m, do not trou-
ble me)

trowel tiwM1
true vr6; v6ritab; tout b6
trunk mal; malt; tr6 (tree);
kof d6ey (on a car)
trust n. k6fias; la fwa; v. m6t,
k6fiis ni; kw& (believe in)
try 6sey6
Tuesday madi
tune mizik; e
turkey kod6n
turn toune
turnip nav6
twelve douz
twenty v&
twice d6 fwa
twig bouj6
twist tbde
two d6
type n6m (man); tip (of per-
son); v. tap6
ugly 16d
umbrella paras6l
uncle n6k; t6t6
under sou; a ba
understand k6prin
unite ini
universe tout si&l la ak tout t6 a
unless sin6
unless a mwes k6; si... pa
untie d6mar6
up a ro
upon sou
upright 8net; tou dwat
upset 6dispoz6; d6raje
urge asist6
use v. aplway6; s6vi avik
usual bdin"


vain pr6tasi6
vain initial
value vdl6
valve vav
vanilla vani
various plizi6; dives
vase b61
veal vo
veil vwal
verse v. v6s6
very tr6
vessel batimA (ship)
victory viktwa
view vi; v. we (see)
village bouk
vinegar vineg
violent viola; brital
visit n. vizit; v. vizite
voice vwa
vote vbt; v. vote
voyage vwayaj
wages pemA
wait v. tin
wake v. riv6y6; 16ev
walk n. promnad; v. mache
wall mi
want n. & v. bdzw6
war la g6
warm cho (hot)
warmth chal6
warn av6ti
wash lav6
waste n. gaspiyaj; v. gaspiye
watch n. m6t (time piece); v.
water dio; v. rouz6
water cress kr6s6
wave lm lam6 (of the sea)

wax la si
way rout; ch6m; ja (manner)
we nou
weak feb
wealth riches
weapon zam
wear pot6
weather tA
weave tis6; tr6s6
Wednesday mekr6di
weed mov6 z6b; raj6; v. saklI
week semen
weigh peze
welcome r6sevwa biA; (mwr
k6tf Apil we ou. I am very
glad to see you)
well n. sous; pui; adv. bie
west Iwes
wet imid; mouy6
what ki; ki sa
wheel rou
wheel-barrow bour6t
when 16; 16; ka
where kote; ki kot6
whether si (if); swa ke
whet-stone mbl
while pAdf; I1
whinny rfni
whip fw6t
whisper pal6 dousm&
whistle sifllt; v. soufle
white bl&
who ki
whole atik; tout
whose pou ki moun
why pouki; pouki sa
wicked m6chf
wide laj


widow vev
wife madam; madA
wild sovaj
will n. vdol6t; testama (legal)
win ge; gegn&; gagne
wind n. va; v. vlop6 (entwine);
m6t6 (clock)
window f6net
windshield glas oto
wine di v6
wing zal
winter div&
wipe siy6 (mop, dust); netway6
(to clean)
wire fil f6
wise saj; prida; ftelija; g& 16spri
wish vle; sw6t6
with ak; av6k
within an da
without sa
witness n. t6mw&; v. t6mwagn6
woman fAm
wonder mevey; v. s6j6
wood bwa
wool il6n
word mo; parol

world 16 m6n; la ti
worm v&
worry n. chAjma-d-t6t
worse pi mal
worship mes; kilt; v. adore
worth vale
worthy 6nMt
wound n. bl6si; bles6; v. blis6
wrap mato; v. vlop6
wreck n. nofraj; v. gate; detwi;
wrench kl6 (tool)
wrist p6gn&t
write 6kri
wrong mal; t6
yard la kou
yard 18n (45 inches)
year an6
yes wi
yesterday y&
yet pouta; sepiad
yield rTn; d6Sn (fruit)
you ou (sing); nou (pl.)
young jen
youth j6nes
zero z6ro

-69 -


a kot6 aside; beside; by; next
a koz due to
a la mod modern; in fashion
a la plas de instead
a lB punctual; prompt
a 16trfj6 abroad
a mwes ke unless
a nivo horizontal; on the same
a pa aside; apart; private
a pB pr6 about
a pen hardly
a pik steep
abajou lamp shade
abitasi6 n. farm
abitid custom; habit
abitu6 accustom
absA absent; away
absolimf absolutely
acht6 buy
admit admit
admire admire
adopted adopt
ador6 workshop
adris n. address
adres6 v. address
agrikilti agriculture
ajist6 v. fit
ajout6 add
ak with
akiz6 accuse
aks6pt6 accept; admit
aksidf accident

aksi6 n. act; deed
ale go; part; go away
ale go; part; go away
ale pr6s6 v. rush; hurry
alim6t n. match
al then
ami v. arm
amelior6 improve
amize amuse
amizmi fun
amou love
an6 year
animal animal
ant6 beetle
apariy instrument
aplodismf n. cheer
aprfn learn
apr6 after; next
apr6-midi afternoon
aprouv6 approve
apw6tmi salary
ar6t6 arrest
ariA nothing
asasin6 murder
as6 enough
asiit plate
asiras insurance; assurance.
asir6 insure; assure
asistas audience
asist6 attend
asosi6 associate
aswi evening
asw6 a tonight; this evening
atak n. attack


atake v. attack
aticho artichoke
atik article (in newspaper)
atir6 attract
avA before (time)
ava 16ta soon
avas n. advance
avftaj advantage
avati n. adventure
avek with
aveg blind
aveti warn; give notice
avi6 airplane
avril April
avwan oats
A ba down; bottom; beneath;
low; under; (adv. below)
Abaras6 v. puzzle, embarras
Abisi6 ambition
a der6 abroad; in the country
a dey in mourning; bereaved
Ad6mi asleep
Adwa place
a fas opposite
A f6m fit; in form
Agajma n. promise; undertaking
AglM english
Agr6 fertilizer
Ako again; besides; extra
i kole angry
akouraj6 encourage
A 16 above; up high; top
AmB bitter
in atAda meanwhile
in ava ahead; forward
in di inside; indoor; within
in 6ef indeed
Anuiy6 annoy

atemA funeral
Apechi prevent
Apil lot; much; plenty
Apile v. pile
A plis besides; excess
Aplway6 clerk; v. employ; use
a reta late
A ro above; up (high)
AsAm together
fisgnA teach
Asie ancient; former
at between
Aftr6 bury
Atie entire; whole; thorough
A travy across
Atr6 enter
Avi eager; v. desire
a vi alive
vil6p envelope
aye nothing
ba down; low; n. stocking; bar;
v. give; provide
bab beard
bag n. ring
bagay n. thing, object; article
bak tray
bal ball (dance)
balAs balance; scale (weight)
balAs6 v. balance; swing
bale n. & v. sweep
bare v. bar; screen
bari6 gate
barik barrel
bas6 pool for bathing; basin
bat v. beat; defeat; conquer
bat bravo applaud
batay n. battle; fight


batiz egg-beater
bati build
batimf vessel; ship; boat
bate boat; ship
bat6 staff; stick; rod
bay v. give, present; provide
bay demisi6 resign
bay istriksi6 educate
bay f6m v. model
bay kou v. hit
bay laja v. bribe
bay lbd v. order
bay mati v. lie; tell a falsehood
bay nouvel inform
bay travay entiloy
baz n. base
bi bench; seat
ban band (group)
binin plantain
bi butter
bif ox
bek beak
Wl beautiful; lovely; fine; nice;
b l Apil splendid; magnificent
bit beast; cattle; adj. stupid
b6W baby
bk6n bacon
benifis profit; gain
Mni bless
itay cattle
bwzw n. & v. need; want
Agn bath
Wbgn6 bathe
bi n. aim; purpose
bibliotek library
bie n. goods; adj. safe; adv. well
bia k6 although

biW prop pure; (well dean)
bifMt bureau
bijou jewel
bikabonat baking soda
bire chisel
biro desk; office
bisiklkt bicydle
biskuit cookie
biyi ticket; note
blag joke
bla white
blimn blame; scold; accuse
ble blue
bls6 offend; n. & v. wound;
bl6si n. wound; sore
biem pale
blie forget; omit
blok block
bo v. kiss
bo in-law (bo-pe, father-in-law;
bo-fr&, brother-in-law, etc.)
bobo v. kiss
bokit pail
bone early
bbs carriage
bouch mouth
bouch6 n. cork
bouch6 radiate radiator cap
bouj6 move; budge
bouj6 twig
bouk village; curl
bouke tired (very fatigued)
boul ball (toy)
boul6 v. burn
boul6 bolt
bour6t wheel-barrow
bourik donkey


bout end
boutik n. shop; store
bout6 button
boutey bottle
bouyi v. boil
b6 by; edge; towards; side
bb kot6 towards
bb 1f me shore
bbdro n. bill
b6l bowl
bbn boundary; landmark; vase
b6 bound; good
b6 afi bargain
b6 Apil excellent
B6-Die God
b6 mache cheap (inexpensive)
b6b6 confection
bra n. arm
bras6 v. stir
brav brave
bravo n. cheer
brich branch
br6 brown (dark)
brech gap; breach
bri sound; noise
brid bridle
brik brick (bar of soap)
brital rough; violent
briya bright
briy6 shine
brbs brush
bwa board; log; wood; forest
bwas6 n. drink
bwat n. box
bway boy
bwe v. drink
bwet6 Ilame
chab6 charcoal

chabrak saddlecloth
chachi v. search
chadik grapefruit
chaj, chajmi n. load
chajma-d-tZt worry; concern
chak -each
chale n. warmth; temperature;
chame v. charm
chapo hat
chari n. plow
chase v. hunt
chat cat
chato castle
chf field
chije v. change; alter; exchange
chaj6 plas move; change places
chfjma n. change
chfjmf vites gear
chim room; inner tube
chas chance; luck
chate sing
che flesh
chech dry
chef chief; boss
chek n. check
chez chair; n. seat
ch6em road; path; course; way
ch6min6 chimney
chemiz shirt
ch6ve hair
ch6 dog
chin chain
chif number; figure
chikor6 endive
chird v. tear
chita sit


cho warm; hot
chodie pot
chofe chauffeur
chofe v. heat
chosit sock
chou cabbage
chov-sourit bat (the mammal)
also chat-sourit)
chwal horse
chwazi choose
dako agree ;agreed
dam lady
daou August
dapre according to
dat date
da tooth; teeth
daj6 danger
dis n. dance
dash v. dance
degou n. disgust
degoutas n. disgust
delika delicate
depais spend
denii last
derby out;. outside
dit debt
d&y mourning
d4ey n. back (behind); adv. be-
de two; of (see lesson); from
(use as seldom as possible)
debarase rid
dbbrache v. prune
dffan defend; forbid; (also used
in sense of fend, look after the
interests of)
d6fis defence; bumper
defit n. defeat

de fwa twice
d6ga n. damage
d6gi extra
degoute v. & adj. disgust
d6ja already
d6klar6 v. declare; state
dekouraj6 disappoint
dekouvri discover
dflivre deliver
demar6 untie
demid n. request
d6m6 tomorrow
demi lit pint; half litre
d4patma department
dipa depend
d6pis expense
depi since
dipoz6 v. lay; put down
depoz6 you let la pbs post a letter
d6rij6 disturb; annoy;. upset;
d6ro outside; away
d6sin descend
d6sim December
d6sid6 decide; determine
d6zire v. desire
d6stin6 fate
d6tay detail
d6twi destroy; v. wreck
deva ahead; front; before (place)
devine v. guess
d6vlop6 develop; developed
d6vwa duty
d6z6spere v. despair
d6z6spwa n. despair
d6zi n. desire


diziem second
di hard; tough; v. say; tell;
declare; pronounce
di fi fire
di m6si say thanks; thank
di ri rice
di vB wine
diab devil
diamf diamond
difikilt6 la vi hardship
difisil difficult
diksi6n6 dictionary
dimfch Sunday
diminue reduce
din6 dinner
diplom degree (scholastic)
dir6k adj. direct
diriji v. direct
dis ten
diskisi6 quarrel; row; dispute
diskit6 argue; discuss
diskite pri v. bargain
distraksi6 fun
distrik district
dives various
djaz jazz (music)
dlo n. water
dlo nf j6 n. tear (lit. water in
do n. back
dokte doctor
dola dollar
domaj n. damage
domaj6 v. damage
dona generous
dou gentle; mild; tender; quiet;
doub double

douch shower-bath
doul6 n. pain; ache
dous sweet
dousmi slow; gently
dout doubt
doutas doubt i
douz twelve
douzen dozen
d6mi v. sleep
d6n6 v. yield (fruit)
d6n6 fwi bear fruit
dra sheet
drapo flag
dr6 drain
dr6m oil drum
dwat straight; right
dwe ought; must; owe
dw6t finger
eklat6 v. burst
6 hour; time
ed n. help
Mf-o-lB custard
6 and
echitiy6 sample
6d6 v. help
edike educate
6ef effect
efo effort
igal equal; smooth (surface)
6gza strict
egzamin6 examine; explore
6gzap example
6gz6s6 v. exercise; practise; train
6gz6sis exercise
6gzist6 exist; to be
6kiri stable


ekri v. write; record
ikrou nut (for a bolt)
6ks6pti except
6ksit6 excite; excited
61ev pupil
6elktrik electricity
6lv6 v. raise; train; (bi& 6lv6,
well educated, well brought
6mab kind
ep6 thick
6pi and
6pli v. spell
6p6j sponge
6priv n. test
6re mistake
&r6 fortunate
6sis essence
&s6y6 v. try; attempt; test; ex-
eskalie stairs
eskiz apology; excuse
6skiz6 v. excuse
esklav slave
6spas space
6sp6sialma especially
6sp6r6 hope expect
6sp6riAs experience
6splik6 explain; describe
6spoz6 expose
6spozisi6 show
espwa n. hope
eta State; state; condition
6taji shelf
6tal6 stallion
6th lake; pool
4et summer
6tidi6 v. study

6t6f n. stuff; cloth
6trij strange
4trij6 stranger; foreigner
itwat narrow
6vitay n. fan
6evnmf event
evit6 avoid
&zite hesitate
6depid& independent
6dispoze adj. upset
6distri industry
&f6rii adj. mean
efimie nurse
AfliAs influence
ekie anxious
6p1th important
6silt6 v. insult
6sist4 urge
6strimf instrument
6tinasional international
6t6lijf clever; wise
Wteri n. interest
Ct6res& v. interest
Atbr6p interrupt
ev~t6 invent
6vite n. guest; v. invite
fach6 angry
falkz cliff
fame famous
final lantern
farin flour; meal
farinaj la pli shower of rain
farin6 v. mist
fasil easy
fatigue tired
fatra n. refuse; rubbish
favi favor
fam woman


fimi family; relation fey leaf
fan v. split f6mml female
fat n. crack; split f6net window
fe n. fact; iron; steel; horse-shoe;' f6rbs fierce
v. do; make; manufacture; act; :f6tich n. charm

compose; perform; bear (a
fR atisi6 attend
fb bak v. reverse back
fMbli tin; tin can
fM leksi6 elect
fM j6n to fast
fe la bab shave
fM lid6 intend
fi-I vini pi grA increase
fM mal v. harm; hurt; ache; to
be sore; pain
fM pi bie improve
fe plizi please; (sou p16; if you
fe plt complain
fe potre describe; draw (a pic-
f6 r6klam v. advertise
f6 roti roast
f6 sAbli pretend
f& simA v. swear
fM vit v. hurry
fe you rap6 v. report
f6 you so v. bound
feb feeble; weak; mild; faint;
fem n. farm; adj. firm; solid;
fem6 v. shut; close
femB a kli v. padlock
fMt n. treat; party; feast; holiday
v. born

fevrie February
ft end
f&n& fade
fidil faithful; loyal
fie proud
fig banana
figi n. face
fil thread
fil a pl6 plumb line
fil fR wire
fil6 n. sharp; v. sl
fim film
fim6 smoke
fini n. & v. finish
fisl string
fizi gun (rifle)
fiziA shoot
flAm flame
flAne n. idler
flan v. idle
fle flower
flech arrow
fleri v. blossom
flot6 float

harpen, spin

; end; com-

fo false
fos4 n. ditch
f6 strong; loud; aloud; clever
f6j forge
fbjr6 blacksmith


f6k must
f6m n. shape; form
fim6 v. form
f6s n. grave; ditch; strength
f&s6 v. force
fbt fault; mistake
f6 deep; bottom
f6n melt
f6s6 v. sink
fou n. oven; stove; fool; adj.
mad; crazy; stupid
fouch6t fork
foul n. crowd
founi v. supply
fouyapot curious
fouy6 dig
frap6 v. strike; hit; knock; tap
fraz phrase; sentence
fri brother
fre fresh; cool
fr6di cold
fr6yi fright
fr6 brake (on a car); fre a me,
emergency brake)
fri fry
fromaj cheese
frot6 rub
fr6mi ant
fr6ti6 border; frontier
fw6t cold; whip
fwi fruit
ga station (railway)
gad guard
gad6 v. look; keep; store
gad-mfij cupboard
gal6 gallon
garaj garage
gas6 fellow; boy; lad

gaspiyaj waste
gaspiyi v. waste
gat6 v. spoil; wreck
gato cake
gay6 v. spread; scatter
gaz gas
gazolin gasoline
gign& get; have; win
g6 merry
g6ri v. heal; cure
g6 get; have; win
ge 16th d6 sa long ago
g6 dif6ris differ
g6 k6n6sis conscious
g6 16 likely (ge 16 la pli va vmi,
it is 'likely to rain)
g3 lispri clever; wise
ge lide intend
g6 16tf long ago
g6 odas dare
g6gn6 get; have; win; gain; earn
gid guide
gid6 v. guide
glas mirror; ice
glas oto windshield
glasi6 ice-box
glise v. slide; slip
glwa glory
goch awkward; left
gou n. taste; flavor
goum6 v. fight
gout n. drop
gout6 v. taste; drop
gouven6 v. govern; rul.
g6j throat
g6fl6 swell
grad rank
gras grace


gras a due to; thanks to
grate v. scratch; scrape
gray adj. grave
grf great; big
grf gra gra immense
grade size
grfgou hungry
gra tay tall
gris grease; fat
grin grain; seed; berry
gren kolie pearl
grep6 scale; climb
gri grey
gro great; big
gro gro immense
gro bri n. loud noise; crash
grosi6 rude; coarse; rough
group group
il island
imajine imagine
nim humor; temper
imid damp; wet
imite imitate
ini unite
initial useless; vain
ir6del n. swallow
isit here
istwa story; history
izin factory
ja laja treasure (buried)
jade garden; field
jalou jealous
jalouzi jealousy; envy
jf manner; way
jAib v. to cross (a river)
jab6 ham
jidamri gendarmery
jAdam gendarme; police

jim leg
jame never; ever
jfti gentle; kind
jfvie January
j6 eye
jdi Thursday
j6neral general
j6nis youth
jenou knee
j6t6 throw
j6 June
jejam ginger
jen young
jene annoy; hinder
ji juice
jij n. judge
jilet razor
jima mare
jip skirt
jis just; fair; moral; till
jis lds6 moral; (in story etc)
jiye July
jodi a today
jou day
jwe v. act (in play)
jouk lA till
jouma n. insult
jour v. insult
jouroumou pumpkin
ju6 June
jwa joy
jwet toy; game
jije v. judge
jwen find
ka case; quarter; fourth
kaba finish; finished
kabar6 tray
kabfn bed

--80 -

kabrit goat
kabwit cart
kach6 v. hide
kad frame
kadna padlock
kado gift; present; tip
kafe coffee; inn
kafou crossroad
kal n. defeat; beating; hold (of
ship) scale (of fish)
kaliti quality; class; sort
kalkil account
kalkile calculate; consider

kaloj cage
kami6 truck; bus
kanal canal
kanist6 can (tin)
kaw crow (bird)
kaotchou rubber;

elastic; auto

kaotchou de rhchaj spare tire
kapab efficient; v. can; able;
capital capital
kapiten captain
kap6 coward
karakte character
karat forty
kard square
karat carrot
kase v. break
kasket cap; hat
kasrMl saucepan
kat n. four (numeral); card; map
kategori class; group
kavalid rider

kavin cave
kay house; cottage
ka when; n. camp
ki mem anyhow
kina duck
kaint boat (small)
kfip stand up
katit6 n. quantity; amount; sup-
ply; pile
ke heart
kek some; few
kis case
kB tail
kesti6 question
k6yi gather (flowers etc.)
keb& keep; hold; contain; seize
k6b6 k6 ou take care
kebe ndt keep a record
ki what; who
ki kote where
ki sa what
ki fit souvi frequent
kilt n. worship
kilti la te agriculture
kiltiv6 cultivate
kirie curious
kite v. leave; let; allow; depart
kit6 t6b6 v. drop
kite pou d6em postpone
kivit basin
klas n. dlass
klB adj. clear; fair
klW n. key; wrench
kle aglez monkey wrench
kler6 bright
klch bell
klou nail
koch6 pig


kodak camera
kod&n turkey
k6dui v. lead; drive
kof deye trunk carrier (on a car)
kok6 v. hook
koki shell
kokoye coconut
kble anger; temper
kole v. stick; connect; paste
kole ak next to
koloni colony
komfde v. command
kbmfis begin
kom6s commerce
komit4 n. committee; council
kopi6 v. copy
kor6k adj. correct
kit coast
kot6 where; n. position; side;
kot6 cotton
kou neck; blow (strike a)
koub n. curve; bend; corner
koube v. bend; bow
kouche lie down; retire; go to
kouch6 plat horizontal
koud elbow; v. sew
koul y6 a now; present
koulM color
koulev snake
koule v. leak; sink; flow
koulwa passage
kounm how
koun y6 a now
koupab guilty

koupe v. cut
koupe A tim6so chop (wood etc.)
koup6 a trich slice
kouraj courage
kouraj6 brave
kouri current (of water)
kouri v. run; hurry
kour6n n. crown
kous n. race (contest)
kous6 cushion
koud pie kick
kout short
kout6 v. cost; listen
kouto knife
koutim custom
kouvi lid
kouv6ti n. cover
kouvri v. cover
kouze cousin
koz cause
koze n. chat; talk; conversation
v. chat; talk
kozma conversation
k6 body
kob cent; money
kod rope
k6fr&-f6 n. safe (for money)
kok rooster; hull (of boat)
kMl collar
komaid v. order
kibmis start
kbmes n. trade
korek proper
kbstim suit; clothes
k6 sa thus; so
k6ba n. struggle, combat
kodan6 v. condemn; sentence


k6disi6 condition; term
k6dui v. lead; guide; steer
kodui tCt behave
k6f6s6 confess
k6fiis confidence; trust
k6fiti jam
k6kirf competitor; rival
k6kou n. help
k6k6m cucumber
k6m as
k6misi6 message
k6n&kte connect
k6n6ess knowledge; skill
k6na know; conscious
k6sev6 v. preserve; store
k6s6y advice
k6sils conscience
k6sid&r6 consider; adj. consi<
k6solasi6 comfort
k6t against: n. row; quari
dispute; story; account
k6ta content; glad; happy
k6t6 v. count; depend
k6tinu6 continue; extend
k6tr6 opposite
k6pagn companion
k6par6 compare
k6pl6tmf completely; absolut
k6plet6 v. complete
k6plik6 complicated
koplima n. praise
k6plimait v. congratulate; pra
k6prin understand
k6 sa thus; so
k6s6v n. preserve

k6trol control
k6trol6 v. check; review; exa-
Skrache v. spit
kravat necktie
S- kraz6 crush
krem cream
kr6m a la glas ice cream
S kr hollow
krbati creature
kres6 water cress
kr6ey pencil
kr6tif fear
kri raw
krie v. cry
krim crime
krinik mane
de- kr6k n. hook
kui leather
kuit v. bake; cook
kuiv cooper; brass
kuiyi spoon
kuizin kitchen
kuizini6 n. cook
kwa cross
kwa ke although
kwaf6 barber
kwA corner
kwaz6 v. cross
ely la bacon; there
la bou mud
la chas n. hunt
la df into; within
la fi6v fever
ise la fimn n. smoke
la fwa faith; trust
la gB war
la kay home; house


la kou yard; court
la kre chalk
la lign taxi
la lin moon
la Iwa law
la nij snow
la pe fear
la pB peace
la polis police
la pos mail
la pli rain
la price pray
la rad harbour
la ri street
la rivie river
la roze dew
la sal room
la si n. wax
la t6 earth; ground; world
la vi life
la vil city; town
labapin bread-fruit
lab v6ritab bread-fruit
lach loose; n. coward
laj wide; broad; large; n. age
laj laj immense
lajf money; silver; pay
laji spread
lame army
lavalas flood
lave wash
lay garlic
fi slow; in
1A me sea (ocean)
lAg tongue; language
lfk ink
lam blade
lim fi mb wave (of the sea)

lap lamp; head-light
litouray fence
16 hour; time; when; while; ins-
tant; o'clock; air
16-l fet birth
led ugly
ls east
let letter; milk
lIv lips
16 m6n world
16gliz church
16je light (not heavy)
le6ki school; college
ln6 eldest
16nmi enemy
les6 t6b6 v. drop
16s6 lesson
l6spri spirit; intelligence; mind
16st6mak stomach; chest
16ta the State
16ta lake
16ti lettuce
16vb v. arise; rise; wake; awa-
ken; lift
16di Monday
16n wool; blanket
li v. read; pronoun he, she, it
his, her, its
lib free
lib6t6 liberty
lid6 idea; opinion, purpose
lign line; stripe
likid liquid
limid n. light; flash
limit n. boundary; limit
lis list
lit n. struggle; quart (litre)
lit6 v. struggle


liv book, ,literature; pound
live winter
lo lot; supply
lopital hospital
loraj storm; thunder
lou heavy
lous n. bear
louvri open
16 when; gold
lbd n. order; command; disci-
16t the other;.next; else
16braj shadow; shade
16g long
16j6 reach; stretch
16n yard (45 inches)
luil oil
lwij n. praise
Iway6 rent
Iwis west
Iwe v. let (house); hire
lw6 distant; far; away
mach step (stair)
machidiz goods
machfn merchant
mache n. market; v. walk
mach6 fisim combine; work to-
machine machine; engine
machwa jaw
mada wife
madam Mrs.; lady
madi Tuesday
madich6 n. curse; malediction
magaz6 n. shop; store
magnifik magnificent; splendid
grand; beautiful

mai corn
mak n. mark
makak monkey
mal n. mail; male; evil; tru
mal lvi rude
malad sick; ill; sick person;
maladi disease
malet trunk (small)
mal6g n. sore
mamit can (tin)
mare n. tide (sea); v. tie; b
mar6gw6 mosquito
mari husband
marie marry
mar6 brown (.light)
mas March; sledge hammer


mato hammer
mat6riel material
mate morning
mito n. wrap
mfba peanut butter
mAch handle
mach6t machete
mid6 v. ask; demand; beg; re-
mago mango
mij6 n. food; dinner; meal; feed
(of animals); v. eat
mik6 v. miss; fail; lack
mAim member; limb
mAmi mother
mAmi koch6 sow (pig)
manie manner
mAti lie; falsehood; v. tell a lie



mfitg lard
mfy6 touch; feel; examine by
mib furniture
mech vilbrek6 bit (tool)
meg adj. thin; lean
mikr6di Wednesday
mel grindstone; whetstone
mes n. mass (worship)
misi thanks
met master
met can (ou met al6, you can
met kay la host
mevey wonder
mevey6 marvellous; splendid
me May
m6chi wicked; evil; cruel
medikam medicine
m6lfj6 mix; confuse
m6l6 interfere
memwa memory
minas n. threat
m6nase v. threat
m6priz6 v. despise; scorn; slight
meritB deserve
metal metal
mete v. put; set; place; lay; move
met6e reta v. delay
mete isaim join; work together
mete k6fifs ni put confidence
in; believe in; trust
mete la di include
met6 ni plas put into position
m6ti6 profession
m6ye better
mezi measure

mezire v. measure
me hand; but
mem same; even (though)
m6s thin
mi n. wall; adj. ripe
midi noon
mil thousand
milet mule
milid centre
mili6 million
miltiplid multiply
minis minister
minit minute
misti mystery
miti middle; between; centre
miy6 better
mize poverty; misery
mizd delay; waste time
miz6rab miserable
mizerikid mercy
mizik n. music; tune
mo word
model n. model; pattern
moma moment; instant
moral moral
mote motor; engine
mou soft
much fly
mouchwa handkerchief
moul6 n. mill; v. grind; adj.
moun people; person; human;
moun kap kritik6 critic
moun kap travay nA biro clerk
moun pa influential friend
mouri dead; v. die
moustik mosquito


moutad mustard
mout6 sheep; lamb
mouvmi movement; motion
mouye wet; damp
move bad
move zeb n. weed
mb n. bit (harness); n. & adj.
mod fashion
mbde v. bite
mon mountain; hill
mbso piece; part; bit; lump
m6ni n. change (money)
m6t watch (time piece)
m6te v. climb; wind (a clock);
m6tr, v. show; teach
msi6 mister; gentleman
mwa month
mwatie half
mway6 means
mwayen average
mw I
mwas less
naj6 swim
nap table-cloth
nasi6 nation
nat mat
nati nature
nav6 turnip
na at; in; between; off; lit.
ni mita among
na pw6 none
na sas towards; in the direction
nA tA 16ta long, long ago; past
nam soul

nif nine; new
net thorough; quite; absolutely
netway6 clean; wipe
nd knot
n6chil ladder
neglij6 v. neglect; omit
nep6 sword
n6sas birth
nesise necessary
n6y6 drown
ne nose
nepot either
ni bare; nude; neither; nor
nich nest
nies niece
nimero number
nivo n. level
nobl Christmas
nofraj n. wreck
not6 v. record
nou you (pl.) we; us
nouvo new; modern
nouri feed
nouriti food
novfm November
no north
not n. note
n6 name; no, not
n6k uncle
n6m man; type
n6me appoint
nuaj n. cloud
nui harm
nuit night
nwa dark; black
nwazit nut
o li6 instead
ob6i obey


oblije v. force
od6 n. smell
ofis scullery, etc.
ofri v. offer
ogmAt6 increase
okazi6 opportunity; occasion
okipasi6 business
okipe v. mind; take care of;
manage; look after; tend; to be
oktob October
operasi6 operation (med.)
orevwa good-bye
or6ey pillow
osi also; -too
otel hotel
oto auto; car
otorite authority
ou or; you (sing); August
on big or
ouve open
ouvri v. open
oze dare
odine common; plain, familiar;
ordinary; usual
6g organ
6gey pride
616j clock
am man
6nema ornament
6ne honor
6net honest; upright; worthy
6z eleven
pa not; by; through; belong (see
lesson) n. share; part; step
pa d6rfj-m do not disturb me
pa f6 not deep: shallow
pa-l its; his; hers

pa la absent; away
pa mij6 to fast
pa m6m differ
pa nou our (see lessons)
pad6 n. pardon
padon6 v. pardon; forgive
pafe n. perfume; scent; smell
pafe perfect; thorough
pafwa sometimes
pak park
pake parcel
pak&t n. pack; bundle
pal pale
pale n. talk; conversation; v.
talk; speak; discuss
pale dousma v. whisper
palmat6 discuss
palto coat
pa-m pam my; mine; (see les-
sons on possession)
pami among
pan breakdown (car, machine,
pan kaotchou puncture
pani6 basket
papa father
papay papaya
papie n. paper; bill
papie emeri emery paper
papie sable sand paper
parava n. screen (draught)
paras6l umbrella
parad review (military)
para parent; relation
parMt appear
par6 ready; prepare
pares6 lazy


parol word
pas ford
pas6 past; v. to pass; to press
paski because
paswa strainer
pat paw
pataj6 v. share; divide
patat potato (sweet)
pati bit; part
patina skid
patriot patriot
pay straw; pie
pfchi v. lean
pfid during; while
pfdil clock (smaller than bl6j)
pin v. hang
pfis n. thought; v. think
pfsi6 lodgings
pit slope
pC afraid; n. father; priest; pair
pedi lose
pidi k6n6sks v. faint
pel n. shovel; spade; pearl
pimit allow
pemisi6 permission
pes pest
p6suad6 persuade
petit perhaps
p6i country; land; adj. local
pnmfi wages; salary
petB explode
pey6 v. pay
peze weigh
pe n. bread; loaf
p6 griy6 toast

..plgn n. comb
pegn6 v. comb
pAs pliers
peti n. paint
petird v. paint
pi extreme; most; (see lesson on
Comparative and Superlative)
pi biW better
piblik public
pi b6 pas6 tout best
pie stone
piij n. trap; plot
pies coin; room; hall
pi6 foot
pi6 bwa tree
pie douvf forefoot
pi lwe further
pi lwe pas6 beyond
pi mal worse
pi ro pas6 above
pi grf eldest; biggest
pij6 pigeon
pik n. pick
pikA thorn
pike prick; offend; wound
pikliz pickles
pikwa pick ax
pil heap
pile v. pound
pimA pepper (red)
pima pepper (green)
pini punish
pip pipe (tobacco)
pistach peanut
pist6 influence
piti small; slight
piti piti minute; gradual


pitie pity; compassion
pitit child
pitit fi daughter
pitit gas6 son
pito rather; prefer
pla dish
plaf6 ceiling
plak record (phonograph)
plas n. office (job); room; seat;
ride; position; park
plaster plaster (med.)
plat flat; horizontal
plato tray; plate
platre v. plaster
pla n. plan; programme; pattern;
outline; plant
plfch plank; board
plachi floor
plini v. level
plate v. plant
ple fill; full
plgn, complain
plan n. plain
plim feather; plume; pen
plis more
plizii several; many; various
ploy6 v. bend; fodd
pl6 n. lead
pl6j6 v. dip; dive
po skin
po bit n. hide
po bouch lips
poli polite; smooth; n. & v.
politik political
p6m de te potato (Irish)
popile popular
posede v. own

posib possible
pot pot
pot6 v. carry; bring; bear
pot6 bay deliver
poto n. post; (La Pbs, Postal
pou belong; for
pou ki moun whose
pou li his; hers; its
pou tit due to
poud powder
poud 6elvasi6 baking powder
pouding pudding
pouki why
poul chicken
poul colt; stallion
poulich foal
poum6 lungs
pouri rotten; v. rot; decay
pouriti n. rot
pous thumb; inch
pouse n. push; v. push; grow
pousii n. dust
pouso pig
pouts yet
poze pause; set
pich pocket
p6t door
pote wear
p6tr6 picture; photograph
pov poor
p6 bridge
p6gnet wrist
pbm apple
p6n lay (p6 you zE, lay an egg)
p6p n. pump
p6pe V. pump
pratik practical


prl v. take; seize; catch; trap; prose case (law)

prf rfisgnmi inquire
pra revfch v. revenge
prf plezi enjoy
preske almost
priske pa hardly
prev proof
pre near; ready
preche preach
prejije prejudice
prekosi6 caution
pr6mie first; eldest
pr6par6 prepare
prese hurry v. rush
presie precious
pretfsi6 vain (proud)
pretasi6 vanity; arrogance;
pret6 v. lend; borrow
preza present; here
prez&te v. present; introduce
prezidf president
presipal main
pri price; cost; charge; rate;
pridf prudent; wise
price pray (rare usage)
priz6 prison
priv6 private
probab probable
problem problem
progri progress
promos promise
promnad n. walk; drive
pron6se pronounce
propoz6 propose
propriety property

pros6si6 procession
proteje v. project; shield
protiste v. object
prouv6 prove
pr6p clean; neat; tidy
pui well (water)
pwa peas; bean
pwa rouj beans (red)
pwas6 fish
pwatrin chest
pwav pepper
pwaz6 poison
pwel6 frying pan
pwe point of land
pwe dot
pwet point of land
ra rare; scare
rabo plane (tool)
reach ax
rad clothes (la rad, harbour)
radi radish
radiate radiator
radio radio
rafrechi refresh
rai hate
rape n. weed; bush
rak68t v. tell; relate
rale pull; drag
ramf rarely; seldom
rame v. row (a boat)
rapo n. report
ras n. race; breed; tribe
rasabl6 v. assemble; gather to-
gether; pack; connect
rasin root
razwa razor
rat rat


rato rake
ray rail
ragou n. stew
rfij arrange; settle; fix; ma-
nage; n. row (of plants, etc.)
rikin rancune; spite
rak6tre meet
ram oar
rAmas6 v to gather; pick; col-
rAn render; yield
rani whinny
rfpe creep
rfplase replace
ravoy6 dismiss
red stiff
refl6chi reflect; think
reg n. rule
r61 n. shout; yell
r6s remainder
rev dream
recho charcoal brazier
redui reduce
reel real; actual
r6fiz6 refuse
r6gilie regular
r6gle solve; settle; arrange
regr&t6 v. regret; to be sorry
rijim bunch (bananas)
rijwi rejoice
reklame v. claim
r6konkt recognize; distinguish
rik6lt n. harvest; crop
rik6lt6 v. harvest
rk6kmad6 recommend
rek6pfis v. reward
r6k6nsfis grateful
r616 v. shout; call
reil f6 roar

reliji6 religion
remake v. remark; observe;
reimd n. remedy; cure
r6stora restaurant
remisie v. thank
remisimf thanks
r6pare repair; mend
repas6 v. press (clothes)
repin spread
rep6te repeat
repiblik republic
repitasi6 reputation
rpliti transplant
repo n. rest
repoz6 v. rest
rep6n v. reply
r6p6s n. reply; answer
reprezAte represent
r6primfid reprimand; scold
reproch n. blame
r6sevwa receive; entertain
risi spring (metal)
rez6 reason
respekte v. respect
risp6sab responsible
restorf restaurant; cafe; inn
r6ta n. delay
rete v. remain; stay; stop
retire take away; strip
rvfich n. revenge
reveye v. make; awake
revok6 dismiss
rey6 n. ray; beam
rezeve v. reserve
r6ze grape
rezs s6k raisins
rezilta result


V -- --

xdzistis resistance
r6zist6 resist
r6mi v. love; like
ren rein; queen
ri v. & n. smile; laugh
riba ribbon
rich rich
riches wealth
rido curtain; screen
ris n. risk
risk v. risk; adventure
riv4 arrive; reach; happen
riv6t rivet
riz n. trick
ro high; tall
robin n. tap
roch rock; stone
roti roast
rbb dress
rbz rose; pink
r6 round
r8ma lobster
ron n. ring; circle
r6t shame; ashamed
rou n. wheel; hoe
roua roan
rouj red
roule v. roll
roulo n. roll
rout road; way
rouy rust
rouze v. water; irrigate; baste
(a fowl)
ruin ruins
ruin6 v. ruin; wreck
rwa king
rwayal royal
sa a this
sab sand

saj wise
sak sack; bag
sakri sacred; holy
sakrifis sacrifice
sal v. soil
salt dirt
saluA s. salute; greet; bow
samdi Saturday
sata satan; devil
satisfy satisfy
savin dezole desert
sav6 soap
si blood; without; hundred
sa prftfsiA humble
sf sa without
sible seem; like; similar
sadrid ash tray
sag cinch
sAn ash; cinder
sis sense; meaning
sits n. sentence (judgment)
sait health
sati v. feel; smell
sftim cent
s6 sister
sech dry
s&k dry; n. circle; ring
sel alone; private; apart; lonely;
only; n. salt; saddle
sAlhn only
sAmf oath; swear
sAn scene; stage; (theater)
sepa serpent; snake
set seven
sWtA certain; sure
sivil brain
s6vi serve
s6vi avAk v. use
sivi t6mwA v. witness


soviet towel
sevi6t tab napkin
sevo brain
sech6 v. dry
segni ,lord
s6kl6 v. weed
sekle ak rou v. hoe
s6kre secret
s6kr&th secretary
s6kwd shake
sinmn week
s616 according to
separd v. & adj. separate
s6ptim September
s6pfid however; yet; neverthe-
s6 pou sa therefore
ser6 tight; taut; v. press, squeeze
seremoni ceremony
s6ri lock
seri6 serious; solemn; honest;
earnest; trustworthy
s6ve severe
sizi scared; astonished
s6zisma astonishment; fright;
sez6 season (time of year)
s6z6 la pli rainy season
s6 holy
s6k five
s6k k6b penny (five cents hai-
s6n net (fish)
s6p simple; single (not double)
modest; familiar
sepati n. sympathy
s~se sincere
s6ti belt

si if, whether; so; much; cer-
tain; sour n. saw
si... pa unless (if... not)
siAs science
sibit sudden
sid south
sidorie pillow-case
siik century
si.l sky; heaven
sifas surface
sifas plat even; smooth (surface)
sifl6 whistle
sign sign
signal signal
signifies v. mean
sik sugar
siklon cyclone; storm
siksi success
silfs silence
sinema film; movie
sin6 unless; otherwise
sipoze v. suppose
sip6 n. support
sipit6 endure; bear
sipriz n. suprize
sis six
sisp6k n. suspect
sisp6kt6 v. suspect
sist6m system
site surety; safety
sitiasi6 sAtuation
sitr6 lime; lemon
siveye v. watch
siviliz6 civilise
siyd v. mop; dust; wipe; saw
sizo scissors


skopi6 scorpion
so n. bound; jump
solanel solemn
soley sun
solda soldier
solid solid; firm
sosi6t6 society; combine; com-
pany (commercial)
sot6 v. explode; spring; jump
soti v. go out
sovaj wild; rough
sove save; safe; escape; rescue
sove kb li escape
sove tit li escape
s6s sauce
so sound; noise
s6br6 sink (boat, etc.)
s6j6 think; consider; wonder;
dream; remember; reflect; re-
mind; imagine
s6m dull
s6nE v. ring
sou on; upon; under; over
sou kot6 apart
soud deaf
souf breath
soufri suffer
soukoup saucer
soulaj6 relieve (pain)
souli6 shoe
soup soup
soup n. v. supper
soupl please; if you please
souri smile
sourit mouse
sous spring; well (water)
sous6 suck
soutni v. support

souvi often
spisial special; particular; pe-
stadad standard (use uncom-
stasi6 n. station; bus stop
stbk stock
suiv fellow
suiv tras v. track; walk in the
footsteps of
su6 n. & v. sweat
swa silk; evening
swa kB whether
swaf thirsty
swWt6 wish
swe n. care
ta late
ta 16 soon
tab table
tabak tobacco
taboure stool
tach n. stain; spot
taks tax
tapi rug
tas cup
tay size
tay6 tailor
tf time; weather
tibou drum
tad6 hear
tik tank (gas)
tAkou as; like; the same as
tal6 heel
tan v. wait; except
tip temple
tfipt tempest; storm
tfperami temperament
tiperati temperature


tipo pad
tit aunt; 'tent
tait tempt
ti n. eaith; soil; land; clay;
tel such
telmf such; so
tit head; top
tit kay roof
te tea
tB dwe should; ought
te dor6ey pillow case
teat theater
t6l6fon n. telephone
til1f6ne v. telephone
t6l6graf teltegraph
temw6 n. witness
t6n6b darkness; dark
terib terrible
tbstamf will (legal)
tem stamp (postage)
ti little
ti bet insect
ti ch6m6 track; path
ti d6j6ne breakfast (every meal
is mAj6)
ti fi girl; little girl
ti kay hut; small house
ti gas6 boy; smal1 boy
ti moun child
tip type of person; type; guy
ti p6 roll of bread
tire v. shoot
ti rivii stream
tirwa drawer
tis6 weave
tit title
tiwl trowel

tiyo pipe
toro bull
total total; perfect
tou too; also; besides; every
tou dwat straight ahead; up-
tou kole ak jammed up against
tou 16 d6 both
tou suit immediately; at once;
soon; prompt
touf6 v. stuff; suffocate
toujou always
tounavis screw driver
toun6 v. turn; return; become
tous6 v. cough
tout all; whale; total
toutafi quite
tout aism together
tout b6 indeed; real; true
toutotou around; aM round
touy6 kill
to wrong
thch6 dish-towel
todie twist
t6Wb v. fall; trip; slip; tumble
t6dBz lawn-mower
t6m grave (tomb)
t6mat tomato
t6t6 undle
tradui translate
traka n. nuisance; trouble
tras trace; track
travay work; industry
trav6s6 v. cross
trible v. tremble
tribl6mf n. tremble
trfkil tranquil; calm; quiet
trfsplft6 transplant


trat ithilty
tre very
tre b6 excellent
triz thirteen
tres6 weave
trdt6 v. treat
tr6zo treasure
tr n. train
tren6 pull; drag
tribinal n. court (law)
triche cheat
trik n. trick
tris sad
tr6p too much; excess
tr6 trunk (tree)
tr6pe v. deceive; trick
trou hole; gap
troub trouble; confusion
trouble v. annoy; trouble
tue kill
tub moun murder
twa three
twati roof
twaziwm third
uit eight
vach cow
vakas holiday
valk value; amount; worth
vale v. swallow
vav valve
vani vanilla
vape steam
vf wind
van sell
vas6 v. advance
vat sale; belly; stomach
vfit v. boast; blow

vatilati fan (engine, etc.)
vB worm; glass; towards
ves coat
vise v. verse; pour
vit green
vev widow
veritab true
v6yd watch; attend; pay atten-
v6ye zo ou take care
v6 twenty
vek conquer
vi view
vian meat; flesh
vid empty; bare
video v. empty; pour; spill
vie old; ancient
viktwa victory
vilbr6k6 bit brace
vineg vinegar
vini come; become
vini mw6s decrease
vini pi piti decrease
viola violent
violAt purple
viri spin; turn
vir6ne surround
vis n. screw
vise v. screw
vit quick; rapid; fast; n. glass
vites speed; haste; rate
viv v. live
viva living; alive
vi-za-vi opposite
vize v. aim
vizit n. visit
vizit6 v. visit; explore
vi6 wish


vlop6 v. envelop; entwine; wrap
vo calf; veal
volA steering wheel
vole to fly
vol6t6 n. will
vot6 v. vote
voye send; throw; refer
v6le n. thief; v. steal; rob
vbt n. vote
vr6 true; real; actual
vwa voice
vwal n. veil; sail
vwati car; carriage
vwayaj voyage; trip
vwayaji v. travel
vwaz6 neighbour
wAga n. charm; spell
we see; observe; view
wte6 remove
wi yes
ye yesterday
yo they
you a; an
you lot another
you sil one only; single
you ti gout a small quantity;
youn one
you fwa once; once upon a time
youn ou 16t either
zafi affair; business
zago hoof

zak n. act
zalitou about; around
zalimMt n. match
zam weapon
zami friend; companion
zinina pine apple
zanimo pi. animals
zAtray inward parts; vitals
zeb grass
zeb chech hay
zil wing
zb iegg
zegui needle
zeklk flash
zep6g pin
z6pbl shoulder
zepr6 spurs
zero zero
zetri6 siirrups
z6twal star
zB hook (for fishing)
zo bone
zorij orange
zori6 pillow
zor6y ear
zouti tool
zotey toe
z6y6 onion
zuit oyster
zwazo bird



Che g6 kat pat, se you sl1 ch6m& hi fe.
A dog has four paws, but he can o-ly go one way.

Pa bli6 gra ch6me pou ch6m6 traves.
Do not let the cross roads make you forget the high road.

Ch6m6 lw6, g6bo di.
A long road makes the Gombo (a vegetable food) hard.

Pale frfs pa di ilspri pou sa.
To be able to speak French is not proof of cleverness.

Trdp l6spri, sot pa lw&.
Genius is akin to madness.

JA chache, JA trouv6, JA Abaras6.
John seeks, John finds, John is embarrassed .

Bay piti pa chich.
To give a little is not being stingy.

Piti piti zwazo f6 nich.
Little by little the bird makes its nest.

Ti kouto miy6 pas6 zSg.
A tiny knife is better than your nail.

KA ou k&trE zo nA gri ch6me, s6j6 s6 vifn ki tA kouvri Li
When you find a bone on the highway, remember that it was once
covered with flesh.

Tou sa ou pa kn&6 pi gra pas6 ou.
All that you do not know is greater than you.

S6 kouto sil ki k6n6 sa ki n& k6 yam.
Only the knife knows what's in the heart of the yam.

Pwas6 g6y& k6fias nI dio, 6 s6 dlo ki kuit li.
The fish trusts the water, and it is in the water that it is cooked.


Chat k6ne, rat k6ne, barik mai a va r6t6 'la.
The cat knows and the rat knows that the barrel of maize is going
to remain intact.

Neg di sa fb, B8-Die f& sa di.
Man talks but does not act, God acts without talking.

Flate pi dijer6 pas6 kouto de bb.
Flattery is more dangerous than a two-edged knife.

Se pa k6 chat mach6, li kab6 rat.
It is not with -its ordinary that a cat catches a rat.

KA malfini voltije, si li pa jw&n piim li pra pay.
When the hawk strikes, if he doesn't find feathers he takes straw.

Abiye k6 li abiye, kA midi sSne f6k bourik Se Domrg rini.
However well he may be dressed, when midday strikes, the don-
key from Santo Domingo brays.

Flch palmis pa fizi.
The sarrow-dike reed of the palm tree is not a rifle.

B&1 chev6 pa taji.
A beautiful head of hair is not money.

Souk6 tet pa kas6 kou.
To nod your head won't break your neck.

J6 rouj pa boul6 kay.
A blazing eye will not set the house on fire.

La r:ivie ipech6 pas6 dlo, li pa ap6ch6 tount.
The river in flood may prevent you crossing but it does not pre-
vent you turning back.

Wa fas6 bourik jibe dlo, ou pa p6 f6se ili bw& dlo.
You can force the donkey to walk through the water but you
cannot make him drink.

La vi 18g s6 plis 16spri.
A long life brings wisdom.

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