Title: Caribbean review of books
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094097/00001
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean review of books
Alternate Title: CRB
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the West Indies Publishers' Association
University of the West Indies Publishers' Association
Publisher: University of the West Indies Publishers' Association
Place of Publication: Mona Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: August, 1991
Copyright Date: 1991
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Caribbean literature -- Book reviews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Imprints -- Book reviews -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Aug. 1991)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1994?
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 10 (Nov. 1993).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094097
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 25144524
lccn - 92658675
issn - 1018-2926

Full Text

Number 1, August 1991
The complete source for Caribbean book news

Curriculum Reform in the
Third World: The Case of
School Geography.
A Special Report commissioned
by the International Geographi-
cal Union, Geographical Educa-
tion Commission, ed. by Mike
Morrissey. Kingston, ISER,
1990, viii, 143p. ISBN 976-40-

This special report com-
missioned by the Educa-
tion Commission of the
IGU is edited by Mike
Morrissey, a member of the
Union and well known geog-
raphy educator. The main body
of the work consists of case his-
tories of nine ex-colonial Third
World countries prepared by
leading educators. Contributors
are Vena Jules Trinidad and
Tobago; Kenneth A.M. Kapansa
Zambia; Christophe Okou -
People's Republic of Benin; Julie
Okpala Nigeria; Andy Vicars -
Papua New Guinea; Mesbah-us-
Saleheen Bangladesh; S.H.
Ang and S.O. Yee Singapore;
C.M. Speak Hong Kong. Zel-
S lynne Jennings discusses the
Z case of Jamaica briefly in the
final article "What role for the
Ss0 I

Geography teacher in cur-
riculum development?" The
three Caribbean contributors
were at the time of writing all
staff members of the University
of the West Indies.
The editor's trenchant preface
sets the tone. He later uses the
introduction to create a model
for evaluating the findings which
are summarized under eight dis-
tinctive headings. The case his-
tories differ in format but have
all followed the guidelines which

I -
required them "to include
analysis of the curriculum for-
mat of the colonial period, to
describe the changes and proces-

ISSN 1018-2926

ses of reform, and to evaluate
the strategies and resulting
forms". What has emerged is
rich documentation of the his-
tory and development of school
Geography in parts of Africa,
Asia and the Americas. Attempts
of newly independent countries
to promote self knowledge and
developmental choices through
this most political and propagan-
dist subject surely represent the
acme of curriculuni reform.
Vena Jules has made a fine
contribution to the Caribbean in
her historic and detailed country
report: "The status and develop-
ment of geography in the
schools and colleges of Trinidad
and Tobago". She discusses the
treatment of the subject before
and after Independence (1962)
in each level of the education
system. She refers to unimagina-
tive teaching in primary schools,
as reported by Keenan (1869),
control of secondary geography
by the two external examining
boards, Cambridge Local Syndi-
cate and University of London,
and attempts to break away
from 'mother country' concerns
and to introduce Social Studies
in Teachers' Colleges.
The coming of Independence
happily brought the economic
continued on page 29

C curriculum Reform
In the Third World
Lio L-Th. i.h pfr, I

Mike Moreiey. Edtor


Editorial Note

F or me this first Issue of
Caribbean Review of
Books is the first step of
a dream about to come
true. I mean these words literal-
ly. It is the first step because I
know that there will be more and
still more to do in our second
and third and later issues to
achieve our aim which is to
produce a single effective source
for up-to-date book news of
relevance to the Caribbean: a
task that will take more than our
enthusiastic and hard working
CRB team, its parent UWIPA,
and our friends around us now
can give: an achievement that
will be beyond us unless most of
our authors, editors, publishers,
booksellers and librarians are
willing to work together towards
it. A dream about to come true
because I believe, together with
my colleagues in UWIPA, as we
have believed from the first day
when we began planning to team
up, that the dream of a single


West Indian Literature
in the Nineties..........................................3
The Caribbean Co-publishing
Programme for Children's Books .......4
Towards a Quantitative Analysis of
Caribbean Books ............................. 10

Curriculum Reform in
the Third World................................. 1
From Plots to Plantations ...............7.
A Clinical and PathologicalAtlas....... 8
Jamaican Sayings............................ 13
Radicalism and Social Change
in Jamaica..................................... 16
The Caribbean in World Affairs and
Jamaican Foreign Policy
in the Caribbean.............................. 25
New Books ...................................... 20
Received ............................................25

sharing community of Caribbean
book people working together for
the common good can become a
reality: that such a community
who will share their experiences,
efforts, and products, and will
from that sharing reap mutual
benefits is not a mere dream,
but one that is already beginning
to come true. It is a dream that
we felt was within grasp in our
more successful moments in
UWIPA work, and it is a dream
we refused not to believe in
when we had our hard times and
disappointments (for UWIPA in
its short life has experience both
sides repeatedly). We believe it is
a dream that can and will come
true, and is beginning to come
true. If our vision, our en-
thusiasm and what we are
prepared to give for this dream
are what they should be we can
hasten the process. If we are
weak in our effort, and dim in
our vision we will take longer to
get there.
"We" in this collective task are
all of the book people of the
Caribbean, and UWIPA was until

CRB Is published quarterly by the UWIPA.
In August, November, February and

Samuel B. Bandara

Editor and Designer:
Annie Paul
Alan Moss (Barbados)
Edward Bough (Jamaica)
Selwyn Ryan (Trinidad and Tobago)
Ermlna Osoba (Antigua)
Matthew William (The Bahamas)
Joseph Palaclo (Belize)
Edith Allen (Dominica)
Beverley Steele (Grenada)
Howard Fergus (Montserrat)
Constantine Richardson (St. KItts & Nevls)
Marilyn Flolssac (St. Lucia)
Festus Toney (St. Vincent)
Charles Wheatley (British Virgin Islands)

now just a tiny cell in this larger
entity, that has now with Its off-
spring CRB divided itself into
two cells with the same
template, in this first step of a
longer journey.
UWIPA and CRB now share
this template, and that was the
driving force that gave us the
strength to proceed. We hope,
with CRB to spread the dream to
an eager community, some of
whom already share the infec-
tion with us and others to whom
we must carry the dream that is
beginning to come true.
With these dreams, hopes,
beliefs and plans we bring you
the first issue of CRB. Enjoy
what is good in it, help us
strengthen what is weak and
needs support, and join hands
with us to rectify what needs cor-
rection; do all of this, but above
all make the best use you can of
it to come together for our com-
mon good as makers, conveyors
and users of Caribbean books.

Samuel B. Bandara

UWIPA, 1991
ISSN: 1018-2926

Annual Subscription:
Per issue:
Air Mail add:
US$6.00 per annum
US$1.50 per Issue
Caribbean currencies equivalent to the
above accepted.

Editorial mail to:
P.O. Box 139
Mona, Kgn 7
Jamaica, W. Indies

Subscriptions to:
P.O. Box 42
Mona, Kgn 7
Jamaica, W. Indies

Advertising rates available on request

No. I, August 1991

folaTEwi oDf BoMsf

No. 1, August 1991

May West
the Depart-
ment of 1;
University of
the West In- B lo b
dies (UWI),
celebrated 21
years of the
teaching of
West Indian
literature at the University. The
celebration was in the form of a
public lecture by Professor Ken-
neth Ramchand on "West Indian
Literature in the Nineties: Blow-
ing Up the Canon". Professor Ed-
ward Baugh introduced Professor
Ramchand, now at UWI, St
Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago,
as the young lecturer with an 'in-
cendiary quality about him', who,
twenty-one years ago, just one
year since he joined the Depart-
ment of English at Mona, made it
possible by his determined agita-
tion, to begin a full course in
West Indian Literature at the
University. Today, there is a
strong programme of teaching, re-
search and publishing in West In-
dian literature at all three
campuses of the University.
To celebrate this occasion with
the University CRB is happy to
publish the opening portion of
Professor Ramchand's lecture.
We hope that the complete ver-
sion of the text of the Lecture will
be available in published form
before long.

The Lecture
In focusing on my topic,
the expansion of the field
of West Indian literature,
the magnification of it, the.
giving of body to it is very much
on my mind. Some of the things,

Indian Liter

n the Nineties

uing Up the C

by Kenneth Ramchand

or some of the areas on which
we have expanded are worth
looking at. We began by remov-
ing English literature from the
centre of literary studies in the
West Indies. We played a part in
the spread of West Indian litera-
ture to the schools. We have ex-
panded the field so that
whatever ambiguity there might
have been about the status of
oral literature has been resolved
oral literature is now a part of
our field. We have recently in-
cluded feminist literature, and
particularly Caribbean and West
Indian women's writings. We
have brought in Black British
literature, and Black Canadian
literature. So the field has been
blowing up. The motif that will
underlie much of what I have to
say will be a dual one Misgiv-
ings and Responsibilities.
Misgivings that perhaps we
have moved so far, so fast, that
we have not been able to work
out an aesthetic, or a code so
that we can apply taste, judge-
ment and value to all that we
study. We do not know what is
better than which, or which is
more enjoyable. In our anxiety to
make sure that nothing is left
out, we have perhaps been
moving too slowly in working out
our own aesthetic, and from this
concern, I am making a plea for
a very thoughtful and co-opera-
tive effort, a flexible and an im-

aginative at-
tempt to
ature begin the
I tur fre massive task
of tidying up.
S* I am worried
that unless
we do so, we
i lOn will explode
it altogether,
and every-
thing else
that goes by
the name of
and by im-
plication civilization, would be at
I should be asking or suggest-
ing questions, and hoping for
discussion and thought to fol-
low. The topic does promise,
rather mistakenly, something in
the nature of a polemic, but I
think that this occasion does not
call for polemic. I hope, though,
that what I say may encourage
debate and may be even heated
That is the thesis, and now
that you know the thesis, I feel
free to say anything disorderly
and irrelevant."


Caribbean Review of Books Caribbean Review of Books Carbbeaa Review of books


mRwftbWY cIff HxnDhQ


by Diane Brown

Earlier this year, a
UNESCO/National Book
Development Council of
Jamaica sponsored con-
sultation of persons in book
production for children was held
in Kingston, Jamaica. The con-
sultant was Chandran Nair of
UNESCO, Paris. As a result of
the Consultation, a Provisional
Regional Committee for the
Caribbean Co-publishing
Programme for Children's
Books was formed. The report
of the Consultation is available
in print. Details are as follows:
Regional Consultation on
Caribbean Co-publication
Programme for Children's
Books, Final Report (1991) Or-
ganized by UNESCO in col-
laboration with the Jamaica
National Commission for UNES-
CO and the National Book
Development Council of
Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica.
Available from the Book
Development Council of
Jamaica, c/o JAMAL, 47B
South Camp Road, Kingston 4,
This most recent meeting was
a sequel to the similarly spon-
sored 1987 Seminar of Carib-
bean Children's Writers. At that
time, the participants had
recommended the formation of a
regi-onal organization of
children's writers, so as to
facilitate the production of
children's books. This develop-
ment, therefore, is most wel-
come, and a timely one as the
region looks more closely at in-
The immediate task of the
Provisional Regional Committee
is the development of national

committees. The participants at
the Jamaica Consultation are to
establish their own local commit-
tees if these do not already exist,
and to encourage persons in
other territories to do the same.
In Jamaica, the national com-
mittee is the Jamaica Committee
for Children's Literature which
came about as a result of the
1987 Seminar. It is a subcom-

Illustration by Andrea Haynes, from Just
Suppose and Other Stories.
mittee of the National Book
Development Council, and has
consisted of members of the
Children's Writers Circle and the
Book Development Council. In
keeping with recommendations
of the 1991 Consultation, it will
be expanded to encompass other
interest groups. Other territories
which are in the process of
developing formal national
groups, may decide to operate as
entities on their own, or be at-
tached to another national body,
as exists in the Jamaican situa-
tion. At the time of going to
press groups have been formed
in Barbados, Guyana, St. Kitts
and Trinidad & Tobago.

The Provisional Regional
Committee also sees as one of
its main tasks the identification
of a regional body with which it
may be associated. With the pos-
sibility of various territories es-
tablishing connections to varied
national organizations, a strong
regional linking is essential.
This becomes clear when one
realizes that at present there is
no source of funding for the Co-
publication Programme.
Such a regional body would
therefore assist in formalizing
the Regional Committee for the
Co-publication Programme for
Caribbean Children's Books,
and so enable it to more easily
access funds for its programme.
Five major objectives have
been identified for the Co-publi-
cation Programme to pursue.
These are:
(1) to encourage the writing of
children's material and to
secure manuscripts,
(2) to formulate criteria for
selection of manuscripts
and to carry out selections
based on these criteria,
(3) to make publishers in the
region aware of the
availability of these
manuscripts for publica-
tion, and for the
programme itself to
publish if funds are avail-
(4) to monitor the situation
concerning author's
rights, and,
(5) to assist in marketing and
distribution of material.
In addition, a directory of all
persons involved in the produc-
tion of children's books is to be
The Caribbean Co-publica-
tion Programme for Children's
Books is an opportunity for pub-
lishers and a challenge for our
children's writers a challenge
which must be met successfully

No. 1, Agus 1991

No. 1, August 1991

if we are to utilize our talent to
give the children of our region
something of their own: their
own experiences, their own
dreams, their own future.
The elected Executive of the
Provisional Regional Committee
consists of:

* Diane Browne, (Chairperson)
Heinemann (Caribbean)
175-179 Mountain View
Kingston 6, Jamaica
t'^. ?MT 'f;*'.'"WSRi i

* Edward Toulon, (Vice
Frontline Cooperative
78 Queen Mary Street
Roseau, Dominica

* Anson Gonzalez, (Secretary)
PO Box 3254
Diego Martin
Trinidad and Tobago

* Leila Benjamin, (Treasurer)
c/o Ministry of Education, Cul-

hu*'F -I& c
fh~we ~ F -of~ W'rffier tnfozr,;
bfrCh&& g we -inmatiojcont~c6: 4
as the high d &t'i UNiCEF Area Repoieef
standards setbys' se-tatfl;e -Ba ardha'd
the international.

ture and Youth
P Box 1264
St. John's, Antigua).
Other territories and contact
persons represented on the
provisional Committee are: St.
Kitts/Nevis Floretta Brown;
Barbados Lillian Nicholson;
and Guyana Florence
Sukhdeo. Dorothy Jolly of
Trinidad & Tobago is also a con-
tact person. Membership is open
to all members of CARICOM and
Surinam. This does not, how-
ever, preclude the membership
of other territories in the Carib-
bean should the need arise.

New Children's

When I Dance
by James Berry, (poetry)
Puffin Books, 1990
ISBN 0-14-03-4200-1, 2.99
This book was picked up by Adrian
Jackson, who is a regular reviewer for
Books for Keeps as the best book he
reviewed for the year 1990.

Dig Away: Two-hole Tim
by John Agard. Illustrated by Jennifer
Picture Knight Books, 1990
ISBN 0-340-50616-4 pbc, 2.90
A story in words and colours of a small
Guyanese boy and his fascination for
holes: key holes, crabholes. tunnels

The Broken Bridge
by Philip Pullman
Macmillan, 1990
ISBN 0-33-5221-4, 4.90
A story of a child whose Haitian mother
she believes is dead, a child who has a
white half-brother.

Mango Spice
44 Caribbean Songs chosen by Gloria
Cameron. Yvonne Conolly and Sonia
Huntington, Cambridge, A. and C.
Black, 1990. 96pp
ISBN 0-7136-2167-9 (music edition).
7.50 continued on page 9

aribbean Review of Boos Caribbean Review of Books abbe evew of Iook

-^B0 Ne w4l 3 iFroml EC

Sonny Jim of Sandy Point (A Novel) by S.B Jones-Hendrickson, University of the
Virgin Islands, St. Croix, 1991, ISBN 0-932831-07-9, 308 pp, Soft $12.95 + $1.75
Sonny Jim of Sandy Point is a novel about growing up in Sandy Point, St. Kitts, West Indies, in the 1950's and 1960's. The novel is a first
in terms of social, cultural and political perspectives about growing up under conditions that are easy to laugh at and difficult to forget.
Sonny Jim walked on the hot-pitch road to his real mother's house. He was about to start a new life with his real mother, his queen...He
jumped high to avoid the remains that were left behind the beach...The mongoose was on fire. The mongoose dashed through the cane field,
setting the cane field on fire...There was no way of saying if the light in mountain was a jumble or a sukinaw. Sonny Jim was not going to
wait to hear the end of the story.
...She told him that she was making out. That was a big problem for him..for her..for her mother. Should he stay in St. Thomas, Virgin Is-
lands? Or should he go back home and marry her?
In Sandy Point he would catch ground doves, fly grasshoppers and catch lizards...Saturday was the big day for cutting wood for baking.
Brimstone Hill has not been the same since. And when he stumbled his big toe and put that big toe in the washiecong, heaven helped you if
you were near the smell.

SONNY JIM OF SANDY POINT, a novel for all ages, will make you laugh and make you cry. You will laugh at the times but you will not
forget the times.

CARIBBEAN VISIONS edited by S.B Jones-Hendrickson, 1991, ISBN 0-932831-
06-0, 266 PP, HARD $25.95 + $1.75 S&H
You are invited to join the ranks of those who had the opportunity to hear ten Presidents outline their visions for and to the Caribbean people
over the period 1979 to 1989. From Curacao in the Netherlands Antilles to St. Kitts in the OECS, from Jamaica in the north to Barbados in
the south, these ten Presidents of the Caribbean Studies Association key in on critical issues which faced and will face the people of the
Caribbean at home and abroad.
You will be informed about:
Equality and Social Justice Wendell Bell
United States Dominance Vaughan Lewis
Labour Surplus and the Engine of Growth Ransford Palmer
Modem-Conservative Societies Anthony Maingot
Strategies for Progress in Post-Independenc SBJH
Human Values and Human Resources Faut Andic
Economies of the State and the People Compton Bourne
Challenges of Leadership Alma Young
Zone of Peace: Possibility or Utopia? Andres Serbin
CSA's Visions of Development Eddie Greene
Can you afford not to read this book? This book is important to those who make the Caribbean their home at home and abroad. The book is
also important to those who want to know more about the thinking of Caribbeanists and Caribbeaners as they chart their visions of and for
the Caribbean people over time and space.
The contributors are distinguished academics, scholars and practising decision/policy makers in the traditional Caribbean, the wider Carib-
bean and in North America.
The Caribbean Studies Association, CSA, is the premier organization that studies the Caribbean. CSA is also a family. These ten addresses
are ideas from our family to your family.
The Editor: S. B. Jones-Hendrickson (SBJH) is a Professor of Economics, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix Campus, USVI. He is
a founding member of the Caribbean Studies Association. He held positions as the first Secretary-Treasurer, Council Member, Vice-Presi-
dent and President.
P.O. Box 1338
Frederikstead St. Croix
Virgin Islands 00841

No. 1, August 1991

No. 1, August 1991

From Plots to
Plantations: Land
Transactions in
Jamaica 1866-1900
by Veront M. Satchell, Mona,
Jamaica, Institute of Social and
Economic Research, U.W.I.,
1990. xvi, 197pp.

On 16th July 1991, in
association with the
Jamaica Historical
Society, the Institute of
Social and Economic Research
held a launching of Satchell's
book From Plots to Plantations.
At this well attended meeting
chaired by Dr. Carl Campbell,
President of the Jamaica Histori-
cal Society, a gathering referred
to by the chairman as an at-
tempt to bring Town and Gown
together to celebrate the publica-
tion of a good book and to ap-
preciate it, the guest speaker
was Professor Carl Stone. The
author, who is a lecturer in the
Department of History at the
University of the West Indies
developed the book from his M.
Phil. dissertation "Rural Land
Transactions in Jamaica, 1866-
Given below is a shortened
text of Professor Carl Stone's ad-
dress at the launching of the

Mr. Satchell's thesis about
land distribution in
Jamaica between 1866
and 1900 is thoroughly re-
searched and all of his con-
clusions are heavily supported
by carefully gathered empirical
data. As an empiricist myself, I
enjoyed reading this work which
attempts to convince the reader
with empirical rigour and data
confrontation rather than with
ideology and appeals to emotion.
There is a detached and clinical
quality about this kind of re-

search that places it several
notches above most of what pas-
ses under that name these days
both in the region and elsewhere.
Mr. Satchell deserves our
commendation for doing a com-
petent and interesting technical
job, while being fully aware of
the limitations and limits of his

., ,

The author with Barry Higman at the
launching of Plots.
As an author myself, I well un-
derstand the delicate feelings
that attend the launching of
one's first book, especially when
that book required laborious and
time consuming research, exten-
sive data analysis and data
preparation and exhaustive inter-
pretations of data trends and
If data gathering in Political
Science is any yardstick to go
by, Mr. Satchell has most likely
published in these pages only
about 5% of the rich research
materials he has collected. And
he most likely has enough un-
published material to do a
second book on a related subject.
I hold to the view that the
scholar who adds to knowledge
through research always has
much more to contribute to
knowledge generation than those
of us who only pass on received
knowledge. I am sure that the
author's teaching has benefitted
immeasurably from the wide

sweep of knowledge he gathered
from conducting this research
and writing this very interesting
book. The UWI Department of
History has a long tradition of
producing outstanding re-
searchers who break new
ground by innovative research,
settle disputed theoretical and
conceptual issues about Carib-
bean development, and establish
new horizons of scholarship for
others to follow. Mr. Satchell's
work is in that rich tradition of
empirical Caribbean historical re-
search that we all have come to
This work has set to rest a lot
of benevolent myths about the
role of the State vis-a-vis the
peasantry and the character of
land redistribution in the latter
part of the nineteenth century.
Mr. Satchell has amassed a body
of convincing data to show that
some of our scholars were mis-
taken in believing that land al-
locations in this period
benefitted the expansion of the
small peasantry. His data clearly
demonstrates that both public
and private land transfers
facilitated a reconsolidation of
the planter class and big estates
and an intensification of the im-
poverishment, marginalisation
and immiseration (sic) of the
black rural poor in Jamaica over
this period. Satchell's analysis
presents an important backdrop
against which to understand the
stirring of rural militancy that
erupted early in the later twen-
tieth century as this process of
class exploitation and land
hunger intensified between the
1920's and 1930's. Land con-
centration in the hands of power-
ful classes was an inescapable
feature of colonial plantation
societies. The essence of the
politics of the period covered in
this book is the zero-sum con-

continued on page 30

L8tinrflew of' Wxoks Caribbean Review of BooksICsdlbwn e%4ew of tD~ks

Ifowifew f0 LBoDT


A Clinical & Pathologi-
cal Atlas: The Records
of a Surgeon in St.
Vincent, the West
Indies. by A. Cecil Cyrus.
Montrose, St. Vincent, the
author. 1989. xvili, 263p. il-
lustrated. ISBN 976-8012-45-5
(Address of Author/Publisher:
The Botanic Clinic, Montrose, St.
Vincent, West Indies) US$150;

Editor's Note

I n the Caribbean, books and in-
formation about books do not
travel with great speed. We
hope, however, through Carib-
bean Review of Books to make a
determined effort to change this
situation. Since this is our first
issue we make no apologies in in-
cluding this note and the review
that follows on a book that was
published in 1989. In spite of
some publicity already given to it
in the West Indian Medical Jour-
nal (voL 40, No. 1 (supplement)
April 1991, pp. 64-70) very few
readers within and outside the
Caribbean have had a chance so
far to see the book or to hear
about it The publicity in the West
Indian Medical Journal was
through the text of the Feature Ad-
dress, delivered by Dr. Cyrus, the
author, to the 35th Scientific Meet-
ing of the Commonwealth Carib-
bean Medical Research Council
(CCMRC) held at St. John's An-
tigua in 1990, in which, under the
title The Evolution of A Clini-
cal and Pathological Atlas he
gave an account of how the Atlas
was conceived of and produced.
The issue of the West Indian
Medical Journal cited, is the sup-
plement containing the proceed-
ings in the form of abstracts, of
the 36th Scientific Meeting of the
CCMRC, held in Christ Church,
Barbados in April 1991. The ad-

three previous presentations he
made to previous CCMRC ses-
sions on (1) the isolated surgeon
and broken necks, (2) spinal anes-
thesia and the isolated surgeon,
and, (3) Ketamine hydrochloride
and the isolated surgeon. In all
these contributions he speaks of
his own experiences in St Vin-
cent, and, this, in his own defini-
tion is what he attempts to do, not
merely with words, but with over
1000 pictures, selected from a col-
lection of over 2500 accumulated
through 25 years of surgical prac-
tice, in the Atlas. This is how Dr.
Cyrus describes his work:
"This atlas is a record of my ex-
perience as a surgeon over a
span of 25 years in the West In-
dian island of St Vincent and the
Grenadines. It does not presume
to teach, but to share with the
profession the veritable wealth of

dress by Dr. Cyrus was at the
opening of the 35th meeting held
the previous year in Antigua, and
the decision of editors of the jour-
nal to publish the full text of his
address on the making of this
book is evidence of the high
regard given to the book in medi-
cal circles in the Caribbean, a
regard which prompted the
CCMRC to invite the author to
deliver the feature address at
their annual meeting.
In the Atlas itself Dr. Cyrus
has a section (Abstracts of three
papers) where he summarises

No. 1, August 1991

clinical and pathological material
with which I had to cope".
In 1983, in the Continuing
Medical Education (CME) Sym-
posia series at a session held in
Kingstown, St. Vincent, Dr. Cyrus
made another presentation of
which the full text is published.
This presentation (in its published
text) used a smaller selection of
the photographs now appearing
in the Atlas as the main element
of the delivery:
"Trauma and the Isolated Sur-
geon (a paper delivered at the
Cecil Cyrus CME Symposium,
Kingstown, St. Vincent, January
1983)" in Therapeutic Update
and Other Papers. CME in Bar-
bados 1983: Proceedings of
Continuing Medical Education
Symposia. Edited by Henry S.
Fraser and Michael D. Hoyos. Bar-
bados, University of the West In-
dies, (ECMS), 1984. pp. 17-22.
In addition to the photographs,
and the abstracts of the papers
referred to above, there are two
other brief essays in the Atlas -
"Some Clinical Observations" and
"Clinical Handicaps of Skin Pig-
mentation". The photographs are
arranged under five separate sec-
tions 1. Congenital Malforma-
tions, 2. Trauma (in two
subsections, Accidental and
Deliberate), 3. Infections, 4.
Tumours, and 5. The Abdomen.


tion of the work of Cecil
Cyrus on the Island of St.
Vincent must be viewed
in toto. Locally, it represents a
colossal experience as varied as
it is massive. It is, of course, no
longer possible to train doctors to
deal comprehensively with such
a wide range of clinical problems.
Dr. Cyrus explains how he has
continuously educated himself to
meet the challenges he faced. It
is to this end that all medical
education should be directed -
continued on page 30

Children's Books, continued from page 5
Also available on a cassette, ISBN 0-
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From Heinemann
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Mongoose in the Mall by Vyanne
Samuels, (30pp. ISBN: 976-605-112-7

The Bird Gang by Christine Craig,
(56pp. ISBN: 976-605-111-9 J$35)
...................................... .

No. 1, August 1991

Cric Crac: A Collection of West In-
dian Stories by Grace Haslworth,
(64pp. ISBN: 976-605-103-8 J$72.25)

A Boy Named Neville by Linda
Gambrill, (16pp. ISBN: 976-605-108-9

Miss Tiny by Linda Gambrill, (16pp.
ISBN: 976-605-109-9 J$45)
Croaking Johnny and Dizzy Lizzy by
Linda Gambrill, (16pp. ISBN: 976-605-
107-0 J$45)

From the Children's
Writers Circle:
Just Suppose and Other Stories, (a
collection of stories by seven members
of the Circle edited by Diane Browne
and Michael Reckord, and illustrated
by Andrea Haynes. Stories by Diane
Browne, Lorrise DaCosta, Paula Ellis,
Jean Forbes, Berna McIntosh, Eda
Hacjsib and Pat Persaud). (86pp.
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Towards a Quantitative

Analysis of Caribbean


by Samuel B. Bandara


I n 1985, in the course of a
study of Caribbean material
acquired by the University of
the West Indies Library at
Mona, I suggested that it would
be useful to libraries collecting
Caribbeana if an attempt were
made to arrive at an estimated fig-
ure of the annual production of
Caribbean books for use as a
standard against which perfor-
mances of individual libraries
could be evaluated.1 There is no
such estimate available so far. It
is not easy to arrive at such a fig-
ure as there are so many points
within and outside the Caribbean
from which publications useful
for the study of the Caribbean are
produced, and for most of these
points of origin there are no cur-
rent bibliographies that are sys-
tematically and consistently
compiled to derive reliable es-
timates for production statistics.
Due to this and other difficulties
it is unlikely that such an es-
timate will be available in the
near future. However, some
measure of quantitative under-
standing of the demand and supp-
ly for Caribbean material is
necessary for book industry
professionals (including libraries)
and users of books in the Carib-
bean to plan their activities
within a rational framework. It

would be very useful to know
what different types of material
produced at various places com-
bine to make the pool of source
material that helps us under-
stand and find out about our
region, the Caribbean, and in
what proportions one may expect
to find the different types of
material in this mixed pool. In
this paper an attempt will be
made to search for a way in
which a step may be taken
towards such an understanding.
For this study the term Carib-
bean item is used as meaning a
publication that is of relevance to
the study of a Caribbean subject
by reason of its Caribbean con-
tent. Thus although a general
textbook dealing with the
mechanics of landslides may be
of relevance to a geologist study-
ing landslides in a Caribbean is-
land, such a volume will not
qualify to be described as a Carib-
bean item unless in its content it
deals specifically with the study
of landslides in the Caribbean.
In order to include the widest
range of material possible journal
articles on Caribbean subjects
are considered, and the term
"Caribbean items" is used to refer
to these as well within the same
definition. Using these definitions
a population of Caribbean items
already identified by three Carib-
bean bibliographers is analysed
to find out the way in which dif-

ferent types of material combine
to make up this pool. On the
results obtained from this
analysis, an attempt is made to
reach a better understanding of
the specific categories of material
included in such a population
and their quantitative sig-
nificance in Caribbean studies.
The focus rests mainly on the
points of production and types of
material. The analysis does not
seek to separate the material ac-
cording to the places and dates of
publication for individual items al-
though such an analysis would
have provided a more detailed pic-
ture of the scene. In the discus-
sion an attempt is made to
examine tit findings for their sig-
nificaule to various sectors of the
book industry in the Caribbean.
The use of the understanding of
the emerging picture for the
Caribbean book industry forms
an important part of the discus-

Materials and

Three volumes from the World
Bibliography Series published by
Clio Press (Oxford, England:
Santa Barbara, California) on
three Caribbean countries were
selected and all the citations in
the three volumes were analysed
and grouped into 12 categories.

No. 1, August 1991

No. 1, August 1991

The three volume selected are as

* 1. Jamaica. by K.E. Ingram.
1984 (World Bibliographical
Series vol.45)

* 2. Dominica. by Robert A.
Myers. 1987 (World Bibliog-
raphical Series vol. 82)

3. The Bahamas. by Paul G.
Boultbee. 1989. (World Bibliog-
raphical Series vol. 108)

These volumes represent
carefully made selections
of material brought
together by compilers who
are familiar with their subject to
present a well balanced bibliog-
raphic guide to the existing
scholarship on the three ter-
ritories as revealed in published
documentation accessible to the
average reader. The three
volumes also belong to a reputed
series published under the direc-
tion of experienced editors, thus
providing an additional measure
of assurance regarding their
reliability. These three volumes
were selected for our study for
these reasons as a representative
pool of published literature in
Caribbean studies. Compilers of
bibliographies like the ones
selected for our study accomplish
a dual task, firstly recording
what is revealed from their sear-
ches as useful literature for the
understanding of subject, and
secondly creating a level of recog-
nition and demand for the items
they list as important source
material for their subjects. By ex-
amining these bibliographies we
should be able, therefore, to gain
a fair approximation of the world
of Caribbean books within our
frame of reference.
The citations in three volumes
(numbering 1182, 493 and 703
respectively) were examined in-
dividually and grouped into the
following 12 categories (codes
used in the table indicated in

parenthesis) by their imprint and
type of publication.
1. Caribbean Imprints consist-
ing of books and pamphlets
bearing a place of publica-
tion within the Caribbean
area. (CAR).
2. Articles from journals pub-
lished within the Caribbean
3. Books co-published by
Caribbean partners (JNT
4. Reprints by new publishers
(REP). Imprints and edi-
tions issued by the original
publishers of a title are not
included in this category
which comprises only of im-
prints other than those of
the original publishers. Fur-
ther analysis by comparing
the place of publication of
the reprint with that of the
original is not attempted.
5. Titles co-published by a
mixed partnership consist-
ing of foreign and Carib-
bean partners (JNT F/C).
6. Titles bearing United States
imprints (US).
7. Titles bearing British im-
prints (BR).
8. Titles bearing foreign im-
prints other than British
and U.S. (F).
9. Unpublished theses f(H/U).
10. Published theses (TH/P).
These are not monographic
commercial publications
based on theses with copies
available as books. Rather
they are unedited theses of
which copies are available
as books. All the titles
recorded in this category
are works available
through University
Microfilms International.
11. Titles co-published by Non-
Caribbean partners (JNT
continued overleaf

We're here again!

Bolivar Bookshop

LOUIS FILLER, The Crusade Against
Slavery. Hamish Hamilton Ltd. London
1960. 318pp. Illustrated, Jacket worn,
Worlds A look at Immigrants in Britain,
Clarke, Irwin & Co. Ltd. Toronto 1964.
168 pp, Appendix, $18.00.
SHEILA PATTERSON, Immigrants in In-
dustry, I.R.R. O.U.P., London. 1968 425
pp, 2 maps, 3 charts. 4 Appendices. $45.00.
PETER L. WRIGHT, The coloured worker
in Industry Special Reference to Mid-
lands and North of England, LR.R. O.U.P.
London, 1968.423 pp. Appendix, $42.00.
SHEILA PATTERSON, Immigration and
Race Relations in Britain 1960-1967.
LR.R. O.U.P., London 1969.457 pp. 10
Appendices, $42.00.
BRIAN WEINSTEIN, Eboue Biography
O.U.P., London 1972, 350 pp. 18 Illustra-
tions, 3 maps $24.00.
WILLIAMS WALSH, Commonwealth
Literature O.U.P. London 1973, 150 pp.
MADDEN, British Colonial Develop-
ments, 1774-1834 Select Documents
O.U.P. 1953 619 pp. $3.00.
JOHN S. MBITL (ed), Akamba Stories.
O.U.P. London 1966 240 pp, $38.00.
RUTH FINNEGAN, (ed), Limba Stories
and Story Telling, O.U.P. London 1967,
$352 pp. $40.00.
HENRY F. MORRIS, The Heroic Recita-
tions of the Bahima of Ankole. O.U.P., Lon-
don 1964, 2 Appendices, 3 Illustrations,
Trickster, O.U.P., London 1967, 240 pp. 3
plates 2 Appendices, $42.00.
LADY BRASSEY. In the Trade, the
Tropics and the Roaring Forties
Longmans, Green and Company, London
1885,532 pp. 9 maps. 289 illustrations,
Spine split, slight foxing $95.00.

Prices in U.S. Dollars, P & P Extra.

Please send your orders to:
P.O. Box 413, Kingston 10,
Jamaica, Tel. (809) 92-68799. Fax

Cmibarii nRew of Bo ksCarlbbean Review of Books CanbbIeReview ofBiooks

12. Articles in journals publish- tons avai
ed outside the Caribbean studies ge
JNL/F). One of
Save for one cita-
Stion (for which .i-- -
neither the publish-
er nor the place of ble
publication was
recorded), in one of
the three volumes
examined all cited
references (a total of
2377 items) in the
selected compila-
tions were
separated into these
12 categories.

Results and

Results obtained
from the analysis of
the material are set
out in the table.
In setting out the
results of the
analysis the 12
categories used
have been grouped
in such a way as to
enable the easy
recognition of the
shares of Caribbean
(lines 1-3), mixed
Caribbean and Over-
seas (lines 4 and 5),
and Overseas (lines
6-12) products in
the total. Since the
three bibliographies
were selected to rep-
resent the general
picture of material
available for the
study of three Carib-
bean territories,2
the spread of
revealed in this
analysis may be con-
sidered as repre-
sentative of the corpus of publica-

lable for Caribbean
the first observations

that strikes one's eye in the table
is wide spread provenance of the
material. A sizeable portion is

produced within the region, but if
a complete picture of their
countries is to be made available
and accessible to
the general
S readers in
ron Jamaica,
-, -. ,: Dominica and the
S,. .. Bahamas, there
T has to be a mix of
^ local and non-
Slocal provision.
Likewise if the in-
terested overseas
user is to be
served properly a
similar mix must
be provided with
some of the in-
gredients being
obtained from the
Caribbean. Thus
Caribbean studies
is able to provide
a sound base for
an open market to
the book trade,
and there is the
potential for the
local and overseas
book trader to
develop their busi-
ness within it. Un-
like some
countries where
locally confined
languages restrict
the market both
for the production
Sand consumption
of books, the lan-
4*, guage situation in
the Caribbean al-
lows for produc-
tion and
within and out-
side the region in
an open market.
The fact that
publishing houses
are prepared to produce Carib-
bean titles demonstrates the ex-
continued on page 27

No. 1, August 1991

No. 1, August 1991

Jamaican Sayings with
Notes on Folklore, Aesthetics and
Social Control by G. Llewellyn
Watson, The Florida A and M
University Press, Gainesville,
1991, 292 pp.

T he book under review
should stimulate the inter-
est of all Jamaicans who
can remember moral les-
sons of parents or grandparents
which were clothed in one or
another proverbial saying. It
should be compulsory reading for
those not old enough to have had
the benefit of such training, now
largely a thing of the past. The
readership for which the author
justifiably casts his net, however,
is more varied than this. It in-
cludes university students in
North America and Europe as
well as the Caribbean, and
Blacks every where who "serious-
ly seek to reappraise their cul-
tural roots and sense of history"
(p. xiii).
Dr. Watson has put together
a grand total of one thousand
four hundred and fifty-seven
Jamaican sayings. There must
surely be no reader who has
heard even half of them before.
This says much for the author's
painstaking research which in-
volved interactive fieldwork as
well as examination of written
sources. The list of sayings in-
cludes many which, in ap-
propriate circumstances, still
spring readily to the minds of
even the not so old among us, for
Cockroach no business ina fowl
fight (#54, p. 43).
"A cockroach has no business
(should not meddle) in a hen's
Play wid puppy, puppy lk yu
mout (#310, p. 96).
"If you play with a puppy, it
will lick your mouth"

Coward man keep sound bone
(#26, p. 114).
"Coward man keeps sound
The glosses are those given in
the text.
The collection is divided into
four parts, grouped, according to
the dominant subject-matter or
character, along the following
Part 1: Animals (344 Sayings)
Part 2: People (193 Sayings)
Part 3: Vegetation (81 Sayings)
Part 4: Miscellaneous Sayings
and Short Phrases (240).
Most of the sayings are fol-
lowed by an English gloss and an
explanation. The 599 for which
no explanation is given, are listed
separately in the Appendix under
the same headings.
Sayings in which home-truths
are derived from the habits and
Appearance of animals,
or have
been p

form the
Dr. Watson

has drawn our
attention to striking parallels
with the folklore of the Fante
people of West Africa with whom
there are known ancestral links
(p. 16). At the same time, he has
reminded us that in many other
societies, key insights or lessons
in human relations have been
drawn from observation of
animals (p. 29).
The author's stated aim is "to
highlight the abundance and
relevance of distinctly Jamaican
sayings, to situate these in a his-
torical and cultural framework,

and to acknowledge them as cul-
turally effective means of
socialization, social control and
social warning" (p. 4). Recurring
themes can be recognized, each
of which reflects an aspect of
human experience. For example,
one is warned against
(a) unsuitable friendships in
If you lie wid dawg, you wi'
get up widflea
"If you lie with dogs you
will get up with fleas [on
you]" (#167, p. 66) and
Duck an'fowl feed together,
but dem no roost together
"Duck and fowls feed
together, but they do not
roost together" (#193, p. 71)
(b) ingratitude in
Yu kyafe mawga cow, a yu
'tm buck
"If you care for a meagre
cow, it is you she will butt"
(#78, p. 48) and
Fowl nyam don 'im rub 'im
mout' 'pon grung
"When a fowl has finished
eating, it rubs its mouth on
the ground" (#228, p. 77).
Other sayings comment on
those who remember their rela-
tives and friends only when
visited by adversity, for example,
W'en bwoyfoot bruk, 'im fine
'im mumma yard
"When boy's foot is broken, he
finds his mother's yard" (#20,
p. 113).
and on the indignities suffered
by the old or ill,
Bull olejunjo grow 'pon 'im back
"Wheri a bull gets old, junjo
(wild mushroom) grows on its
back" (#32, p. 38). and
W'en man deh 'pon Im back,
you can bruk 'im head wid
pwile milk
"When a man is on his back,
you can break his head with
spoilt milk" (#95, p. 130).
The author has indicated (p.
22) that more than one interpreta-
continued overleaf

Crbbean Review of Books Caribbean Review of Books Cabean vieww of Books

tion of many of the sayings might
be acceptable. Although it is evi-
dent that he has therefore
deliberately chosen to base his
groupings on relatively objective
criteria, the reader feels disap-
pointed that the sayings are not
categorized according to their
message. Dr. Watson has certain-
ly pointed out comparisons be-
tween some sayings separated by
his classification, but these cases
are relatively few.
While appreciating the histori-
cal and cultural value of Creole,
the language in which the
sayings are couched, Dr. Watson
has failed to show a similar level
of understanding of its grammati-
cal structure. This is illustrated,
for example, in the statement:
"In fact ... most Jamaicans are
bidialectal, depending on the cir-
cumstances. In the lower class,
speech pattern, tenses, verbs, or
gender might have only marginal
affinity to conventional usages.
All such parts of speech are
routinely modified in Creole, but
their violation would not prevent
understanding; such is the
flexibility of the language" (p. 7).
This suggests, among other
things, the lingering notion that

Creole is an unsystematic dialect
of English, a view directly op-
posed to what is currently held
by linguists. Later on, however,
Dr. Watson has acknowledged
the 'African-derived syntax' of
Creole (p. 10). Despite his admis-
sion that he is no linguist, he
would have been well advised to
consult M. Alleyne's Comparative
Afro-American (Ann Arbor,
Karoma Publications. 1980) for
evidence of the incompatibility of
these viewpoints.

The language of the sayings in-
cludes surprisingly few ar-
chaisms. This probably reflects
updating by successive genera-
tions. Among the words which
are no longer widely employed
arefum 'beat' (#31, p. 115 and
#75, p. 172), nyanga 'pride' (#4,
p. 230) and Juba 'woman' (#82,
p. 267).
The few errors noted include
(1) the duplication of dawg nyam
yu suppain #148 (p. 61) and #95
(p. 196); (2) wrong figures in the

cross-referencing on pages 190
and 191 where in #62 and #68
respectively, the reader is
referred to #32 instead of #33
and #17 instead of #18; (3) the
misplacement of entries with
cock in the supposedly alphabeti-
cal sequencing (pp. 52-53); (4)
the omission of eating in the
gloss of #228 (p. 77).
At the risk of being accused of
quibbling, one must mention
being puzzled by spellings such
as caa' (e.g. #16, p. 34) and caar
(#279, p. 89) 'carry', cawn and
awse (#52, p. 59) for can't and
'horse' respectively, and the in-
consistent spelling of not a (#46,
p. 41) vs. notta (#133, p. 204).
These small points do not real-
ly detract from the obvious
merits of the work. A book such
as this ensures that we need not
fear the imminent disappearance
of our folklore. Dr. Watson is cer-
tain to inspire other scholars to
follow suit, especially since, as
he points out (p. 26), much more
work remains to be done even in
relation to Jamaican sayings.

Pauline Christie
UWI, Mona

Spanish Town Road,
Jamaica, 1844
From the daguer-
rotype by Adolphe
Duperly, courtesy of
the Facey/Boswell

No. 1, August 1991

BIDWEDw of0 BMoD5o

No. 1, August 1991

Journals:A Selection

n our next issue we plan to
begin a column called
Profiles of Caribbean Jour-
nals. We will begin the series
with one of the oldest and most
prominent among Caribbean jour-
nals, Social and Economic Studies
We invite journal publishers
to provide sample copies of their
journals to CRB as soon as new
issues come out to enable our
columns to carry news about the
latest issues available. While we
will not be able to list each new
issue (there are too many to do
so) such review copies will enable
CRB to highlight important fea-
tures noted in new issues. It has
to be accepted as an unfortunate
reality that Caribbean journals
are not as easily accessible as
they should be, and CRB will
make it its business to give the
publicity and exposure that some
of our journals need and deserve
by bringing features and con-
tributions of special interest seen
in new issues to the attention of
our readers regularly.
We would also like, apart from
the profiles and notes on new is-
sues, to announce and notice
special issues of journals. Since
one of the reasons for producing
a special issue is to reach a wider
readership among those who are
not regular subscribers it would
be good practice to publicise a
special issue when the plans are
definite to let likely new readers
know about it and to look out for
the special issue to appear.
One of CRB's aims is to bring
authors, publishers, conveyers
and users of published Carib-
bean material together, and we
invite authors to let CRB know
when they contribute to special
Caribbean issues planned by-
journals that are not regularly
identified and described as Carib-
bean. Such information can be

sent directly to CRB by authors,
or, they can when they send in
their contributions request the
journal editors to inform CRB.
Special Caribbean issues of non-
Caribbean journals are often not
widely known in our region for
long periods after they have been
published, and we must do all we
can to keep ourselves informed
about these as speedily as pos-
Following are some notes of in-
terest selected from issues of
Caribbean journals we have seen

Accountability: Newsletter of
Financial Management Improve-
ment in Latin America and the
Vol. 6 No. 2 (July 1991)
Publication of the LAC Regional Finan-
cial Management (P 0 Box 66205,
Washington DC, 20035-6205, USA)
This project is an activity carried out
in collaboration by the Donor Working
Group to improve Public Sector Finan-
cial Management in Latin America and
the Caribbean. The member organiza-
tions participating in the project are,
US AID, IADB, OAS. World Bank, UN,
IMF, and CIDA. The newsletter is avail-
able from the address given above.

Caribbean Basin Initiative: 1991
Prepared by Jim Philips.
(U.S. Department of Commerce, Inter-
national Trade Administration. Pub-
lished in cooperation with U.S.Agency
for International Development.) 70pp.

Caribbean Geography
Vol 3, No 1 (March 1991)
ISSN 0252-9939
Annual Subscription: (2 issues)
Individuals US$15.00; Institutions
- US$30.00
Single copies: Individuals $8.00; In-
stitutions $16.00
Edited by David Barker (Editorial ad-
dress: Department of Geography,
University of the West Indies, Mona,
Kingston 7, Jamaica). This journal has
a new publisher from this issue on-
wards, UWIPA (P 0 Box 42, Mona,
Kingston 7) to whom subscription cor-
respondence should be directed.
.......................... 0.80..........

Caribbean Law and Business
Vol. 2, No.2 (August 1990. published
ISSN: 1013-9230
Annual Subscription: (3 issues) US$45

Address: Caribbean Law Institute,
CMRS Building, University of the West
Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, Bar-

Caribbean Quarterly

ISSN 0008-6495
Annual Subscription: US$30.00;
An author, title, keyword and subject
index to Caribbean Quarterly for 1949-
90 is now available.

No. 20 1990. Abstracts 20-001 to 20-
275 (December 1990)
ISSN 0253-2404
UN Cat.No. LC/CAR/G.327 Dec. 1990
Port of Span,(UN) Economic Council
for Latin America and the Caribbean.
for Latin America and the Caribbean.

continued on page 28

Cribean Review of Books Caribbean Review of Books abbean vw ook

EBEwfti(Vw ofl B3iDxTTo

Radicalism and
Social Change in
Jamaica 1960-1972
by Obika Gray, Knoxville, TN,
University of Tennessee Press,
Hardback: US$42.50, Softback:
$19.95, p. 289
Order from: The University of
Tennessee Press, P.O. Box 250,
Ithaca, NY 14850, USA.

Dr. Obika Gray, Associate
Professor of Political
Science and Africana
Studies at Vassar Col-
lege has written the first book-
length study to analyse the
evolution and development of
modern Jamaican radicalism in
both its indigenous Rastafarian
and Garveyite forms and its
Eurocentric and class-oriented
Marxist forms located within and
outside of the
People's Na-
tional Party.
The relations
and tensions
these two ten-
dencies in
are fascinat-
ing and their
for under-
some radical
social movements in the Third
World. From this study the sub-
merged and marginalized protest
traditions of Jamaica clearly
emerge. These traditions helped
nourish Marcus Garvey and the
Rastafarian movement and later
on reggae music in the 1970's -
all of which have Implications far
wider than Jamaican politics.
The theoretical focus of the book

is the relationship between politi-
cal radicalism and culture.
Gray's book is a well-re-
searched and documented study
of the alternative traditions in
Jamaican politics in the decade
after independence. He discusses
Rastafarianism and a number of
left-wing and Marxist-oriented or-
ganizations. These include
Abeng, Unemployed Workers
Council, the Young Socialist
League and New World, rrAc (In-
dependent Trade Union Advisory
Council) and other organizations
which were dominated in the
main by middle-class radicals
connected to or disconnected
from the PNP but whose political
concerns went beyond electoral
Gray theorises on the nature
of the post-colonial state on the
basis of the experience of the
relationship between the state
and social movements thus avoid-
ing the problems of the in-
stitutionalist Westminster model

interpretation or abstract
sociological theorising. Indeed, a
feature of Gray's work is his ef-
fort to theorise on the basis of
historically specific analysis. He
sees the Jamaican state as com-
bining features of pluralism and
authoritarianism. There is ten-
sion in his characterization be-
tween authoritarian elements
and liberal-democracy but this
tension is worked out concretely

in relation to social struggles lo-
cally and hemispherically in rela-
tion to the United States. He
develops the notion of
authoritarian democracy and
employs a scheme of positive and
negative factors thus fully recog-
nizing the contradictions of the
post-colonial state in Jamaica at
an early stage of its development.
In the period 1960 1972 the
JLP is in power from 1962 1972
and it is a time when the state is
authoritarian in its approach
towards Rastafarians, the urban
poor particularly in West
Kingston, radical intellectuals,
radical ideas and publications
and travel to socialist countries.
However, he does not commit the
error of ignoring the fact that the
JLP is a central part of the
nationalist movement in Jamaica
and is as much an expression of
Jamaican political culture as is
the PNP.
Much attention is placed on
the position of the middle-clas-
ses, their
ideological out-
look and their
role in the
Gray argues
that "the ex-
plicitly racial
focus of
popular urban
protest trig-
gered a defen-
sive state
response... termed
Jamaican Ex-
ceptionalism. This ideology
sought to purge the antagonistic
elements from the ideology of the
urban unemployed by hailing the
subordinate classes as ex-
emplary racial neuters in a world
tom by ethnic disorder and
strife. The appeal to the over-
whelming black population was
that they were a special people in
the world, who lived harmonious-

No. 1, August 1991

No. 1,August 1991

ly with other domestic ethnic
groups. Consequently, talk of ra-
cial discrimination in the post-
colonial period was regarded by
those in power as "nonsense
sowed by provocateurs". (82)
Nettleford's book Mirror Mirror
(1970) deals very well with this
issue in discussing the 1960's
tension between Jamaican Excep-
tionalism and Black Nationalism.
With regard to social move-
ments Gray argues that "despite
grave internal weaknesses and
an inability to win power through
either revolt or the bal-
lot, such movements
can shape the contours
of national political
processes". (12) Critical
to his analysis is the
role of the dissident Ras-
tafarian movement in
the 1960's and its im-
pact on the urban poor.
Rastafarian ideology, as
Chevannes' Social and
Ideological Origins of the
Rastafari Movement in
Jamaica (1989) shows,
has played a central role
in forming a counter con-
sciousness to the middle-
class nationalism and
has called into question
the whole issue of the
Jamaican nationality.
Moreover, it encouraged
the lower classes
towards positions of less
dependence on the mid-
dle-class. Rastafarianism's con-
tribution to Jamaican political
culture is recognized by Gray. He
writes in one of the best passages
of a well-written book: "the Ras-
tafarians had assumed a moral
leadership among the urban
poor. Their militant black
nationalism, with its Garveyite
remembrances, struck a respon-
sive chord among the un-
employed...Indeed, under the
prevailing conditions of censor-
ship, it could be argued that the
Rastafarians broke through the

official strictures on social dis-
course and breached the state
ideological quarantine. This they
did by constructing an alterna-
tive site for free political com-
munication, which many among
the unemployed quickly oc-
cupied. By exploiting the vehicle
of talk, based on the interpreta-
tion of the Bible a medium
readily at hand in the homes of
the poor the Rastafarians al-
lowed many among the un-
employed to attain dissidence. In
this way, the Rastafarians

fi" ( I /:


strengthened their moral
dominance among sections of the
urban poor, widening and
deepening their separation from
the normalized classes in the
society. The significance of the
Rastafarians in the early sixties
was that, under conditions of cul-
tural ridicule and police suppres-
sion of the urban unemployed,
they held open a political space
for dissidence among the poor"
The other dissident groups he
is concerned with are the
workerist and socialist groupings

that marked the revival of Mar-
xism after the Cold War defeat of
the 1950s. He is concerned here
with the Young Socialist League
which was connected withthe
PNP and the Unemployed
Workers Council led by Ben Mon-
roe which was critical to the PNP
and claimed its own independent
terrain and was critical of
Richard Hart and the old left for
not adequately assessing the
1952 split and drawing con-
clusions in the direction of
greater independence of the work-
ing class movement from
the PNP. This was a debate
which was to resurface in
the Young Socialist League
in the 1960s and 1970s in
the transition from the
WLL to the wpJ. Trevor
Munroe in the YSL as a
university student
favoured continued links
S with the PNP and Robert
S Hill was for a break. Ben
S Monroe, who is now blind
Q but remains active on so-
cial issues, is described by
Gray as "a willful, self-as-
sured cabinetmaker from
the depressed working-
class community of South-
west Saint Andrew.
Schooled as a militant in-
side the PEO (People's
Educational Organization)
and active in the 1954
JFTU (Jamaica Federation
of Trade Unions) strike
movement, Monroe led the op-
position to the PFM's leader-
ship...Monroe criticized Hart's
leadership. His charges included
a lack of internal democracy
within the PFM (People's Freedom
Movement), political oppor-
tunism, absence of reflection on
the 1952 split, and exhaustion of
the material and human resour-
ces of the JFTU in the abortive
election and strikes" (67). In Ben
Monroe's view, Hart was too
hasty in creating the PFM as more
preparatory work needed to be

Caribbeon R~vew of Books Cadibbean Review of Books CadIb Review of Boks

mBcwfiDw ff B3oDsE

done. In 1962, Monroe formed
the uwc which had a record of ac-
tivism among the unemployed
and a critique of political
unionism, that is, the involve-
ment and subordination of the
union movement to the political
interests of the parties. This
trend later developed in the early
1970s in rrAc. UWC under Ben
Monroe and rrAC under Chris
Lawrence were two of the or-
ganizations that had leaders of
working class origin but were
overshadowed in the 1970s by
middle-class led radical organiza-
Gray gives a useful
analysis of the urban un- n
employed, artisans and
own-account people who U !
constituted the urban i
poor. The urban poor
was the most politically G
volatile force in the se
1960s that fed the lum-
pen-proletariat, the rude-
boy culture of rebellion,
the Rodney riots, Abeng
as well as the PNP and JLP
enforcers or gunmen. The cul-
tural dimension as expressed in
Ska, Rock-steady and early Reg-
gae is not adequately dealt with.
One does need a study of ska
comparable to Gordon Rohlehr's
Calypso and Society in Pre-Inde-
pendence Trinidad. Some atten-
tion could have been placed on
the rural poor as the Rastafarian
movement was strong outside
Kingston in the rural areas as the
response to Halle Selassie's 1966
visit and Barry Chevannes's work
Gray examines the attitude of
the Jamaican Left towards Black
Cultural Nationalism and argues
that "there was the co-existence
of a resolute commitment to
militant laborism, with an un-
yielding exclusion of popular anti-
status quo ideologies from
socialist discourse". (77). This
comment is of theoretical and
practical significance for the old

PNP Marxists through the uwc of
the 1960's and the PNP Marxists
of the 1970's and the wPJ. There
was a "chasm...between socialist
politics and nativist movements
and ideologies". (78) There was a
failure to "link the economic
class struggle with other non-
class conflicts, such as racial ten-
sions". (85) These sources of
opposition and alternative vision
to the neo-colonial status quo
never met except briefly during
the Rodney months of 1968.
There is a very good analysis
of the role of the nationalist intel-

ligentsia in the 1960's. A
minority of uwi academics located
mainly in the Faculty of Social
Sciences challenged the
dominant ideology and were tar-
getted by the regime. Gray
speaks about the "decreasing
reliability of the university intel-
ligentsia in reproducing the
dominant ideology", (123) and
thereby some "members of the na-
tive postcolonial university intel-
ligentsia made their appearance
as strategic actors on the political
scene". (124) "There was a pan-
Caribbean anti-imperial tenden-
cy" at Mona. It was this grouping
that Bustamante had in mind
when he threatened, "an alien
who has the audacity and imper-
tinence not just to criticize but to
write offensively against the
Government or any of the mini-
sters will be considered persona
non grata and will be ordered
out". (130) It is this thinking
which led Shearer and Seaga to

rid Jamaica of Rodney in 1968.
There is a very good discussion
of Lloyd Best and the contradic-
tion between his radical critique
of Marxism and call for Carib-
bean thought and his opposition
to the activism that was as-
sociated with Black Power as well
as working-class forms of strug-
Rodney achieved a synthesiz-
ing of the strands of black cul-
tural nationalism with themes of
class oppression which fell out-
side the politics of either the
Young Socialist League, the Un-
employed Workers Coun-
cil or later on the WPJ
nd (Workers Party of
Jamaica). Gray points
out that "Rodney's ar-
th ticulation of Black
Power expressed both
global and local -
S level critiques of class
rule and antagonistic ra-
S cial themes and this
without falling into the il-
lusions of popular
ideologies or the or-
thodoxies of an automatic Mar-
xist outlook...he transcended the
barriers which hitherto had
prevented the alliance of radical
intellectuals and the militant un-
employed, and he reconciled the
previously estranged ideologies of
socialism and cultural
nationalism in Jamaica". (157)
In summarizing the contribu-
tion of the nationalist and mar-
xist movements in the 1960's he
notes that "whether in the
Rastafarians' assertion of an al-
ternative conception of
nationality and their belief in the
capabilities of the unemployed,
or the New World Group's
defense of intellectual activism
and new ideas, the dissident
movement acted as an incubator
of neglected, often villified social
and economic alternatives. In
precipitating, with its repeated in-
terventions, an intense debate on
society, politics and the

No. 1, August 1991

Nd. 1, August 1991

economy, the opposition pushed
back the constraints on ideas in
political discourse, broadened the
scope of conceivable political al-
ternatives and expanded the par-
ticipation of excluded groups".
(207) This is a significant achieve-
ment which needs to be con-
tinued both with respect to the
political process and our civil life
with the development of a wider
range of autonomous community
and business and cultural group-
More attention could have
been given to rural dissidence.
While Kingston was the base,
there was a vibrant rural
response to the Abeng newspaper
in several parish towns and rural
districts. More broadly, however,
there is the problem of the rural
population and their relationship
to radical social movements or
lack of involvement with them
which require attention. Certain-
ly, when one looks at George
Beckford's work in the 1960s
much of it was done with farmers
through the JAS and inde-
pendently. He was the only really
rural focused intellectual-ac-
tivist of the 1960s. So there was
a rural constituency that was
responsive to the radicalism of
the 1960s which needs to be as-
Abeng could not have survived
in the 1970s as the social forces
it brought together had different
views on what should be done
which could not be reconciled.
What it did for a moment is bring
together a variety of social forces
which went in varying class direc-
tions but primarily into the PNP
and into the wPJ thus bringing
back the old 1950s debate about

third forces, third.parties, and
whether the PNP could be trans-
formed and its right-wing subor-
Many of these issues remain
in the 1990s and experience sug-
gests that some of the ideas with
respect to alternate political
space is being realized but not in
the way the Left had thought. As
Carl Stone's work indicates, there
is a growing sector of people who
are not hard-core supporters of
either party and, of course, there
is cynicism and apathy. The
UAWU (University and Allied
Workers Union) is now wearing
long-pants and is the third
largest union in the country with
representation among agricul-
tural and industrial workers. But
that is secondary to the incor-
poration of the radicals of the
1960s and 1970s into the social
and political order although there
is a constituency of that genera-
tion who were not in the front-
line but who retain some of the
radical ideological positions
which have been abandoned by
former WPJ leaders. More atten-
tion is being placed by some on
the development of civil society
and less on workerist politics.
Some may invest too much faith
in working in NGO'S (non-
governnmental organizations) but
that too has been an important
Another key development in
the 1980s and 1990s is the grow-
ing interest and role of Black
people in business. This brings to
the forefront a central issue of
the Garvey movement which
Gray's book ignores in that the
Garvey movement is seen as a
culturalist phenomena. It was as

much culturalist as it was about
Blacks becoming propertied. This
issue was posed sharply by Mark
Ricketts in the early issues of the
Jamaica Record as well as by
Hilary Beckles, the Barbadian
historian whose book Corporate
Power in Barbados: The Mutual
Affair Economic Injustice in a
Political Democracy (1989) out-
lines his involvement with the
struggles of Black Barbadians to
seek control of the Barbados
Mutual Life Assurance Society.
This issue of Blacks and their
position in the existing capitalist
economies was seen as reaction-
ary in the 1960s and 1970s,
given the dominant anti-
capitalist mood among the politi-
cal intelligentsia and the
preoccupation with getting con-
trol of the state and using it to
clobber the private sector in the
name of the masses but partly in
the interest of their own largesse
and for redistributive rather than
productive goals.
n a brief epilogue covering
the period 1972 1988,
Gray talks about "how to
develop a strategy of transi-
tion which secures both political
freedom and materialimprove-
ments for the laboring classes"
(231) This is the old question
which faces us squarely in the
face especially with the demise of
the old socialist paradigm and
systems. Gray's book is a serious
challenge to re-thinking on our
own terms.

Rupert Lewis
Dept. of Government
UWI, Mona.

(i>~ttl ~&7ew of Bo Cawibbean Review of Books Cf eIReew of Books


f wish to review any of these books write to the editor)
(If. yo. .i

(If you wish to review any of these books write to the editor)

African Fundamentalism: A
Literary and Cultural Anthol-
ogy of Garvey's Harlem
(The New Marcus Garvey Library, No
5.), Compiled and edited by Tony Mar-
tin.. Denver, MA, The Majority Press,
1991. xviii, 363pp
ISBN 0-912469-09-9 pbc, $14.95
Readings collected under sections en-
titled (1) Political Underpinnings, (2)
Literary Criticism, (3) Reviews, (4)
Poetry, (5) Drama, Theatre, Film, (6)
Short Stories and Vignettes, (7) Music
and Art, (8).Sidelights on the Literary
Scene, and (9) The Literary Competi-
tion of 1921. According to the editor
this anthology is "based almost entire-
ly on the Garvey Movement's Negro
World newspaper." Also important are
the brief biographical notes on the con-
tributors given on pages 345-354.
From the same press Guinea's Other
Suns: The African Dynamic in
Trinidad Culture by Maureen
ISBN 0-9124691-27-2
Address: The Majority Press, P 0 Box
538. Denver, MA 02030.

Agriculture: Agreement Es-
tablishing the International
Network for the Improvement
ofBanana and Plantain
Ottawa, International Affairs and In-
ternational Trade, 1991. 24pp
(Government of Canada, Treaty Series
No 1990/45)
ISBN 0-660-565-14-5, Cat No E3-
1990/45, US$5.40.

Air: Exchange of Notes
Renewing the 1973 Agree-
ment between the Govern-
ment of Canada and the
Government oftheRepublic of
Cuba on Hijacking of Aircraft
and Vessels and other

Ottawa, International Affairs and In-
ternational Trade, 1991. 7pp.
(Government of Canada, Treaty Series
No 1990/46) ISBN 00-660-56504-8,
Cat No E3-1988/46, US$3.60.
Both titles are available from: Canada
Communications Group. Publishing
Division, Ottawa K1A OS9, Canada

by Guy Endore, with Foreword by
Jamaica Kincaid and Afterword by
David Barry Gaspar and Michel-Rolph
Trouillot, New York, Monthly Review
Press (122 West 27th Street. NewYork,
NY 10001), 1991. xii, 199pp (Voices of
Resistance series)
ISBN 0-85345-745-X pbc, US$9.00;
ISBN 0-85345-759-X hbc, US$28.00
"This book is about a slave (a man
named Babouk), slavery itself, and the
world of a people (Europe and its in-
habitants) who profited from slavery."
- Jamaica Kincaid., First published in
1934 by Vanguard Press.

Black Power Day: A
Reporter's Story
by Raoul Pantin, Santa Cruz, Trinidad
and Tobago, Hainey Productions,
1990. (8), 199pp. ill.
ISBN 976-8001-76-3, TT$36.00
Account of the three months of street
protest in Trinidad in 1970.
(Available from Longman Caribbean
Ltd., Boundary Road, San Juan,
Trinidad and Tobago.)

Black Writers in Britain
1760-1890 (Early Black Texts)
Edited by P. Edwards and David
Dabydeen, Edinburgh University
Press, 1991. 200pp. ISBN 0-7486-
. ........ a .5535*, 5...............

A novel by Caryl Phillips, London,
Bloomsbury Publishing Ltd., (2 Soho
Square, WIV 5DE, England) 1990.

Care of the Diabetic Foot: A
Caribbean Manual
Barbados, PAHO/WHO Office of the
Caribbean Programme Coordination,
1990. vii. 68pp.
Manual produced from a meeting of a
Scientific Study Group of physicians
and surgeons working in the Carib-
bean region. The manual contains
papers presented at the Meeting by
participants (Part 2), and, in Part 1, the
definition of the diabetic foot.
mechanisms involved in its
pathogenesis, and a categorisation of
the commonly seen foot lesions and
their management. Produced from a
pooling of information on the Carib-
bean experience of the problem.

Caribbean New Wave:
Contemporary Short Stories
Selected by Stewart Brown, Oxford.
Heinemann, 1990. X, 181pp.
ISBN 0-435-98814-x (Heinemann
Caribbean Writers Series) UK 4.95,
Introduction by Stewart Brown and
short stories by Jamaica Kincaid (An-
tigua), Zoila Ellis (Belize), Cyril
Dabydeen, Rooplall Monar, Jan
Shinebourne (Guyana), Opal Palmer
Adisa. James Berry. Hazel D.
Campbell, Lorna Goodison, Earl Mc-
Kenzie, Velma Pollard, Olive Senior
(Jamaica), John Robert Lee (St. Lucia).
F. B. Andre, Neil Bissondat, Wayne
Brown, Fauston Charles, Willi Chen.
Clyde Hosein, Amry' Johnson. Earl
Lovelace, Ian McDonald, and Lawrence
Scott ITrinidad and Tobago).

No. 1, August 1991

................................... .........

No. 1, August 1991

..p. m ............... n .................

Caribbean Visions: Ten
Presidential Addresses of Ten
Presidents of the Caribbean
Studies Association
Edited by S.B. Jones-Hendrickson
Frederiksted, US Virgin Islands, East-
ern Caribbean Institute, 1991. 266p
ISBN 0-932831-06-0 hbc, US$25.95 +
1.75 s&h
Addresses by Wendell Bell, Vaughan
Lewis, Ransford Palmer, Anthony
Maingot, S.S. Jones-Hendrickson,
Faut Andic, Compton Bourne, Alma H.
Young, Andres Serbin, J. Edward

Central Banking in a Develop-
ing Economy: A Study of
Trinidad and Tobago 1964-
byTerrenceW. Farrell, Mona, Jamaica,
ISER, UWI,1990. (4), i, 153pp.
ISBN 976-40-0032-0,
This is the latest issue in the publish-
er's series Regional Programme of
Monetary Studies

Commercial Arbitration in
by M.J. Stoppi, Kingston, Heinemann
Publishers (Caribbean) Ltd., 1991. xx,
ISBN 976-605-116-X hbc,
This is a practical guide to the subject
filling a gap in the literature on a type
of proceedings that make up the
majority of arbitrations conducted in
the island. Edward Zacca, Chief Jus-
tice of Jamaica, who wrote the foreword
says "Arbitration would significantly
reduce the time it takes to litigate a
case, and in terms of cost, time and
human wear and tear may often prove
to be better than litigation," and in this
context sees this book by Maurice
Stoppi, a professional quantity sur-
veyor who has had much experience in
arbitration proceedings, as a valuable
guide to both professionals and

Dark Against the Sky: An An-
thology of Poems and Short
Stories from Montserrat
Edited by Howard Fergus and Larry
Rowdon, Montserrat, UWI School of
Continuing Studies, 1990. 96pp.

(Produced by UWIPA)
ISBN 976-8012-463, EC$20.00,
a ............. 3. .......................

Defence: Agreement between
the Government of Canada
and the Republic of Trinidad
and Tobago for the Training
in Canada Personnel of the
Armed Forces of the Republic
of Trinidad and Tobago
Port of Spain, August 7, 1989, in force
August 7, 1989. Ottawa, (Canada) Ex-
ternal Affairs and International Trade,
1990. 21pp.
ISBN 0-660-56274-X, (Treaty Services,
1989/17 Govt. of Canada Cat. No. E3-
1989-/17), US$5.10.
Sold by: Canada Communications
Group. Publishing Division, Ottawa,
KIA 059 Canada.
.............. a ........................

De Homeplace: Poems for
Renewal by Young People of
Caribbean Origin
Edited by Abdul Malik, London (Brix-
ton), Panrun Collective, 1990.
ISBN 0-9513173-1-8, 3.95
Address: Panrun Collective, 46A trent
Road, Brixton, London SW2 5BL,
" .... 60 ...... a ....................

Democracy by Default: De-
pendency and Clientelism in
by Carlene J. E d i e
Boulder, Co., 87-22
and London, 5 5
Lynne Rienner a n d
and Kingston I a n
lan Randle Publish- Randl
ers, 1991. 170pp. e: 976-
ISBN Lynne Rien- 8100-
ner: 1- p00-1
555 At This is
f r o m
the new im-
print of lan
Randle rs (206 Old Hope
Pubishe Road. Kingston 6,
Jamaica). Another title Bahamas in
Slavery and Freedom by Howard
Johnson, co-published with James
Curry of London is expected to be out
in August 1991.
Addresses of Lynne Rienner Publica-
tions Inc., 1800, 30th Street, Boulder

CO 80301, USA: and, 3 Henrietta
Street, Covent Garden, London WC2E
8LU England.
..............................l...... -

The Dictionary of Contem-
porary Politics of Central
America and the Caribbean
by Phil Gunson, Greg Chamberlain and
Andrew Thompson. London. Rout-
ledge, 1991. 288pp. ill.
ISBN 0-415-02445-5 hbc, 35.00

A Directory of Natural
Resource Management Or-
ganizations in Latin America
and the Caribbean
Edited by Julie Buckley-Ess.
Washington DC, Partners of the
Americas. 1988. 205pp, US$15.00
Address: 1424, K Street NW, Suite 700.
Washington DC 20005.

Doctor on Saba: Health Care
and Disease in a Caribbean
Family Practice
by R. Mol, Delft, The Netherlands,
Eburon, 1989. 302pp. ill.
ISBN 90-5166-082-0
Text of a thesis submitted to the State
University of Groningen. Dr. Mol, the
author served as the Government
Physician and Head of the Medical and
Health Service in Saba between 1983
and 1986 and also as a general prac-
titioner in St. Maarten up to the end of
May 1988.
Address: Eburon, P 0 Box 2567, 2601
CW Delft, The Netherlands.

The Evaluation of National
Health Systems
by George E. Cumper, Oxford Univer-
sity Press, 1991. viii, 218pp.
ISBN 0-19-261803-2 hbc
Two important sections of the book are
of significance to the Caribbean, par-
ticularly to Jamaica. These deal with
establishing standards of health care
for Jamaica in 1987, and the legal
framework of Jamaica's health service.
According to the author, these sections
are largely the work of Dr. G.J.A.
Walker and Mrs. Gloria Cumper,
respectively. They are "substantially
the agreed contributions" of these col-
leagues. The Jamaican experience has
been of much importance in producing
this volume, as, according to George
Cumper, the most important single
documentary source for Health Ser-
vices Evaluation Project carried out in

Caritban b mReview of Books Caribbean Review of Books Caxfbtema nh1ew Of Bookrs

ERDftlDWJ Th flf~ ThxDlM

1983-85 by the Ministry of Health,
Jamaica and the London School of
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

Fidel Castro and Che Guevara
at the United Nations
New York. Pathfinder. 1991. 180pp. ill.
ISBN 0-87348-634-X hbc, US$40.00,
ISBN 0-87348-633-1 pbc, US$13.95
Address: Pathfinder Press, 410 West
Street. New York, NY 10014. USA.
Also by the same publisher:
Che Guevara, Cuba and the
Road to Socialism
Articles by Emesto Che Guevara and
others. Issued in the series New Inter-
national as No 8 published 1991.
204pp. ISBN 0-87348-643-9
......................m ........mmm.....

Four Banks of the River of
by Wilson Harris. Faber, 1991
ISBN 0-571-14361-X
This novel completes the trilogy of
which two others. Carnival and The
Infinite Rehearsal had already been

From Commonwealth to Post-
Colonial: Critical Essays
Edited by Kirsten Hoist Petersen and
Anna Rutherford, Mundelstrup, Den-
mark. Dangaroo Press, 1991. 400pp
ISBN 1-87-10.49-42-3, 19.95
Derek Walcott is one of the con-
tributors. From the same publisher:
Guyana Dreaming: The Art of
Aubrey Williams
Compiled by Anne Walmsley. 1990.
112pp, colour and b/w ill.
ISBN 1-87-1049-07-5, 19.95; and,

Couvade: A Dream Play of
by Michael Gilkes. 1990. 66pp.
ISBN 1-87-1049-70-9, 6.95
(Dangaroo Press UK address: P 0 Box
186,Coventry, CV4 7HG.)

The GenderBias in Education
by Kathleen Drayton (April 1991)
This is the latest in the series of Oc-
casional Papers issued by the Women
and Development (WAND) Unit of the
School of Continuing Studies. UWI (ad-
dress: Pinelands. St. Michael, Bar-
bados). Drayton's paper is No 2/91 in
the series (8pp). Issue No 1/91 pub-
lished in February 1991 was by Maxine
Henry-Wilson, under the title The Poor

are not Powerless, 14pp.

A Guide to the Birds of
by Eric J.R. Amos (a wild life artist)
206pp. US$26.50 by Air mail and
$22.00 by surface mail, Address of
Author/Publisher: Comcrake, 28 Ord
Road, Warwick WK 10; Bermuda.
(volume not seen: Information from pub-
UIsher's announcement.)

Haiti: The Duvaliers and
Their Legacy
by Elizabeth Abbot, London, Hale,
1991. 402pp. ill.
ISBN 0-7090-4199-3. 17.95.
(Previously published by McGraw Hill,
USA, 1988. ISBN 0-07-046029-9,

The Intended
by David Dabydeen, London, Secker
and Warburg, 1991, 245pp.
ISBN: 0-436-20007-4. 13.99.
First novel by David Dabydeen. (An
excerpt from this novel appears in
Kunapipivol. 12 no. 3 1990, pp. 121-)

Into the Nineties: Post-
Colonial Women's Writing
Edited by Kirsten Hoist Petersen and
Anna Rutherford, Mundelstrup, Den-
mark, Dangaroo Press, 1991, (An-
nounced for November 1991), 300pp
ISBN 1-87-1049-52-0, 14.95
Writings by post-colonial women
writers including creative material,
statements, interviews, critical and
historical contributions on the
development of literature in their
societies in the last decade. Con-
tributors include Erna Brodber and
Olive Senior.

Jamaica Five Year Develop-
ment Plan 1990-1995
Prepared by the The Planning Institute
of Jamaica, Revised edition July 1990,
Kingston, Jamaica, PIOJ, 1990. 225pp
ISBN 976-8092-07-6, J$150.00
In addition to this full text edition of
the Five Year Plan 1990-1995 PIOJ is
bringing out separately the Sector
Plans of which the following are al-
ready available:
Jamaica Five Year Develop-
ment Plan, 1990-1995:
Science and Technology
May 1991, 24pp.

ISBN 976-8092-18-1, J$25.00
May 1991, 19pp.
ISBN 976-8092-24-6, J$25.00
...Non-Bauxite Minerals
May 1991, 24pp.
ISBN 976-8092-24-6, J$25.00
Address: The Planning Institute of
Jamaica, 39-41 Barbados Avenue,
Kingston 5, Jamaica; Fax: (809) 926-

The Jamaican People, 1880-
1902: Race, Class and Social
by Patrick E. Bryan, Basingstoke, Mac-
millan (Houndmills, Basingstoke,
Hampshire RG21 2XS England). 1991.
xtv, 320pp.
ISBN 0-333-55215-7 10.95. (War-
wick University Caribbean Studies
This is the 12th title to appear in the
Warwick University Caribbean Studies

The Jamaican Tax Reform:
Final Report of the Jamaica
Tax Structure Examination
Edited by Roy Bahl, Cambridge, MA.,
Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 1991.
xiv, 831pp.
ISBN 1-55844-115-8 pbc, US$37.00
The editor, Roy Bahl was the Director
of the Project. This volume is dedicated
to the memory of Dr. Aston Preston, the
Chairman of the Tax Reform Commit-
tee. Under seven sections ((1) Political
Economy of Tax reform, (2) Individual
Income Taxation, (3) Company Taxes,
(4) Indirect Taxes, (5) Property Tax, (6)
Tax Reform, Trade Policy and In-
dustrial Relations, (7) Tax Burdens.) it
presents contributions by the large re-
search team grouped together for this
project. At the end of the volume there
is a list of 37 Staff Working Papers that
came out of the Project between 1984
and 1987. These papers are available
at a price of US$5.00 each from the
Publications Officer, Metropolitan
Studies Program, 400 Maxwell Hall,
Syracuse University, Syracuse NY
13244-1090. Publisher's address for
the Main Volume is IAncoln Institute of
Land Policy, Cambridge MA 02138.

The Longman Atlas for Carib-
bean Examinations
(Editorial Advisor: Mike P. Morrlsey,
Consultant: Lenise A. Fredericks),

No. I, August 1991

No. 1, August 1991

Harlow. Essex. Longman Group UK.
Ltd.. 1991. 158 p.. large section of
maps of the Caribbean Region on pp
18-63. ISBN 0-582-07284-0 L5.95

Longman Caribbean School
Atlas for Social Studies and
Geography, Harlow, Essex,
Longman Group UK Ltd., 1989. 48 p.
ISBN 0-582-024455-2.

Caribbean SchoolAtlas Skills
by Mike Morrisey, Harlow, Essex,
Longman, 1991.

Macmillan's Caribbean
Junior Social Atlas
London. Macmillan, 1990

Manual of Nutrition and
Dietetic Practice for the
compiled by P. Manuela Zephirin. 3rd
edition 1990. viii. 348 p. ISBN 976-
626-013-3, US$20.00, Caribbean
Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI),
UWI Campus, P O Box 140, Mona,
Kingston 7. Jamaica.

Mass Media in the Caribbean
ed. by Stuart H. Surlin and Walter C.
Soderlund. New York, Gordon and
Breach Science Publishers, (1991).
(Volume 6 in the Caribbean Studies
Series ed. by Roberta Marx Delson)
Hardcover: 2-88124-447-5 $65.00
Softcover: 2-88124-448-3 $30.00
Order from: STBS, Marketing Dept. at:
P.O. Box 786, Cooper Station, New
York, NY 10276 USA. or P.O. Box 197,
London WC2E 9PX England.

The Dutch Caribbean:
Prospects for Democracy
by B. Sedoc-Dahlberg, 1990. 333p. 2-
88124-385-1 $67.00

The 90 Most Prominent
Women in Trinidad and
Port of Spain, Trinidad Express
Newspapers Ltd., 1991. 80pp. Ill.
ISBN: 976-608-020-8

The 1990 Caribbean Basin In-
vestment Survey: Users'
Guide for Investors, Ex-
porters and Importers
Washington DC, USGPO, Washington
DC 20402, USA.

1990 Caribbean Basin
Investment Study
Latin America/Caribbean Business
Development Centre, Caribbean Basin
Division, International Trade Ad-
ministration, US Department of Com-
merce, 1991. xli, 151pp.
USGPO No 281-5561-40606
Another related title available from the
same source is:
Caribbean Basin Financing
Opportunities: A
Guide to Financing
Trade and Invest-
GPO stock No. 033-099-

The 1990
Elections B Gove
in Haiti nt and
Produced by T h e
the Council of Natio
Freely Elected n a
Heads of Demo
Institute for International Affairs.
Washington D.C., N.D.I.I.A., 1991.
(12), 124pp.
ISBN 1-88134-08-X, US $10.95
Report of the international delegation
that observed the December 16, 1990
General Elections in Haiti. Report is
based on information gathered by the
sponsors of the delegation, the Council
of Freely Elected Heads of Government
(based at the Carter Center of Emory
University, One, Copenhll, Atlanta,
GA 30307 USA) and the National
Democratic Institute for International
Affairs. Contains a foreword by Jimmy
Address: N.D.I.I A., 1717 Mas-
sachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 503,
Washington D.C. 20036, USA.
.................... 3 ............ .....

Oil, Gas and Development: A
View from the South
by Trevor M. Boopsingh, San Juan,
Trinidad, Longman Trinidad Ltd.,
1990. vlli, 429pp

ISBN 976-631-001-4, IT$100.00
Address: BoundaryeRoad. San Juan,
Trinidad and Tobago

Popular Democracy and the
Creative Imagination: The
Writings of C.L.R. James
by Anna Grimshaw. New York, C.L.R.
James Institute in Cooperation with
Smyrna Press, 1991. 48pp.
ISBN 0-918266-28-9
From this same source (C.L.R. James
Institute, 505 West End Avenue, No.
15C, New York NY 10024) come two
more titles on C.L.R. James:
C.L.R. James and the Strug-
glefor Happiness by Anna Grim-
shaw and Keith Hart. 1991. 60p.
0-918266-27-0 and,
The C.L.R. James Archive: A
Reader's Guide by Anna Grim-
shaw. 1991. 107pp. 0-918266-29-7
The C.L.R. James Reader
edited by Anna Grimshaw is an-
nounced for publication. The preface
and introduction etc. by Anna Grim-
shaw is already
available in the form
of a pamphlet is-
sued by the C.L.R. James Institute.
Details of this already available
pamphlet are as follows: The C.L.R.
James Reader: Contents, Preface, and
Introduction by Ann Grimshaw. New
York, The CLR James Institute, 1991.
ISBN: 0-918266-30-0
..333..... ...............3 ............

The Poverty of Nations:
Reflections on Underdevelop-
ment and World Economy
by Michael Manley, London, Pluto
Press, 1991. vi, 122pp.
ISBN: 0-7453-0314-5 hbc.
Pluto Press address: 345 Archway
Road, Lonon4 N65AA England, and
141 Old Bedford Road, Concord MA
01742, U.S.A.
Distributed in Jamaica by The Book-
shop (address: Unit A3-1-A3-2, LOJ
Industrial Park, 7-9 Norman Road,
Kingston 16, Jamaica.)

Problems of Development of
the Guianas
Edited by Henry Jeffrey and Jack
Menke, Paramaribo, Anton de Kom
University of Suriname, 1991. xli. 226
ISBN 99914-2-015-0
Address of publisher: ADEK. Anton de
Kom Ufilversity of Suriname, Untver-

Caribbean Review of Books Caribbean Review of Books CadbbeanReview of Books

ILE(wrficpW off BloXk

sity Campus, Leysweg, Suriname.
This volume contains '...revised ver-
sions of papers presented at the con-
ference "Problems of Development of
the Gulanas" organized by ADEK and
University of Guyana from 13-16
March 1990 in Paramaribo.'

Profile of Rural Development
Agencies/Groups in Tobago
Prepared by the Caribbean Network for
Integrated Rural Development
(CNIRD). 1990 58pp.
CNIRD's address: 40, Eastern Main
Road, St. Augustine, Trinidad and

Progressions: West Indian
Literature in the 1970's
(Proceedings of the Second
Conference on West Indian
Literature held at University
of the West Indies, Mona,
Jamaica, May 1982)
Edited by Edward Baugh and Mervyn
Morris, Kingston, Dept. of English,
UWI, 1990. (4). 263pp

Robert Durfee's Journal and
Recollections of Newport,
Rhode Island, Freetown, Mas-
sachusetts, New York City &
Long Island, Jamaica &
Cuba, West Indies & Saint
Simon's Island, Georgia, ca.
Edited by Virginia Steele Wood
Prepared for the Saint Simon Island
Public Library, Saint Simon Island,
Georgia, Marion, MA. Belden Books,
1990. Limited edition. xxili, 131pp. ill.
Hardcover. US$29.95 +$2.25 postage.
The Sections dealing with the Voyage
to Jamaica. West India, on board the
Brigantine John. John Foster. Master,'
an account of his visit in 1799-1800,
are of interest to the Caribbean. En-
quiries are to be addressed to V.S.
Wood, 2030 F Street, NW No 601,
Washington DC 20006: or Belden
Books, P 0 Box 552, Marion, MA
02738, U.S.A.

The Role of the State in the
Commonwealth Caribbean
by Patrick A.M. Emmanuel, Mona,
UWI, ISER. 1990. (20), 18pp, (ISER's
Working Paper Series No 38)

ISBN 976-40-0029-0

Sappho Sakyi's Meditations
(Savacou 16/198), and Shar: (Hur-
ricane Poem 1988) are two new titles of
poetry by Edward Kamau Brathwaite,
launched at a ceremony that featured
readings and performances at the
Creative Arts Centre, UWI, Mona,
Jamaica, on 24th May 1991.

Sealy's Caribbean Leaders
b y Sealy.
Theod Published
o r e by Eagle
..- ,-.: T a n t
\ 'Bank of
S, Jamaica
Ltd., in
ion with Kingston
(1991. iv, 208 pp illust. Preface by
Professor Woodville Marshall, illustra-
tions by Gerald Tyndale.
Biographical sketches of eleven Com-
monwealth Caribbean Leaders, Grant-
ly Herbert Adams, Errol Walton
Barrow, Vere Cornwall Bird, Robert
Llewelyn Bradshaw, Linden Forbes
Burnham, William Alexander Bus-
tamante, Eric Matthew Galry, Cheddi
Jagan, Norman Washington Manley,
George Cable Price and Eric Eustace

Shadows Round the Moon:
Caribbean Memoirs
by Roy Heath. Collins, 1991
ISBN 0-00-215584-2

The Silent Victory
by Vitruvius E. T. Furlonge-Kelly
(Commando Kelly). Port of Spain,
Golden Eagle Enterprises, 1991.
On the events of 27th July 1990 on-
wards during the attempted coup in
Trinidad and Tobago.

Situation Analysis of the
Status of Children and
Women in Jamaica
Kingston, UN Children's Fund, and
Planning Institute of Jamaica, 1991.
ISBN 976-8092-29-7, UNICEF Ad-
dress: P O Box 305, Kingston 5
This publication is issued with the

PIOJ ISBN prefix.
PIOJ Address: 39-41 Barbados
Avenue, Kingston 5, Jamaica, FAX
(809) 926-4670.

Social Security: Agreement
on Social Security between
the Government of Canada
and the Government of the
Commonwealth ofDominica
Roseau, January 14, 1988.
In force January 1. 1989. Ottawa. Ex-
ternal Affairs and International Trade.
1990 40pp.
ISBN 0-660-56275-8 (Treaty Series.
1989/32). Govt. of Canada Cat No E3-
1989/32, US$7.20
Sold by: Canada Communications
Group, Publishing Division. Ottawa

Sonny Jim of Sandy Point
(a novel) by S.B. Jones-Hendrickson.
Frederiksted, St. Croix. US Virgin Is-
lands., Eastern Caribbean Institute,
1991. 308pp.
0-932831-07-9 US$17.95 + 1.75 s&h
Address of Eastern Caribbean In-
stitute: P.O. Box 1338, Frederiksted,
St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, 00841.
From the same publisher, announced
for August 1991:
Heaven and Other Plays
by David Edgecombe. 170pp.
ISBN 0-932831-08-7 pbc, US$7.95 +
1.50 s&h

Storm Signals: Structural Ad-
justments and Development
Alternatives in the Caribbean
by Kathy McAfee, London. Zed Books.
1991. 256p. maps, tables, bibliog-
raphy. ISBN 0-86232-994-9 hbc.
29.95: pbc 0-86232-995-7 11.95

Suriname: The Challenges to
Meet the Social Debt 1980-87
Santiago, Chile, PREALC, 1990. 34pp.
This volume is No 347 in the Interna-
tional Labour Organization's World
Employment Programmes's Working
Paper series.
Address: PREALC, P 0 Box 19.034,
Corrio 19, Santiago, Chile.

The Wonderful Adventures of
Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands
by Mary Seacole, New York. Oxford

continued on page 29

No. 1, August 1991

No. 1, August 1991

AFFAIRS: The Foreign Policies
of the English-Speaking
States. By Jacqueline Anne
Braveboy-Wagner. Boulder:
Westview Press, 1989

THE CARIBBEAN 1962-1988.
By R.B. Manderson-Jones.
Kingston. Caricom Publishers,

a crucial time in Carib-
bean affairs, when the
dynamic of both external
and internal events is forcing the
pace of integration. Both writers
have not only hyphenated sur-
names but doctoral qualifications
in international relations. Dr.
Manderson-Jones concentrates
on the question a key one for
the future of Caribbean unity -
of Jamaica's attitude towards its
neighbours and partners in the
integration movement. Since leav-
ing the London School of
Economics, Dr. Manderson-Jones

has served as a Jamaican
diplomat, and as Political Direc-
tor in the Jamaican Ministry of
Foreign Affairs during the
ideologically taxing years of the
1970s. and now practises as a
lawyer, having also acquired an
LL.B. in the course of his career.
These details are relevant, be-
cause they explain the air of
authority (some might even say
authoritarianism) with which he
writes about Caribbean events.
Dr. Manderson-Jones's investiga-
tion of the development of
Jamaican policy towards the
Caribbean community is valuable
original research. His conclusion
is that successive governments
failed to fashion a Caribbean
policy; the People's National
Party, which signed the
Chaguaramas Treaty in 1973 es-
tablishing the Caribbean Com-
munity, did so less as a result of
a well co-ordinated policy, then
because 'Manley needed a Carib-
bean bloc as a platform from
which he could project his own
image of Jamaican leadership in
the Third World' (p. 108). There is
still some life left in this argu-

ment, as Jamaica faces renewed
pressures for Caribbean union
going into the twenty-first cen-
tury. Dr. Manderson-Jones's
study ends in 1988, before the
elections which returned a
second Manley government to
power, and before the revitalizing
efforts of the West Indian Com-
mission. It would, nonetheless
have been interesting, particular-
ly given his experience as both
academic and practitioner of
foreign policy, to have heard the
author's prescriptions. The argu-
ments raised in the 1960s and
early 1970s that Jamaica should
be wary of shouldering the bur-
den of the smaller territories look
less relevant now in a hemi-
sphere in which the name of the
game is increasingly seen to be
the formation of trading blocs, or
the reinvigoration of existing
units, in order that sub-regional
interests may be protected in rela-
tions with the giant northern
neighbour and its proposals for
an enlarged North American Free
Trade Area whose writ will run
from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego.

continued overleaf

Received .

CEPNEWS Newsletter of UNEP's
Caribbean Environment Programme
Vol 5, No 2 (June 1991). In English,
French and Spanish. Address: 14-20
Port Royal Street, Kingston, Jamaica.

The Caribbean Studies Newsletter
Vol XVII, No 1 (Winter 1990/91) and
Vol XVIII, No 2, Annual Conference
Issue (Spring 1991). Address: The Cen-
ter for Latin America and the Carib-
bean (CELAC), University at Albany,
State University of New York, P 0 Box
22198, Albany NY 12222, USA.
MLe ... ges.r, Lok .. Younr ........... i
Live Longer, Look Younger with

Herbs by Diane Robertson. Published
by Stationery & School Supplies Ltd.,
The Towers, 6th Floor, 25 Dominica
Drive, Kingston 5, Jamaica.
...................... ..........
The Muslimeen Grab for Power:
Race, Religion and Revolution in
Trinidad and Tobago by Selwyn
Ryan. US$26.00 HB, US$20.00 PB.
Published by Inprint Caribbean
Limited, 35-37 Independence Square,
Port of Spain, Trinidad.
The Teacher's Diary: A Plan Book
for School Teachers in the Carib-
bean by S.G. & L.B. Ramocan. Dis-

tribute by Stationery & School Sup-
plies Ltd.

From Three Continents Press:
The first American edition of The
Housing Lark by Samuel Selvon.
Cloth: 0-89410-602-3 (US$20.00),
Paper: 0-89410-603-1 (US$9.00). and
Critical Perspectives on Jean Rhys
edited by Pierrette Frickey, Cloth: 0-
89410-058-0 ($25.00). Paper: 0-
89410-059-0 ($15.00). 1901
Pennsylvania Ave, Washington D.C.

aribbean R elew of Book Caribbean Review of Books Caribba eview of Books


oStwitew ofIf BoMol

Foreign Policy continued
Dr. Braveboy-Wagner's book
is an important contribution to
the study of international rela-
tions from a Caribbean perspec-
tive. Offering a theoretical
construct for the study of Carib-
bean foreign policy, it also fills a
gap in the broader field of the
study of the foreign policies of
Third World countries. The
author does not relate her work
in any practical or theoretical
way to the possibility of closer
Caribbean integration, but the in-
formation amassed on a Carib-
bean-wide basis will be extremely

useful to those who are thinking
in terms of Caribbean stategies.
Security, economics and
diplomacy are all matters of the
greatest concern not only to mem-
ber-states but also to any more
centralized version of Caribbean
community than is at present in
operation. The chapter on
diplomatic machinery, for ex-
ample, by Its mere reiteration of
facts and figures drives home
once again the sheer duplication
of effort and inability to maximize
the use of scarce resources in the
area of diplomatic representation
that mini and micro states in the
Caribbean currently


(Reviews of these books
are invited. Interested per-
sons should write to the
Editors of Caribbean
Quarterly, P 0 Box 42,
Mona, Kingston 7,
Jamaica, quoting the titles)
of the books) concerned
prior to reviewing them.)
Adult Education: Basic
Skills, Culture Develop-
ment and Culture by Roger
Van 't Rood. CESCO.
Caribbean Women Writers:
Essay from the First Inter-
national Conference edited
by Selwyn R. Cudjo.
University of Mas-
sachusetts Press, distributed
for Calalou.

CESCO Innovation in Ter-
tiary Education in the
Caribbean: Distance
Teaching in the Faculty of
Education at U.WJ. by Z.
Jennings. CESCO Paper
No 44. Published by
The Cooperstrum Sym-
posium on Baseball and
American Culture by Alvin
L. Hall. Meckler Publish-
ing, Westport, Connecticut,
Garvey's Children: the
Legacy of Marcus Garvey
by Tony Sewell. Macmillan
Integration and Par-
ticipatory Development:
Selected Papers and
Proceedings of the Second
Conference of Caribbean
Economists edited by J.
Wedderburn and Friedrick
Ebert. Published by F.E.S.
in collaboration with the
Association of Caribbean
TheLucayan's by Sandra
Riley and Alton Lowe.
Macmillan Caribbean.

Masters of Paradise: Or-
ganised Crimes and the In-
ternal Revenue Service in
the Bahamas by Alan A.
Block. Transaction Publish-
ers, New Brunswick, USA.
North-South Collaborative
Proceeding of the Interna-
tional Symposium on
'Education, Culture and
Productive Life in Develop-
ing Countries' published
by Hague.
The Origins and Conse-
quence ofJamaica's Debt
Crisis 1970-1990 by Kari
Polaryi Levitt. ISER, UWI
The Tropic of Baseball:
Baseball in the Dominican
Republic by Rob Ruck.
Meckler Publishing.
Under the Storyteller's
Spell: Folk Tales from the
Caribbean edited by Faus-
tin Charles. Puffin Books.
Wilson Harris: The Uncom-
promising Imagination by
Heron Mac Jeluncti. Den-
mark or U.K., Dangerous

CRB sells

books for

xc ') 'j

No. 1, August 1991


demonstrate. These are exciting
and challenging times for the fu-
ture of the Caribbean and in the
looming post-Castro world, not
only for the English-speaking
part. These books are a vital and
much needed input from our in-
tellectual community. And con-
gratulations to Dr.
Manderson-Jones for the
reminder that obstacles to publi-
cation which are a continuing dis-
grace to the free flow of ideas in
the Caribbean need not be insu-
perable. Publish and be praised!

Pamela Beshoff

No. 1, August 1991

Analysis, Caribbean Books, continued from page 12

istence of a demand that can be
exploited by the industry
provided the ingredients to
produce profitably are acquired
by the prospective publishers.
In the total population we find
well over one third of the
material (38%) used originating
in the region, with the volume
representing the largest territory,
Jamaica, containing the largest
share (50%) of Caribbean im-
prints. (These figures ignore the
4.9% of the total falling in the
mixed group of categories 4 REP
and 5 JNT F/C.) All these areas
show more books produced in
the Caribbean being cited than
articles in locally published jour-
nals, many local books (32.2% of
total) compared with articles
from local journals (16.8%) and
when compared with the quan-
tity of foreign journal articles
(8.6%) there appears to be a fair-
ly reasonable level of Caribbean
periodicals that can provide op-
portunity for the publication of
studies on Jamaica. For the
other two subgroups, however,
the service available from jour-
nals published in the Caribbean
does not reach the level observed
for Jamaica, with the share for
Caribbean and foreign journal ar-
ticles registering at a ratio of 1:2
for Dominica and more than 1:4
for the Bahamas. It would be
revealing to look further into the
specific Caribbean journals
which do account for the still
high level of 13.1% of the total
for all three sub-groups when
compared with the overseas jour-
nal total of 18.7%.
These findings seem to show
that there is room for expansion
for journal publishing, especially
If they aim to cover the entire
Caribb~-n rather than confine
themselves to individual ter-
ritories with smaller reading
populations. In order to clarify
this possibility in greater detail a
closer study of the local peri-
odicals that account for the 312

citations identified in this study
is necessary. An analysis by
place of origin for the journals
cited for each of the three
countries should provide interest-
ing insights, but such an enquiry
must be left to a future occasion.
In considering citations of
items that result from co-publish-
ing ventures it is interesting to
note that in this category the
non-Caribbean total (53 items
2.3% of the entire population) is
over four times as large as the
Caribbean total (13 items 0.5%).
The corresponding figures for
single publisher monographic
material excluding theses are
non-Caribbean 794 items 33.4%0
compared to Caribbean 589
items 24.8%, a ratio of 1:1.3. To
these figures must be added the
citations of items co-published
between local and foreign
partners, of which 39 (1.6%) were
recorded. From these figures it is
seen that as a method of produc-
tion co-publishing is more
prevalent outside the Caribbean
than within and it may well be
that the joint foreign/Caribbean
partnerships came into being at
the initiative of the foreign
partners although our data can-
not be used to verify this point.
As is generally known co-publish-
ing provides some advantages to
publishers in developing
countries, and it is an area to
which the book industry needs to
give further attention. The lack of
documented records of the ex-
periences of the region's publish-
ers is a weakness in trying to
examine questions like these and
it is to be hoped that individuals
and publishing houses who have
such first hand experiences will
document these as a contribu-
tion to the region's book in-
dustry. From what our analysis
reveals it would be safe to ob-
serve that co-publication is a
method that deserves serious
consideration in the Caribbean.

Another category that deser-
ves our special attention is that
of reprints which account for a
total of 3.3% of our citations.
Among these there is a high con-
centration of citations in the sec-
tions of the bibliographies
dealing with the history of three
countries. In the volume on
Jamaica 15 of the 45 reprints are
cited for history, and the cor-
responding figures are 10 out of
21 and 3 out of 12 for Dominica
and the Bahamas respectively. It
is the experience of many of us
practising librarians that these
reprints are of early works that
still have a very significant and a
necessary role in the study of the
region and in spite of the fact
that these reprints did appear in
the latter half of the 1960s and
in the 70s these works are again
unavailable today. Most of the
reprints among our citations are
the result of the efforts made by
three or four British and U.S.
publishing houses to provide
works for which there was at the
time a high demand. Today, a
quarter of a century later, some
of the titles so reprinted and
some that have never been avail-
able since they were first publish-
ed and those editions sold out
are difficult to secure and need
to be made available. In addition
many standard works of modem
times too are out of print and
need to be done in new reprint
editions. This is an area which
needs the attention of new pub-
lishers who are looking for a sub-
stantial list of titles which will
produce steady sales and for
which the expenses of produc-
tion that go towards developing
an original text are not required.
There is need, especially for use
in higher education, of a reprint
progamme that could ensure the
in-print status of many Carib-
bean titles.
The category labelled TH/P
(line 10 in table) in a special
continued on page 31

CrAibbean Review of Books Caribbean RPeiew of Books Cabb n Review of BoOM

BLwfLwr (f xBoofl

Journals, continued from page 15 LA/C Busi
Vol 1. No
Produced by the Caribbean Informa- A public
tion System for Economic Planning Americar
(CARISPLAN) of the Caribbean Developmi
Development and Cooperation Com- with the I
mittee (CDCC) from the UN Caribbean Developme
Documentation Centre, UNECLAC, P Address: L
O Box 1113, Trinidad Publishing Centre, H
Building,22-24 St. Vincent Street, Port Commerce
of Spain, Trinidad & Tobago. ministratit
...................................... USA

Jamaica Journal
Vol 24, No 1 (June 1991) SnortsFo

ISSN 0021-4124
From this issue onwards Jamaica
Journal will consist of three issues for
each annual volume.
Jamaica Journal Index 1967-1989.
Address: Institute of Jamaica Publica-
tions Ltd., 2a Suthermere Road,
Kingston 10, Jamaica.
......nnnn... nuu...... nuun... unun... uuum-

ly Sports
Issue No 5
MRC Serv
Kingston E

ness Bulletin
1 (April/May 1991)
cation of the Latin
i/Caribbean Business
ent Centre in cooperation
S Agency for International
A/C Business Development
[3203, US Department of
I, International Trade Ad-
on, Washington DC 20230

cus (The Jamaican Quarter-
S(July-September 1991)
Ices Ltd., 2 Easlon Avenue.

Jamaica and Standardization
Vol 1 (December 1990)
The Bureau of Standards, 6
Winchester Road, P 0 Box 113,
Kingston 10, Jamaica.
Price per copy J$50.00, US$ 5.75,

Jamaica Naturalist
Vol 1. No 1 (January 1991)
Published by the Natural History
Society of Jamaica
The Editor, Jamaica Naturalist, c/o
Dept of Zoology, University of the West
Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica.
Subscription: US $15.00
This journal succeeds the Society's
Natural History Notes published for al-
most 50 years from the founding of the
Society. The new journal is edited by
Peter Vogel.

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No. 1, August 1991



Curriculum Reform, continued from page 1
means to implement change and
fuelled far-reaching educational
reforms aimed at satisfying the
needs of Trinidad and Tobago.
One result was the introduction
of a "meaningful Social Studies
programme centered around the
local scene", conceived "as an
inter-disciplinary approach to the
understanding of social concerns,
their challenges and possible pro-
social responses and solutions".
Later the establishment of the
Caribbean Examinations Council
(CXC) gave impetus to the produc-
tion of new syllabuses relevant to
a more conscious Caribbean en-
vironment. No longer treated as a
discrete discipline, aspects of
geography are included in Social
Studies at each level of the sys-
tem, both subjects examinable.
New programmes at the Univer-
sity catered to the professional
needs of secondary graduate
Jules pays glowing tribute to
the participation of the teachers
in curriculum reform and the
work of the Geography Associa-
tion in their professional develop-
Jennings, a curriculum
specialist, provides a useful if

No. 1, August 1991

brief overview of the reports. She
focuses on the problems of educa-
tion systems caused by suppres-
sion of the indigenous culture
and the resulting dependency on
ex-colonizers; the persistence of
foreign-based external examina-
tions as contributory to colonial
control; the low status of geog-
raphy and geography teachers in
national education policies. She
uses the structural development
of the Caribbean Examination
Council (CXC) to show the innova-
tive way in which the CXC has
facilitated teacher participation in
both curriculum development
and the examination process and
explains why as in the case of the
Sixth Form Geography Project in
Jamaica teachers are not eager to
assist in curriculum reform.
In the view of Jennings "The
CXC should prove instructive to
educators and education policy
makers in the Third World since
like the geography curriculum in
the post-colonial era it symbol-
izes the struggle of a people to
break the stranglehold of intellec-
tual dependency on their former
colonial masters". In her contribu-
tion Jennings provides a useful
discussion of the CXC's change

strategy and using a chronologi-
cal approach traces the move-
ment of the strategy historically
from 1946 to 1987/88 (figure 1
on p. 156). She cites research
from Commonwealth studies
which concludes that "participa-
tion in curriculum development
must become as legitimate a part
of teachers' roles as classroom
The work is successful in its ef-
fort to cover a breadth of ex-
periences in different countries. It
is also clear that the image of the
subject requires review to reduce
the waning interest in what could
make a dynamic input into
developmental and environmental
concerns particularly in former
This book will appeal par-
ticularly to persons in develop-
ment studies, geography
education, and curriculum plan-
ning, indeed to all concerned with
educational reform in developing
countries. It is well produced and
referenced, a pleasing work with
an intriguing cover design.

Amy Robertson
UWI, Mona

continued from page 24

University Press, 1991. 260pp.
ISBN 0-19-506672-3, US$9.95.
This new paperback edition, with an
introduction by William L. Andrews
and published in the series Schomburg
Library of Nineteenth-century Black
Women Writers (issued by OUP in col-
laboration with the Schomburg Centre
for Research in Black Culture) is of the
volume first published in London
(Blackwood) in 1857. in 1984 it was
published again by the Falling Wall
Press of Bristol, England.

Towards a Vision of the Fu-
ture: Progress Report on the
Work of the Independent West
Indian Commission
(Barbados) The Commission, 1991.
53pp. ISBN: 976-8001-98-4
An interim report of progress.

Williams: His Life and His
Politics Sept. 251911-March
Written and researched by George
John, Port of Spain, Trinidad Express
Newspapers Ltd., 1991. 96p. Ill.

ISBN 976-608-016-X

Wilson Harris:
The Uncompromising
Edited by Hena Maes-Jelinek
Mundelstup, Denmark, Dangaroo
Press, 1991. 256pp. ill.
ISBN: 1-87-1049-37-7 hbc. 24.95.
A collection of poems and critical ar-
ticles by writers and scholars from
Europe and the Caribbean in honour
of Wilson Harris on his 70th Birthday.

aribbean Review of Books Caribbean Review of Books Caribban eew of Books

Clinical Atlas, continued from page 8
i.e. to enable the graduate to use
his knowledge and training for
further and continuing educa-
tion, throughout his life.
Yet, and it was fortunate for
him as Dr. Cyrus explains, that
conditions did change during the
course of his career, so that now
some laboratory help and blood
are available. I dare say the char-
acteristics of clinical material will
be changed also and that the

next generation of surgeons in St.
Vincent will not be faced so con-
sistently with what would be the
end-stage of the disease process.
This is not a book I will neces-
sarily keep for long on my coffee
table. I would wish to have it in
the Department Library and in
the Faculty Library also. I would
certainly wish all the students
and young surgeons in training
in the Caribbean to look at the
whole work.

The satisfaction that Dr.
Cyrus must have had from his
work surely compensated in a
way that nothing else could for
the difficulties under which he
had to function.
It is a consideration that is not
sufficiently appreciated in these

K.A. Butler
UWI,Trinidad and Tobago.

Plots and Plantations, continued from page 7

flict over land between rich and
poor and powerful and weak. Al-
most one hundred years since
the period covered in this book,
one could write a similar thesis
on most Third World countries
where land concentration is no
less developed than in late 19th
century Jamaica, with serious at-
tendant consequences for ar-
rested social development,
over-urbanisation, agricultural
stagnation leading to excessive
dependence on food imports and
an increase in rural poverty.
This book ought to be required
reading for our newly emergent
liberal constitutionalists who
have not grasped that flawed as
populist and clientelistic party
politics might be, to replace it
with system of rule by property
owners would intensify the suffer-
ing of the poor and the retarda-
tion of productive forces as
occurred in the latter third of the
19th century.
The strangulation of segments
of the small peasantry by

revitalised planter and commer-
cial farming interests in the late
19th century in Jamaica with the
aid of the state is well docu-
mented in this work. To that ex-
tent it is an important
contribution to social history.
The creativity of small
peasants in exploiting oppor-
tunities to grow export crops
(whether in coffee, banana or
sugar) is well documented in this
work. The tragedy is that our
policy makers have failed over the
years to harness this small
farmer productive capability fully
in feeding the nation and in earn-
ing foreign exchange, which are
far from being incompatible objec-
tives, by settling many controver-
sial issues linked to the character
of small peasant development in
Jamaica. This book, will and
ought to free our minds to con-
centrate more on many important
current policy issues about how
productively we use our land
resources, how much we waste it
and how we can avoid the latter.

Who uses land and gets the
benefits of land tenure and land
use systems will always be an im-
portant policy issue. It would be
very instructive to undertake re-
search of this character today to
determine precisely which inter-
ests are retarding the develop-
ment of the country's productive
forces in agriculture as well as to
define policies which can place
the land in the most productive
hands and those hands that are
likely to maximise employment
levels, investment levels, and in-
come earning potential. I respect-
fully submit that any such
research today would support
Satchell's thesis that our land
tenure arrangements are helping
to retard the country's agricul-
tural development because too lit-
tle good quality land and
irrigated land is available to the
most efficient smaller farmers
and agricultural producers who
have been a major source of crop
innovation and efficient land
utilisation over the centuries."

Zne\l, I (Nn nI n r n11_1\ n w

No. 1, August 1991

A3(D~ft(DWJ (Iff EBTTO

No. 1, August 1991

Analysis, Caribbean Books, continued
group of material about which
the definition given above is in it-
self sufficient to show the wide
gap that needs to be filled by cor-
responding Caribbean material.
Awareness of availability and
ease of access provided by Univer-
sity Microfilms first to theses ac-
cepted by American universities,
and later to those of some foreign
universities have made these
works, and the scholarship em-
bodied in them to be used heavily
and widely. The lack of citations
to theses accepted by Caribbean
universities, especially those of
the University of the West Indies
(UWI) creates the false impres-
sion that material of this type of
Caribbean origin is not available.
It is high time now to correct this
situation, and to pave the way for
a wider awareness of the exist-
ence and a heavier use of Carib-
bean theses in the study of the
problems of the region. There are
two ways in which this could be
done. First there is the possibility
of following the University
Microfilms and setting up a
programme either through
University Microfilms or inde-
pendently to reproduce and supp-
ly UWI and other Caribbean
university theses for use outside
of the depositories. The second is
to use the texts of selected theses
as the basis on which, in col-
laboration with their authors
manuscripts could be produced

for books to be published com-
Whichever method is used,
the need to act has to be recog-
nized as urgent, and it must be
realized that the fairly large col-
lection of Caribbean theses now
held in depositories is too valu-
able a treasure on which both the
institutions and many in-
dividuals have invested too heavy
a cost for it to remain any more
under the proverbial bushel. Not
to bring it to the awareness and
within easier access of those who
can profitably utilize it is not only
a waste, but also an insult to in-
digenous scholarship.


This study has demonstrated
the possibility through the
analysis of selected populations
of Caribbean study material to
gain useful insights towards a
better quantitative under-
standing of Caribbean book
production and use. Results of
such analyses can be utilized to
plan production and market
strategies for the book industry
of the region. The present study
which was carried out at a mini-
mum level of detail has provided
some insights into a few areas
and patterns in the availability of
books and other published
material for Caribbean studies,

and it is seen that with attention
paid to fine details inthe cita-
tions more light can be provided
for recognizing needs and pos-
sibilities in the demand and supp-
ly situations.

End Notes

1. "Caribbean Accessions at the
University of the West Indies
Library, Mona, Jamaica".
Library Acquisitions: Practice
and Theory. 9 (1985, pp. 105-
119. See pp. 109-10.
2. As the introductory editorial
note to the series states, these
bibliographies try to cover all
aspects of the countries they
deal with, each volume "com-
prising annotated entries on
works dealing with its history,
geography, economy and
politics; and with its people,
their culture, customs, religion
and social organizations. Atten-
tion will also be paid to current
living conditions housing,
education, clothing etc. With
these objectives of the entire
series before them, the com-
pilers have taken care to pro-
vide as comprehensive a
picture as possible and on the
whole they have succeeded in
presenting a fair and repre-
sentative guide to the available

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