Citation
Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..

Material Information

Title:
Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended ..
Running title:
Report of Governor of the Panama Canal
Creator:
Canal Zone -- Office of the Governor
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Washington
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
36 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
June 30, 1915-June 30, 1951.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report year ends June 30.
General Note:
Some vols. issued in the congressional series as House document.
General Note:
Reports for 1914/15-1915/16 each accompanied by portfolio of maps and diagrams.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
02454300 ( OCLC )
15026761 ( LCCN )
30558952 ( ALEPH )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending ...
Succeeded by:
Annual reports of the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government for the fiscal year ended ...

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This item has the following downloads:


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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
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http://www.archive.org/detaiIs/annualreportofgo1918cana






ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE


GOVERNOR OF

THE PANXMA CANlAL


FOR THE


FISCAL YEAR
ENDED JUNE 30


1918


WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE











TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Page.
Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal------------------- 1
Organization ---------------------------------------------- 1
Operation and mainteiance-------------------------------------- 2
Building division -------------------------------------------- 2
Locks operation --------------------------------------------- 6
Electrical division ------------------------------------------- 7
Municipal engineering divisio------------------------------- 9
Meteorology and hydroraphy --------------------------------- 11
Surveys--------------------------------------------------- 13
Office engineer--------------------------------------------- 14
Marine division_ ------------------------------------------ 14
Dredging division ------------------------------------------- 15
Mechanical division -----------------------------------------18
Supply department ....----------------------------------------------.. 19
Reorganization -------------------------------------------- 19
Labor-------------------------------------------------- 19
Quarters ------------------------------------------------- 20
Corrals --------------------------------------------------- 20
Materials and supplies --------------------------------------- 20
Fuel-oil plants ---------------------------------------------.... 21
The Panama Canal Press ------------------------------------ 21
Subsistence_ ------------------------------------------------ 21
Accounting department -------------------------------------__ 23
Executive department------------------------------------------ 27
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds------------------------------ 27
Division of civil affairs ------------------------------------- 28
Bureau of posts----------------------------------------- 28
Bureau of customs ------- -------------------------- 29
Police and fire division -------------------------------------- 30
Division of schools------------- ------------------------ 31
Courts ---------------------------------------------------- 32
Relations with Panama -------------------------------------- 32
Office of the special attorney ------------------------- ---- 34
Health department --------------------------------------_-- 36
Division of hospitals ---------------------------------------- 37
Ancon Hospital----------------------------------------- 37
Corozal hospital and farm------------------------------- 37
Colon Hospital ---------------------------------------- 38
Palo Seco Leper Asylum --------------------- 38
Santo Tomas Hospital ----------------------------------- 38
District dispensaries ------------------------------------ 38
Sanitation ------------------------------------------ 38
Quarantine division ------------------------- 39
Washington office ---------------------------------------------- 40
86372- 18 I


67/63





II TABLE OF CONTENTS.

APPENDIX A.
Page.
Report of the engineer of maintenance --------------------------------- 43
Organization --------------------------------------------------- 4
Locks division ---------- ---------------------------------- 44
Lockages -------------------------------------------------- 44
Water consumption, Gatun Lake ---------------------- 45
Gatun dam ------------------------------------------------ 46
Townlg locomotives ------------------------46
Spare parts --------------------------46
Approach wall fender cribs ----------------------------------- 46
Painting lock gates -------------------46
Lock power and control cables ------------------47
Chemist's report on corrosion of lead sheaths of cables at
Miraflores Locks --------------------48
Gatun locks ----------------------------------------------- 54
Organization and personnel ---------------54
Operation --------------------------------------------- 54
Maintenance -------------------------------------------- 55
Construction and new equipment ------------- 56
General overhauling------------ ----- 56
Pacific locks----------------- 57
Organization and personnel -----------------57
Operation ----- --------------------57
Maintenance ----------------------- 57
Miscellaneous work ------------------------------------- 60
Bitumastic work and painting of lock gates and submerged
parts ------------------------------------------------ 60
Painting ----------------------------------------------- 61
Electrical division --- ----------------------------------------- 62
Character and extent of the work ----------------------------- 62
Organization and personnel ----------------------------------- 62
Office and design ------------------------------------------- 62
Power-plant extensions ------------------------ -------- 63
Water consumption, hydroelectric station --------------------- 63
Substation and transmission-line improvements---------------- 64
Distribution lines ------------------------------------------ 65
Operation of power system --------------------------------- 65
Tables-
Monthly output in kilowatt-hours ----------------------------- 66
Cost of power in its various states of distribution ----------66
Principal loads in kilowatts added during year, principal
loads to be added in the future -------------------------- 67
Telephones and telegraph ----------------------------------- 67
Fire-alarm system ------------------------------------------ 68
Railway signal system -------------------------------------- 6
Table-Responsible signal interruptions for fiscal year------ 69
Miscellaneous electrical work ------------------------ ---------70
Municipal engineering division ----------------------------------- 71
Organization and personnel ---------------------------------- 71
Table-Average quantity of water pumped at pumping stations,
with average cost per 1,000 gallons-------------------------- 72
SSale of water to vessels ------------------------------------- 72
Panama water office --------------------------- ----- 73





TABLE OF CONTENTS. III

Report of the engineer of maintenance-Continued.
Municipal engineering division-Continued. Page.
Report of water-collection office, Colon ------------------------ 73
Status of capital-cost account for municipal improvements in Pan-
ama and Colon --------------------------------------- 74
New construction ------------------------------------------ 75
Work for other divisions ---------------------------------- 75
Laboratory tests of concrete --------------------------------- 76
Summary of determinations made in connection with the work on
concrete aggregates -------------------------------------- 77
Work performed in connection with the operation of water puri-
fication plants ------------------------------------------- 80
Section of meteorology and hydrography ---------------------- 81
Personnel ----------------------------------------------- 81
Meteorology ------------------------------------------- 81
Tables a accompanying meteorological section, li-t of -------- 85
Hydrography ------------------------------------------ 90
Tiial conditions ------------ ------------------- 90
Special investigations -------------------------------- 92
1Water-supply studies ------------------------------------ 92
Branch hydrographic office. Cri Tables ccotLupanyinlg lh\droagr,'iilic.il section. lii t ,f -------- 93
Section of surveys ------------------------------------------- 99
Building lots ------------------------------------------ 99
Gatun Dam --------------------------------------------- 99
Supply department ----------------------------------------- 100
Health department --------- ------------------------ 100
Municipal division ------------------------------------------ 100
Joint land commis ion --------------------------------------100
Survey-Panama. Ancon. Balboa ----------------------------- 100
Triangulation -------------------------------------------- 101
Bench marks -------------------------------------- 101
Canal Zone boundary monuments--------------------------- 101
Cristobal coaling plant ------------------------------------- 101
Miscellaneous --------------------------------------------- 101
Section of office engineer -------------------------------------- 102

APPENDIX B.

Report of the resident engineer, building division----------------------103
Organization ------------------------------------------------ 103
Building operations ------------------------------------------- 103
Pier No. 6, floor for ------------- ----------------------- 104
Boat landing and launch house, Cristolal --------------------- 106
Industrial plant. Panama Railroad ----------------------- 107
Mindi dairy farm ------------------------------------------ 109
Tivoli Hotel kitchen ------------------------------------ 109
Local freight and baggage building ---------------- ---------- 110
Mount Hope oil tank ------------------------------ --------- 110
Ancon Hospital ---------------------------------------- 110
Larvacide plant ------------------------------------------- 112
Nurses' quarters, Colon Hospital ----------------------------- 113
Gatun dispensary ----------------------- --------- -------- 113






IV TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the resident engineer, building division-Continued.
Building operations-Continued. Page.
Gatun hydroelectric station extension ------------------------- 113
Balboa garbage incinerator --------------------------------- 114
Tables-
Buildings on-which construction work was performed dur-
ing the year ------------------------------------ 114
Comparative unit costs of buildings ------------------- l1

APPENDIX C.

Report of the superintendent of dredging-------------------- ----- 119
Organization ---- --------------- 119
Dredging plant ------------------------------------------------ 119
Dredging -------------------------------------------------- 121
Tables-
Output of all dredges, with total and unit costs----- 122
Yardage removed from the -42-foot mean sea-level coura.iir
in the Atlantic Ocean -------------------------------- 122
Yardage removed from Gaillard Cut -------------_ 123
Yardage removed, Pedro Miguel Lock to the -45-foot mean
sea level in the Pacific Ocean----------------------- 12
Dredging, canal prism --------------------------------------- 12
Yardage removed from the canal prism ------------------- 123
Yardage remaining to be removed from canal prism ------- 124
Distribution of material removed from Gaillard Cut -------- 125
Dumps ---------------------------------------- 1201
Subaqueous rock excavation -------------------------------- 120
Tables-
Mining, performance of drill boat Teredo No. 2 120
Mining, performance of well and tripod drills ----------127
Miscellaneous dredging -------------___-------- ----------------127
Sand and gravel production ------------------------------ ___ 12
Diversions and drainage------------------------------ ---------- 12S
Slide inspection and reports ------------------------------------12S
Mindi dikes and groins -----------------------------------------12
Water hyacinths ---------------------------- ---------- 1
Surveys -------------------------------------------------- 129
Office ---------------- ----- 129

APPENDIX D.

Report of the marine superintendent ------------------------------ 131
Personnel------------------- ____ __ 131
Operation incident to a state of war ----------------- _____
Steamboat-inspection service ------------- __ ___
Report of board of local inspectors ------------------- _--____ 1
Admeasurement of vessels and application of tolls ----------------- 133
Tables-
Sunnmmnary of traffic through the canal during fiscal year and
since Its opening to commercial traffic----------------------- 135
Number of vessels of various nationalities passing through the
canal--






TABLE OF CONTENTS. V

APPENDIX E.
Page.
Report of the superintendent. mec-hauical division __--------------------- 139
Organization -------------------------------------- 139
War activities ..-----1---------------------------------------- 139
War work ------- ----------- ------ 140
Principal work performed ---------- ----- 140
Results accomplished ----------------------------------- 141
Needs for coming fiscal year-------------------------------------- 143
Tables accompanying report, list of ------------------------------- 143

APPENDIX F.

Report of the chief quartermaster. supply department ------------------- 151
Orga niza tioll ---------------------------------------------------- 151
Personnel --------------------------------------------------------____ 52
Lablor..-- ---------------------------------------------------- 152
Quarter --------- ------------------------------ 1_52
Zone -anitation -_____ ------------------------------------------ 15.3
Motor t raI Iport;aionlo------------ ---------------------------------.__
Material and supplies --.------------------------------------------ 154
Distribution in storehloines --------------------------------___ 1.55
Sales----------------------------------------------------....... 155
Surplus and obsolete material. equipment, and ,cr;I __----------- 155
Scr;i1 .-------..---------------------------------------------. -5
Fuel-oil plants -----------.-----------------..----------------- 15
(;soliue stoIa let.----------------------------- --------------156
Gasoline storage ----------- ------ 156
Paina ('an;al Pres -____-1--------------------------- --------- 156
Subsistence ..------------------------------- ------------------ 157
ConimmIsa ry operations ---------- ---------------------___------__ 158
Transfer of plantations an l f;l' 0---------------------------- 160
New commissa-ries ------------------------------------------- 160
Changes in retail stores ----------------------------- 100
Soap factory ---- ---------------------------------- 161
Milk .------------------------------------- -----... __ 161
Sausage factory ------------------------------------------- 161
Done mill -----------------------------------------------.-- 161
Tailor shop ----------------------------------------------- 162
Bakery ---------------------------------------------------_ 162
Flour -------......--------...-----------..--------- 162
Beef-corning plant ----------------------------------------- 162
Industrial laboratory products------------------------------- 162
Relief of Guatemala City during earthquake ------- ---___ 163
Central American sugar ------------------------------------- 164
New ice and cold-storage plant and ab;ittoir_------------------ 164
Cattle industry----------------------------------------------...- 164
Pastures, health, breeding, sales, etc-------------------------- 166
Plantations-------------------------------------- ----- 167
Poultry farm----......------------------------------------------ 1S
Hog farm----------------------------------------------------169
Dairy farm --------------------------------------------------- 169
Tables:
Occupants of Panawa Canal and Panama Railroad quarters.
June 30, 1918 --------------------..----------------- -------170





TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the chief quarterimaster, supply depa:rtimeut-Continued.
Tables-Continued.. Page.
Applications for married quarters on file June 30, 1918---------- 170
Sales --------------------------170
Value of initerial received during fiscal year 1917-18 on requisi-
tion ---------------------------------------------------- 171
Statement showing sales of material, supplies, and equipment
heretofore purchased or acquired for the construction of The
Panama Canal, made by authority of the governor withQiut
advertisement amnd on which time did not permit securing ap-
proval of the Secretary of War, required by Executive order
of May 12, 1915 ----------------------------------------173
Houses, apartments, and occupants, by districts, of gold and
silver quarters, as of June 30, 191 ------------------------- 173
Operation of Hotel Tivoli ----------------------------------- 17
Summary of operations of restaurant_ ------------------------ 174
Summary of operations, laborer' s_---------------------- 175
Obsolete and surplus material -------------------------------175
American seralp operations ---------------------------------- 173
Fuel oil handled ..---------------___----------------------------_______ 17
Comparative statement of output of imInuflactuiring plaint coIm-
missa ry di vision, supply department, fiscal years 1913-14 tro
1917-18 -------------------------------------------------.. 176
Statement showing quantities of certain staple articles pur-
chased during the fiscal 3ear as compared with the previous
year --------------------------------------------------- 177
Statement of comparative selling prices for June 30, 1918, as
against June 117__ ------------------_________ ------------------- 177
Statement of articles purchased by the products buyer in Costa
Rica -----------------------------------------____----------17S
Statement of Haitian, Colombia n, and local purchases..-----..... 178
Produce furninilhed the commissary divisionl by vi-ri.us pIlanta-
tions ------------......---------------------------------------_______ 179

A IPIENDIIX G.
Report of the au'litir------------------------------------------- 1
Organization ----------------------------------------------- 11
Paymaster ------------------------------------------------ 11
Collector --------------------___________--------------------------------- 182
Accounting to the Treasury for collecti.ns---____________-------------------182
Tolls ---__. --- ------------------------------------- 182
Claims for dh iainges to vessels passing through the lock--._ --_-___ 183
Examination of pay rolls ---------------------------------------13
Liberty loans-----_______-------------_______------------------------------- 183
Canal appropriations ----------------
Exchange of pr.Ioperty with I'Inaim: Iilra;i __. ----------..___ 185
Public works, l'in., m and Colon -
Public works-----------------------------............................. 5
Operation and nmintenanc .------------------------------------- 186
Business operation ---------------------------------------- 187

Construction of canal and capital adldi.-ion .... --.. ________
Manufacturing ilia nts ------------------------------- 191
Canal Zone :iccotint. ------------..... .. ._ _---- 191
Clubhouse accuts --------------- _----------------------------191





TABLE OF CONTENTS. VII

Report of the auditor-Continued. Page.
Claims for injuries and deaths ------------------------- 192
Coupon books ------------------------------------------------- 192
Inspection of accounts-----------------------------------------193
Time inspection ----------------------------------------------- 193
Freight claims --------------------- ------ 193
Bonds of employees ---------------------------------------------- 194
Operations with Panama Rallrond Co.'s funds --------------------- 194
Railroad, harbor, terminals, etc ---------------------------- 194
Conumissary---------------------------------------------- 195
Farm industries ---------------------------------------- 196
Tables accompanying report, list of -------------------------- 197

APPENDIX H.
Report of the executive secretary --------------------------------- 255
Organization ------------------------------------------------- 255
Special work ---------------------------- 256
Working force ------------------------------------------------ 257
Tables-
Force actually at work on June 19, 191S ------------------258
Force reports by months, ft-cal year 1917-1 ------------ 259
High and low force records, December, 1906. to June 30,
1918. by fiscal years------------------------------ 259
Bureau of clubs and playgrounds--------------------------------260
Division of civil affairs -------------------------- ------ 261
Bureau of posts ------------------------------------------- 261
Bureau of cutonms--------------------------------- 263
Shipping conmniissiotmr ------------------------------------ 263
Administration of et;ites----------------------------------- 264
Licenses and taxes ---------------------------------------- 264
Police and fire division-----------------------------------------264
Police section ---------- ------ -------- ----- 265
Fire section ---------------------------------- 267
Division of schools ----------------------------------------- 268
The courts ----------------------------------------------- 269
Special attorney and district attorney --------------- 270
United States marshal for the Canal Zone --------- 270
Relations with Panama ----------------------------------- 270
Legislation --------------------------------------------------- 272
Tables-
Postal Service ----------------- -------------- 272
Receipts and disbursements------------------------------ 272
Total cash transactions of Canal Zone postal system for fi.-cal
year 191S ---------------------------------------------73
Letters and parcels registered and parcels insured for fiscal
year 191S -------------------------------------------- 273
Number of in sured and C. 0. D. parcel-post parcels and
registered articles delivered by offices during fiscal year
1918 ___---------------------------------------------- 274
Number of mail parcels on which duty has been paid to the
Government of Pananma, and the amount of duty as shown
by receipts on file. by offices, during fiscal year 191S-- 274
Statement of vessels entered and cleared and of seamen shipped
and discharged at Balboa and Cristobal, fiscal year 191S ------ 274






VIII TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the executive secretary-Continued.
Tables-Continued. Page.
Number of estates received anil settle.] and amount of funds
handled during fiscal year 191S --------------------------- 275
Police section -------------------------------------------- 275
Police force as of June 30. 1918 -------------------------- 27
Distribution of police force iby stations and substations 275
Number of arrests, by fiscal y.\:rs. made on Canal Zone since
organization ---------------------------------------- 27
Number of arrests, by months, male during fiscal ye:ir 191S- 270
Statement of disposition of persons arrested during fiscal
year 1918 ------------------------------------------- 277
Charges against persons arrested during fiscal year 1918- 277
Nationality of persons arrested during fiscal year 191S ... 278
Occupation of persons arrested during fiscal year 118 ------ 27!f
Number of prisoners in custody in coilnon jails at the close
of each month during fiscal year 191S ------------------ SO
Value of labor performed bly common jail pri-,ners during
fiscal year 1918 ------------......--------------------------28
House-to-house canvass of the civil IpopIlation of thle Canal
Zone taken between June 20 andI 30., 191So i.\ i~ l police
and fire division -- ----------------------------------- 21
Warden section -------------------------------------------- 2S2
Convicts received at penitentiary dluinn tisc:al ye:tr 1918' S 2
Convicts discharged from penitentiary during Iiscal year
1918 ------------------------------------------------ 2S3
Crimes committed by con ictz continue in penitentiary on
June 30, 1918, and their aggregate sentence;------------ 283
Nationality of the convicts continued in the peniteiitiairy on
June 30, 1918 2S4
Sentences of convicts confined in the peniteuti:ry on June
30, 1918 ---------------24--------------------------- 24
Value of labor performed Iby convicts employed on Ipllic im-
provements, and value of labor of cnivicts assigned to
inside labor at the penitentiary durinL tlical year 1918_- 284
Cost of subsisting, guarding. and clotliing con vi.tt.s .,onineld
in the penitentiary during, 11,':l yL 1918-------------- 285
Convicts and common jail pri .oir..-, d*.1-,piirt,.ed during fiscal
year 1918 ------------------------------------------- 25
Coroner section -------------------------------------------- 25
Deaths, by months, inve-.tigated I Iy coroniier during li'canl
year 1918 --------------------------------------- 285
Causes of deaths investigated b.y corolnr during fiscal year
1918 ------------------------------------------------ 285
Fire section ----------------------------------------------286
Fire personnel as on June 30, 1918 ----------- 2-.,
Distribution of fire personnel, by .-t:itioni', June 30. 1918... 250
Statement of damage resulting fronm fires during fiscal ear
1918 -------___-----_ ---------------------------------- 2SG
Statement of property involved in tires during fiscal year
1918 ------------------------------------------------ 286
School section ------ _--_ -------______________ 287
Monthly enrollment and average daily attendance-......... 287
Enrollment for fiscal year 1918, by schools ------------- 287





TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Report of the executive secretary-Continued.
Tables--Continued.
School section-Continued. Page.
Enrollment by grades ----------------------------------- 287
Number of teachers employed in schools ---------------------288
Report of annual physical examinations of children of white
grade schools during October,. 191__ ----------------------_ 288
Epitome of more important statistics for tlie year' ended
June 30, 1915, to June 30, 1917, inclusive---------------- 288

APPENDIX I.

Report of the district attorney ------------------------------------- 289
Criminal prosecutions during fiscal year 191------------------- 291

APPENDIX J.

Report of the special attorney ---------------------------------------- 293
Land claims--- ------------------------------------------- 293
Panama Canal land licenses in effect within the C-nail Zone at the
end of fiscal year 1918 --------------------------------------- 295
Panama Railroad Co. matters ------------------------------- 296
Statement of Panama Railroad leas-e.-s aiid licenses in effect
July 1, 1918------------------------------------------ 296
Panama Railroad litigation ---------------------------------- 298
District court, division of Balboa ---------------------- 298
District court, division of Cristohal -------------------- 298
Magistrate's court, division of Balboa ---------------------298
Magistrate's court, division of Cristobal ----------------- 299
Panama Railroad cases pending at end of fiscal year -------- 299
District court, division of Balboa ------------------------- 299
District court, division of Cristobal ----------------------- 299
Pending on writ of error from Supreme Court of the Unite d
State, and United States Circuit Court of Appeals, Nev.
Orleans -------------------------------------------- 301
Legislation---------------------------------------------------302

AP E'NDIX K.
Report of the chief health officer------------------------------------ 305
Organization -------------------------------------------------- 305
Vital statistics ---------------------------------------------------306
Employees --------------------------------------------- 306
Effects of race_ -------------------------------------------- 307
Canal Zone-----------------------------------------------307
Panama City------------------------------------------ 307
Colon -------------------------------------------------- 308
Special remarks --------------------------------------------- 308
Cerebrospinal meningitis------------------------------------ 308
Venereal diseases ------------------------------------------ 309
Meat inspection -------------------------------------------- 311
Ancon Hospital-----------------------------------------------311
Permanent buildings-------------------------------------- 311
Buildings evacuated --------------------------------------- 311
Grounds -------------- ------------------------------------ 312
Administration-clinics building ------------------------------ 312






X TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the chief health officer-Continued.
Ancon Hospital-Continued. Page.
Administration--------------------------------------- 312
Surgical clinic ---- ------------------------------------ 313
Medical clinic ------------------------------------- 313
Eye and ear clinic -------------------------------------- 313
X-ray clinic ------------------------------------------- 314
Steward's department -------------------------------------- 314
Linen room ------------------------------------------ 314
Maintenance and repair, buildings and equipment------------ 315
Motor transportation ----------- ----------------------- 315
Statistics regarding patients ------------------------------ 316
Corozal Hospital ----------------------------------------------317
Buildings------------------------------- ------------- 317
Hospital department ------------- ------- ----- 317
Farm department ------------------------------------------ 31
General remarks --------------------------------------- 319
Colon Hospital ------------------------- 319
Buildings ------------------------- 319
Personnel ---------------------------------------------
Palo Seco Leper Asylum ----------------------------------------2.
Santo Tomas Hospital--- ---------- ------------ 320
District dispensaries------------------------------------- 320
Sanitation --------- -------------- ------ 320
Canal Zone --- --------------------- 320
Panama City ------------------------------------------ 321
Colon ----------------------------------------------------324
Quarantine division ------------------------------------------- 327
Tables accompanying report, list of ------------------------------ 32

APPENDIX L.

Report of general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office--- 345

APPENDIX M.

Acts of Congress and Executive orders relating to The Panama Canal and
to the Canal Zone index-.. ______--________ ______ 3861














LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



[Report of the governor.]
Plate.
1. Chart showing organization of The Panama Canal, July 1, 1918.

APPENDIX' A.
[Report of the engineer of maintenance.]

2. Five and eight conductor, lead-sheathed control cables removed from
the middle cross-over tunnel at Miraflores locks.
3. Transmission system; Gatun hydroelectric station-typical daily load
curves.
4. Transmission system, causes and dates of power interruptions.
5. Concrete road between Corozal and Miraflores.
6. Typical section of 18-foot concrete roadbed with sheet asphalt wearing
surface.
7. Monthly rainfall year 1917 and station averages.
S. Distribution of rainfall in the Canal Zone; maximum, minimum, current,
and average years.
9. Operating uses of Gatun Lake water supply, year 1917-dry season 1918.
10. Gatun Lake watershed; yields and losses; masses curved-year 1917.
11. Gatun Lake watershed; total yields; year 1917, dry season 1918, and
7-year average.
12. Gatun Lake watershed; total yields massed; maximum, minimum,
average, and current years, 1911-1917.
13. Chagres River drainage basin; mean monthly discharge at Alhajuela,
year 1917, dry season 1918 and 16-year average.
14. Chagres River drainage basin; massed curves-discharge at Alhajuela,
maximum, minimum, average, and current years.
15. Studies in water supply available for canal uses based on average net
yield of Gatun Lake basin for 7-year period 1911-1917.
16. Studies in water supply available for canal uses based on lowest net
yield of record December, 1911, to December, 1912.

APPENDIX B.
[Report of the resident engineer, building division.]

17. Ancon Hospital. Administration building.
18. Ancon Hospital. Kitchen and mess.
19. Ancon Hospital. Isolation ward.
20. Gatun hydroelectric station. View from bridge showing one spillway
gate open. June 6, 1918.
21. Atlantic terminals. General view of pier No. 6, Cristobal.
22. Atlantic terminals. Reinforced concrete girders and arches to support
floor system of pier No. 6, Cristobal.




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


APPENDIX C.

[Report of resident engineer, dredging division.]
Plate.
23. Gaillard Cut. Looking north from Contractor's Hill, showing east and
west banks. June, 1918.
24. Gaillard Cut. Looking south, showing conditions on west bank. June,
1918.
25. Topography east and west Culebra and Cucaracha slides.
26. Typical cross sections Culebra slides.

APPENDIX E.

[Report of superintendent, mechanical division.]

27. Charts showing classes of work and source of revenue.
28. Balboa shops gross overhead expense percentage compared with the
total direct labor charges, fiscal years 1916-17 and 1917-18.
29. Chart showing development of shop work for outsiders concurrent \vith
the decrease of canal and Panama Railroad work since the official
opening of The Panama Canal.

APPENDIX H.
[Report of the executive secretary.]

30. Ancon, Canal Zone, public school. Flag raising. March, 1918.
31. Cristobal schoolhouse. May, 1918.


XII










ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE

GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL.


THE PANAMA CANAL,
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR,
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, September 21, 1918.
S in: I have the honor to submit the annual report covering the con-
struction, operation, maintenance, and sanitation of The Panama
Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918.

ORGANIZATION.
The war emergency has caused several changes in personnel. The
following officers of the Army and Navy were relieved from duty
with The Panama Canal on the dates indicated:
Commander H. I. Cone, marine superintendent, August 21, 1917.
Lieut. Col. J. J. Morrow, engineer of maintenance, August 31, 1917.
Lieut. Col. W. R. Grove, chief quartermaster, September 22, 1917.
Col. D. C. Howard, chief health officer, October 4, 1917, and his
successor. Col. A. E. Truby, February 26, 1918.
Capt. F. H. Smith, assistant chief quartermaster, October 10,1917.
Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon, electrical engineer, February 6, 1918.
Lieut. Commander P. P. Bassett, captain of the port, Cristobal,
August 14, 1917.
Lieut. Commander A. B. Reed, captain of the port, Balboa, August
14, 1917.
Capt. H. D. Mitchell. chief of police, July 8, 1917.
Lieut. Col. Earl I. Brown, chief of the Washington office, August
25. 1917, and his successor, Maj. Benedict Crowell, December 1, 1917.
The position of engineer of maintenance remained vacant through-
out the remainder of the fiscal year. Mr. Walter J. Douglas, who was
appointed to fill the position on May 13, 1918, assumed the duties on
July 1, 1918. The position of marine superintendent was filled on
January 23, 1918, by the appointment of Commander L. R. Sargent,
United States Navy, who was detailed by the Navy Department for
duty under the Governor of The Panama Canal and assignment to
the position. The vacancy as chief quartermaster was filled by the
appointment of Mr. R. K. Morris, who had been employed for a num-




THE PANAMA CANAL.


ber of years in important capacities in that department. The position
of chief health officer vacated by Col. Truby was filled by the ap-
pointment of Maj. A. T. McCormack, Medical Reserve Corps. Mr. A.
L. Flint, chief clerk, was appointed chief of the Washington office
as successor to Maj. Crowell, who resigned that position upon his ap-
pointment as Assistant Secretary of War. In addition to the officers
mentioned, a total of 296 employees of The Panama Canal in various
capacities resigned in order to enter the military or naval service, or
to assume positions in the National Red Cross and other organiza-
tions immediately engaged on war work. During the existence of the
vacancies in the positions of engineer of maintenance and marine
superintendent, the duties of those positions were directly assumed by
the Governor. During the absence of the Governor on duty in the
United States, from December 13, 1917, to January 23, 1918, his
duties on the Isthmus were assumed, by authority of the Secretary of
War, by Judge Frank Feuille, as acting governor. Judge Feuille
acted in the same capacity during the illness of the Governor from
January 28, 1918, to February 25, 1918.
Except as above stated the heads of the departments and divisions
reporting to the Governor remained as stated in last year's report.
To assist in the administration of the electrical division and the
operation and maintenance of the locks in the absence of an engineer
of maintenance, Lieut. Col. Dillon was given immediate supervision
over the conduct of those branches of the work until his relief from
duty with the canal, when he was succeeded in those duties by Mr.
Hartley Rowe.
DEPARTMENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE.
On August'4, 1917, Mr. T. B. Monniche, engineer of docks, re-
signed, and his duties were transferred to the resident engineer of
the building division on August 5, 1917. Thereafter the construction
of the terminal structures in progress which had been conducted
under the immediate supervision of the engineer of maintenance,
was continued under the charge of Mr. Hartley Rowe, resident engi-
neer, head of the building division.
BUILDING DIVISION.
Pier No. 6, Cristobal.-The construction of Pier No. 6 at Cristobal,
authorized by the sundry civil act of July 1, 1916, was continued.
At the beginning of the year the driving of the foundation cylinders
was 70 per cent complete. The excavation of material from the
cylinders was 73 per cent complete, and the filling of the cylinders
with concrete was 50 per cent complete. The driving of the cylinders
was completed September 7, 1917, with a total of 22,610 linear feet





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


in place. The excavation of material from the cylinders was com-
pleted September 19, 1917, with a total of 14,382 cubic yards
removed. The filling of the cylinders with concrete was completed
on October 19, 1'.17, with a total of 22,005 yards poured. The total
cost of the completed cylinders, including excavation and concreting,
was $550,894.20,' and the total cost of the substructure, including
trestle, false work, power and water lines, i'ailway tracks, etc., was
$6S7,677.04. Certain changes in the construction plant and in the
design of the floor structure, in order to overcome so far as possible
increased costs of materials, were described in the report for last
year. As stated therein, when bids were received for the steel work
the prices had advanced to such an extent as to make necessary the
abandonment of the steel construction for the floor system and the
substitution of reinforced concrete construction. On account of the
heavy loads and of the large spans involved, and especially on ac-
count of the lack of rigidity against lateral movement of the long
cylinders supporting the structure, considerable difficulty was expe-
rienced in determining a satisfactory design. The problem was suc-
cessfully solved and the construction proceeded with a material
saving in cost as compared with the original design, but in spite of
the economnie. applied it became evident that on account of the abnor-
mal increase in the prices of materials the completed structure could
not. be built for the original limit cost of $1,500.000 fixed by law.
Upon representation to Congress an additional appropriation of
$592.190 was obtained in the urgent deficiency bill which became a
law on March 28, 1918.
The original plans for the superstructure contemplated a shed of
structural Teell of a design similar to that of Pier No. 7. Upon ob-
taining bids for the material involved in this superstructure it was
found necessary to redesign the shed, abandoning the structural steel
plans and adopting reinforced concrete, with an estimated saving of
$177,1000.
At the close of the year the state of completion was as follows:
Floor, 35 per cent; cylinders, 100 per cent; pier as a whole, 60 per
cent. The construction of the shed had not been started at the end
of the year.
Notl land;nfg and launch house between Piers Nos. 7 and 8, Cristo-
bal.-At the beginning of the year work on this structure was in sus-
pense awaiting material for the superstructure The erection was re-
sumed on October (, 1917, upon arrival of the materials, and by Octo-
ber 25, 1917, the entire amount of 511,570 pounds of structural steel
for the floor and shed had been erected. The pouring of the con-
crete for encasing the girders and for the floor slab was begun on
October 31, 1917, and completed December 8, 1917. The concrete
863720-1S-2




THE PANAMA CANAL.


work for the shed was started Dece-mnber 6, 1917, and completed
January 12, 1918. The structure was entirely completed in March,
1918, and turned over to the marine division for use. The total cost
of the completed structu re was $109,93.-.07.
Miscellaneous buildinq.s.-Other than the construction of the ter-
minal facilities the operations of the building division included the
continuation of the Ancon Hospital groupl of buildings, quarters for
nurses at Colon Hospital, a dispensary at Gatun, the extension of the
building housing the hydroelectric generating plant at Gatun, the
garbage incinerator at Balboa, the local freight and baggage building
for the Panama Railroad at Docks Nos. 9 and 10, Cristobal, cold
storage building and industrial plant for the Panama Railroad at
Mount Hope, an oil tank for the supl)ly department at Mount Hope,
buildings for the Mindi dairy farm, quarters for canal and Panama
Railroad employees, and various quarters and other buildings for
the Army and Navy provided for in apl)ropriations of Congress and
allowed to the Governor of The Panama Canal for expenditure.
The buildings completed and under construction in the Ancon Hos-
pital group complete the project initiated in 1015. They include the
following: Administrative and clinics building; kitchen and mess;
section A, ward group; section B, ward gioutp; section C, ward
group; section D, ward group; isolation w\vrd; dispensary; medical
storehouse; laboratory and crematory; power house: sul)erintend-
ent's home; nurses' quarters; and garage. The plant provides a
thoroughly equipped hospital of '(;0 beds, and is capable of expan-
sion without undue crowding to SSS beds. The structures are all of
permanent material and replace old French buildings. Several frame
buildings occupied as quarters by the hospital staff and the old frame
wards Nos. 17 to 23, inclusive, will remain within the hospital grounds
and be utilized until their deterioration progresses sutificiently to
justify their removal. Work was in progress during the year on
the administration building, kitchen and mess, section C and section
D ward groups, the isolation ward, the nurses' home, power house,
and the garage, and covered passageways connecting different groupl)s
of buildings. By the end of the year there were completed and occu-
pied the administration building with connecting covered ways:
kitchen and mess, and the isolation ward. Section C ward group
was 60 per cent complete, section D ward group -140 per cent com-
plete, the nurses' home 98 per cent, thie power house 95 per cent, and
the garage.50 per cent complete. The total cost. of the completed
building project for the new Ancon Hospital- will be $1,768,762,
of which $1,292,835.04 was expended by the end of the year. The
two large ward groups, C and D, are of uniform type and design
of construction with the other ward groups heretofore completed.




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


The nurses' home, located in convenient proximity to the ward build-
ings, is three stories in height. 233 feet long, and 46 feet wide, and
provides accommodations for 72 nurses and one chief nurse. The
power house is a reinforced concrete structure with corrugated as-
bestos roof, and is one story high, 48 feet 6 inches by 62 feet 6 inches,.
with open sides and wide overhanging eaves. The building con-
tains two 50-H. P. oil-burning boilers and supplies steam to all
the hospital buiildings and the shop for the hospital carpenter and
plumber. The garage contains stalls for 8 hospital trucks and
ambulances. It is a one-;tory structure 21 feet 3 inches by 80 feet 6
inches.
The nuir-es' home at Colon Hospital, begun in September, 1917,
was completed during the year at a cost of $34,387.51. It is a two-
story buildinN. 45 feet by 70 feet, situated on the beach adjacent to
Colon Hospital, and provides quarters for 13 nurses and 2 maids.
The construction is of reinforced concrete columns, girders, and floor
slabs, with walls and partitions of hollow concrete blocks; the roof
is of red tile.
A dispensary was constructed at Gatun containing living apart-
ments for the district )]physician, office of the district dentist, and the
necessary office for the dispensing of medicines. The building is .two
stories high, 36 feet by 66 feet, of hollow block concrete construction.
except the bearing columns and floor slabs, which are of reinforced
concrete. The cost of the completed structure was $34,490.17.
The extension of the house inclosing the hydroelectric plant at
Gatun, which was begun in November, 1916, was 99 per cent com-
pleted at the end of the year. The extension doubles the original size
of the building and forms a continuation thereof. It is constructed
with the same kinds of materials and of identical design.
The garbage incinerator plant for the consumption of garbage
from tIle towns at the Pacific terminal of the canal and from the
city of Panama, was completed. The structure is 42 feet by 66 feet
6 inches, of concrete construction, with a tile roof. Its location on a
point of land formerly known as Gavilan Island was determined,
with reference to convenience of access from the different localities
supplying the garbage, reducing as much as possible the passage of
garbage wagons through streets of populated districts. The building
was constructed of sufficient capacity to allow for an increase in the
number of incinerating units as the increase of population might
make necessary. The total cost of the plant, including building and
equipment, is $116,055.92.
The report of the resident engineer, Appendix B, gives descrip-
tions in detail of the buildings constructed and detailed items of
cost.




THE PANAMA CANAL.


LoiKS OPERATION.
There were 1,936 commercial and 335 noncommercial lockages at
Gatun, and 2,096 commercial vessels were passed; at Pedro Miguel
there were 2,041 commercial and 379 noiicomimercial lockages, and
2,083 commercial vessels were passed; at Miraflores there were 2,017
commercial and 326 noncommercial lockages, and 2.081 commercial
vessels were passed. The number of ships passed..exceeded the num-
ber of lockages on account of passing more than one ship through in
one lockage under certain cornditiorn. There were no delays to ships
due to the failure of the operating machinery of the locks, and as
heretofore the damage to vessels has been chiefly due to the breaking
of chocks and bitts.
The maintenance work consisted of constant inspection of and
attention to all of the lock operating machinery and such painting of
gates and other steel parts as was required. Tlie wall fenders
originally installed have in some cases become uns-erviceable through
decay and have been replaced by timbers of aloliendra, a native hard-
wood. Four new towing locomotives manufactured in the me-
chanical division shops were completed and placed in service during
the year, two at Gatun locks and two at the Pacific locks. The in-
stallation of electric equipment on these locomotives w-as" done by the
lock forces. For purposes of inspection and maintenance work, lock
chambers were unwatered at tie different lock as as follows: At
Gatun, west chamber, middle and lower levels, from January 14 to
February 23; east chamber, middle and lower levels, from March 1
to March 23; east chamber, upper level, April 9 to April 15. At
Miraflores, east chamber, lower level, from Augustt 229 to Septem-
ber 30.
Besides the necessity for painting I)ortions of the gates, the chief
indications of deterioration developing during thee inspections were
as heretofore the corrosion due to electrolytic action on valves and
their fittings. Further inspection of tlhe valves at Miraflores locks
where greenheart lumber was used to repl)lae metal valve seats and
lignnm-vite side seals in place of machinery steel, indicated the sub-
stitutions to be the best means thus far investigated for checking the
trouble, and accordingly the same means were applied this year at
Gatun. At Miraflores locks trouble has been experienced from the
grounding of the control cables. As originally installed these cables
were insulated with varnished cambric and were lead sheathed. On
investigation it was found that the lead sheathing had become badly
pitted, and in some places had entirely disappeared. A total of six
control cables in the middle crossover were found to be defective to
varying degrees. Every case was found to be in the side wall of the
vertical shafts in a position where the lead was exposed to contact
with water that had seeped through the concrete, and the corrosion





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


and destruction of the lead covering proved to be due to the chemical
action of the seepage water which contained lime salts of sufficient
strength to act iupon the lead. The cables affected were withdrawn
and new cables were installed in a different location, supported on
hangers, where they would not be exposed to the seepage water, and
no further trouble has developed since the change. The timber
fenders at the end of the south lpplroach wall at Pedro Miguel locks
were renewed on account of the deterioration of the original fenders
by the teredo. Repairs due to the same cause but to a less extent
were made to the fender at the end of the north approach wall at
Miraflores locks. In order to maintain the level of Miraflores Lake
within the prescribed limits it was necessary to make 254 operations
of the Miraflores spillway gates. To provide a settling basin and
reduce maintenance of the channel int Miraflores Lake,,an earthern dam
was constructed before the completion of the canal across the Rio
Grande River that discharges into Miraflores Lake on the west of
the Pedro Miguel lock,. On September '', 1917, after a heavy rain-
fall, the discharge from this river exceeded the capacity of the spill-
way in the dam and the damin overflowed, carrying it out for about
SO feet and suddenly releasing 8 feet head of water. This caused a
sudden and heavy discharge into Miraflores Lake and necessitated
the opening of three gates in the Miraflores spillway for 40 minutes
in order to prevent an excessive rise in Miraflores Lake.
The contract, with tihe American Bitutmastic Enamels Company
under which the original painting of the interior of lock gates was
done with a guarantee for a period of 5 years, expires in January,
1019. Under an arrangement agreed upon in January, 1918, the
contractors withdrew their representative and men and turned the
maintenance work under their contract over to the canal, the cost
of the work to be billed to the count actors. Inspection of the in-
terior of the gates and thle application of the bitumastic wherever
necessary is in progress so as to have everything in order at the ex-
piration of the original guarantee.

ELECTRICAL DivisION.
Upon the relief from duty with the canal of Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon,
United States Army, on February 5, 1918, he was succeeded as elec-
trical engineer by Mr. Walter L. Hersh. The operation and main-
tenaince of the steam and hydroelectric power plants, substations,
transmission lines and power distribution systems, street and house
lighting systems, telephone and telegraph, fire alarm, railway block
signal systems, and railway interlocking plants, all under the super-
vision of the electrical division, were satisfactorily conducted. New
work was carried on in connection with the electrical installation for
light, heat, and power at additions to the Army and Navy establish-




THE PANAMA CANAL.


ments in the Canal Zone, as well as for the extensions of canal en-
terprises. The principal construction work in progress wvas the ex-
tension of the hydroelectric plant at Gatun spillway, as described in
the report for last year. In this project three additional penstocks
were installed at the Gatun spillway. providing for the No. 4 gen-
erating unit and for the two units, Nos. 5 and 6, that when installed
will develop the plant to its maximum capacity. In the installation
of these penstocks it was necessary to excavate 14,946 yards of ma-
terial. The material was used in part in making a fill along the
xxis of the dam just west of its junction with Gatun locks, in order
to restore to full dimensions a portion of the dam, that since its con-
struction had settled below its original elevation. The head gate
house, head gates, trash racks, and head gate operating machinery,
including switchboard and wiring involved in the installation of
the additional penstocks, were completed. The 4,500 K. W'. genera-
tor unit and the 6,750 H. P. Pelton Francis turbine were received
in May and erection was started on June 1. The 275 K. W. turbine
exciter set was completed. The extension of this plant as now au-
thorized will be completed by January 1, 1919, resulting in a capacity
of 13,140 K. W., with provisions for future installations of two addi-
tional 4,500 K. W. units, making a total capacity of the plant of
22,140 K. W.
The changes and additions at the generating .-tation at Gatun
necessitated certain modifications at the Gatun substation to adapt it.
to the 6,600-volt instead of the 2,200-volt generation. The work in-
volves the installation of one 8,400 K. V. A. 6,600-44,000 volt
water-cooled transformer; the complete remodeling of concrete cells
for oil circuit breakers and for instrument transformers; the in-
stallation of higher capacity circuit breakers; changes and additions
to the existing switchboard; the installation of two 1,500 K. V. A.
6,600-2,200 volt water-cooled transformers; the reconnection of two
4,000 K. V. A. 2,200-44,000 transformers for 6,600-44,000 volt opera-
tion; and the removal of two 2,667 K. V. A. 2,200-44.000 volt traifs-
formers. These changes were in progress at the close of the fiscal
year, and when complete the Gatun substation will be equipped with
two 1,500 K. V. A. 6,600-2,200 volt transformers for local distribu-
tion, and two 4,000 K. V. A. and one 8.400 K. V. A. 6,600-44,000 volt
transformers for distant transmission, with provisions for future in-
stallation of one 8,400 K. V. A. transformer. At the Miraflorcs sub-
station certain changes were made, as described in detail in the report
of the electrical engineer, for the purpose of releasing equipment for
service at one of the naval establishments, in the Canal Zone. thus
affording temporary power facilities nine months in advance of the
possible receipt from the manufacturers in the States of the perma-
nent equipment required.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


At the Balboa substation an additional 2,200-volt feeder equip-
ment was installed for the operation of the air compressing plant in
Balboa shops, and a similar unit for feeding auxiliary power to the
Pacific forts. The principal items involved in extensions and im-
provements to the underground power distribution system included
extensions to the townsite of New Cristobal, new cold storage plant
at Cristobal, and to the naval reservation.
The net output of power generated averaged 4,419,192 K. W. H. per
month, as compared with 4,190,020 K. W. H. per month last year.
The increase in output has been generated principally at the hydro-
electric station at Gatun, and the fuel oil consumption at the
auxiliary steam plant at Miraflores was reduced from an average of
3,428 barrels per month to 2,900 barrels per month. The average cost
of current generated and distributed for power purposes for the
year was 0.7782 cent per K. W. H. The average cost of current per
K. W. H. for lighting purposes, including cost of generation and
transmission, maintenance of house lighting systems and lamp
renewals, was 0.013179 cent. The Miraflores steam generating plant
carries a load only at such times as the total load exceeds the capacity
of the hydroelectric station at Gatun. During the year there was a
total additional load on the generating plants of 1,900 K. W. for
power and 270 K. W. for light.
There were 29 failures of the transmission line, as compared with
17 during the preceding year, due to insulation troubles.
There was a net increase of 36!) telephone installations, and the
average number of telephone calls per day of eight hours was 21,816.
Two additional fire-alarm boxes were installed at New Cristobal;
four on the clock at. La Boca, and a new fire alarm register at Ancon
fire station.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix A.

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING DIVISION.
The work of this division under the supervision of Mr.,D. E.
Wright, as municipal engineer, included the care and maintenance of
water reservoirs, maintenance and operation of pumping stations and
filtration plants, maintenance and repair of municipal improvements
in the Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, the municipal
construction work in the townsites of the Canal Zone and at the Army
and Navy establishments. In the supply of water for all purposes the
total number of gallons pumped during the year at the various stations
was as follows: At Mount. Hope, 1,442,275,000; at Agua Clara, 428,-
401,000; at Gamboa, 3,462,016,000; at Miraflores, 379,460,000; at Bal-
boa, 2,3S3,059,575; and at Paraiso, 74,540,000. The average division
cost per thousand gallons for water delivered to the various districts
of the Canal Zone was as follows: Cristobal, $0.08; Gatun, $0.11;




THE PANAMA CANAL.


Gamboa, $0.09; Paraiso, $0.06; Pedro Miguel, $0.06; Miraflores,
$0.06; and Balboa-Ancon, $0.07. These figures include the charges
for pumping and the operation and imiaintenaince of the filtration
plants. At Cristobal 1,420 ships were supplied with 44,875,000 gallons
of water, and at Balboa S27 vessels were supplied with 24.067,600
gallons. The city of Panamiia consumed S58,402.000 gallons, and the
city of Colon, including The Painamia Canal arid Panama Railroad
reservations in Colon, conTsumed 591,'-,1l)5 gallons. The water
revenue derived from private consiumier'- iii Paiinama totaled $152,-
100.05, and in Colon $105,0902.45. In the cities of Panama and Colon
the municipal division expended $154,it00.$5 in the upkeep of streets
and water aind sewer systems. Tliis expense is reimbursed, under the
canal treaty, from the water revenues in the two cities. For new
construction work by the IImunicipal division in the towns and villages
occupied by the Panama Canal employees, a total of $545,723.55 was
spent. The items included the grading of grounds and extensions
of roads, water and sewer systems for the new buildiing- in the hos-
pital grounds at Ancon; the grading of grounds arid installation of
water and sewer systems in connection with tlie new schoolhouses at
Ancon, Balboa, Pedro Miiguel, Gatun, and Cristobal; resurfacing of
the streets in old Cristobal and iii Gatin, the Mount Hope-Colorn road,
Ancon-Corozal road, Corozal-Pedro Miguel road, East La Boca road,
Sosa Hill road, and roads in the Balboa shop district; and the con-
struction of new and extension of old sidewalks in the various towns
occupied by canal employees. For the United States Army the
municipal division performed work at a total expense of $258,416.59,
including the completion of work under way tlie prec-edinfg year in
the various posts; construction of concrete streets and sidewalks,
extension of water and sewer systems, arid the installation of water
and sewer pumping station at Fort Sherman. There was also
included the making of the necessary surveys and the preparation
of plans and estimates for the proposed inew Army posts at Gatun,
Miraflores, Corozal, Diablo, and Corundu River. For the Panama
Railroad this division performed work at a cost of $187,401.82, in-
cluding the completion of the Corundii River storm -ewer, the filling
of and installation of water, sewers, and streets for the Folks River
section of Colon extension; the installation of water, sewers, streets,
and sidewalks for the chicken farm at New Culebra, renalned Sumn-
mit; the installation of water lines arid pumitps for irrigating work on
the various plantations; thlie construction of roads and sewers for the
hog farm near Mindi: and the construction of road- and water and
sewer systems for the Mindi dairy farm.
In the performance of work for various outsiders, including the
construction of roads, ewvers, and water lines for the area to be
occupied by the cable company, concrete construction work for the





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Panama Tramway Co., repairs to streets in Panama and Colon where
gas connections were made, and making water and sewer connections
for private parties in the cities of Colon and Panama, there was
a total expense of $42.2S_.04, covered by deposits made by the inter-
ested parties.
For ratproofing of docks Nos. 13. 14, 15. and pier No. 18 a total of
$5),$9I.93 was expended. On work requests from the building divi-
sion for municipal workk in connection with new buildings con-
structed, work was performed at a total cost of $91,419.28. In the
construction of concrete ditches and drains, filling of swamp areas,
preparation of estimates for proposed work, and maintenance of
pumping station at Palo Seco leper colony, the sum of $37,325.83
was spent for the health department. Miscellaneous construction
jobs at a total cost of $118,092.70 were (:one for the divisions of
fortifications, clubs and playgrounds, locks, electrical, marine, dredg-
ing, mechanical, and supply.
During the year a total of 224.581 square yards of concrete streets
and roads was constrilucteld, and 12.28 square yards of roadway
with Telford and manca(lal base. with a wearing surface of asphaltic
concrete and Tarvia.
In the chemical laboratory at Mi raflores water purification plant
investigations were made of the concrete aggregates in general use
on the canal in order to determine the necessity or otherwise of
washing the agglregate before incorl)orating it in the concrete. From
these investigations it has been determined that the extra expense
in washing thie aggregate is justified where uniformity of product
and especially where the full strength of concrete is desired. This
laboratory analyzed samples of paint, lime, alum, fertilizers, etc.,
and made special investigations of the cause of corrosion of the lead-
sheathed cables at Mirafolres locks. In addition the laboratory per-
formed its normal duties in connection with the operation of the
water purification plants. Tile filtered and treated water from the
purification plants was maintained at a high standard of excellence.
For details of the operations of the munllicipal division, see report
of the municipal engineer. Appendix A.
IMIETEOrOLOGY A.ND HIYDrOGRAPHY.
Tile former head of this division. Mr. F. D. Willson, chief
hydrographer, resigned, effective July 17, 1917, and was succeeded
by Mr. R. Z. Kirkpatrick. Mr. Kirkpatrick resigned, effective April
13. 191S. to enter tile military service, and Mr. H. G. Cornthwaite
was appointed his successor. The existing observation stations were
continued in operation and certain new stations were established,
as follows: A station for the measurement of rainfall on Bohio
Island, November 1, 1917. equipped with standard rain gauge; equip-





THE PANAMA CANAL.


ment for the measurement of evaporation at Alhajuela, February 23,
1918; standard rain gauge on the Pedro Miguel River, June 25, 1918;
standard rain gauge at Taboga, January 10, 1918, and a rainfall
station at Darien on June 29, 1918.
The rainfall during the calendar year 1917 was above normal in
the interior sections 'of the Canal Zone, and below normal along the
Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The least rainfall for the calendar year
was at Balboa, 64.11 inches, and the greate-t rainfall was 145.96
inches at the Gatun River station. In the Pacific section the average
for the year was 80.37 inches; in the Central section, 103.17; and
in the Atlantic section 131.01 inches. The maximum 24-hour rainfall
recorded was 8.58 inches at Gatun on April 28-29. During the first
six months of the calendar year 1918 the rainfall averaged approxi-
mately normal at all stations.
The air temperature for the calendar year 1917 averaged from 10 to
20 F. below normal. The highest temperature recorded was in April
and the lowest in February. At Balboa Heights the maxinium tem-
perature recorded was 940 F. on April 25, and the minimum recorded
was 580 F. at Alhajuela on February 5. During the first six months
of the calendar year 1918 the temperature has been generally below
normal.
The wind movements over the Canal Zone have been normal. The
maximum velocity recorded was at Colon on November 24. 42 miles
an hour.
The evaporation from the surface of Gatun Lake. as measured at
Gatun, was slightly below normal during the year. The usual l)rev-
alence of fogs occurred at the interior stations, and there were no
fogs at either entrance of the canal. As the fogs are. as a general
rule, dissipated by 8.45 a. m., no difficulties were experienced on their
account in the navigation of the canal.
Thirty seismic disturbances were recorded at the Balboa Heights
station during the fiscal year. They were all of low intensity, tilhe
maximum being that of August 31, 1917. which registered III on the
Rossi-Forel scale. No damage resulted in the Canal Zone from any
of these disturbances. The destructive carthqituiakes in Guzatamala
City and vicinity in December, 1917. and January. 1918, were re-
corded at the Balboa Heights instrument, but the intensity here
was low.
No changes were made in the hydro graphic stations and equip-
ment. A water-stage register was established at Gatiuncillo at the
head of the Chagres River arm of Gatun Lake. There were four
freshets in the Chagres River, the largest of which occurred on May
5, 1918, and gave a maximum momentary discharge of 61.200 cubic
feet per second. This has been exceeded but three times in 20 years
at Alhajuela, December, 1906, and November and December, 1909.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


On January 1, 1918, Gatun Lake was at elevation plus 87.02.
During the dry season it gradually fell to a minimum elevation of
plus S4.52 on April 21. The consumption of water from Gatun
Lake was due to causes with percentages stated as follows: Spillway
discharge 67 per cent; hydroelectric station 16 per cent; evaporation
9 per cent; canal lockages and miscellaneous uses and losses 7 per
cent. The spillway discharge represents the necessary waste during
the wet season in order to maintain the surface of the lake at and
below the prescribed maximum eight. As discussed in last year's
report, the annual water supply for Gatun Lake has proved to be
sufficient for the use of the canal to its capacity. In dry seasons of
exceptional length and intensity it will be necessary to conserve the
water used at hydroelectric generating plant in order to maintain
the lake level above the minimum of plus 80, when the number of
lockages approaches the practicable limit of an average of 36 per
day. At such time the deficiency in the electrical output of the gen-
erating station at Gatun may be supplemented by the operation of
the steam generating plant at Miraflores.
For details see the report of the chief hydrographer, Appendix A.

SURVEYS.
Upon the resignation of Mr. 0. E. Malsbury, assistant engineer, to
accept a commission in the Army, the survey work was placed in
charge of Mr. F. R. Fitch, assistant engineer, September 11, 1917.
In Colon, corner and grade stakes were set on 46 lots and alley
stakes on 35 lots. Sixteen block monuments were lowered to side-
walk level, and eight monuments were set in the section east of E
Street. In Panama 19 block monuments, which had been destroyed
by street improvements, were replaced ; 2S block monuments were set
in Guachapali section. Monthly observations were continued on
settlement hubs at Gatun dam, which indicated normal settlement.
Levels were run over the settlement hubs on Cairo Saddle dam, indi-
cating a settlement hardly appreciable. Surveys were completed of
pastures of the supply department as follows: Caimito, Pedro
Miguel, Miraflores, Arango, Monte Lirio, Summit, and Mandinga.
The total area surveyed was about 24,000 acres. A topographical
survey was made for the health department, of the swamp area east
of Margarita railroad for the purpose of estimating the cost of a
hydraulic fill. A topographical survey was made for the municipal
engineering division for use in its estimates for the construction of
Army posts at Miraflores dump, and of a tract east of the old road
between Panama and Pedro Mliguel. Surveys of several estates were
made and maps prepared for the use of the special attorney in the
hearings before the Joint Commission in the settlement of land
claims. The survey of the Panama-Ancon-Balboa district, begun




THE PANAMA CANAL.


last year. was completed. Two new triangulation were established,
Corozal," near the old hotel at Corozal, arnd Mole," on tile outer
end of the mole at Cristobal. A precise bench mark was established
at Margarita. Fifty-one of the precise bench marks heretofore estab-
lished in the transisthmian service were cleared, repaired, and
painted. Three Canal Zone boundary monuments were reset on
account of having been dcestroved by street construction, and seven
extra monuments were set on the boundary line between the Canal
Zone and the city of Panama. The Colon Hospital, Quarantine, and
Radio reservations were surveyed and monuments set on their
boundaries.
For further details see Appendix A.

OFFICE ENGIN-ErE.

This office continued tiunder the supervision of Mr. C. J. Eimbree,
and performed the engineering, architectural, electrical, and mis-
cellaneous designing work for all of the divisions of the canal ex-
cept the mechanical division. A total of N!64 working drawings were
prepared. The blue-print room attached to this office turned out a
total of 292.,885 square feet of prints of all kinds, at an average cost of
0.0123 cent per square foot.

A\InEis DIVISION.

Between August 21, 1B17. the date of the relief from duty with
the canal of Commander H. I. Cone. United States Navy, marine
superintendent, and January "24, 191S. the date of the Zappointment
of his successor, Commander L. P. Sargent. United States Navy, the
supervision of this division was assumed by the Governor, the cap-
tains of the ports reporting directly to him. The operations of the
division included, as heretofore, all matters pertaining to trans-
actions with the canal by ships using its facilities, including the
actual transit through the canal. To these normal duties there were
added in April, 1918, the local administration, under the Governor,
of Title II of the espionage act of June 15, 1917. As the local rep-
resentative of the War Trade Board the Governor also charged the
marine superintendent with the enforcement of bunker license regu-
lations of the War Trade Board, and for the performance of this
function the marine superintendent and the two port captains have
been designated special agents of the Bureaum of Transportation.
There was an increase in tiallic as compared with former years. A
total of 2,130 ships of all classes passed through, of which 921 were
bound from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and 1,-0') from the Pacific to
the Atlantic. The cargo carried through the canal totaled 7,562.133
tons of 2,240 pounds. The average net tonnage of all ships was




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


3,126, anO the average net tonnage of ships carrying cargo was 3,242.
The actual weight of cargo transported per ship was 3,681 tons of
2,240 polund -. During the preceding year there was a total of 1,876
ships passing through the canal, of which 905 were from the Atlantic
to the Pacific, and 971 from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The total
cargo transported through the canal in the preceding fiscal year was
7,02 9. .'2 tons of 2,240 pounds. The tolls collected for the year end-
ing June 30, 11,S, amounted to $0,4:0,083.00. Attention has hereto-
fore been called to the necessity for legislation revising the present
law so as to make applicable to all vessels the Panama Canal rules of
admneasurement.- The legislation requested has been pending in
Congress and the merits of the case have been fully set forth in
special reports and in hearings before the appropriate committees of
Congress. If the new law had been available during the past fiscal
year, the tolls collected would have been $7,522,195.68, an increase in
revenue for the canal of $1,083,111.09. This increase in'revenue is
not the only advantage that would have accrued, as the present law
and regulations result in lack of uniformity in levying tolls on ships
of different types of construction, and make it necessary to consider
in each case two systems of measurement, one according to the canal
rules and the other according to the United States rules of admeas-
urement.
In enforcing certain regulations made necessary on account of the
war, the personnel and e, equipment of the marine division have co-
operated with the military and naval branches of the Government.
For further details see the report of the marine superintendent,
Appendix D.
Dr:EDG.NG DIVISION.

The work of this division had so far diminished during the first
six months of tlie year that on January 1, 1918, it was found ad-
visible to place tlhe dredging units on a single shift of eight hours per
day, and on April 1, 1918, it was practicable to consolidate the two
districts and to direct all the dredging operations from the division
headquarters at Paraiso. The resident engineer, Mr. W. G. Comber,
under whose direction the dredging operations throughout the canal
had been conducted since May 1, 1913, and who had completed 13
years' service with the canal, resigned on June 14, 1918, effective at
the expiration of his leave of absence. The position of resident en-
gineer was abolished.
The work having practically reached a maintenance basis, the
division was attached to the supervision of the engineer of mainte-
nance immediately after the close of the fiscal year. As superintend-
ent in charge of the dredging division, AIr. J. M. Pratt was appointed,
effective July 1, 1918.




THE PANAMA CANAL.


The following equipment was in operation as stated in each case:
The seagoing suction dredge Cu. 'bra, from July 1 to 20, 1917, in
Gaillard Cut; from July 21 to October 8, 1917. in the service of the
supply department as a boat for the- transportation of cattle from
Colombia; from October 9 to 13. 1017. salvaging and wrecking opera-
tions for the rescue of the steamer Somc:s.et, at Old Providence Is-
land; from October 14, 1917, to April 3, 191S, maintaining and deep-
ening the Pacific entrance channel and inner harbor at Balboa, and
excavating and transporting sand from Cham e Point; from April 4
to 10, 1918, salvaging and wrecking operations for the steamship
Grays Harbor, grounded at Old Providence Island'.and from April
11 to the end of the year in the service of the siipply department as
a cattle boat. The dipper dredge 'asc,.s. \\a is operated in the Paci-
fic entrance channel and in the inner harbor at Balboa; ex-avating
a basin for the naval establishment at Coco Solo; deepening the
channel at the Fort De Lesseps wharf; and wideningg, the. Cristobal
approach channel. The dipper dredge _Gumtboa w\:i. operated in
Gaillard Cut, at the Cuiciracha and Clilebra slides. a:nd in tihe work
of widening the canal channel at Paraiso. Tlje dipper dredge Prais
was operated at the Culebra and Ccii-racha slides and at tlie cliinnel
improvements at Paraiso. The sea going ladder dredgeie _'oroz.lI was
at work in Balboa Harbor widening and deepening the Pacific en-
trance channel. The 20-inch pipe line dredges .Vo.s. ,S;?2 8'.' 85,
and 86 were engaged on various work at different times, including
the digging of sand and gravel for construction purposes in the
Chagres River above Gam boa; excava tiont at the naval establishment
at. Coco Solo; filling swamp areas; and maintaining the channel in
Gaillard Cut. Dredge Yo. 82 was permanently retired from canal
service on May 26, 1918, and dredge .o. 85 on I\lay 11, 1918. and both
dredges were transferred to the construction bureau of the office of
the Quartermaster General, United States Army. Of the 10 tugboats
in the dredging service on July 1, 1917, 3 were transferred to the
marine division, 1 to the War Department in the States, and 1
to the Navy Department. The tug R:linc,: was sunk off the west
breakwater at Cristobal on December 27, 1916, and was floated and
towed to Cristobal shops for overhaul; it was again placed in com-
mission on August 19, 1917. Dredges operating in the canal prism
at the Atlantic and Pacific terminals and in the sand and gravel
service, removed a total of 6,705,031 cubic yards of material, at an
average unit cost of 45.95 cents per yard, as against a total in 1917 of
15,445,885 cubic yards at an average unit cost of 27.78S cents. Teli
increase in cost was chiefly due to the diminished output, and in the
sea-level portions of the canal to restrictions in operations im-
posed by war conditions. In maintaining the canal there were re-
moved from the canal prism quantities in the different sections as




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


follows: Atlantic entrance, 19,452 cubic yards; Gatun Lake, 0; Gail-
lard Cuit, 2,285,273 cubic yards; Miraflores Lake, 0; Pacific entrance,
596,975 cubic yards. Original excavation in the canal prism charge-
able to construction included 120,000 culbic yards in Gaillard Cut and
319.SS0 cubic yards at the Pacific entrance, making a total for the
canal prism throughout the length of the canal of 439,880 cubic
yards.. At the end of the fiscal year there remained to be removed
from the canal prism, chargeable to construction, quantities as fol-
lows: Atlantic entrance, 0; Gatiin Lake, 50,000 cubic yards; Gaillard
Cut, 25,000 cubic yards; Pacific entrance, 378,200 cubic yards;
chargeable to maintenance: Atlantic entrance, 732,210; Gatun Lake,
165.000: Gaillard Cut.. 933,400; Miraflores Lake, 175,000; and Pacific
entrance, 1,712,830 cubic yards.
The slides at Culebra and at Cucluraclha have reached a condition
in which they require only intermittent dredging. At no time during
the year was shipping delayed on account of slides, and a channel
of practically full dimensions was maintained by the removal dur-
ing the year of a total of 1,316.315 cubic yards. Excavation of an
indeterminate but relatively small amount. will be necessary in the
future to maintain full dimensions in the canal prism as the slides
move from time to time in their approach to permanent stability.
Advantage was taken of the periods during which no dredging was
necessary at the slides to effect improved conditions at two points in
the canal. Immediately below the Miiraflores locks on the'west bank
of the canal there was a projecting point of land which complicated
the tidal currents and the currents resulting from the discharge of
water from Miraflores Lake through the Miraflores locks in lock
operations, and which interfered with the safe handling of ships. A
project involving the excavation by dredging of 230,000 cubic yards
of earth and 225,000 cubic yards of rock was approved, and of these
quantities 6S,400 cubic yards of earth and 14,600 cubic yards of rock
had been removed on June 30, 1918. At the Paraiso point of inter-
section, one-half mile north of Pedro Miguel locks, and immediately
south of the pontoon bridge at Paraiso, a high point of land ob-
structed the view at a place where north and south-bound ships fre-
quently meet. An improvement at this point was authorized, consist-
ing of a slight widening of the canal and the removal of the high
bank, involving a total removal of 66,000 cubic yards of earth and
370,000 cubic yards of rock. Of these quantities, 21,100 cubic yards
of earth and 81,000 cubic yards of rock had been excavated at the
close of the year. Inspections of slide areas were made from time to
time. with especial reference to the maintenance of drainage condi-
tions. Periodical instrumental observations were taken on the points
established in 1916 on Gold, Zion, Contractors, and Purple Hills,
indicating no movement.




THE PANAMA CANAL.


Miscellaneous dredging included the removal of 1,150,510 cubic
yards of earth and (144,838 cubic yards of rock from the Atlantic
terminal, and 1,1G0,(03 cubic yards of earth and 152,975 cubic yards
of rock from the Pacific terminal.
The rock and timber dike, at Mi ndi Beach, south of Limon Bay,
were maintained. only minor repairs being necessary. No new dikes
were const ructed.
In the elimination of water hyacinths from the waters of the canal,
32S,859 square yards of hy(aciniths were cleared by arsenic spraying,
and =0 4,132 young pIlants were uprooted and destroyed.
For further details, reference is invited to the report of the super-
intendent in charge of dredging. Appendix C.

1MECH.\NIC.\L DIVISION.
The work of this division continued in char-ge of Comnimainder R. D.
Gatewood, naval constructor, and tile mechanical plants remained
as reported last year with the exception that the Paraiso shops were
closed down on August '25, 1917. owing to the greatly diminished
amount of repair work required for the dredging division in that
vicinity. On October 1, 1917, the electrical forces of the mechanical
division were transferred to the electrical division, except two elec-
tricians at Balboa shops and two at Cristohal shops for the main-
tenance oft aplit work. Owing to the congested condition of tlhe
shipyards and docks in tlie States, an abnormal amount of repairs
to ships was conducted, including the thorough overhaul of two large
ships for the Navy and the steamship Ancon of the Panama Railroad
Steamship Line. Minor repairs were made to various ships of the
Navy as they passed through the canal. Construction work was
performed for the local Army and Navy establishments. Canal equip-
ment was placed in tlie dry docks for repairs at Cristobal and Bal-
boa as follows: Dredges .Vos. .5'?, S .5', .*'., .5', C'h( ,( .', (as'ca a.s,
C'ul/-,ra-, Corozal, Ge Ibo,oa. 1, uoni, and Parai'so; '26 barges and .5
scows; and tugs Port'o L//,lo, C("aini:, E'n. ,r' lir'af ore:.s', De L.s'-
.s'/p.s La T'/all/y, Bol;o, La BDoe,I and MJarii,.r. Repairs not requiring
thile use of the dry docks were made to the tug R'.li/an quired extensive overhaul: tugs La loca, Mlraft'or., and Mariner.
There were overhauled and shipped for the Alaskan Engineering
Commission and private firms 70 locoinotives, 5 steam shovels, 400
flat cars, 30 Rodger ballast cars, and 30 du1111111p ars. On account of
the high cost and difficulty of transporting lumber from the States,
this division has investigated the native Iulmber field, with the result
that about 2,.000,000 feet of lumber have been obtained. Changes and
improvements in the Balboa shops included tile construction of a
steel paling fence around the inclosure; the removal of the old Pan-
ama Railroad shed covering Pier No. 15, making the space available




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


as repair wharves; the extension of the roof over the west end of
the foundry; an extension at the north end of building No. 2; an.
extension to the car shop; the installation of a pipe-bending machine
for the sheet-metal shop; bending rolls and plate planer in the boiler
shop; and of a band-saw mill with capacity to handle hardwood
!ogs 4S inches in diameter by 60 feet long.
At the Cristobal shops, repairs were made to the dry-dock gates,
and new equipment has been installed as follows: Pipe threading
and cutting machine, a power hack saw, 14-inch drill press, and an
electric welding machine.
For further details see report of the superintendent, mechanical
division, Appendix E.

SUPPLY DEPARTMENT.
Following the relief from duty with the canal of Lieut. Col. WV. R.
Grove as chief quartermaster, and Capt. F. H. Smith as assistant
chief quartermaster, changes in the organization of the department
were made. The position of assistant chief quartermaster was
abolished, and the work of the. department was subdivided into sev-
eral branceles, as follows:
(a) District quartermasters, hotels, restaurants, messes, and store-
houses, under the direct supervision of a superintendent, reporting
to the chief quartermaster.
(b) Commissary division, operated under a general manager, re-
porting to the chief quartermaster, and including commissary ware-
houses, cold storage plants, manufacturing plants, abattoir, laundries,
and retail commissaries.
(c) Pastures, plantations, hog farms, chicken farms, and dairies,
under the immediate supervision of a superintendent, cattle industry,
who has also direct charge of the operation of the cattle boats, and
who reports to the chief quartermaster.
(d) Purchase of live stock and cattle, in charge of a cattle buyer,
wvho reports to the chief quartermaster.
ke) United States requisition bureau, under the chief of bureau,
reporting to the chief quartermaster.
(f) Printing plant, designated as The Panama Canal Press, and
operated under the charge of a printer, who reports to the chief
quartermaster.
The commissaries, cattle industry, pastures, plantations, dairies,
etc., and the Washington Hotel, are financed by the Panama Rail-
road, but the operations are conducted under the supervision of the
chief quartermaster of The Panama Canal.
Labor.-There was a marked reduction in the number of employees
on the silver roll accomplished gradually during the year. On June
30, 1918. the number employed was 16,157, as compared with 20,597
863720-18---3




THE PANAMA. CANAL.


on June 30, 1917. The decrease resulted from the completion of con-
struction work. The problem of caring for thle cunemp1)loyed, who
were in general living in the cities of Panama and Colon, was some-
what simplified by the voluntary departure of a number to Cuba
and the United States, and by the repatriation (f others to the
islands whence they came.
Quarters.-Applications by gold employees for family quarters
were reduced from 257 on file June 30, 1917, to 92"2 on June 30,
1918. At the end of the fiscal years there were 1,721 a-)pplications on
file by silver employees for married quarters, distrilibuted as follows:
Balboa, 602; Pedro Miguel, 114; Gatun, 30; and Cri9toba 075.
On account of the reduction in the volume of dredge work at
Gaillard Cut, the village of Paraiso was abandoned as a re-idence
for gold employees, and 30 family quarters vacated were converted
into quarters for silver employees, providing a total of SO apart-
ments for occupation by silver employees of the dredging division,
of the Pedro Miguel locks, and of other branches of canal work
centered at Pedro Miguel.
The situation as to bachelor quarter- for gold employees- has im-
proved so that 60 per cenit of all bachelors are provided for at the
rate of one man to a room. Additional bachelor quarters should
ultimately be provided, but the matter is held in abeyance for the
duration of the war.
Further experience with electric ranges in gold quarters, referred
to in last year's report, indicates that they are slightly more ex-
pensive than coal-burning ranges, and no further installations are
being made. The increased cost is due, not to the relative expense of
electric current, but to the high cost of maintenance of the ranges.
Corrals.-The number of animals in the corrals was reduced from
52 horses and 289 mules on July 1, 1917, to 39 horses and 210 mules
on June 30, 1918. The reduction of animals in the corrals wa; due
to deaths, condemnation and sale, and transfers to plantation work.
There was an increase from 115 to 176 in the number of motor vehi-
cles of all descriptions, including trucks for handling supplies for
the construction divisions and vehicles for commissary deliveries,
mail deliveries, and garbage collection. Experience shows not only
a saving in time, but a decreased cost of operation in the use of
motor-driven as compared with animal-drawn vehicles.
Materials and supplics.-There was a considerable red iu:tion in
the number of requisitions prepared and forwarded to the general
purchasing officer in Washington, and in the value of the materials
received, compared with the preceding year. For the year covered
by this report there was a total of 880 requisitions for supplies, of
a total value of $8,700,356.62, as compared with 1,347 requisitions to
the value of $10,817,106.51 for the preceding year. There was a




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


reduction in the value of local purchases, being $1,349,783.84, as
compared with $1,516,914.79 for the preceding year.
The valine of material in stock on June 30, 1918, was $6,747,688.26,
showing an increase of $698,703.56 during the year. This increase is
mainly due to the greater cost of material and the upward tendency
of the market. A comparison of prices shows an average value in-
.rease of 131 per cent during the last four years, with a particularly
marked increase during the last year, and although the amount of
stores on ha;ind howss an increase in money value, in total quantity
it is smaller. Also owing to conditions resulting from the war,
an increased stock had to be carried of certain commodities. Sales
to Govern meant departments and commercial steamships aggregated
$1.630.S27.00, an increase of $1,037,204.60 over the preceding year.
The principal items sold were lumber, building material, general
hardware, rope, cable, gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oils. The
consumption of cement for the year was 149,039 barrels, as compared
with 270.05) "- barrels for the preceding year. The details of the col-
lections and sales of obsolete material, equipment, and scrap are con-
tained in the report of the chief quartermaster, Appendix E.
Fuel oil plants.-A contract with the Standard Oil Co. of Cali-
fornia for the delivery at Balboa of 700,000 barrels, expires Septem-
ber 1, 1918. On June 30, 1918,.a balance of 188,357 barrels remained
to be delivered. A contract with the Atlantic Refining Co. for the
delivery of 240,000 barrels of fuel oil at Cristobal expired June 30,
191.S, with 75,000 barrels under order remaining to be delivered. The
canal equipment for storing oil is to be increased by the construction
of a 55,000-1iarrel capacity concrete fuel oil tank at Mount Hope,
which was 75 per cent completed at the end of the year. A total of
2,517.217 barrels of fuel oil was handled by the Balboa and Mount
Hope fuel oil plants, for a total of 438 vessels.
[7,1a Ponio a Canal Press.-Equipment was added to the printing
plant at a cost of $3,072.21. The value of stock on hand on June
30, 1018, was $80,542.96, as compared with $81,767.72 for the preced-
ing year. Unserviceable items were surveyed and disposed of to
the value of $220.27.
Sul,/i shce..-The net revenue from the restaurants and messes
operated by the canal was $598,153.51, a decrease of $42,914.08 under
the preceding year. The cost of operations was $594,395.99, a de-
crease of $39,751.34. The charges for building repairs, fuel, and
light are not included in these figures. They are absorbed by canal
appropriations, the reason being that these charges are not made
to employees living in family quarters, and it would be unfair to
include them in the cost of meals to the employees patronizing the
restaurants and messes. The new lunch room at the Balboa shops
was completed and occupied on September 7, 1917. There was a




THE PANAMA CANAL.


considerable decrease in revenue at the hotels Tivoli and Washing-
ton. The operation of the Hotel Tivoli showed a net loss of $8,109.95,
and the Hotel Washington showed a net loss of $15,465.92. The
losses are due entirely to diminished patronage which results from
lack of travel on account of war conditions. The hotels must be
kept open as necessary utilities for the public having business with
the canal. It is not practicable to prevent losses by increasing rates,
and the cost of operation has been reduced to the minimum consistent
with providing hotel facilities. There is no apparent. reason why,
on the resumption of normal conditions, the operation of these hotels
should be a burden upon the canal appropriations or upon the funds
of the Panama Railroad.
The efforts of the supply department to reduce the dependence of
the Canal Zone population upon outside sources, especially the United
States, for foodstuffs, referred to in report for last year, have been
continued, and considerable progress has been made. The industries
involved are financed by the Panama Railroad, but in this report it
is appropriate to make a brief review of the results obtained. The
production of native beef for consumption on the Isthmus and by
the steamship trade utilizing the canal, has grown to such an extent
that it was not necessary during the year to import beef from the
United States. The hog industry has been developed so as to provide
in sufficient quantities, ham, bacon, and sausage. The chicken farmn
has been developed to the extent of providing 23,.)14 dozen eggs dur-
ing the past six months. At the Mindi dairy farm, which was placed
in operation in January, 1918, there has been a monthly production
of milk that has increased from 971 gallons in January to 5,373
gallons in June. The plantations have provided in significant quan-
tities, various fruits and vegetables, including among the principal
items, string beans, cucumbers, green corn, coconuts, onions, rI:d-
ishes, tomatoes, eggplant, sweet potatoes, oranges, okra, ynams, plan-
tain, bananas, alligator pears, papaya, and mangoes.
With the approval of the Secretary of War, Army conmissaries
were established under the administration of the quartermaster de-
partment of the Army, at the military posts of Fort Sheriman, Fort
Randolph, Las Cascadas, Empire, Culebra, and Corozal. The canal
commissaries at those points were consequently abandoned, except
that in order to provide for' the Panama Canal employees working
on the west bank of the canal a commissary at Empire was continued.
The regulations of the Food Administration at Washington have
been applied on the Canal Zone wherever the commodities affecteAl
were imported from the United States.
For further details see the report of the chief quartermaster,
Appendix F.





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT.
This department continued under the charge of Mr. H. A. A.
Smith, auditor. It is subdivided into the division of auditing and
accounting, under the direction of the auditor, assisted by Mr. Elwyn
Green; division of collections, under the collector, Mr. T. L. Clear;
and the division of disbursements, under the paymaster, Mr. J. H.
McLenn. Disbursements were made by the paymaster in the amount
of $29,962,040.32, of which $11,273,280.32 were on account of the
Panama Railroad. Employees on the gold rolls of the canal were
paid $0,269,614.59. and on the silver roll $5,442,626.14. The sum of
$6,976,425.'27 was paid on miscellaneous vouchers. Collections on
p)ay rolls totaled $3,S97.644.15, of which $3,018,091.07 were collected
for coupon books and meal tickets; $87,002.45 for rent; and the re-
mainder for miscellaneous items. The Panama branch of the Com-
mercial National Bank of Washington, D. C., was transferred on
July 10, 1918, to the American Foreign Banking Corporation, the
latter continuing as a Government depository and fiscal agent. Small
deposits of United Staitei. Government and Panama Railroad funds
are carried iin this bank. The use of gold and of Panaman silver in
making 1)ayments has been practically discontinued, and paper cur-
rency and American silver substituted therefore. The sum of $1,622,-
(000 has been imported by the canal for use in making payments.
Collections repaid to alpp)roplriations totaled $8,625,298.20. De-
posits by owners and .gents of ships for payment of tolls and charges
for supplies and services rendered by canal facilities totaled $13,859,-
407.05, of which $0,6,90.341.45 xfere deposited with the collector on the
Isthmus, and tlie remainder. $4.1(09,125.60, with the Assistant Treas-
urer of the United States to the credit of the collector. Of the total
depositedl the sum of $091,044.36 was refunded on settlement of
accounts. There were transferred to the Postmaster General of the
United States, in payment of money orders drawn on the United
States, funds to the amount of $1,655,000.
The tolls actually collected on vessels transiting the canal during
the year iLmoLunted to $G,439,0S3.99. The sum of $2,321.25 was col-
lected in addition for tolls on a vessel that passed through the canal
during the preceding year. In further reference to the loss of
revenue to the canal on account of the present legislation relating
to rules of measurement of vessels, it may be stated here that, includ-
ing the amounts refunded during the year, under authority of the
act of Congress of JTune 12, 1917, the total loss of revenue since the
opening of the canal has aggregated $2,797,260.26. The chief bene-
ficiaries of the present rules of measurement have been vessels under
foreign register.





THE PANAMA CANAL.


The sum of $26,525.82 was paid in settlement of small claims for
damage to vessels passing through the locks. These claims iiave
thus far been adjusted and settled by mutual agreement without re-
course to the courts, as authorized by the Panama Canal act.
Through an arrangement with the local banks, st ubscriptions to
the First, Second, and Third Liberty Loans were settled for by pay-
roll deductions in five equal monthly installments for each bond
issued. In this manner collections were made of $218,;18.t7 for tlhe
First Liberty Loan; $339,960.35 for the Second Liberty Loan; and
$260,870.49 for the Third Liberty Loan. Collection were also made
by pay-roll deductions of $6,142.73 for War Savings Stamps. and
$34,276.80 for Red Cross War Relief Fund.
To June 30, 1918, the total appropriated by Con'gress for the
canal and fortifications was $441,375,781.44. For the construction of
the canal and its immediate adjuncts the sum of $379,105,043.92 has
been appropriated. Omitting from this sum amounts appropriated
for colliers and coal barges; for the construction of Dock No. 6 at
Cristobal; for reboilering and repairing the steawmship.S Alcon and
Cristobal, all of which were specifically exempted by law as charge.
against the authorized bond issue, the amount appropriated charge-
able against the bond issue is $372,391,853.92, leaving a balance avail-
able for canal construction within the limit of t lie cost and tlie
authorized bond issue of $2,831,302.08. The amount repaid on the.
cost of construction from miscellaneous receipts to June 30, 1918. was
$6,879,278.03, which being deducted from the total sums appropri.lted
chargeable against the bond issue leaves the sum of $ 6.,512.57,'.8' as
the total amount expended and on hand for expenditure for projects
included within estimates upon which the cost of the canal was based.
The amount shown as the cost of constructing the c:inal will be
further reduced by receipts from the sale of construction material
and equipment, and by collections to be made to cover the i money
expended for waterworks, sewers, and pavements in the cities of
Panama and Colon. As a matter of bookkeeping, the canal is en-
titled also to credit for the value of buildings and other public
works, equipment and plant, transferred to the Arm'y, tle Alask:an
Engineering Commission, and the State Department without actual
payment therefore. The estimated value of items so transferred is
$1,973,011.17.
Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama, expenditures
to June 30, 1918, of a total of $4,361,790.56 have been made on con-
struction, operation and maintenance of waterworks, sewers, and
pavements in the cities of Panama and Colon. These expenditures
are to be reimbursed to the United States at the expiration of 50
years from July 1, 1907. There has been thus far reimbursed or is
immediately due, the sum of $2,339,860.10. The amount immediately





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


due is $(62,404.4, andi the remaining total of $2,021,930.46 is payable
in installments in tile next 42 years.
The principal expeondlitures chargeable to capital cost paid from
construction and maintenance and operation appropriations, are as
follows: Fromi Gatuni to Pedro Miguel, 120,000 cubic yards of origi-
nal rock ex-eavation at a cost of $67,864.78; from Pedro Miguel to
the Pacilic Ocean :1!,S._S cubic yards of dredged material, of which
4S per cent was earth and 52 per cent rock, at a total cost of
$290,5,S.52. For the power producing and transmitting systems a
total of $;1S.SS0;.7T2 was expended, which includes payments on the
extension of the (Gatitan hydroelectric station, operating machinery for
the sa me, transformer sl1ubstations, duct lines, and distribution lines.
In continuing the co(Instruiction of the Atlantic terminal there was
expended at the Cristobal coaling plant the sum of $26,127.55 and at
Mount iHope fuel-oil plant $41,243.18. In the construction of con-
crete walls and piers at Cristobal, $611,142.44 were expended toward
the construction of Pier No. ( and boathouse between Piers Nos. 7
and S. At the Pacific terminal there were expended for removal by
dreldging of the dry dock colferdam, $47,792.85; dredging inner har-
bor, M$37,57o.SS, involving the removal of 1,225,833 cubic yards of
material and the pumping of 687,713 cubic yards of spoil in connec-
tion with the filling of swamp areas. At Balboa shops the sum of
$204,50.S.07 was exl)ended, of which the principal item was $146,-
9906.40, for addlitiolal equipment. Rat-proofing walls and piers,
$5S,307.>7. Dredging. out berth at the fuel-oil plant, $21,171.49. For
permnanenlt townrsites there was a total of $174,281.57 expended, the
principal itemis being, Balboa townsite, $65,423.03, and Colon Beach
tow nsite, $78,581..3. For permanent buildings there were expended
$1,284,.35,.04, of which the principal items were, storehouse, $12,-
500.58; hotels and mess halls, $29,669.08; gold quarters, $46,464.13;
silver quarters, $049,20.70; hospitals, $774,038.17, of which $35,235.01
wa., at the Coloni Hospital and $738,803.16 at the Ancon Hospital;
dispensarie-, $,$4,.:54.74; schoolhouses, $56,188.48; incinerator at Bal-
boa, $105,0u34.. For road construction not included in townsites
there were expended $150,707.79. In payment of awards of the Joint
Commis.cion and settlemnenits by the land office there were expended
$2_ '9..550.17.
Collection for licenses aind taxes totaled $12,532.39; court fees and
fines, $10,;8.2S; postal receipts, $107,165.85. These revenues de-
rived by the Canal Zone Government have been deposited in the
Treasuiry of the United States as miscellaneous receipts. Revenues
derived from operation of the various clubhouses amounted to $365.-
701.50, as compared with $2,33,544.22 recelyed. during the previous
\'cal.'. -, ,
/ :: .3 .. ..





THE PANAMA CANAL.


During the year there were reported 3,413 accidental injuriess, and
35 accidental deaths of employees, as compared with 4,008 accidental
injuries and 39 accidental deaths reported during the prior year.
Claims for compensation on account of these injuries and deaths were
allowed in 1,495 cases of injuries and 3 cases of death. The sumn
of $42,396.54 was allowed on account of injuries to employees, in-
cluding the canal and the railroad, and the sum of $3,848.77 on ac-
count of deaths, making a total of $46,2541.31 allowed during the
year under the act of September 2, 1916.
There were expended in the operation and maintenance of the
canal, $5,903,719.69, as compared with $6,788,147.00 during the previ-
ous year. The reduction was due to the decreased expenditure for
dredging in Gaillard Cut on account of the impro\ ement in the slide
conditions. The expenses for operation aind maintenIance of the locks
increased from $737,430.39 during 1917 to $744,'0'1.00 for 1918. The
expenses of the marine division were reduced fromii $313,030O.40 in
1917 to $293,546.28 in 1918. The direct charges for operation and
maintenance totaled $3,077,068.37, as against $4,250,102.9. in 1917.
The overhead expense charged to operation aind maintenance in ar-
riving at the total sum of $5,903,719.69 was $2,820,0;1.32, including
charges for civil government, $678,232.88; hospitals, quarantine,
and sanitation, $635,854.03; and for administration, $1,512,504.44, in-
cluding the executive department, accounting department, Wash-
ington office, operation of and repairs to storehouses and quarters for
employees, lighting of streets, operation and maintenance of water-
works, and maintenance of sewer systems and roads. Offsetting the
total expense of $5,903,719.69 are amounts earned as tolls, $0,454,-
198.35; licenses and taxes, court fees and finies, $140,918.01; profits
on business operations, $6,159.56, making a total of $60,0601,275.0"2.
These figures indicate revenues earned in excess of expenses amount-
ing to $697,556.23, as against a loss of $791,048.90 for the previous
year. Except for a few minor items the charges to operation and
maintenance above given do not include charges for depleciation of
plant or interest on the capital investment.
The total revenue derived from business operations carried on with
Panama Canal funds, amounted to $10,324,071.91, as against a total
of $7,579,588.44 during the previous year. The net profit resulting
from these operations and covered into the treas-ury as miscellaneou's
receipts, was for the year $6,159.56. In reporting this fact it should
be stated that shop work, work for the Panama Railroad and other
departments of the Government, and all services rendered for em-
ployees are performed at cost, except that subsistence and hospital
services to employees are rendered at less than cost. Fair profits are
made on the sales qf-w:ater, dry dockage at Balboa, and on the sale
of fuel. oil. The capital for-car.rvying on the business operations of





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


the canal is supplied by the appropriation for maintenance and oper-
ation.
The appropriations for operation and maintenance have been lim-
ited to the amounts required for current expenses, and in order to
provide a sufficient fund for carrying a stock of materials required in
the conduct of the operations of the canal a special item for stock is
necessary and will be estimated for.
For further details see the report of the auditor, Appendix G.
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.
This department continued under the Governor with Mr. C. A.
McIlvaine as executive secretary. In addition to the usual work,
operations were expanded for the administration of laws and regula-
tions of local application made and issued on account of war
conditions. Of these the main items are the censorship of mails and
the enforcement of regulations of the War Trade Board. For these
purposes it was necessary to increase the number of employees of the
division of civil affairs by 52 men. The division of schools employed
13 additional teachers to care for the increased enrollment of pupils.
There was a reduction in the police and fire division of 21 employees,
due primarily to the withdrawal of special police detailed at the
locks, the guarding of these structures having been taken over by the
Army.
With the outbreak of the war, admission to certain areas in the
Canal Zone was limited to employees and others having business
therein, and permits and means of identification were required. Ar-
rangements are in progress for the establishment of a system of
photo-metal checks, similar to those used by the munition plants
and Navy yards in the United States, which will take the place of
the permits and which provide a positive means of identification and
minimize the possibilities of unauthorized or fraudulent use.
The bureau of statistics, created during the preceding fiscal year,
has compiled much data of wages paid in the United States for work
comparable with that on the Isthmus. This work has been abnor-
mally large on account of the frequent changes of wages in Govern-
ment establishments in the States, which changes are followed and
put into effect on the canal. Investigations were made and statistics
kept of living conditions of silver employees, whose rates of pay were
twice advanced during the year to meet the increased cost of living.

BUREAU OF CLUBS AND PLAYGROUNDS.
Clubs for gold employees were maintained at Cristobal, Gatun,
Paraiso, Pedro Miguel, Ancon, and Balboa, and for silver employees
at. Cristobal, Gatun, and La Boca. The clubhouses are social centers
of the Canal Zone population and are indispensable to satisfactory





THE PANAMA CANAL.


community life, in the necessary absence of any other facilities for
a like purpose. The clubhouses were established in the early days
of the construction period and the buildings are of frame construc-
tion and in general are old and inadequate in size, arrangements, and
equipment. When normal conditions are restored after the war,
the clubhouses should be rebuilt of permanent material, and with
enlarged facilities and equipment. The entertainments provided
have been practically limited to moving-picture exhibitions, except
on a few occasions there have been entertainments by local aminteus
or by professional entertainers who chanced to be in Panama en route
to other places. The stadium on the athletic field at Balboa has
been in frequent use for patriotic exercises on national holidays and
for special entertainments provided for the Liberty Loan anld Red'
Cross activities. It has also been regularly used during thle baseball
season. The encouragement of the popular and distinctly American
game of baseball has been of benefit to a large class of employees.

DIVISION OF CIVIL AFFAIRS.

Bureau of Posts.-The number of post offices remained at 16. of
which 14 are money-order offices. The total revenues from the
postal service, including box rents, payments from the Panama Rail-
road Company, from the Republic of Panama for transportation of
its mail between Panama and Colon, and from the United St-tus Post
Office Department for handling United States transit mails, were
$145,231.81, as compared with $110,741.41 for the preceding year.
There was a total of 167,504 money orders, amounting to $"-),372,-
973.55, issued, on which fees amounting to $11,918.3) were collected.
On June 30, 1918, there was on deposit the sum of $1;,''7.1:5 as in-
paid money orders drawn on Canal Zone post offices in favor of
remitters. The deposit money orders totaled $1.244,:335. Pay-
ments on deposit money orders aggregated $1,441,22.,. The hbl-
ance on deposit on June 30, 1918, was $499,490. The deposits have
been less during the year, on account of subscriptions by depositors
to liberty bonds and war savings stamps. Intere-t on deposit
money orders was paid to the amount of $8,441.71, as compll)ared
with $1,813.93 for the previous year. The registry business at the
post offices was largely increased; 266,867 parcels and letters were
handled, of which 130,894 were dispatched, and 135,10-73 were re-
ceived. There were received in the mails from the United States
15,629 parcels containing articles imported by employee- of tlhe
United States Government on the Canal Zone, as coump:)ared w\it],
13,938 for the preceding year. The office of the director of posts
issued 1,308 duplicates of lost or stolen money orders, investigated
136 cases of losses and nondelivery of registered mail, and tnder-





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


took investigations for the United States Post Office Department of
mail in transit through the Canal Zone. Several arrests were made
during the year for misuse of the mails, including the misuse of can-
celed postage stamps, false personation in attempts to cash money or-
ders. fraudulent use of the mails in violation of section 1707, Postal
Laws and Regulations. Six arrests were made and five convictions
secured for rifling mail aboard United Fruit Co.'s steamers
while in port at Cristobal. On account of the establishment of cen-
sorship of mail. the bureau of posts, in December, 1917, took charge
of the handling of all mails entering and dispatched from the Canal
Zone. Formerly certain countries in Central and South America
maintained postal agents in the cities of Panama and Colon, who
received and opened mail bags arriving from those countries and
who dispatched mails originating in Panama, destined to those
countries.
IHltrau of C us/omns.-The total number of vessels entered was 4,447,
and the total number cleared was 4,443, as compared with 3,718 en-
tered and 3,721 cleared in the previous year. There arrived on the
Isthmus 447 prohibited aliens'-255 at Balboa and 192 at Cristobal. Of
t he-e. 223 were admitted to the Republic of Panama by authority of
that Government, the remainder proceeded to their ultimate destina-
tion or were returned to the port of embarkation. This bureau is
charged witli the enforcement of the President's Executive order of
FeIb:ruar'y u;, 1917, relating to the exclusion of Chinese. There were
seven arrests for attempted smuggling, resulting in six convictions
;and one acquittal. Under the arrangements with the Republic of
Painama, by which employees of the United States Government are
allowed free enter y of goods imported for their own use, there were
approved 1.81 requests for free entry, compared with 2,533 for the
previous year. The inspection and certification of household goods
packed for shipmentt to the United States has been unusually heavy
on account of the frequent departures of canal employees and Army
ollicers transferred to the States. Merchandise arriving at canal ports
tor delivery w-ithin the Republic of Panama is released to the Panama
officials upon receipt of papers showing the payment of duty on such
merchandise. There were 5,690 permits for such releases at Cristobal
anmd 10 at Balboa.
The assistant chief of the division of civil affairs, as shipping com-
missioner, with the chief customs inspectors as deputies, has
charge of signing on and discharging American seamen in Canal
Zone ports and the settlement of disputes between the masters and
n,embers of such crews regarding wages, advance fines, and general
treatment. There were 2,834; seamnen shipped on American vessels
and 2.549 discharged. Seamen's wages were received for deposit at
the port of Balboa in the total sum of $5,293.31, of which all but





THE PANAMA CANAL.


$320.91 were disbursed. At Cristobal $13,300.55 were received, and
$1,009.23 remained not disbursed on June 30, 1918.
There were administered 199 estates of deceased and insane em-
ployees of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company.
and 35 were in the course of settlement at the end of the year. Of
the 199 estates settled, 112 were delivered to the consular or diplo-
matic representative in the Republic of Panama or the United States.
of the countries of which the deceased or insane persons were citizens.
60 estates were settled directly with the heirs; 5 settled with admin-
istrators or guardians; 2 were repaid to persons who had recovered
their sanity; and the net proceeds of 20 estates were applied to settle
the claims against them. The total amount involved in the 199 estates
was $13,562.07.
A total of 2,873 licenses were issued for motor vehicles, bicycles,
hunting permits, and the keeping and carrying of firearms. The fees
collected amounted to $7,359.15.

POLICE AND FIRE DIVIsiON.
Upon the relief of Capt. H. D. Mitchell, United States Army, on
July 8, 1917, Mr. Guy Johannes was appointed as his successor as
chief of the police and fire division. Besides their normal duties, the
police division of the canal performed considerable extra work inci-
dent to the war in connection with the protection of the canal and
the general interests of the United States on the Isthmus. This
work was performed in cooperation with the Army authorities. Fifty-
two first-class policemen and 16 colored policemen were appointed;
and 51 first-class policemen and 2 colored policemen left the service.
There were 4,426 arrests made; 4,125 males and 301 females. The
common-jail prisoners averaged 85.83 per month; and all those physi-
cally able were employed in road work. The total value of such labor
amounted to $14,199.80, figured at the rates in effect for common la-
bor. There were two arrests and prosecutions in the district court
on charges of transporting or trafficking in opium in the Canal
Zone. In one case the charge for violation of the opium act was
dismissed, but the accused was found guilty of violation of customs
regulations and fined $100. In the other case the accused was found
guilty and sentenced to pay a fine of $50. The police division main-
tained a continuous patrol of the harbors at Balboa and Cristobal for
the enforcement of the navigation laws and prevention of sm ualling
and irregular traffic, and to assist in the enforcement of military
regulations. Launches were maintained at two points on Gatun Lake
for the same purpose. A motorcycle patrol service was maintained
for the enforcement of automobile and other vehicular regulations,
and for special emergency police service. Twenty-five arrests were
made for trespassing on Canal Zone lands, and 24 convictions were




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


secured. Eighty-four persons were deported from the Canal Zone,
of whom 47 were convicts who had completed their term of imprison-
ment, and 37 were persons who had been convicted of misdemeanor
charges and were deemed undesirable persons to be permitted to re-
main on the Zone. Seventy-two convicts were received at the peniten-
tiary duiiring the year. The terms of 52 convicts were completed
and the convicts discharged. At the end of the year there were 54
convicts in custody at the penitentiary, as compared with 35 at the
close of the preceding year. The cost of subsisting and guarding
convicts was $)20,113.77, of which $4,900.35 were expended for sub-
sistenice of convicts; $1,319.32 for subsistence of guards; $8,902.38
for salaries of ollicers and guards at the penitentiary; and $4,991.72
for salaries of ollicers and guards employed to guard convicts on
road work. Four convicts were pardoned, and parts of sentences
were remitted in seven cases. There were two escapes from the peni-
tenjtiary on June 23, 1918. One was recaptured on the day of the
escape, and one remained at large until his recapture on July 4, 1918.
There were investigations by the coroner in 52 cases of death, of
which 20 were due to accidental drowning and 21 to accidental
traumatism.
For the fire division a new motor combination pumping engine and
hose wagon was installed at Balboa on January 30, 1918. This equip-
ment completes the substitution of motor-drawn for horse-drawn ap-
paatuhisro thr out the Canal Zone. Periodical inspections of Gov-
ernmen1 t buildings, docks, storehouses, yards, and other establish-
merits were maintained to determine the condition of fire extin-
guishers, minor apparatus, and hose. There were 69 fires and 5 false
alarms. The total fire loss amounted to $259,351.60, of which $230,000
represents loss due to a fire on the Panama Railroad steamship
Panama, which arrived at Cristobal with a fire in her hold.

DIVISION OF SCHOOLS.

Regular sessions were resumed on October 8, 1917, in the new
buildings at Ancon, Balboa, Pedro Miguel, Gatun, and Cristobal,
there being a slight delay on account of the late arrival of furniture
and equipment for these buildings. The remainder of the Canal
Zone schools were opened on October 1, with the exception of the
La Boca school, where an epidemic of measles and whooping cough
delayed the opening until October 8. The average daily attendance
for the school year was 1,963.2-1,322.9 in the white schools and 640.2
in the colored schools; compared with 1,709.2-1,212.2, and 495.6, re-
spectively, for the previous year. The regular physical examination
of pupils was made, resulting in the.treatment of 679 pupils for
defects discovered, consisting in the largest proportion of defective
teeth. Courses of manual training and household arts were con-




THE PANAMA CANAL.


ducted at Cristobal, for Cristobal and Gatun pupils, and at Balboa,
for Balboa, Ancon, and Pedro Miguel pupils. The apprentice de-
partment has been in effective operation with 40 pupil-. Thu classes
are conducted in the office building of the shops at Balboa, and in a
warehouse in close proximity to the Cristobal shop-. The course of
physical training and athletics was continued with satisfactory re-
sults. There were 28 pupils graduated from the high school, giving
a total of 89 graduates since the establishment of the high school.
COURTS.
In the district courts, 194 cases were pending at the beginning of
the year; 930 cases were filed, and 900 cases settled during the year,
leaving a total of 224 cases pending at the close of the year. There
were 139 sessions. A total of 790 marriage licenses were issued, and
17 deeds were recorded. The collections of the courts totaled
$6,248.20, consisting of civil costs, fines, forfeitures, and various fees.
The magistrate's court at Balboa had seven cases pending at the be-
ginning of the year, and during the year 1,863 were filed, of which
1,793 were criminal and 70 civil. Of the criminal cases tried, there
were 1,330 convictions, 314 were committed to the district court, and
23 were dismissed. Total collections of fines, fees, and costs
amounted to $8,086.15. The magistrate's court at Cristobal had two
cases pending from last year; 1,938 cases were filed during the year,
of which 1,913 were criminal and 25 civil. Of the criminal cases,
there were 1,374 convictions, 263 acquittals, 26 suspensions, 39 dis-
missals, and 209 committed to the district court. Total. collections
for fines, fees, and costs amounted to $5,667.03.
The report of the district attorney is printed as appendix I.
The office of the marshal for the Canal Zone received 659 writs of
process in civil cases, of which 602 were served. The marshal or
his deputy attended 139 sessions of the district court at Balboa and
Cristobal. Witnesses attending court were paid a total of $65.10.
Collections for the service of court papers in civil cases amounted to
$402.40.
RELATIONS WITH PANAMA.
Negotiations by correspondence or personal conference bet ween the
executive secretary of The Panama Canal and the secretary of foreign
relations of the Republic of Panama included the following\l s.llb-
jects, in addition to routine matters:
Installation of buoys to mark the restricted area in the Bay of
Panama for the guidance of navigators, etc.
Purchases at Canal Zone commissaries by unauthorized persons.
Exportation of coin and bar silver of the Republic of Panama.
New schedule of coach and automobile tariff in the districts of
Panama and Colon and the Canal Zone.




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Desirability of not advertising departure of vessels in newspapers
in connection with the closing of mails.
Discontinuance of discharge of cargo at Balboa consigned to
I'anaina by the South American Steamship Company.
Preservation of neutrality of the Canal Zone and the Republic of
Panama and treatment of vessels in the service of the entente
powers arriving and departing from Canal Zone ports and passing
through the canal.
Extradition from the Republic of Panama to the Canal Zone of
the former vice president of the Continental Banking and Trust Co.
Collection of customs duty on dutiable merchandise arriving at
Canal Zone post offices.
Police protection at Colon Beach.
Delay ii receiving money to the credit of a deceased employee in
a bank in the city of Panama by the administrator of estates.
Permiits for the construction of wooden houses on Colon Beach for
the United Fruit Co.
Permission granted to Arraijan farmers to cross canal at Balboa
without restrictions as to time.
Laying of underground cable from the Canal Zone to Santo Tomas
Hospital, the American consulate, and the American legation in
the city of PIaiina, for the purpose of furnishing them with electric
current.
Preliminary survey for the extension of the Chiriqui Railroad in
Ihe Province of Chiriqui.
Handling of transit cargo at Cristobal without filing of bond to
cover customs duty with the Panaman Government.
Construciition of sanitoriums for tuberculosis patients in the Re-
public o_-f Pana ma.
Construction of a slaughterhouse at Colon.
Exemption of payment of taxes for Panama Railroad Company's
stables in cities of Panama and Colon.
The newly relaimed area of land belonging to the Panama Rail-
road Companiy on the shore of Panama Bay adjoining the old Ameri-
can pier.
Furnishing of free medicine by the Santo Tomas Hospital to out-
patients prescribed for by the Red Cross clinics.
Refmnd of fine imposed on chauffeur of the mail car of the Ancon
post ollice for a collision for which he was not responsible by the
police in the city of Panama.
Release of parcels post packages addressed .to an interned alien
without payment of customs duties.
- Regulations to prevent the introduction of tuberculosis among
domestic animals in the Canal Zone.
Indebtedness of the Republic of Panama to The Panama Canal.




THE PANAMA CANAL.


Escape of prohibited aliens in transit. through the Canal Zone.
Violations of the defensive area act by Panamans in entering the
restricted area at the entrances of the canal.
Alleged sales of second-hand furniture by employees and officials
of The Panama Canal and minebers of the military forces on the
Isthmus to residents of the Republic of Panama on which no customs
duty was collected at the time of importation.
Conservation of products native to Panama.
Refusal to allow settlement and cultivation of strip of land be-
tween the water level of Gatuin Lake and the U1 0i-foot contour line.
Construction of a telegraph line by the Republic of Panama be-
tween Colon and Porto Bello, which is to pass through the Canal
Zone.
Anchorage of dynamite lighter in Panamla Bay, and proposed con-
struction of an explosive magazine for the Republic of Panama.
Advisability of permitting removal of sand from the .-)each between
Punta Paitilla and the sea wall in the city of Panama.
Receiving and filing bills of health from the incoming vessels at
the port of Bocas del Toro.
Outbreak of smallpox at Bocas del Toro and failure of Republic
of Panama to provide necessary funds, etc., for subsisting and caring
for quarantined persons.
Installation of fire-alarm system in the city of Colon.
Release and failure of Republic of Panama to prosecute certain
persons arrested for gambling, and control of the gambling situnl-
tion in the city of Colon.
Proposed sanitary improvements in Las Sabanas and Pueblo
Nuevo districts.
Importation of fuel oil into the Canal Zone to be sold to sea-going
vessels without the payment of consular fees to the Republic of
Panama.
Clandestine landing of passengers from small vessels arriving at
Panama from Colombia and Ecuador before reporting to the quar-
antine authorities for inspection and entry.
Censorship of mail.
Construction of highways in the Republic of Panama.
Counterfeiting in the city of Panama.
For further details see Appendix H.
OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL ATTORNEY.
Judge Frank Feuille continued as special attorney, and as such
represented the Government's interests before the Joint Commission
for adjusting land claims, prepared drafts for executive orders
necessary to put into effect certain provisions of law, and in addition
served as counsel for the Panama Rail road Company on the Isthmus,




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


There were 37 land claims, aggregating $80,113.90 that were settled
by agreement without reference to the Joint Commission. Since the
President's order of December 5, 1912, including the 37 claims just
mentioned, a total of 4,418 claims, aggregating $1,072,137.20, have
been thus directly made, including the settlements made prior to that
order, and after August 6, 1908, authorizing the law department of
the canal to make direct settlements where agreements could be
reached. The total number of claims for damages for land and im-
prove;,ients claimed by private parties and taken over for canal and
railroad purposes was 5,480, aggregating the sum of $1,321,040.50.
During the year ending June 30, 1918, the Joint Commission disposed
of 10 claims in 8 awards, aggregating $125,190. The umpire,
appointed by the Government of the United States and the Govern-
ment of Panama, under the provisions of article 15 of the Panama
Canal treaty, disposed of 9 claims during the fiscal year, aggregating
the sumt of $118,061.38. The Joint Commission dismissed 29 claims
during the year; 19 on account of previous adjustment by direct
settlement between the Government and the claimants; 4 by default
on account of the nonappearance of claimants; 1 for lack of sufficient
evidence to support the claim; 1 because of lack of jurisdiction of the
commission to try the claim; and 4 because the improvements
claimed were situated on lands held under revocable leases. Two
claims were certified to the umpire by the Joint Commission. The
aggregate amount paid by the United States for lands and improve-
ments to the end of. the fiscal year was $2,716,382.52, covering 6,270
claims. There is a grand total of 890 claims brought before the
Joint Commission and umpires, appointed under articles 11 and 15 of
the Panama Canal treaty, and settled by them. The amounts paid
under these awards totaled $1,395,242.02. Of these, 21 awards, aggre-
gating the sum of $304,588, were made prior to the President's
depopulation order of December 5, 1912. On June 30, 1918, 139
claims, involving $8,005,408.90, appeared on the Joint Commission
dockets. Of these, 48, aggregating the sum of $226,790.55, are based
on Panama Railroad leases and have been withdrawn from the
jurisdiction of the Joint Commission by section 2 of the sundry civil
appropriation act of July 1, 1916. In addition, 9 claims, aggregating
$24,264.50, for improvements on lands admittedly owned by the
United States and held under revocable lease from the Government,
in accordance with previous rulings, will be dismissed for want
of jurisdiction. There remained, therefore, on June 30, 1918, for
adjudication and settlement by the Joint Commission, 82 claims,
involving the sum of $7,754,353.85. Two vacancies occurred in the
membership of the Joint Commission during the year; one due to
the death of Mr. Nicholas Cornet, and the other due to the resigna-
86372-18---4





THE PANAMA CANAL.


tion of Mr. Clement L. Bouve. These vacancies were filled by the
President of the United States by the appointment of Judge 11Burt
New, of Indiana, and Judge George A. Connollv, of California, by
Executive order of October 3, 1917. The new commissioners arrived
on the Isthmus on November 26, 1017, and immediately assumed their
duties.
There were in effect on June 30, 191S, 51 lot licenses issued by the
land agent on behalf of The Panama Canal. Of tlis liilnlber. 7
were issued during the fiscal year. The licenses were granted to
various parties to erect oil tanks, steamship office buildings, ch rches,
lodge halls, and residences for the employees of steamship colpl)anies
and oil companies. The rents collected on tlese leases for the fiscal
year aggregated the sum of $15,04-2.02. No rental was charged on
licenses to churches or other religious. organizations.
The Canal Zone and The Panama Canal are included in several
acts of Congress enacted during the fiscal year, but there has been
no congressional legislation limited in its scope to the canal. An
Executive order was issued on January 12. 1918, establishing maxi-
mum rates of fare and governing t rainsportioii of passenge rs for hire
in the Canal Zone. This Executive order was issued by virtue of the
act of August 21, 1916. On May -28, 1918, the President issued an
Executive order relating to the anchorage ;nd movement of vessels
in Canal Zone waters, under authority granted to him by section I,
Title II, of the act of June 15, 1917, commonly known as the espion-
age act. By the terms of the order the (overnor of The Panama
Canal is authorized to exercise, within thle territorial waters of the
Canal Zone, all the powers mentioned in said section of the .aid act,
to the same extent as is conferred therein on the Secretary of the
Treasury with regard to the territorial waters- of the United States.
HEALTH DEPARTMENT.
Two changes in the head of this orga nization occurred dullring the
year. On October 4, 1917, Col. D. C. Toward. Medical Corps,
United States Army, was relieved froiim duty with The Panama
Canal, and on February 26, 1918, his successor, C(l. A. E. Trluby,
Medical Corps, United States Army. was also relieved. He was
succeeded by Maj. A. T. McCormack, Medical Reserve Corps, on the
date of his relief.
The health conditions of the employees and other resident_ of the
Canal Zone have continued good. No cases. of yellow fever or plague
occurred on the Zone, in the cities of Panama and Colon, or in the
vicinity of the Canal Zone in the Republic of Panama. The number
of hospital admissions for malaria during.q the year was 022, dis-
tributed as follows: Employees residing" in, the city of Panama, 22;
employees residing in the city of Colon, 64; employees residing in




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


Cristobal, S1: employees residing within other sanitated districts of
the Canal Zone. G6; employees working outside of sanitated districts,
3SI;. The malarial rate in the sanitated districts is 6.77 per 1,000,
as compared with 128 per 1,000 in the insanitated districts.
The average civil population of the Canal Zone was 24,038, as com-
pared with 31,04S for the preceding year. In this population the
death rate from disease was 10.61 per 1,000, as compared with 8.95
for the preceding year.
City of Panama.-The average population was 61,369, compared
with 60,77S for the preceding year. In this population the death
rate from disease was 24.18, as compared with 27.93 for the preceding
year.
C'it/ of Colon.-The average population was 26,078, as compared
with 24.0;93 for the preceding year. In this population the death
rate from disease was 24.96, as compared with 24.54 for the preceding
y'ear.
DIVISION OF HOSPITALS.
ANCON HOSPITAL.
In the progress of construction of the new hospital plant 10 of the
the old frame buildings were evacuated and the buildings razed. The
new permanent buildings occupied included the administration-
clinics building in December, and the new kitchen and mess halls
building in March. There was a total of 10,865 patients admitted to
the hospital duIring the year. In the surgical clinic there were 1,525
major operations and 2,692 minor operations performed; 3,892 cases
visited the out-patient department. In the medical clinic out-patient
department 3.31-2 cases were treated. In the eye and ear clinic 6,099
cases were trevtvd, and 976 operations performed.
Coozal Hoslfital and Farm.-This institution for the care and
treatment. of insane patients continued under the supervision of the
superintendent of Ancon Hospital, with a superintendent in local
charge. At the close of the year there were 374 patients, as com-
pared with 354 on June 30, 1917. There were 185 cases admitted,
of whom 38 were assigned to the chronic ward. The increase in the
number of patients has made it necessary to crowd to an undesirable
extent the existing capacity of the wards, and makes necessary an
additional ward building. The hospital provides for patients from
the Republic of Panama, on a pay or charity basis, as circumstances
require. As a part of the course of treatment for patients in condi-
tion to be benefited by it, the patients are engaged in some light oc-
cupation. The women do sewing, embroidering, rug and hat-making.
The male patients are generally speaking fitted only for common
labor and agricultural work, and under the supervision of male at-
tendants are given plots of land to cultivate in the near vicinity of




THE PANAMA CANAL.


the hospital. Amusements provided for the well being of the pa-
tients include moving pictures, phonograph concerts, band concerts,
and walks in the vicinity of the hospital. Church services are also
provided. An adjunct to this institution is the hospital farm and
dairy, which provides employment for a number of cripples injured
during their course of employment with the canal, and who are in
practically destitute circumstances. At the dairy, besides the milk
supplied for the hospitals, about 200 quarts of milk were available
for daily sale to sick adults and children, on physicians' prescriptions.

COLON HOSPITAL.

The new nurses' home was completed during the year and was
occupied on June 5, 1918. There were 526 major and 99 minor opera-
tions performed at this hospital during the year, and 2,313 patients
were admitted for treatment.

PALO SECO LEPER ASYLUM.

No additional buildings were constructed at this asylum dIuring the
year. The average number of patients constantly cared for during
the year was 68. There were 70 patients on June 30. 1I18. as com-
pared with 65 on the same date last year. Thirteen were admitted,
5 died, and 2 were discharged.

SANTO TOMAS HOSPITAL.

This hospital is located in the city of Panama and is owned by the
Government of Panama, but is operated by agreement under the
supervision of the health department of The Panama Canal. The
average daily number of patients was 440.5, as compared with 440
for the previous year.

DISTRICT DISPENSARIES.

The dispensary at Paraiso was closed on May 14, 1918, and on ac-
count of the increased population at and near Gamboa the Paraiso
dispensary will be transferred to that point. The new concrete dis-
pensary at Gatun was completed and occupied on July 9, 1918. At
the dispensaries throughout the Canal Zone a total of 5:2,8(4 per-
sons, including employees and nonemployees, was treated. TIhe dis-
trict physicians treated 6,525 employees in quarters.

SANITATION.

The sanitary work within the Canal Zone was practically limited
to the keeping down of malaria. The principal work was pei-forrned
in the Colon-Cristobal district, which is more affected by swamp con-





REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


editions than the remainder of the Zone. The swamp to the north-
east of the village of New Cristobal was drained during the year, and
reclamation by clearing and ditching was conducted in the swampy
area south of the coaling plant at Cristobal. South of Mount Hope,
to tlhe west of the Panama Railroad tracks, tidewater drains were
constructed in large swamps, with marked reduction in the malaria
incidence in the population living and working in the vicinity. In
connection with drainage work there was a total of 92,112 linear yards
of ditches dug, 5,152 linear yards of concrete ditches installed, and
17,114 cubic yards of fill deposited. In addition, 119,365 linear feet
of ditches were maintained.
The sanitary work in Panama and Colon is carried on under the
immediate supervision of the chief health officer of the canal by the
health officers of the respective cities, who are employed by The
Panama Canal. In the city of Panama, as a means of improving
conditions concerning the incidence of tuberculosis, particular atten-
tion was paid to the elimination of dark and poorly ventilated rooms.
In this work 534 buildings were altered and repaired, 4,000 windows
were installed, and 30 rooms eliminated. The regulations for the
inspection of foods, supervision of building construction, garbage
collection, street cleaning, and preventive measures against disease in
general, were enforced. In Colon similar work was done.

QUARANTINE DivisioN.
A serious outbreak of cerebrospinal menegitis occurred on the
Japanese steamer Anyo .Varu, en route from Yokohama to Callao,
Peru. Between Yokohama and San Francisco several cases of this
disease occurred, and after leaving Balboa, a port of call, for Callao,
there was a recrudescence of the disease, as a result of which the
Peruvian authorities refused to receive the vessel. She returned- to
Balboa, and on her arrival, on May 28, 1918, 585 passengers and 16
of the crew were disembarked and placed in quarantine. The per-
sons suffering from the disease, upon their arrival at Balboa, were
successfully treated, and all such cases recovered without sequel.
The ship was thoroughly disinfected and permitted to proceed on its
voyage without the passengers. Active steps were taken to prevent
spread of the disease among the noninfected persons removed from
thle ship and retained in quarantine, and no additional cases occurred.
As the result of this incident, ships having cases of cerebrospinal
meningitis will have their sick evacuated here, passengers and crew
examined, and all carriers of the disease will be detained until they
are no longer a source of danger to others.
In February, 1918, 3 cases of smallpox arrived at Bocas del Toro,
Republic of Panama, from the islands of San Andres and Old Provi-
dence. Smallpox was reported at Bluefields, Nicaragua, and at




THE PANAMA CANAL.


Cartagena, Colombia. In September, 1917, 2 cases of leprosy ar-
rived at Cristobal, 1 from Colombia and 1 from Bocas del Toro.
Bubonic plague was generally reported along the South American
coast from Valparaiso, Chile, north. Yellow fever conditions re-
mained unimproved in Guayaquil and vicinity. On the Atlantic side
plague has been reported in the vicinity of Caracas, Venezuela.
These conditions as to bubonic plague and yellow fever have made
it necessary to continue quarantine restrictions to vessels arriving
from ports in which the diseases are reported.
For further details, attention is invited to the report of the chief
health officer, Appendix K.
WASHINGTON OFFICE.
On December 1, 1917, Mr. A. L. Flint was appointed general pur-
chasing officer and chief of the Washington office, in succession to
Maj. Benedict Crowell, United States Engineer Olficers' Reserve
Corps, who resigned on November 11, 1917, on his appointment as As-
sistant Secretary of War.
The abnormal labor conditions in the United States increased the
difficulties heretofore experienced in filling requisitions from the
Isthmus for skilled labor, especially in marine work. Tenders of em-
ployment were declined in 60 per cent of all classes. One thousand
and ninety-four persons were tendered employment in the grades
above that of laborer, of which number 432 accepted, covering 65 dif-
ferent positions. Additional work was entailed upon the correspond-
ence and record division on account of correspondence with respect
to matters that had to be referred.-on account of war conditions, to
the War Trade Board and its various bureaus, the Shipping Board,
Fuel Administration, Alien Property Custodian, and "other new
Government establishments. In the office of the assistant auditor of
the canal, stationed in the Washington office, 15,099 claims were
passed for payment, leaving on hand on June 30, 191S, 382 claims.
There was a decrease of 2,190 claims received during the year, as com-
pared with the preceding year, and a decrease of 2,32 claims passed
for payment. During the year, 13,474 vouchers for payment, amount-
ing to $9,643,732.81; 232 collection vouchers, amounting to $335,-
040.15; and 3,075 settlements by transfers of appropriation, aggregat-
ing $1,893,490.47, were given administrative examination. There was
a decrease of $1,209,549.87 in disbursements as compared with the
previous year. One hundred and four contracts were prepared,
amounting to $3,521,474.53, a decrease of 65 in number and
$1,575,514.93 in amount, as compared with the previous year. The
assistant auditor, as the legal officer in the United States of The
Panama Canal, has continued to render assistance to the Department
of Justice in the preparation for trial, and at the trial, in the courts,




REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR.


of all cases in connection with contracts made with The Panama
Canal.
The usual routine methods of procuring and shipping materials
have been materially interfered with on account of war conditions.
Thljis is especially true of materials in which a shortage exists or is
imminent in the States. All such cases must be reported to the War
Industries Board, in compliance with the instructions of the Presi-
(lent to the War Industries Board, contained in his letter of March
4, 1918, with the exceptions as prescribed by executive order signed
by the Secretary of War, dated May 18, 1918, with especial reference
to The Panama Canal. The chief of the Washington office has been
designated as representative of The Panama Canal on the Clearance
Committee and the Requirements Division of the War Industries
Board. Tlih new conditions referred to inevitably entailed increased
work upon the Washington office.
The principal purchases in filling requisitions from the Isthmus
have been made by the Washington office, although branch offices
have been continued in charge of assistant purchasing officers at New
York, New Orleans, and San Francisco. Preliminary inspection
has been made in the States of materials purchased by a corps of in-
spectors under the supervision of the inspecting engineer of the
Waslington office. The work of inspection has been facilitated, as
heretofore, by assistance rendered by the district officers of the Corps
of Engineers, United States Army, by the Bureau of Standards, the
Bureau of Mines, Bureau of Chemistry, and the Medical Department,
Ordnance Department, Signal Corps, and the Quartermaster Corps
of the United States Army.
The number of orders for materials and supplies during the year
was The total value of the materials on the orders placed was $8,019,-
0OS.9n for the year, as compared with $10,405,157.27 for the previous
year. The grand total of purchases made for the canal through the
Was:shington ollice since the year 1904 is $136,582,840.43.
For further details attention is invited to Appendix L.
Respect fully submitted.
CHESTER HARDING,
Governor, The Panama Canal.
Hoin. NEW'TON D. BAKER,
Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.








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ORGANIZATION OF" THE PANAMA CANAL JULY 1.1918


Plate I.














APPENDIX A.


REPORT OF THE ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


THE PANAMA CANAL,
OFFICE OF THE ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE,
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, July 20, 1918.
SIR: The following report of work done under the jurisdiction of
this office during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918, is submitted:

ORGANIZATION.

The duties of the engineer of maintenance were not changed dur-
ing the year. The office continued under your charge throughout
the year. Lieut. Col. Jay J. Morrow was ordered to duty in the
United States and resigned as engineer of maintenance on August 30,
1917. On this date the division of lock operation, the section of
office engineer, the section of meteorology and hydrography, and the
section of surveys were transferred to supervision of the electrical
engineer, Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon.
The heads of the remaining divisions reporting to the engineer
of maintenance were ordered to report direct to you on this date.
Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon was ordered to duty in the United States
and resigned as electrical engineer on February 6, 1918. On this date
the electrical division, the division of lock operation, the section of
office engineer, and the section of meteorology and hydrography were
transferred to the supervision of resident engineer, building division,
and continued under his supervision until the end of the fiscal year.
Tlhe remaining divisions and sections of this office reported direct
to vO' l.
The various divisions and sections have been in charge of the
following personnel:
Electrical division.-Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon continued as elec-
trical engineer until his relief from duty with The Panama Canal
on February 6, 1918, when Mr. Walter L. Hersh was appointed elec-
trical engineer.
Building division.-Mr. Hartley Rowe, resident engineer, con-
tinued in charge of the building division.
Locks division.-Mr. E. D. Stillwell continued in charge of the
Atlantic locks and Mr. W. R. Holloway continued in charge of the
Pacific locks.
43




THE PANAMA CANAL.


.ltunicipal division.-MNr. D. E. Wright, municipal engineer, con-
tinued in charge of this division.
Temninal construction.-Mr. T. B. Monniche, engineer of docks,
resigned August 4, 1917, when this work was transferred to the
resident engineer, building) division.
AMr. A. R. Brown, assistant engineer, resigned October 1S, 1917,
and the uncompleted part of this work was transferred to the resi-
dent engineer, building diviision.
Section of m Cteorolo!y and hq 'drographl..-Mr. F. D. Willson
resigned July 17, 1917, and was succeeded by Mr. R. Z. Kirkpatrick
on August 1', 1917. Mr. Kirkpatrick resigned Apiil 13, 191S, to
accept a commission in the Engineer Officers' Reserve Corps, and was
succeeded byI Mr. H. G. Cornthwaite, appointed April 14, 1918.
Section of oGlice engincer.-Mr. C. J. Embree, office engineer, con-
tinued in charge of this section.
Section of 0srveys.-Mr. O. E. Malsbury, assistant engineer, re-
signed from this police September 10, 1917, to accept a commission
in the Engineer Officers' Reserve Corps, and was succeeded by Mr.
F. R. Fitch on Septermiber 11, 1917.

LociKs DIVISION.

LOCK AGES.

The following table gives the total commercial and noncommer-
cial lockages of tile year:

SCommer- Commer- Noncom-
PDate. l -T:oge c ;al c;al mni,:reial
locLage;. ve~sel._. loIekatges..

Gatun-
Tr July 1, 1917 ........................................... 4. 15'. 3,.2?0 3, 49 935
During se. l year ........................................ 2,271 193 2.i, 33
To July 1. 1'IS ............................................. 42. C. 4'i;. ,i5 9Ox,
Pedro Mnigel-
T' Julv 1, '1 17 ............................................. 4.3.4N 3 .1,2'2 3.,3 71.3
D during flcs al year ...... ....... ... ................. 2,420 2, i041 2, :53 3,9
T o: July 1. 191" ... ........................................ i'C. ., (. 63 .. 94( i 1,142
Mfir.fl,,rem-
T O July 1, 1917............................................. 4,302 3,:34 3. .5 '.S
During iheal year.......................................... 2,313 2, 017 2?,o l 32.
T o July 1, 191S................................... ......... (..'4. ;., .1 C.,9.37 ,,4

The average number of lockages rmiade at all locks for each month
of the fiscal year was 195.39 or about 6.5 through lockages per day.
The greatest number of lockages made in any month of the year oc-
curred in May when the Atlilntic locks made 229 lockages and the
Pacific locks 225 blockages.




REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 45

WATER CONSUMPTION-GATUN LAKE.

Complete data regarding the hydrography of Gatun Lake for the
calendar year are given hereinafter, but the following data have been
compiled for the fiscal year, July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918:

Millions :f P.r cent Ier cent
Average quantity per month. cubic feet l:s. or (r .f ,. .
of water. used. f

Water lost:
By evaporatin ........ ......................................... .,02S. 'S 11.511 S. 'VGI
By wa;taee over Gfatun spillway .... .................. ........... 15,5,1. IS S5. 13.2 ..S. .21
B y leak wA e, Gatun spillw-ly .................... ................... 1'.21 -i5. .0I4"
By tramnfer t: Miratlore, Lake ...... ............................ 5 Ii.; 1
By leakage at all locks .............................................. 2 1';3 127
Total water l:st ....... ..................................... . 17',.2,.. 1 t0 ......
Water used:
For pum ping ....................................................... I.'. 1. .3'. .302
For lockacet. A tlant ic............................................. S12. 47 1'.. 21 3. .Sy
For l.:ckape., Pacific ............................................... .,95. '93 13. S>A 3.1174
For hvdroelectric station...................................... 3,31;. 37 C'.. .23 14. -',3
Gain in storage, GaLun Lake ........................... ........... I ll.... 2. 32S .515
Total water used ................................. ....... ....... 5, 1111. S9 111'. 10 1 11))
Total water, lost and used ................. .................. 22.3. J .. ..'....... ..........

Useful waler 1= = 22.13. per cent.
Water used for lockages ='...'G, per cent.

It is always endeavored to have Gatun Lake level at or near its
maximum allowable elevation, plus ST7 feet, at the beginning of the
dry season, so that there is a maximum amount of water in storage
for the dry months of the year. Gatun Lake was at elevation plus
ST.06 on Januaxy 1 and 2, and remained at approximately this eleva-
tion until February 1, when storage in the lake was drawn on, due
to lack of rainfall. The lake level lowered gradually until it reached
its minimum elevation of the year on April 21 at plus 84.52.
It will be noted by the above table that the hydroelectric station
uses most of the water drawn from storage, and as lockages increase
in number the use of water during the dry season by the hydroelectric
station will have to be limited by the necessities of the locks. If no
water had been used by the hydroelectric station during the dry
season months-February, March, and April-the net loss in storage
due to all other causes would have carried the lake level from plus
87 on February 1 t.o plus SO.83 on the last day of April. In other
words, the lake elevation would have remained practically stationary
during the dry season if no water had been used by the hydroelectric
station, and this condition would have existed in spite of the fact
that the average number of lockages during these months was 106.O.
per month, or 6.5 through lockages per day.
A material saving in water can be accomplished at the locks by
cross filling and operating tandem lockages. Precautions of this
nature have not been necessary to date owing to the plentiful supply
of water for all purposes, although tandem lockages are used when-
ever possible without causing a delay to shipping.




46 THE PANAMA CANAL.

GATUN DAM.

Monthly surveys of Gatun dam indicate a gradual consolidation
similar to former years and no fills were necessary to replace settle-
ment this year. During the year that portion of the dam over the
new penstock at the hydroelectric station was backfilled. The usual
maintenance work on the dam, tracks, and borrow pits w\'is performed.

TOWING LOCOMOTIVES.

The four new towing locomotives constructed upon the Isthmus
were completed, and all machines of this type are continuing to
render excellent service.

SPARE PARTS.

The warehouse at Corozal was transferred duri ni the year from the
quartermaster to the locks division, and in addition to the spare
parts which were in the building all of the lock-gate spares (except
the gate girders) which were formerly at Paraiso have been added.
All lock-gate spares at Corozal are being repainted an( put into
first-class condition.
At the beginning of the past fiscal year there were 15 United
States requisitions in the process of manufacture. These have been
completed. Twenty-six United States.requisitions were issued dur-
ing the year, 20 of them have been filled to date, the material on the
balance being in process of manufacture.

APPROACH WALL FENDEP CHIBS.

At the end of each approach wall there are installed fender cribs
constructed of piling and heavy timbers, to prevent serious damage
to any vessel that may approach the lockl out of control.
In October, 1917, it was noted that the fender cribbing- at lower
Pedro Miguel appeared to be very insecure and upon withdrawing
one of the piles it was found to be practically honeycombed by the
teredo. The fender was reconstructed with the use of creosoted
piling and timbers and the work was completed in December, 1917.
The above cribbing was in Miraflores Lake, 54 feet above sea
level which lake is fed entirely by fresh water from Gatun Lake
and the watershed in the vicinity. The fact that the cribbing was
attacked by the teredo is a peculiar confirmation of the fact that
Miraflores Lake is gradually becoming saline through the back feed-
ing of sea water through Miraflores locks.
On March 16, 1918, when the steamship Capto approached Pedro
Miguel locks from the north, she rammed the fender cribbing at the
end of the north approach wall and made it necessary to install new
piling and cribbing on the east side.

PAINT-ING LOCK GATES.

During the year all of the gates and machines at the Atlantic
locks were examined and the enamel removed and replaced where it
was found to be in bad condition. A complete report on this subject




REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


will be found in the report of the superintendent which follows here-
ina after.
It has been impossible to find an oil paint that will stand up under
the severe conditions found at the locks. Arrangements have been
made to apply bituininous enamel to certain of the exposed portions
of the gate leaves as well as the submerged portions. It is hoped that
this experiment will prove successful, in this way decreasing the
maintenance work on the gates.

LOCK POWER AND CONTROL CABLES.

The installation of all power and control cables at the locks was
practically completed by August, 1913. During the four years which
elapsed between that time and the beginning of the present fiscal
year, practically no serious trouble has been experienced with the
lead sheathed control cables.
It has been found.- however, that the rubber insulated double
braided wires were being attacked by the "termite" or white ant
and it became necessary to open up all closed wall chases carrying
this type of wire to the lighting outlets. It was also found that the
rubber insulated telephone conductors to the lamp standard outlets
were beconiing grounded due to the dampness in the chases and it
became necessary to replace these with lead sheathed cables. These
faults were to be expected, however, and it is believed that the present
method of running all wires in exposed chases on the walls of the
tunnels will keep them dried out and as the "termite cannot live
and work in the light no further harm should come to the exposed
wires other than gradual deterioration which occurs in any climate.
It had been expected that our lead sheathed cables would last for
a number of years before showing signs of deterioration. However,
a series of breakdowns at Miraflores locks beginning September,
1916, were experienced, and by June, 1917, about seven lead sheathed
control cables had Ibroken down' and were replaced temporarily by
other cables until the maintenance work on the lock gates and valves
could be completed, after which the trouble was investigated
thoroughly.
As all control cable are run with two, three, and four cables to the
duct, it was dillicult to remove one without removing the others,
therefore the investigation was begun in the crossover tunnel where
the cables run under the lock chamber in very damp ducts. Several
ducts were broken open and tests were made between the lead sheaths
and the water in the siump at the base of the shaft with the follow-
ing results:
Readings taken in West Crossover-No tunnel lining-TWalls very wet.
Volts.
From cable lying on top of ducts very wet to iron ground -----0.18
Same cable to copper float in water of sump --------------------- 32
Same cable to galvanized-iron wire in water of sump------------------- .16
Readings taken in East Crossover Tunnel-Steel lining is in place-Tunnel walls
dry.
Volts.
From cables to top of ducts to ground ----------------0.05
Front cables to top of ducts to copper float in sump---------- .14
From cables to top of ducts to concrete floor ----------- ...----------- .02




THE PANAMA CANAL.


The above readings were taken with the telephone cables con-
nected in their battery supply. It. was thought advisable to remove
all possibility of direct current from an external source and repeat
the readings. The direct-current supply to the telephone cables was
cut and the readings again repeated with results practically identical
to those quoted above.
While working in the tunnel one of the men complained of the
fact that the seepage water froin the ducts appeared caustic in its
effect on his hands. Furthermore, in opening some of the ducts,
water and a peculiar sediment came out. Some of the material dis-
charged was black and some almost clear white. Samples of each
were sent to the laboratory for analysis with the result that. the black
sediment was found to be a lead salt. Furthermore, the seepage
water was found to carry a large amount. of lead in solution.
Two pieces of sheet lead 5 inches by 2 inches were placed at the
base of the shaft, one of them in seepage water and grounded and
the other in a position where seepage water would drip over its.sur-
face. The grounded sample did not appear to be materially affected
by electrolytic action. The other sample exposed to seepage water
weighed 1824 grams at the beginning of the test, and in two weeks
it had lost 31 grams, or about 1.192 per cent of its weight, and this in
spite of the fact that the seepage water had been flowing over about
70 feet of cable and must have had considerable lead in solution
before striking the test sample.
All the defective cables were then removed and found to be in the
condition shown on plate No. 2.
All control cables used have either five or eight conductor- of No.
10 B. & S. gauge, each insulated with 1 '1-inch varnished cambric
with 1/32-inch varnished cambric over all, and a lead sheath 1 '16
inch thick. The five conductor cables are about 7 S inch in diameter
and the eight conductor cables are about. 1-1 'S inch in diameter.
This information may be of assistance in studying plate No. 2.
As a result of this condition found in the center crossover tunnel
at Miraflores, all similar installations at all locks were examined but
no further indications of trouble were found. To guard against
further damage from seepage water, arrangements will be made to
install all replace cables in ducts away from the wall of the tunnel
shaft, in this way using the outside or wall ducts as drains for the
seepage water. Replace cables at 1Miraflores were lung on porcelain
hangers, and if necessity should arise and should further precaution
be advisable arrangements will be made to place all cables on porce-
lain hangers and coat them with an insulating material such as
bituminous compound.
The following report has been submitted by the chemist of the
municipal engineering division who investigated the cause of the
chemical action above referred to:
CORROSION OF THE LEAD SHEATHS OF CABLES AT MIRAF.ORES LOCKS.
The corrosion of the -ihenthlis of some of the cables nt Mirallores locks was
first called to the chemists' attention in August. 10917. An inspection was made
of the cables exposed at tie w\e-t enil of the midlle crossover tun nel. There
were irregular shaped deposits of a white e scale on the cahles over which water
was dripping. A bottle \nas placed so as to catch some of the drippings on
August 9, and the drippings were sent to this laboratory on August 11 for
analysis,









PLATE 2.


.' i .. ..--- '
L.'; 3" -_ -.--*. ,,. ,.C


.... l


FIVE AND EIGHT CONDUCTOR, LEAD SHEATHED CONTROL CABLES REMOVED
FROM THE MIDDLE CROSS-OVER TUNNEL AT MIRAFLORES LOCKS.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 49

PrevioutI- to tile inspection several .sapliles of materials collected in the
locks were i-im.111titted for analysis. Qualitative analyses ,of these samples
were di le. tile resitlIts olituille'] are s foll ow :
1. A 1.r1c Iiisl I.h red mallterial collected frolil the dllct lines inll 1 lowe'l" cross -
over'. The Sample conltaied larUe a;molliounit of irol,, ;tilt small amnioulnts of
calcillinm anIll sili(a.
2. White material collecteil from tile dluct line on the west end of tihe imidhlle
crossover itunillel. Tlte s:Itliiple Cn'litaineil l arre :llOnllnts of callilti.ium car'hollate
anit.I hIydlrxide ;uitl a; small a:rn llo t of lentd. The clla of the helpier tlit \\whe
collecting this sample something ate thlroll.il tile .kini on his ha;nd-l must
li;i\'( leen i due to the line.
.I. -I'lclk suiil:st;ance collecteil from the ;-tine Inl(;tion ;s s ;ninhle No. 2 co)n-
tailnel lar.,e 1 a limon1ts of leald, caletiitm. :itl nimall a;iiiont of iroti andl the fol-
lowvin.g :acid radli(les f simulphide. siulphatte. a;nil eatrlioii;te. The sulp[:hjide inilist
have f-oriet le by the ,lecoinipositiLon of vegetable matter.
The first s;nilple of W\ ter collected \v;ia l c ractrize, li, ;a total Zlk;aIilit.y
to c(rymstlhrsine of 1.74140 p'rts p[er million of which 1.(N0O parts were c s.-tie or
hydl roxitle ;Ilk linity. The chlorine onitenrt \\a- 1,' 1- I;rts per iillioi. The
wa -ter 'cln tinied 5(I iarts 1 l, per million of let;ld.
(OlI AU.2lust 12 ald 2'0 t\o m% ore s;iinples of idrip pi,,'iz from thle middle crOSs-
ovel it Miralllores lock-l were collected a;ll] thl,? tliiner;il n;iln:u -s "f tile sa;litpls
We're l:t follo\\s, illn lflits pI'"r mtlillion


S m ple Sample
No. 2.1 No 3 2

rI TdTroxiilde al Ialinit a ', C C'-. ...... ................................. ......... .1 . I o00
Carbonnalele ja lini ,y a a in r i irar lonali ,CaC' 'i ... ............. ................. I. 321)ij
s li. a I .I.r ,11 . ........ ... .. .. ........................... . .......... 7
Iron and aluiirin it FIe An, i .A . ............ ............ ...... ...... 2 2
Cakiium 'Ca ....... ... ................. .... . ..................... 2 1 I 1 4
M a rne iu m ( i p ......................................................... .......... 2r I I",
L eadl I P l, ..................................................... ....... ...... . j 2.4
Sodi 1 m i N a i ................ ... .. . ... .. ........ .. 2, j 1 2, 3"1)
P otra i ulm l )j .......................... .... ... ......................... .. .. 4.7 ........
Chlorine Cl ................ ....................................... 2, .j 2, 2
Carbonal e C', ........................... ..... .. ........ .. .............. 1 J'2
Suilpha',c iSi, .. ................................................................... 11- 7 7.' I

r Dalc of iolle: Ion, A.'g 12, I'r,7. Ila of, f ol i: ion, A. g. 2,, Vi'J7.
Port land recent (conain: )u to r..i per cut of :ali im ol\ide.

According to va;rioIts itlithorities "hlien the cemlent sets ;ionl other corm-
lpIfttis large :tiiiouits crystallized cal0iuim itydroxide, and sonie ealcitum tiluiii-
nate form. C(alciuitil hyiroxidle is quite ;-olulile ill water, so ) \vlih after r comes
in contnet with concrete, ncacittmi hydlroxide goes into solution. (C;lcium :tlumi-
lnate is lec'lnlpos.e ttiml hydroxide.
From tile ablo\'e numieral ;aii;aly sps it cotl be seen- that the caustic alk tliinity
and calcium contents of the drippi:.iZ water is quite liigh us compared \ith tlhe
mineral llanlyses of water obitainled Aii .\An-,t 2:3. ll0T. froin tht, lock (hiamnlirs
at Mir'illores, which was as follows in n,; rt:- pler illinii:
Hydlroxide nlknlinity a:s ((lCOa ) -------------_____ 0
Carbonate nlkalinity as (C:,i'0Ci) ----------------------------- ___-- (0
Silica i iO:> --- .---- .--: ------. ---------------2... 23
Iron ( Fe) ---------------------------------------------.. .._. Trace.
Allimilum Al)l .- .----------------------.. ------.._.__. 0
Calcium ( .Ca.-------------------------------------------._._.._._ :35
Magn.esium M'iI) ...........------------------------------- -_--_-_.__ 42
Sfiliimn aidl ptassitin (NI a _id 1 . .-------------------------.... . -425
Chlorine i CI)-- - - ---------------------------------------4....
Bicarbonate H('O3) - -------------------------------------- ____ -1:34
Dissolved oxygen-- ---- --------------.. -.-- ------------------ -____ -0.8
Tern perat uLre degrees centigrade -----------__________ 27
Per cent saturation - - ----..----------- --------..... - -85





50 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The corrosion of the lead sheaths of cables can be due to two reasons. (1)
alternating current electrolysis, and (2) to the chemical action :,of the dripping
water saturated with lime salts from concrete. We thought the coriro.-ion was
due mainly to the second reason above stated. In order to substantiate this
theory we carried out the following experiments in the laboratory :
The lead sheath of an unattached cable was cut open, and strips of lead were
cut measuring 6 to 7 centimeters long, 2.5 to 2.8 centimeters wide,. and 0.2 cen-
timeters thick. These strips' of lead were numbered and weighed Nccurately
to the forth place. Some water was obtained from the lock chambers and
placed in bottles holding one liter. The bottles were also numbered, and
different amounts of calcium hydroxide solution were added to each to get
the desired alkalinity. The alkalinity of the contents of each bottle w\as deter-
mined by titration. When the bottles were ready the strips of lend bearing
corresponding numbers to the bottles were placed in them. The strips were
taken out from time to time, dried very quickly, and weighed to find out the
weight dissolved. Two series of these experiments were carried on and the
following tables show the results obtained:





TABLE No. 1.-R'suon of the e.cperiment to determine the rate o/ solution o/ lea/d l in tih e lo':k: 'atr alter the ad'lition ofj diller(l ainounts of calcium
hi'.ror,rid: solution to change the :coicentration of the h..dro. A'l ion.


No.
ol
sam-
ple.


1.... .




4.....
8.....
9.....


OI1alk:.- CO3 al a-
linitv o linit'. 01
'he riate'r the walker
is (C'a(C'O (Is CSC',O
in ..p.m. in p.p.m.


0 HC~I ll i
-I.-
1,1 0 (2i .i
1.1 0 (I
1, 30V. 360
1.41 1. 31i.i0
1 .40, 2-11.1
1,610 400
1,670 520
1, 810' 380


Ve'oight
i0 the
strips
in
pram s.


24. 4194
24. 904 1
30. i.144
31'. 2r'.92
29. 4310
31. O.s
31.5250
31.1185
28. 6460


Number Ol milligrams or lel1 di.;solI ed per lOi pranks O1 lead Ihavin: the same thick.ne_< a; the -triri.s alter immersing
in the dilieren' samples oi wa'jer lor the rperiroJs ,l ti me Ii hioirs as indicJae-J eL.lov.


LengIth
ol srip
hi c1nj.




4. 15
3.9()
4.2
4. 25
4.2
4.25

4.10
4.20


Widt Thick-
01 n&'col
strip sTri.
in m. irn m.


2.2 *)5 h.
2.', .22
2. .25,.

2. 7 '. ,

2. 8 .25
2.75 .25
2.60 .25


140 163


2':. 2r'. 9
2". ,1 2 .
491. 5.3. 6
41.9 4'J'J
493.4 3..3. 2
4':,. .13.
444.2 4 -3...
433. 1 49. 1
450. 4 455. 4


205 249 275 325


27.7 25.6 31 32.6
32.. 35.3 35.9, 41.7
5s'i. 2 4. S 717.3' 's'.
.,1.7 I.L,. I r-i. i4 2 7
.' .;1. ,-142. 4 720. S' 7S3
,r.-0. 2 '.2,. 1 F .',9 I 7'3
521.2 576.4 'i';.,. 720
5301.3 54 3.OI r:124. 47 73
.30. ,'. '91. 1 174. 735


415.


33.5
43.
S46
.14
435
,02-1
7S6'
722
792


34. C
46.'-
91 1

S92
"73

76"
$31


r.54 '46


34.6 3.4S
4 .3 ,2.':
9i.4 1 ,1.134
912 95,3

924 99'.4
,9' 4 r'.,7
$03 "'1I
47 1.1 94 2


1,1.113

37

1 .1
1,1i. .7
1, 070
1, I.i.7

926
1, 003


26 4'.


9.6 14.
11.2 14.I
173. 4 252.
i1.. 2 246."
173.3 2'i ,
I :2. 4 23,e. 1
I63. 241. 1
1.'53.5.! 231.3
1'0. 9 0 '4 3


NOTE.-Sample No. I is the original lock-chamber water nnnd sample No. 2 i< pure distilled water. Tlh st rips hal a hole with a diameter o01 0.4 centimeter.
Throughout this report by expression of "the rate of sol.ri r.n oI lead %e dro not m rn thIt all the lead goes into solution as lead h, droxide. Lead hydroxide is somewhat
soluble in water; after the solubility product of the lead hydroxide is reached lead bhydro.,ide precipitates.


...........


73 1 90 117


16._ 22.1 22. 1
16 0 21.6 21. ,
32,.5. 391 4 441. 1
321.1 4 375. 426. '
339i ', 399 .,1.5
331 2 379 426.7
317 1 3r6.3 411.5
3112 5 3.4 ri:9. 4
314.5,. 374.2 413.4







TABLE No. 2.-Resum6 of the experiment to determine the rate of solution of lead in the lock water after the addition of different amounts of calcium
hydroxide solution to change the concentration of the hydroxide ion.


Al alinity of the samples Number of milligrams of lead dissolved per 100 grams of lead having
a.ter immersing the strips the same thickness as the strips, after immersing in the different
OH alka- CO3 alka- for 740 hours. Weight Thick- samples of water for periods of time in hours as indicated below.
linity of linity of of the Length Width ness ofT
No. of sample, the water the water stri in of strip of strip stri
as CaCO3 as CaCOa OH alka- CO, alka- HCOa al- strips in cm. in cm. of stp
in p. p.m. n p.p.m. linity as linity as kalinity grams. 47 95 143 215 311 406 549 740
CaCO, in CaCOa in as CaC 03
p.p.m. p.p.m. inp.p.m.

10 ....................... 20 180 0 0 80 45.1182 7 2.5 0.25 9.3 11.9 13.9 19.5 22.1 23.9 25.7 31
11 ....................... 85 190 0 40 60 45.0486 7 2.5 .25 9.1 13.6 14.6 21 30.6 34.8 38.4 44.8
12 ...................... 120 220 0 160 32 45.6827 7 2.5 .25 17.2 22.3 25.6 30.4 34.5 39.8 48.1 56.9
13 ....................... 270 220 80 224 0 45.4382 7 2.5 .25 12.7 20.6 26.1 36.7 48.8 58.9 96.1 167.8
14 ...................... 450 240 190 268 0 45.8475 7 2.5 .25 115.5 152.8 173 195 215 240 276 305
15 ...................... 580 220 486 328 0 45.1844 7 2.5 .25 151.4 200 247 320 428 529 653 745
16 ...................... 700 200 588 328 0 45.2499 7 2.5 .25 163 220 261 344 396 508 642 805
17 ...................... 820 200 588 388 0 45.0240 7 2.5 .25 179 233 280 347 401 488 573 675
18 ...................... 840 320 S02 388 0 46.0327 7 2.5 .25 187 243 291 368 450 518 648 792
19 ....................... 0 170 HCO3 0 0 162 46.0518 7 2.5 .25 4.3 7.6 10.6 22.8 24.5 29.5 33 55.8
20 ...................... 170 320 0 0 346 45.1608 7 2.5 .25 79.1 113.6 132.2 149.2 158 160.7 163.8 169

NOTE.-Sample No. 19 is undiluted sea water and sample No. 20 is undiluted sea water plus calcium hydroxide. The strips had a hole with a diameter of 0.55 centimeter.





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 53

If milligrams of lead sli-olvesl are plotted in the above experiments, per hun-
lre l grams of lead of 0.25 ceitioleter thickness against the time in hours,
cuIrves showing their interrelation will lie ol.tained.
The carves clearly indliate that the rate of solution of lead is directly pro-
p'lrtit onall to the co:ncentration of OH ion: that is, the higher the concentration
,f OH ion., the n10ro kIaIl goe, into ,olutioin. This fact was already known
li,-fore tlhe experiment was started. Tlils gradation of the lead going
into solution is more clearly seen, especially toward the beginning of the ex-
p'?rinienit rather than at tlie etil, liecaucl thie stronger solution becomes weaker
souler by absirlin 4'CO:.. frill tile atmosphere than a weaker solution. There-
f'ire, the di rffTrece in thie am nounit i.f lead dissolved between the weak and strong
soil tions is not so inmucli towardI thle end, of the experiment. It is also inter-
(.*stiig to see that sampl-e No. 1 on pnze 51 and sample No. 19 on page 52, which
arc original lock ~lianiiler ;all s;a water', dlidl not attack the lead even as much
as sii*iple No. 2 on p:i:-e ,1. distilled pure water. This is due to the fact that,
in tile latter case. under tle joint actiionl of water and dissolved oxygen, lead
h:,lIroxidle is p-odlluc'd. wvli:hl is slightly soluble in water, and therefore does
not protect the lead. Ill inlmpure anter, such as samples Nos. 1 and 19, which
coita in sulphate and ,:'arblonate radiicles, the corresponding lead salts are formed
vhiicl have extremely small solubility, and form firmly an adhering layer on
thie lead.
Thie conditions in tile above experitmen-ts are not similar to those in the duct
lines, le.ner-nu, tle tripss of lead were c:'on tionally immersed in the same watel
except W11lher tlIey were taken ont to he wei :ghed, while in the duct lines satu-
rated lime solution l'rips :.oitirniia lly to the same spot or around it, and it is
natural that. the reaction between fresli drip and the lead goes on much faster.
In order to measure quaintitively h,,\\ fa-t the lead was corroded by the drip-
pin'g water in the duct lines. the followxhing experiment was performed: A strip
of sheet lena ineansuring 17.1 ce:ntimetersor long, 5.8 centimeters wide, 0.12 centi-
imeters thii:; aind eighili 1.S2.S grams w\\as tied with a strip of lead to one of
the lead inbles at %-we-t end of the mi]iddle crossover at Miraflores locks. Wires
of volt motor attached to ends of pie:e of lead cable gave no reading. Water
dripped from ablile to this pie_.e of lead. The strip was removed after 12
days and weighed. Weight of the strip plln the scale, was 184.55 grams. The
wei-lht of the strip after the reinival of thl.- scale was 179.6 grains. The loss
Af the .strip was 3.2 g-rain. Thi. corrosive action of the dripping water was
plainly iil.ie on tlrhe sliet lead andl the composition of the white scale was
found to Ib-e leal Iyilroxide and enarlinate At this rate the whole sheet of lead
would corrondi- in ,;'S.~.5 days. itnut the corrosion was only around where the
winter wa- dlrilppiii': if thle water i.hal dripped all over the surface at one time
the sheet lead] w\ouild corrode in a 2'1.'o.1 leal less than 685.5 days.
Similar experiini-ts were tried with another sheet of lead measuring 16.8
i enUtiieters lon0:, 2.. .i3 cetininters x\i-sle, 0.12 centimeters thick and weighing
1S2.5 -'rais. Thie piece of lead \\as tiedl to a different lead cable at west end
of mi'sddlhe crossover by copper wire. Onue end of the wire was fastened to lead
cable a al tlhe other end ton a copl per fli.'it. Heading between end of copper wire
attached to le;d cable and enal attadied to ,cpper float gave 0.06 volts. Water
dropped from cal-li.' to the piece of leall. The strip of lead was removed after
12 days., tile weight of the strip plus -c'ale ,was 182.35 grams; the weight of the
.-nin :- trip after the renio\al of the scale was 181.7 grams. The loss of the lead
was ).S gr';-mins. In thi- ca:ni. the loss was not as much as in the first case; prob-
ably the dripping was not as strong.
W while the alcove experilmmit w\\a going on in the locks a similar experiment
was started in thle laboratory. A 15-gal.loni carboy was filled with lock chamber
water and satullrated wiitl, caliitlll hydroxide. The alkalinity of the water was
:is follows: Hydroxide alkal; inity ;a- c.ilciiuin arbonate, 1,640 p. p. m. ; carbonate
alk:;linity as cal'iumi carbonate. -1lZi p. p). i.
The ciarboy Nvwas pla'cel o'in a p itfoiri and a burrette was lowered into it to
draw iTff tll.:' water. Tvwo ini:hes I.elow tlie tip of the Iul'rrette a lead cable of
12 feet lonii-g wn' living on a support, and tile Iurrette \\' turned over it so
that 2.2 c. c. of the water dripped onu the calble per minute. The drippings
were caught in another vessel elow oni tlie floor. Tlie drilpili.-g water was
analyze.l and hydroxide alkalinity as calciuLm carltona te \w'as 1.-100 p. p. m., car-
loinate alkIlinity as caIiuni carbonate 24-0 p. p. tm., aid tlhe water contained 288
p. p. in. lead. Wlien the carboy was emptied it was refilled and the dripping
was continued. At the end of three weeks the corrosion on the surface of the





THE PANAMA CANAL.


cable was plainly visible, which was brought about by the actionn of thi. drip-
ping water. There was no chance for alternating current electro:ilysis in this
experiment. as there was no current of any sort near the sulppol't where the
cable was hung.
CONCLUSIONS.

The following conclusions can be drawn from the above experiments:
1. The rate of going into solution of lead, immersed in waters hai'viing diiffer-
ent concentrations of hydroxide ion, is directly proportional t., thle Ihyiroxide
ion.
2. Lock chamber and sea water do not attack the lend as lulchi as distil l,-l
pure water.
3. The corrosion of the lead sheaths of cables at Mir;iillmire. hi, kI< i< dlue
exclusively to the chemical action of the dripping water si:tui'rated with lime
salts from the concrete and not to the alternating current el~c-trilyi. TIn-
third conclusion is substantiated by the experiment described in thle last poar:-
graph of page 53. and also by the fact that the corrosion in tlie caili-< i-< -t it.iei
in certain localities of the duct lines where water is dri jping a i, no.- a' tion i-
noticed where the cables are free from drippings. Accord ing'- to Mir. .1. C.
Myrick's report of September 19, 1917, to Mr. H. II. Hollowaway: -Ii 1Ice
horizontal runs of all the crossovers the duct lines lhve iinm-li more w\at,.-r
than the vertical runs and an equally good condition for electrolytic a-1,tini.
In no case have we found any sign of action in the horizontal rniis."
This fact could be explained very easily for the reason that. by the time tlhi
water reaches the horizontal runs of the crossover all tlhe hiylroxhie oiiiteint
of the water would be used up and therefore no action is seen in the Iioriz.iital
r1uns.
Following are extracts from reports of the lock sulperintenlents,
covering details of operation and maintenance of the locks.

GATUN LOCKS.

ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.

Mr. E. D. Stillwell and Mr. H. M. Thomas continued :a siipelrintenident anil
assistant superintendent, respectively, throughout the year. <.n .July 1. 1917.
Mr. F. M. Easter was appointed to fill the position of iiim'cinnicail stIpri-'i<,ir
which had been vacant since June 12, 1917. Mr. C. W. olb.i-rts, elecriia.il
supervisor, was transferred to the electrical division oun St'ieilber 24. 1Il-7.
and on October 3, 1917, Mr. P. R. Kiger was appointed to fill thi. v:i,';ni-y.
MAr. Kiger resigned on April 24, 1918, in order to enter thi- i'ilit;iry S:.rvi.e.
iMr. A. E. Wood being appointed electrical supervisor on that ,litt.
The positions of recorder and property clerk were comiiliined anI thi wirk
is now done by one man.
The personnel of the organization has changed considerably ,dirin'_' tlie :'ar.
due to resignations and transfers. A total of four men resi-gned to eIer' tlite
military service, three of whom received commissions.

OPERATION.

The same system of operation continued in effect as iin thle pa-t year. T ie
operation was carried on by two shifts covering the perilI frmill 7 a. in. to
S.30 p. m. It has been necessary, frequently, to extend this i period tm .:- Late
as midnight in order to clear the north bound ships the .-:iie l:iy tlhey eiileredi
the canal on account of the unusual conditions due to tle war.
Delays due to failure of the operating machinery and : :icileiins tin es-els
during the passage through the locks have been few and of megligible mngiii-
tude. The damage to vessels has been chiefly the break kiiin of hllock. iall,
bitts due to not being adapted for towing purposes.
The. most serious damage occurred on February 2, 1i18. l tli. tc.iiilhipiI
Republic, southbound, which hit the northeast wing wa:ll milnd d;iii.intil t l-.-
plates on the port bow above the water line. The accident i-urrii, il l-'ifore
the ship entered the lock and was under control of the lo,.,inti\es.
The longest ship, although not the greatest ton inae, Ii.'ke i tirlir-'hli tmo ,late
was the steamship Ceramic, northbound, on December 12. 1 17. '['lie Ceramnic
is 655 feet long and 69.2 feet beam. Actual time of lockage vwas 60 minutes.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


The water consunmption at Gatin locks" \\'las follows:
Cubic feet.
ekag--------------------------------------------------- 18,985, 000
Lka ---------------------_____------_____ 9,952, 110, 000

Tol; ------------------------------------------------ 10,139,095,000
Thei : ;a :i'a" e;* an.'lllt of water t ik l f'rniiit (;;itJ Ii L tke per lockage was
4.*2_ '0.I1; CiuliC feet.
Thie lel'?rcy lilis WeIoe opera ted tea'ih nlotli excO ept during the overhaul-
illng pet:l'intd. Na e ell 1gell.y Operatillo s e \\ m'e 1 e-es; Ia'y.
Nio emlergtency tests of tlie chain felnderI- wi'ere ni.e dil'ring tlie year.

MAI NTENA NCE.

Mailitoenalce work w\as carried on during the year as \\'as necessary to keep
the niacnlinery anil eIiiiliionerit ill good operating condtlition. A number of changes
we(ore .mad1e iIh order toi facilitate inspection, repair s or operation of the ma-
chill- E. Eq lii ient viil'li \\'as fourni ti lit-e iniiet-i:- 1-ai'y \\as removed and
pincel ill stock for rieis-.i te t'> otiltr ileipartinierlt.
Loronoitl irce.> inl tifi' l.it .-' \\o Ie\\' loco'iin tives imi.e liy tlihe mechanical divi-
sion sl-ilts at HBallioa were received and placed ii, service diriing the year. The
installation of the electrical e(lliiienrit \'as done I., tl-e ]h :k forces.
Several accitlents have haplipened to tIe l iniiiotiitives il all the locks due to
not lini-intg a positive ira ke w\liich i-onuld le applied under all conditions. Experi-
Illellr. v.'ere made. liIt iioit 'oilile ted. (ill a typie of \veilhtue I'rake which has for
its l. ra ingl power the friction lbetweeli rIte surface of tlie concrete and a steel
\\edt e \ldicli takes part of tlie weight of tli( locomotive.
En<-'trricy dil./aniv.-Thle electrical inter'lo.'-is on the gare c -ontactors were re-
move(d and i replaced ly .a positive nieih:aliai:cal ioterlo-ck oq bii oth dams.
All the meters ill the coniiAl panels of the plains were remoiiived and turned in
to tlie Ball'oa stortl.hol(-e., as tlie e iliplenlt w\as iinecessary aid was deteriorat-
ing.
.Mliter gaItc..-Altireboundiing'I devices were installed in tlihe contractors of all
the gate liiaclines.
On all ti,' intermediate .ate.s tle liandtrail motors, ;ear boxes, and limit
swi tchees with tlie wiring were rem edl and place I inu tore. The cost of main-
taining thli.s etfllipiliilein[ was llighi I a ind it \\as considered? not essential to the
operation.
Workl was lractically completed ,n fitting hinged :-o\ers and a removable
section over the ialunnfiil equipiiient oin thlie gates in order to allow ready access
for inspection and repairs to the equipment.
Ili.si/yg .ci/- rIlri.s.--All intereitldiate rising stein valves with the roller
trains and rodis-, vaIlve stem, and tihe guide Iieariii ngs have been placed in good
cond.-lition anld hell necessary to use the short lengths of lock will be rein-
stalled. They have also served to replace other valves during the period of
overhauling.
Ch ini f inurk.-Wooden blocks with spr ings lve been installed in the pits
of all clhain-fender machines. The springs take up tlie shock of the intermedi-
ate cylinder ..t tlie end of the upstroke.
Ca(.'-t.so tiil Ilinp bitrgtc.-The loIk icaisson \\as used from January 14 to
April 15, 1 15, iin unwatering the lock chambers. At the completion of the work
all the paint on the ilinterior was toulhedi up and tle nimaclhines and equipment
put in g':old condition.
The spillnway caisson was played o thle west lock \\'all for painting; repairs
were iliade to the wooden seals and decking and some aligle irons and U bolts
were stral Irliteiied.
Pululmp large No. 16'.9 was- dry-docled in the upper chainmber and the interior
and exterior of thlie hull painted.
Ji.hcclln~mon..-.-The lovers on approximately 1-l4,01i) liineari feet of the chases
for rthe lighting and telephone wvires in the operating tiinn-els were removed.
This was made ne'essn.ary tldue to the trouble? on these circuits caused by water
and mud ftilling tie chases.
Water level indli:ator board and switclies wire installed at the top of the
shunfts ait all crossai rlder sniup-l-nllp nimoto'rs. The switches operating the sump
lpunils are nowv thro'-n naminally when the indi-cator show's ithe sumps are full.
Aln ildini-ating device has been installed on tile loc'l control board to show
the p-iaition of the arrow oi thlie south approach'li \all which can not be seen





56 THE PANAMA CANAL.

by the control-board operator. The device is operated by a transmitter and
receiver similar to those on the control board.
Approximately 3,600 feet of lead-covered telephone- cable e have 1,eeni pulled in
from the lamp-posts to the chases in the operating tunnel to replace the jute-
covered cable which was unserviceable.
New wall fenders of alemendra, a native hardwood, are being used to replace
the old timber fenders as fast as they are broken a nid have to be renewed.

CONSTRUCTION AND NEW EQUIPMENT.

One new rowboat was constructed. A power-driven hack saw has been idledd
to the equipment for the machine shop. A motor-oper;ited jointer machine wa'<
made by the lock forces for the carpenter shop and a secondhand bandl saw is
also being installed. Concrete scrap bins and an oil house have been placed on
the platform in rear of the storeroom building. A new frame buildin' wa-
erected by the building division on the middle level, east wall, for u-e as a
paint shop and storeroom. A rope shelter with concrete roof a nd posts has
been erected on all wing and approach walls.

GENERAL OVERHAULING.

From January 14 to April 15, 1918, the lock chambers were unwatered in
order to paint the gates and make necessary repairs to the va'lvis and sublinerged
parts.
The following dates of placing and removing the caisson show the complletioln
of the work in the various chambers:
West chamber, middle and lower levels: Caisson placed on January 1-1, and
raised on February 23.
East chamber, middle and lower levels: Caisson placed on March 1, and raised
on March 23.
East chamber, upper level: Caisson placed on April 9, and raised on April 1.-.
The work on the rising stem valves in addition to toucliin;- up the lIitini:istic
enamel, covered the renewal of all parts worn due to corrosion and electrolytic
action, replacing broken bronze spring strips on the side seals and grindin-z off
the bottom seats of the valves, which were badly pitted. A number of floor
plates were found missing and these were replaced.
The machinery steel removable side strips on the box c.stin'_s were replacedl
with lignum-vitie strips on all valves in the middle a rd Iower levels. The BLalb-
bitt seat was replaced with greenheart on all valves, except the intermieliate,
in the middle and lower levels.
The work on the cylindrical valves consisted of the replacing of the worn
leather seals and nuts. Only the valves in the milddlle and lower levels were
overhauled.
The channel irons and rollers in the roller trainn, the roller train tracks on
both the wall and the valve, and the front wearin'I, pad on the rising S-temn valves
all showed marked wear and corrosion. Extensive repairs and renewal of parts
will be necessary at the next overhauling of these valves.
From July to November, 1915, the exterior surfaces of the loci; -ates on both
sides from the bottom to the freeing ports, except on -ates Nos. 2-, ; 4. 7. 37. S-
39, 40, on which to the full height on both sides, and on gates Nos. 33, 34, 35. 30'
to the full height, only on the upstream side, were painted by the American
Bitumastic Enamels Co. with bitumastic solution aund enamel under a five-year
guarantee. A contract has been entered into by which The Panama Canal is
to do the necessary work to repair the paint on tlihee gates, ilhe c,-t of same
to be billed against the American Bitumastic Enamels Co.
During the period the locks were unwatered; the lock forces painted these
gates where necessary. In the lower level the bitunmastic ename! had failed
to such an extent that practically all the exterior surfaces of the '-ates in the
lower level had to be cleaned and were repainted with liermnastic solution and
poison enamel furnished by the contractor. The interior of the writer chaim-
bers of the gates, which are under water, were also painted at this time.
At the end of this fiscal year, the work of touching up the paint under the
contract on the exterior of the gates and on the interior of the gates in both tihe
air and water compartments was about 90 per cent complete and will be entirely
completed in about one more month.
The five-year guarantee for the interior of the gates in the water and air com-
partments expires in January, 1919.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 57

Herniastic solution and enamel is being used to paint the lock gates on the
exterior surfaces which were not covered by the contractor. At the end of the
fiscal y.ear 19 s-ides of gates were completed, and the work will be carried on as
fast as the oil paint fails and the surfaces need repainting.
Inl tile last anlLtl report mention was made of applying a zinc coating by the
Schoop process to one rising stem valve and portable parts and section of two
of thle lock gates below sea level. These parts were unwatered one year after
the zinc had been applied, and it was found that practically all the zinc coating
lhad gone and all parts were rusting, showing that this process can not be used
for a protective coating on gates and valves.

PACIFIC LOCKS.

ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.

Mr. William R. Holloway as superintendent continued throughout the entire
fiscal year, imaldin- his headquarters at Pedro Miguel locks, Mr. Jesse C.
Myrick as a:-istaiit superintendent, being located at Miraflores locks, Mr.
Robert S. Mills as electrical supervisor and Mr. George L. Viberg as mechanical
supervisor, divided their time between the two locks. The personnel of the
organization was slightly changed, eight employees resigning their positions
to enter into the United States Army and United States Navy service, making
it necessary to till their positions by promotion.

OPERATION.

The lock force haIs continued working on the two-shift basis, as outlined in the
previou. annual report, covering a period from 7 a. in. to 8 p. m. This plan
has been made suit.' ble to meet all requirements of the increased traffic.
At Pedro Miguel locks 2,420 lockages were made or an average of 6.63 per
day, and at Mirafloies locks 2,343 blockages were made or an average of 6.40 per
day.
The trattic for the month of May broke all-previous records as to number
of lockages, commercial vessels and tonnage passing through the canal. The
conimercial vessels numbered 212, which is 17 more than any previous month.
The total number of lockages made at Pedro Miguel locks was 229, exceeding
the previous high record by 9.
The steamship Ci.ramic locked through on December 12 northbound, is the
lon_,est shil that has been handled in the locks to date-length, 655 feet;
beamn. 9.2: draft, 29.2 feet in fresh water-was towed by eight locomotives,
being under perfect control at all times.
EIach emerency dam was operated once a month through the year for drill
and inspection. All gold employees on the operating shift on duty respond to
the signal v.histle. The towing locomotive operators are all qualified to
operate the gate and girder hoisting machines and the general operators to
swing the dams.
Thle spillway at Miraflores locks was operated as necessary to keep the
elevation of Miraflores Lake within the prescribed limits.
There was a total of 254 spillway operations made during the year.
The greatest discharge through the spillway to date occurred on September 6,
1917. when three gates were raised 5.2 feet for 40 minutes. This was due to
the failure of the dam for the settling basin on the west side of Pedro Miguel
looks, during an unusually heavy rain. The water overflowed the dam, tearing
it out for about SO feet and releasing 8 feet head of water. As a result of this
heavy discharge through the spillway, some damage was sustained by the
railroad trestle bridge south of Miraflores locks and some dredging was re-
quired in the canal channel opposite this bridge.

MAINTENANCE.

Cables.-Two or three cases of trouble developed in the control cables. On
inspection it was found that one 5 and one 8 conductor, varnished cambric in-
sulated, lead sheathed cables in the middle crossover at Miraflores locks were
grounded. These two cables were located in a closed duct, back of the other
cables, next to the lock walls. Upon removal the lead sheathing was found to
be badly pitted and entirely gone in places, due to seepage of water through
the concrete, which entered these ducts near top of shaft, causing the chemical






58 THE PANAMA CAN.AL.

action, which was explained in report on cables to Col. Dillon 'Intedl September
24, 1917.
A total of six control cables in the middle crosSover were foundI to be a;f-
fected to.varying degrees and the affected cables were repllcedl with new ,,ones.
Every case of cable failure was found to be ii, the side wall of the vertical
shafts in the outside row of ducts, on the upstream side of liuct lines :It Miria-
flores locks. To obviate this the new cables were installed in a different loc:i-
tion supported on hangers, keeping them 2 or 3 inr:lies from the :.-ir'face
of the concrete. Since this change has been made no further trouble lhis de-
veloped and all cables are in good condition.
Chain fender machines.-To facilitate testing and setting of Itoss valves, the
top cylinders of all machines are drilled, tapped :an nipples nild valves appliteil
for a three-fourths-inch pipe connection, allowing diiret colinn action to tilt hi.zl-
pressure testing pump. The air-operated high-[preSsure pium[p ised for above
testing was overhauled and rebuilt to increase it-, capacity.
Every three months all chain fender machines are tested with high-p're pumps, the Ross valves reset and adjusted to release at 3;".1i and 41.i- pound,.- ,t
pressure, then sealed with lead car seals to prevent being tainperedl with. All
overflow tanks are washed out and refilled with fresh water at the -aine time.
Control houscs.-The control house, control board,-. and all a,::essori- ha\'e
been completely overhauled and kept in perfect operating ,oijditionvs at both
locks.
Emergency dams.-Mechanical interlocks have been instilled on contacts at
panels for all gate and girder hoists, replacing the electrical interlock,.
Having been found to be unnecessary, all ammeters- and wattlelers, with their
current transformers and Y-box resistances, have been reinoy\ed from all laws
and returned to stock at Balboa storehouse.
Fenders.-The fender timbers on all approach and w ing walls at b"'al lck-
have been maintained. It has been necessary to replace miany of these timbl'-e
during the year, some from decay or rot,. and others being flunaied lby sl:1,;p
striking them.
The crib fenders at the end of south approach w\;ill at Pedro Miguel licks
were practically destroyed by teredos, making it necessary to in-t:all : complete
new crib fender. One hundred and twenty new creosoted piling were driven
and new fender frame installed around same.
The crib fender at the north end of Pedro Miguel loh,-ks was damaged, caius,-d
by a collision of the steamship Capto on March 16. This nec-essit:iteul replacing
60 of the piling and an entirely new fender frame.
New chains for holding the low-tide fender timbers in place during high-tidle
water on south approach wall at Miraflores locks were instulied to replace cables
used originally, which had rusted away.
Crib fender at end of north approach wall at Miraflores locks was al.-o re-
paired. Eighteen new piles were driven in connection with this work.
Miter gate machines.-All machines were thoroughly overhauled, motors tested
and inspected. The bullwheel openings at the upper guard gates at both locks
were protected by one-half-inch mesh steel guards to prevent access from the
outside.
Miter lock gates.-Soundings were taken in all air-tight compartments \eekly
which were pumped out where necessary.
All sump pumps were operated for test weekly and given a thorough inspec-
tion each month.
Rising stem valves.-Steel footwalks and handrails were installed over -ll
pits at all machines at both locks, to facilitate maintenance and promote safety
for employees.
To insure the bevel gears remaining in proper mesh, a fDalubbitt collar has been
cast on vertical shaft under the gear and a split iron collar placed on the vertical
shaft between the gear and the bearing; this work has been completed on all
machines at both locks.
In September, 1917, the east chamber was unwatered for the inspection of the
miter gates and other submerged parts by the contractor. At this time the lohk
forces made a thorough inspection of the rising stem alves at the lower end of
the east and center walls. The valves and fixed irons hall been coated with
bitumastic the previous years, at which time the steel side seal strili- and the
Babbitt bottom seals had been replaced with lignuim-vit;e and greenlieart wood,
respectively. The bitumastic enamel was found to be in good ':oiidition and
required very little touching up. The new woo'd seals have been found very
satisfactory and showed very little wear and no evidence as yet of teredlos.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


Siillir-w.-(G:l'.iniiie-l-iron pans were made and installed under the worms
fr ,.;i'li ,if the z: te-',operating machines, to c:t'rlh the oil drippings which formerly
wi-nt t, wPIste: Ihis ,il is now being filtered and used again.
'Irhl rlil le It lie lliing system.-Considerable trouble has been experienced
i.\![li tle telepholniii sys.-n during the past year. On inspection, it was found
I:t:,( tlie julte-: erei wire originally installed was the cause of the trouble; this
j.ilt'-iiisiulled %.ii'- has all been replaced with lead-covered cable. Rubber-
i--iil;lateil wi ire originally installed in the exterior lamp-posts for lighting, has
;ls been repl,:1cel \wilh lead-covered cable at both locks, which has practically
elimlin;ited all trouble "''i these circuits.
The installing o': lead-covered cable, replacing jute-covered wire, in the
,-liies- in all tunnels .xas completed, the chases being left open for inspection
:iid ventilation. These chases were originally closed up with cement blocks;
.1n reumving these blocks, the chases were found to be very damp and wet and
I lie wires covered d with mold; leaving the chase open has prevented any further
trouble.
Ternmiial Ibo,:;irdh l ha.e been installed under the control boards in control
Houses. : 'i telephone cables, to facilitate testing and locating trouble.
LDistril-iitiiion terminal boards were also installed in all crossover rooms in
opliera til-- tunniel- rto facilitate testing and locating trouble on telephone system.
Touring locoioli'e.-R.-The two new locomotives manufactured at the Balboa
shops were received ;it Miraflores locks in June, 1917. The cars as received
li;il 111: electrical woli done on them. Panel boards have since been installed,
together with o-ther electrical accessories, and the cars wired complete; they
are sivin_. satisfactory service.
Several changes were made in the design of these locomotives, i. e., the cab
w-as increased I in ihes in height, and is a decided improvement. Electrically
Ioperated Ibrlkes were installed on the slow coiling motors, to prevent them
from ovieruhaulini. a feature previously installed on one locomotive for experi-
Ineolal li'rposes, which proved very satisfactory and a valuable improvement.
It is the intention to Intstall same style brakes on all towing locomotives, using
the brakes from Ihe discarded miter forcing machines for this purpose. Open-
ings were :ut andl sliding panels made and installed in the back of each cal
on all locomotives to give access to the wiring on the rear of the switchboard
panels. Pipe felnders were installed on all locomotives to prevent cables from
runi bing tlie sides.
All l:io,,motives have been maintained both electrically and mechanically and
kept in pjr'tia:nlly i.erfect operating condition.
Touritng track .s.'.s\/d.-On account of faulty construction, many of the rail
joints of towing tracks and the sections over the miter gate recesses were found
to be loo:,se. nece.sitating removing the concrete and also removing the remov-
able section.s. .:orret iin the base plate, by placing steel shims under the rails,
to level them. after \which the concrete was put back in place, making these
tracks miiechanically perfect at the present time. The vibration of these. loose
joints caused many of the copper bonds connecting the rails together to break
loose. which Iand to be renewed.
T'transforiicer roo,.s.-Ventilators were designed, cast out of concrete and in-
stalled in the decking covers, 20 in all, one at each transformer room at both
Iocks.
The oil in all transformer and oil switch cases at both locks was tested and
filtered, or renewed %% here necessary.
IResuscitation instructions and one-line diagrams of high-tension distribut-
ing system were provided with frames and hung on the walls in every trans-
former r,"'oom for rlte benefit of employees.
Cai'.son.-Tlie Iliiting caisson previous to being sent to Gatun locks, was
pumped out to reduce the draft to 331 feet, and left Pedro Miguel locks on
October 29. 1917.
Decl. ligl, i.--Brken glasses were removed and new glasses placed where
necessary at both lo,,ks. Approximately 8,000 new glasses were installed.
Backhfills iand dloan .-The backfills and dams at both sets of locks have been
maintained throughout the year. '
All railroad rra,:ks at both locks were maintained and resurfaced.
The grass ,on ;ill backfills and dniams liis been kept ..:ut during the rainy
season; during the dry season part of this force was u-ed in caring for and
clearing i:u bu icktills, grading, dilclhilng, and draining same.
Four locomotive repair pits halve been installed, one on the upper level and
one on the lower level on each side at Miraflores locks. Spurs connecting these





60 THE PANAMA CANAL.

pits with the return tracks on the lock walls and with the main railroad tracks
have been installed, requiring a large amount of grading on the west side.
The west dam at Miraflores locks was riprapped from launch aIndinu to lock
wall, a distance of about 300 feet.
A 5-foot concrete walk was made from west lock wall to bachelor quarters
and a 5-foot oil and gravel walk connecting this with the launch landing at
Miraflores locks.
Launches and boats.-Launch Mary S was taken out of water, completely
overhauled, and put back into service.
The assembling of the new launch (knocked down) ordered from the States
has been started and is well under way.
Five flat-bottom and three round-bottom rowboats were built and put into
service.
Locomotive cranes.-All locomotive cranes were kept in serviceable condition,
ready for instant use.
Lock machine shops.-The machine shops have been able to turn out nearly
all parts necessary for the maintenance of the loci: eqiiIil)ument, with the excep-
tion of a very few very heavy pieces of work, which were sent to the Balboa
shops.
A retaining wall was built for the platform in front of the machine shop at
Mliraflores. The platform was finished off with gravel and screenings. This
wall was mainly built out of concrete slabs left over from the construction of
the locks.
MISCELLANEOUS WORK.

Scaffolds.-Twelve scaffolds were made for painter, for use in painting miter
gates.
Cocoli shed.-All machinery and material stored at Cocoli shed was cleaned
up and painted with tar paint.
One carload of piping 2 to 6 inches, four carloads of scrap iron, and two
cars of scrap rail were sent to storehouse for credit.
A run around railroad track with two switches, was laid around Cocoli shed.
Trees obstructing the view from the control house were cut off Cocoli shed,
south of Miraflores locks.

BITUMASTIC WORK AND PAINTING OF LOCK GATES AND SURMERGED PARTS.

The floating caisson was sunk at the lower end of the east chamber at Mirn-
flores locks on August 29, for the purpose of making an inspection and touching
up of the miter gates, valves, and other submerged parts. All painting work
was completed and the chamber again flooded on September 20, 1917.
The water was lowered in the west chamber on September 29, for an inspec-
tion of the miter gates, which were found to be in very good condition.
The' contractor who had coated the portion of the gates under water with
bitumastic enamel performed the necessary touching up of this work.
His work had not stood up as well as anticipated and necessitated quite a
lot of touching up. He was unable to procure the same kind of material origi-
nally used, so was allowed to substitute a practically new material, which is
manufactured under the name of Hermastic enamel." This seems to have
formed a perfect bond and has proved satisfactory so far.
Under date of- January 11, 1918, a new contract was entered into by the
American Bitumastic Enamels Co. with The Panama Canal, to do the necessary
repair work to the enamel on these gates, to complete their five-year guarantee.
They withdrew their representative from the Isthmus; since this time the lock
forces have taken care of this work in a more satisfactory manner than it was
done heretofore, the cost of same being billed against the contractors.
The interior of the gates is now being inspected and the necessary touching
up is being done, as the five-year guarantee on the interior of all gates expires
during 1918. The work will be done as near the expiration of the contract as
possible.
Gates Nos. 100-101, 102-103 at Miraflores and gates Nos. 50-51, 52-53. 70-71,
and 72-73 at Pedro Miguel have been completed. Those at Pedro Miguel locks
were in fair condition, while those at Miraflores locks require about one-third
of the surface to be reenameled. The material has held up well where it was
applied, but inspection proved that in some places no enamel had been applied.






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 61

The upper portion of the gates, which had been coated with graphite and
lead paint. was g0one over by the lock force at the same time, with the excep-
ti(on of four gates. Nos. 112-113, 116-117. Two of these gates (Nos. 116-117)
were treated 'ith heriiastic enamel and solution furnished by the manufac-
turer. the other two gates (Nos. 112-113) being treated with enamel over
Navy solution formula No. 5S, for the purpose of determining which was the
better. Preliminary results have proven that the latter treatment forms a
more perfect Iond.].
The exterior surface of all miter gates at Pedro Miguel locks which were
coatedl with Navy hitumen enamel and solution, formula No. 58-59-60, during
the lnst fiscal year. and reported as having been done by the lock forces in the
last annual report, has been inspected and found very satisfactory up to the
present time.

PAINTING.

In addilioni to caring for the bitumastic work and the painting of the spare
parts; at Corozal storehouse, the following painting has been done:
Chain feilers.-Fournoen machines at Miraflores and two at Pedro Miguel
locks have lieen painted completely and the walls of the pits whitewashed dur-
ing the year. All of the chains have been painted with an especially prepared
tar paint, which lhas proved very successful for this purpose.
l.isjil .ic,,m ralcv's.-The rising stem valves in the east and center wall cul-
verts at Mirallore- lIock, were inspected. These had been coated with bitumas-
tic the year previous by the contractors. They were found in very good condi-
tion ;nd the very SL;-II amount of touching up necessary was done by the
oin lIti t-or.
Troi'ing/ locomotices.-All locomotives have been painted during the year,
receivin- two 'oats of tcray paint and two coats of spar varnish. The gray
color is more lastilig. absorbs the heat less, and is easier to keep clean than the
original black.
L'mcrgciw, dalnli.-Eniergency dams at both sets of locks were due to be
p:-inted .Jniun;i ry. 1019'. :is they are supposed to be painted every two years,
but upon inspetion, they being found in fairly good condition, it was decided
to do some ieces-ary touching up and leave a general coating go until next year.
.Spillicait.-Tlhe upstream side of the spillway gates was touched up with
hitumastic and the downstream side and bridge structure painted.
lo,'rli,itls.--Fl:,t ;illd round bottom rowboats used around the locks to han-
dle lines and to put the pilots aboard ships were severely attacked by teredos,
more daIm:l being done at Miraflores locks than has been reported at any
other pline -.n tli- I-tliunis. To obviate this these boats were coated with a
special copper paint. which has been used since last November with good results.
('incrce-floor p,,inlt.-After considerable study, to get a suitable paint to
hold on the.con'-rete floors of the operating tunnels and machine rooms, a
small order was secured from the Trus Con laboratories which seems to
be more satisftactory th:in that heretofore used.
Co,,dictor-slot corers.-All conductor-slot covers have been coated with tar
paint.
Test platcs.-A series of about 30 test plates have been made up and several
difl'erent plaints of various manufacturers and some paints locally manufactured
by the lock forces :ire being tested to determine just what will make the best
coating for the protectioii of the steel structure both under and above water.
This was done on account of the climatic conditions found here. It is hoped
that some very valuable information will be obtained from these test plates for
future 11use.
Paitd mi-ring and grinding machines.-Due to the large quantities of paints
required for maintenance at the locks, it was considered advisable to have a
paint machine. Accordingly, a 30-inch single water-cooled Kaestner & Hecht
paint machine was installed in the paint shop at Pedro Miguel locks. This mill
has proved to he a valuable addition to our equipment, as a better paint is ob-
tained and at a lower cost by buying the raw materials and doing our own
mixing andl grinldiing. A considerable saving is also effected by regrinding old
paint that has dried and hardened. This machine is belt driven by a 7-horse-
power induction motor secured from the stock of miter-forcing machine motors,
which were considered unnecessary and were removed.
Miscellaneous.-The necessary painting of all operating machinery has been
kept up during the year.





THE PANAMA CANAL.


ELECTRICAL DIVISION.

The details of the operations of the electrical division during the
fiscal year are covered in the report of the electrical engineer, which
follows:
ELECTRICAL DIVISION.

IV. L. Hcrsh, Electrical Engineer.
CHARACTER AND EXTENT OF THE \iOPRK.
The duties of the electrical division, during the fisea-il year just closed, co-m-
prised the necessary work of design, construction, operation, ;iiind maintenance
of the steam and hydroelectiric power plants, sulb.stations, t'ra-nsmission lines
and power distribution systems; municipal, street, shopr. dock, building. and
house lighting systems; telephone, telegraph, fire-;latrio ;md ril\tay ldock-
signal systems, and the railway interlocking plants; the eletr ic" stor;ae battery
cargo handling trucks at the terminal docks and storehou.e-;: a id the install.i-
tion and repair of all classes of electrical apparatus for Tlle IP'an-ina Canal.
Panama Railroad Company. United States Army and Navy, .iiid of all d>'[:art-
ments and divisions therein, and of commercial and IUnited St:ates Navy ste;in-
ships.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.

Col. T. H. Dillon, United States Army, continued as electrical en'rineer until
he was ordered to Washington on February 5, 1918. w\hen Mr. Walter L. HIl-rsl
was appointed electrical engineer. This 'change made the po-ition of super-
intendent of power open, to which Mr. Baxter R. G(rier \\-. ;ilprointed. 41n
April 24, 1918, Mr. W. L. Fey, superintendent of maintenmnc ailid const'ruction,
resigned to accept a commission in the United St,.te- E'inineoer Ie-erve Cir'is,.
tnd his position was filled by Mr. Albert C. Garlington. IMr. Carl XV. Malrklih.in,
in charge of the office and requisitions, resigned on Ai.urust 11, 1917. to accept
a commission in the United States Engineer Reserve Corls, a;,dI his position
was filled by Mr. M. P. Benninger. The five divisions into wihicl the work wvas
divided remains unchanged except as above, and is a;s fo'llo'vw:
Office and requisitions, M. P. Benninger.
Power and transmission system, B. R. Grier, superintendent.
Construction and maintenance. A. C. Garlington, si,[eriniteidlenit.
Telephone and telegraph, C. L. Bleakley, superintendent.
Railway signal system, E. C. McDonald, supervisor.
On June 30, 1918, there were 208 gold and 393 silver emiployee- in this divl-
sion. The average monthly pay roll for the division \\-is $4i.;,i0: average
monthly expenditures were about $127,000, of which S0 tier -e:-t was for \-ork
done for other departments and divisions.

OFFICE AND DESIGN.

The usual miscellaneous office work was done throughout tlte year, including
correspondence, reports, work orders, estimates and the |irp;;iratini of 10
material requisitions, including specifications for 2,045. items totaling in i value
$783,903.
The general plans of last year were developed in complete detail for the
extension to the hydroelectric generating station and the transformer substa-
tion at Gatun. Plans were developed, specifications pireprarie, nI d reiluisitioins
placed for the complete electrical installations for li-lit, hebot, a.1Ii power ;It tihe
Navy submarine base and the Army and Navy aero stations.
Plans were prepared for the lighting and applicatioit of electric poo\ver inl all
buildings erected as new or remodeled by The Panama Canal., and ill a few
buildings for other interests located on the Canal Zone.
Plans were prepared for the necessary extensions to thle underground con-
duit and cable distribution system for light, power, telephone and telegraph, and
fire-alarm service in the permanent towns of the canal, iicltiulin g tie A.rliy aind
Navy reservations.
A complete revision of forms and method of handling work orders has been
made and the new system is going into operation July 1, 191S.





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 63

I' \WI.II-PLANT E.TE:NIONS.

The pr-'jec',t of extending tile hyd.roelectric development at tnatin spillway,
inllliling the inl tallatioii of one :-h.litionll generator init of 4.-rfif kilowatt
capacity, w\\as carried -n thrA.lghout the 'e:'ar. -i'ln-iderabl' deIlay was ex-
perienced in this work iliue' to til --j dificulty of obtaining equipi Imcnt and mate-
rials from the States. Most of this delay a\\s i:anied by \\o;ir conditions, the
im.ge.sted.l factories of the eomitl'4ators supplying this equiplient, ain the diffi-
culty of railrlrail and 0e01ean transportation.
I'y the -ind of the year tle building extension proper wa\\'s practi,:ally com-
pletel, inelilling con rlt'- ellsls for oil Kreuit lbreal:rs, anl ,nerete shelving
for duplie:!te set of .C00 volt Wiuse. The lie!stoc:.-ls for thie proplosmdl No. 4 unit
;niil for the future units Nos. 5 and 63 were eomnuileteil, in.1i'lingi II:iekfill and
inisimle eo:t of .hitLuizii sati,' ilna;llel. The lien:d-';ite hlion--, [lie lutl.nd ''ates, the
trasli rIIcks, andl the henl d-.a;lte opmirating itl i 1liilmery, iirn lt, lin', s'. itCelii.oard and
wvirinli, wvOre iolltlpete'd.
Thi' 'reoition of the 275 kilo\\att hlirizontal turliille exciter sot hlias been com-
plete I. l.iit no final test has a- yetr ['-ell nmad,-. The i ;.7.50 li..r--io,\\'o'er Pelton
Frl'nl'nis verti(a;l turlbine, and the 45,0) kIilo\vatt gelnel'ratr unit were received
in 11., anild tlie er-.tion was started by .Tune 1. The- oil Iiinl[,- and pipe
foi i1in: oil sy.-'tem ere 'i'elived ailnd their 'reption w\.-s starfedl diiring Jnne.
Thiu v. itelil) Iot l and switiil'll'e 1 ] I el t "er iver'e tile l t 111 i:ter'lil t'l Ihor received,
:nd i \\ere dleliverel ton the I ili.-talled for the extension of Iis No. 1, andi the work on Iuins No. 2 \\-as started.
Ti'e \\ork of placing switcl .U'.ir in the comiijp rtnieilts for the oil ,.irlili. hrerikers
aY- started. This work wars delayed to sone extent \\ Ilti:n thi' ll me were taken
fr'in this w'orlk for more nlrgent 'work ini line .\illi national dleeleir>-.
After the installation of tlhe No. 4 unit, tlhe lhilroelm:.'ltric piniit will have a
en l.nity of three 2.SSO Ivilo''atts and one -U.5iii kilowatt nnirs, toa;lin.ng 13.140
kiliwav:rtt willth romi-ilns for the future installation of two 4,;'in kilowatt units,
nmalkilg a total ultimate capllity of 22.141) kilowttlts.

WATER CONSUtMPTION-Y-HYIiOEL[ECTIIC Sf.\TION.

A stidy has li l ni lade of the Ipos-dile quIl:intity of tai-er to I',e consumedd
f,-ir the generation of ele'trie power at tihe iydroelec'tri ..-( t;,i'i at Gatun
sli;ll\.vay. After this linnt lhas heeli dleveloied to it-s ultialltl clmieacity, the
Omlilpinenot .1 riven by turbines m will '.o msist of lhree 2.-SSMi IIilo\':,!t and three
4,-.500 kilow:amtt generating' units. and one 27.I kilo-matt excit'r uilt. Actual
ti-'nires coverinl ;- six months' period develop the fa:t tlliat lthe existing three
2,,SAi Iilmh att units w-ere oleratingI a it an oiveraL'e haild ,t 7.5 per emint of their
(cllapcity. Under av'era'e lod of t75 per ewiit of their apimeit.y, it w\\.l computed
that thlliie three mlisit \\ill eacili on ns1 iiie waiter at :1 rnle -f 411i --nhic feet
pi,'r -e ,ld. Under IliNaxilli in l l I.;11rit. land, it ,ha been c_' iliniile, that these
three uinitl will consul e .'52&S, ,i tl.ic feir cI,:I' -ec'.'dll. liI tlies:-c -iiimnui nations. the
eiliciency of tlie generatorss Ih s Ie'-ii I seil on the nin:1 lal tiirer''- faIc:Lory tests
irnd the ttnriiine efliieiln' on the lost mad:ie at tile time of flim' re--,eptance of the
Ia -'e" ,' ai I: ily [tll r ine wheels ilientliolled.l in last yeal '' 'epirl.
In e-tiilat ing the \wn er to be 'olsiiie,.l by tihe 4,.-1 ki lw I al\ tt units, Nos. 4,
,5, amd n,. no actual test data ifre avail:l.ile. This 'miilt;atilon \' s I.i-med on the
turbine and generator eliciencies as I'rolosed I,0 tihe inii ,ntntriil'r.~. From these
proposed values, it has been 'olilnpted that water will 1be consumed by each
of these units, when Iondead on the Aver(-'e to T5 per eent **f th-eir caipacity, at
a rate of 6i.7 cubli feet per se',cond, and when loaded to full inlap;eity this rate
will lie S52 ublic feet per second. The wa-iter onsiililmption of tlte new 275
kilmiwatt exciter set, when based n generator iandl tllrbine elliien'cies as s pro-
po-,ted by the nluinufacturers, is omill pted to Ihe .5'.,> luic feet per -econd.
Tile total witr t.onsilliptioln at lihe h ilroelectrie .-;: itioni. \\lit tlhe ultimate
six unit tapa:city of 22.1-1"1 kilowatts is operated under m;vern':ic land of 75 per
cent, is siinimled up as follmI s:
Cubic feet
per second.
For three 2.SS0-kilowiat generatr llits-------------------------------- 1,230
For three 4.iH.ikilo,.xtt 'enelrlatorl' ilni------------------------------ 1,971
For lone 27.5 kilmowatt *.xtiter unit------------------------------------- 58.3

Total ------------------------------------------------------- 3,259.3





64 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The total water consumption at tins plant, when developed to its ultimate
capacity of 22,140 kilowatts and fully loaded, is sumlind up as follows:
Cn'llie foot
p er s'e-ond.
For three 2,890-kilowatt generator units---------------------_____ 1, FS-
For three 4,500-kilowiatt generator units ------------------.-.-------- 2,- 526
For one 275-kilowatt exciter unit---------------------- --------- 5'. 3

Total ------------------------------------- --- 4, 1S. 3
The estimate of 3.2.020 cllic feet per secJn is a very e,,i ervative figure for
the rate of water c'onsumlption for tle average losing of this station when
developed to the ultimate capacity.
The value 4.1!8 c(iubic feet per second wouhl rejirereout the rate of water con-
sumption in case thie minimum or valley output exceeded thlie plant's ultimate
capacity requiring the g-ineration of loads in excess of 22,140 kilowatts at
Miraflores steam or othei' plants. But while .uch conditions are not iiii-po-sible,
there is at this time no indication i.,f their prolb:al.ility for some indefinite time
in the future.

SirPST.\rTON AND TRANSMISSION LINE IMPROVEMENTS.

At Gatun substation, preipl-arations were made to adarp t this station to the
conditions obtaining after the conversion of the li],11i' station from 2,200)
volt to 6,600 volt :.,_neiiration. This- work inicludles the ins-tallatiuon of one 8,400-
kilovolt-ampere G.,lO-4 4,000-volt water-cooled trai''former the complete re-
modeling of concrete cells for oil circuit i.breakers anl for instrument tranu-
formers; the in ,tallation of hi'zher caianeity circuit breakers; the remodeling
of a greater part of and addlitions to existini,- switchboard: tl c rinodieliin:. of
bus layout, ineludinw both 2.200 o and lt rind 6 vit secondary bu-es; the in-
stallation of two 1. 00-kilovolt-anmere .0(i0-2.200-volt \\ater-coilded trans-
formers; the ii-nst illatioin of a coolinii water system ti. sIupp-ly raw lake water
to cool new transformers: the reconnectioii of two 4.000-kiiovlt-:.iipere 2.200-
44,000-volt radialt.,r-typr, transformers for l,16100-44,000-volt operation; and the
removing of two l.' 2.iT-kilovilt-aniper,' 2.200-44,000-volt ratliat:ir-type tralns-
formers.
This work has been under way for con!e time. but liha bteiil elayvet to soerie
extent due to e-,sues incident to ithe l conldition-:, sutchI as the congestion of
the factories of the contractors suipplyiit new e qiiipient, to the dilliculty o-If
railroad and ocean transportation, and to the tbbneed of calling. men from tillis
work in favor of work in the line of national defen-Pe.
When these clhani'_es now in proi'esr have iee'i completed, tie- Gatiin sub-
station will be equipped with tw'o 1.500-lilovolt-an pere 1,600-2d200-volt trans-
formers for local ,listrilhntion, lln with t i l:) 4.Wri-klilovolt-aimipel'ei anid one
8,400-kilovolt-minpi-re i,;0.I-i-14,0i0.-volt tiran i'riin.: forl distant traiis sionI
with provisions for the e tire inistillatioii of one S.100-kilovl.t-anipere water-
cooled transformer.
At the Cristioal sul,-tation one of the two 2,67-kilovolt-amipere 44,0010-2,200
transformers has l.beeni relbilt arl reratel to 2,.500-kilovol t-a lpere 4.1,000-11,000
volts. There has ileen installed an 11,000-volt lms with complete switch tzear
and the nece-sarvy sw'itihboiard iniprovemelits for acomiiiilOatiiig two trans-
formers rebuilt ;is above two ou t'-oing 11,000-volt feederc- to refri 'zera ting plant
and submarine base, withl provi-ions to iacolorniate the two future outs' 'in g
11,000 feeders. A second 2.667-kiloivlt-amplere tr:tnsforiiir i.s to hIe rliiilt
and rerated to 2,5.l00-kllovolt-amlllpu es iilioii remiio\al from Gatin -nlustation.
When this last-inentioned itOem i'. cuinlpleted, this station will l'e e-'ulipped withl
two 2,667-kilovolt-ainpere tranii formn er- for 12.20. -volt local distribution, arni two
2,500-kilovolt-amipore transformers for distant 11,000-v.ilt ilistrilbution. At this
Cristobal substrition, one 2,200 feetler equipment lii' licell installed for supl, ly-
ing current to tlhe tow\\'si.te at New Cri-toal.
At the Mirall.iire siil'Statiioii on'e 2,i;l;7-kil:volt-aip.'re 44,0 .--IIl 200,2 ) volt tralis-
former has been reliiilt and rerited "2.5' 0-kiloviolt-aiii.re *l-li000i-11.00i volt.t.
This transformer w\a-' removetl froli (;atunl sib-stati.,ii, relbllilt and located at
Miraflores in orler that three 500I-kilovolt-ampere tr.ansformers can be released
for service at tli Coo Solo sulbmiarie bn:lte. A mllall telmpl.,rlry 1,000-kilovilt-
ampere 11,000-volt -iil,-tation, was built at Gil Hill from ecoiil-hand trans-
formers and materials, and energized from Mirallores. By this exipediient tlIere
were released three 500-kilovilt-ampere transformi.rs for use at the Coco Solo





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


submarine base. After these changes of rebuilding and rerating transformer
equipment the Miratliores substation is now equipped with three 2,667-kilovolt-
ampere 44,000-2,200-volt transformers, and one 2,500-kilovolt-ampere 44,000-
11.000-v olt transformer.
Through the releasing of a total of'six 500-kilovolt-ampere transformers,
sufficient transfiorumer equipment was secured to,arrange for temporary power
facilities at the Navy submarine base and aero stations practically nine months
in advance of the proposed receipt of permanent equipment from manufacturers
in, the States.
At the PIalboa substation two 2,200 volt feeder equipment were installed;
one additional feeder to the air-compressing plant in building No. 29, and the
second for feeding auxiliary power to the Pacific forts. Requisition has been
placed for equipping this station with 400 kilovolt amperes transformer capac-
ity, and necessary details to supply auxiliary power to the Pacific forts at a
potential of 6,600 volts. The main power installation of this station, consisting
of three 2,667 kilov'olt amperes, 44,000-2,200 volt transformers, remains practi-
cally unchanged.
Transmission line improvements consisted of the insertion of line-section
switches at G4amboa. At this point four 3-pole sets of an improved-, type of dis-
connecting sNwitch, arranged for steel tower mounting with facilities for oper-
ating from the ground, were installed. This installation proved so convenient
and time saving in times of line faults, that all the original type of line sec-
tion s'.vitches. which required the operator to climb part way up the tower,
were replaced by this improved type of switch. The total installation of this
type now consists of four 3-pole switches at Miraflores, four 3-pole switches at
Gambon, and four 3-pole switches at Gatun.

DISTRIBUTION LINES.

Extensions and improvements to the underground power distribution system
included the laying of approximately 75,240 duct feet of vitrified tile duct;
25,000 duct feet of fiber duct, and the installation of 382,720 feet of lead-cov-
ered cable of all sizes and voltages.
The princip-.il items of work included in these figures are the distribution
system extensions to the townsite of New Cristobal, the new cold-storage
plant, Cristobal, to the submarine base at Coco Solo, and the aero station at
Manzaniilo. In these tiuares there are also included the installations of com-
plete nldergroi)ind distribution systems at Balboa radio station, at Corozal
ordnance depot, at Fort Sherman, and the local distribution systems within the
reservations at the submarine base and aero stations.
Iliscellaneous other items of distribution improvements include the building
of a small pole line to serve Mindi dairy farm; the placing of the greater part
of the overlieand s':c:ondary distribution at Ancon and Balboa underground;
extensive changes to rainge and beacon circuits whereby these circuits, previ-
ousIly energized from Pedro Miguel locks, are now energized from Gambon;
and an uiilercround circuit in the city of Panama to supply light and power to
Panama Cannal and other Government interests in that city.
The principal ailditions to the street-lighting systems were those at New
Cristobal rind Fort (Grant, and several improvements were made to the existing
installations requiring a total addition of 70 standard type lighting posts and
approximately 14,i:,x) feet of lead-covered cable.

OPERATION OF POWER SYSTEM.

The power system was operated throughout the year with an average net
generated output of 4,419,192 kilowatt hours per month, as compared with
4.199,020 kilowatt hours per month last year. The increase in output has
been largely generated at the hydroelectric station, and the fuel-oil consumption
at the Miraflores steam plant for stand-by service has been reduced from an
average of 3,428 barrels per month last year to 2,906 barrels per month this
year. The average cost of distributed power for the year was 0.7782 cent per
kilowatt hour, as compared with 0.7301 cent per kilowatt hour last year.
This increase in cost of power has been caused largely by the increased cost of
labor for operation and maintenance.
Plate No. 3 shows the typical curves of Sunday and week-day loads carried
at the hydroelectric station. The Miraflores steam station is operated on a





THE PANAMA CANAL.


reserve basis carrying loeail only at such times as the total-system loiad exceeds
the present three-unit en cityciy of the hyil ro s'ttion. The lii\\'er usil ti, miiotor
the two or more generaltorss a;t Mit-tflores o'ier .ted as syllchlrronoull oen delnser,;
for power-fneti';try (orrecttion exceeds the power generated at this plant. This
accounts for the iiegative '. utput fo-r this plant as tabulated in the following
abstract ,showing the monthly output generated at both plants:

Tabl shooi'irfr monthly. oul puts in kilowa',it hours.


Not oltjut [ in kirloj '.tt s" tm
hodr;. losse..,
incl_____________________ iDll.3
Total net ir:tns-
Month. pner "ei mission,
.tin M r l or p- pro ter. tr nsl'or-
hbvdro Si, In mi ion,
str ioo. s .llon, a l Il.i
sili in. rR'~Io(s .o 'n


P'-117
July....... ............ .......................
August........... ........ . ...........
September ........................... .. .................
October.... ......... .. ... .......................
N ovem ber............ ... .. . ...... ............
Decem ber......... .... ..... ...................
191I.
Jan uary ................... . .. .. .. .................
F ebruary .................... ...........................
M arch.......................................... ..........
A p ril........ ...... ....... ........ ...... . ......
M ay.................. ............... ..... ........ .
June ................... ... ......... ........

Average .... ............................
Averagelasi y:.eir... .......................... .


4,516, 7ili
4, 7.3"1.,1 "i
4, :7i'i, lii
4. -'1 .1 0 11
-I. 52".,,'.-
4, 312, 277

4, S1.5, 71'j
4, 61l, ICll ,
4, 431,7114
4, 4v.'s,, 74

4 .5 1 .52,9
4, 13.2, 6'20


-1 44,6 21))
- 56, 121.1
- SIl, l2ii
- -2,''.0i


- .13, 7711


-140, illi
- l1"6, .5 11
- lilt, 26i

20i, 1i411
- 6.1,771"

-l14,t.4'i


4, 421,930
4,644, I'm 1

4,341, S50i
-, 397,75S
4, 2.35, .7

4, 675,70(
4, 154. 1t 11.
4,5.77, 541i
4,326, 354
4, .5 iS 14
4. 257, 1 t

4, 41 192'l


14 4
13. .
14.S
15 4
16 2
15 0

14 7
14 .


The follo.winr_, talle ihow-< the 'o-1 f i.\v.wer in its.- variun. state- of distribu-
tion. Co-t ligni'e- are I -aei) i.ii deulelry to (colmsnuer and iot on the net amount
actually generated.


Net consum .lion .... ..................k lo. .itt hour.-..

Cost of oper anon 111nl mni- let, n tnc -ie, hydro SIt it on.......
Costofopert rion and! rn'iint-e!i ancOe, nMi r lore; it islea "ru p1lili .
Cost of operial on Lan!1 Laitnten IceC o- l su li sal loins........
Cost of m aaini-n:ne- trinmni-.,onil li es.............. ....
Cost of m arnten:iclee, di;stribi.ii ai l lii-:; ........... .......
Depreciation, Ir asu mission s:,iiin ... .. ...........

Total rost of current for power distribi.ilion .....
Net consumption, lightwg eurr.nl.......kilo'valt hours

Cost of matiutenan:ie., bouisi. l.htitin- :,st.tm, in:ludin;
lam o ren :. a .............. . .... . ... ......


T.,al,
fis i i vi. r ,
i1 -l.Ir



45, 2 1.', 117

.' 57 r. r52
7S.321 Iy
R.4,"5lj 99
2, 313 '1
41;, 75.3 i1
96+(,"l (f'll
31', 4'.4 91

111. 345., 4 2;

'.j, -12 44'


Cost of lighting current [eir LIlo ail t liour................. ) .....


per mob h


A ver..ice eos;l per
lilohwatt hour.


This year


3,7 7,- '2 : ........ ...

$3,214 6.3 II I Innl
1, 526 77 .01173J2
5,33 S 31 .0l1l !1'
2,353.5 .6i Oi2i' I
3, .'i6 r .'ll'i ill
, nMiii (HI .i''2t.21

2. 137 91 .i1'7'- 2
.S :' ,152 ............

q4,i;:'3 1 ii 'i5.397

.......... 1 179


. I'l 1155r.



' 'r21 5

.11. 1 .i 1.





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 67

The principal lands in kilowatts added during tlie last year are tabulated as
follows:

Power. Light. Power. Light.

Submarine h.rging s station 'tem- Series street lighting .................... 10
porary).................... .... 1,000 ........ Munic pal pflmping station, Em-
Storage bartte ry charging star i,-n, 'ire......... ..... ........... .. 120 ........
(Cri-tobal.......... ............ .. 1 ) ........ Municpal pum ping staiton, P'-
Armv quarters and l.uiJdns ....2. '0 ; rais.............. ...... 50 ........
New Hospital, Aneon...... ....... 100 100 Buit.lint.s at Re.I Tank ........... ........ 20
New hospital, Criktoiaal........... .... 20 Bu.Jdings at New Cristolbal....... ........ 90
Mindi a r \ arm............... 10 ........ -
Bilboa shops, adltonnalI machin- Total.................... 1,900 270
ervand miscellaneous.... ...... 2..,0 ... ..
Air ctompressor, Iuilrling 2', 1,000
cu l.i: fee: ....................... 200 ........


The principal loads to lie addled in the future are tabulateld :s follows:

Pover Licht. Power. Light.

Submarine base ................ 2,000 100 New A nCon rhosp. -il ............. 40 60
Navv aero stai ion............ .. 30 50 Nev- hlot!, Pe-ir.N MNlel ......... 10 5
Army acro station............... 3;0 50 Municipal pumpmi st ianon, Rio
Cold.-torage plant, Cristobal...... 1,'0)0 40 .;randle. .................. ..... 150 ........
Pa-cifi flirts ..................... 215 150 An ron laun.dr,, new ma-hin-b ry. 20 ........
New piers. No. 6.............. ... 200 300
Series street lighting.......... ............ .0 T n . ............ . . 4,545 805
Industrial school.............. 20 ........


Considerable trouble was experienced in tmaintainin 1 tire hardened steel
roller type thrust Ibearingi,- in units 1, 2, an :- 3 ;it the lihydroelectric station at
Gatun. This trouble le'-anime sio serioiirs that some liht-e \vi- necessary and
other bearings of an imprioveld spirin''-sllpJorteal nemental typle were placed
on requisition. Three of these new bea rintis. were received. but liy June 30 only
ione hall been installed. with intilications that the change will prove satisfactory.
Some trouble h-as been experienc-ed with the governors of these same three
inits, and goovernors of a dilitfer'ent typIe were played on requisitioin. The new
ma trial w"as receiivc] ,but w.a.s not eretledl by the end of June.
The substation apparatus caiised three interription-i iIIn lti-h-tension service
due to the failure iof porc-elain Iiiilin'-rs of hilgh-tensiion oil-:ir:-iiit breakers.
Due to the failure in service of porcelain insulatori- onu the high-tension
trans.,uisi.on line. this service \as interrupteild : total of "2l: times as com-
pared with 17 tilues last year. It has been proposeil to redu]t-e this trouble by
the uiie of insulator strinL-s of four uinits instead of three ns at present. Mate-
rials to ai:-:-omplish this were ]ili<,eil on requisition but were not received during
the time covered Iiy this report. These transm-ission line troubles are briefly
tabulated in plate No. 4.
There were a total of 11)4 irnsulators on the transmission lines renewed dur-
ing the year. Of this total numIer 34 failed in servi-e; 34 failed under line
tests; anld ,l, classed as miscellaneous, inslirile those :considlere l in a suspi-
clouls condition or found I roklen Iy the patrolmen and tbho-e broken from ex-
ternal violence.
TELEPHONES AND TELEGRI.\APH.

During the fiscal year S2'i telephones were in-tailed and 451 removed, leaving
2.523 iin service June 311. 101S. an increase Iof 300 for the year. The average
number of telephone 'ails per -Iday of eight hioui-r ohltained by peg count, was
21.816. or 2,724 per lihor. The average number of telephone trouble cases
was 9.5 per day. itn comparison with S per i -day last year.
Seventy-four thousand eih ht hundlredi and forty-three feet of lead-covered
paper telephone -able. of all sizes, rar-icinz froin F. to 21111 pair. were installed
anil 19.,367 feet renimoved. leaviiinu 592.23'i feet it, service. On this entire cable
installation there \were 14 c;-is of cable trouibll during thie year. The prin-
803720-18-6





THE PANAMA CANAL.


cipal items of cable installation included in these figures are a trunk cable
to submarine base and necessary extensions to the underground system at
Balboa Heights, Cristobal, and Pedro Miguel.
TI)e Transisthmian duct line was broken by a slide near Mile Post 17. on
November 18, 1917, making necessary the rebuilding of 150 feet of 4-wvay luiet
and the transfer of cables. Also a 600-foot section of this dr.:t line was re-
built at Mile Post 38, new cable installed, and the overhead cable remov\el at
this point.
The principal items of work performed by the telephone department include
the installation of a new cable in the Transisthmian duct line for tlie Central
& South American Cable Co.; the installation of one private branel exchange
at Quarry Heights, and a second at the submarine base; and the installation
of a complete 14 station interphone system at the Balboa radio station.
Central office improvements included the installation of additional switch-
board sections, consisting of two operating positions at Cristobal exchange.
two positions at Pedro Miguel exchange, and one position at Balboa Heights
exchange.
The question of new telephone equipment for the Cristobal exlha,'ne is be-
ing investigated to determine the best type of apparatus to in-tall. Th.ise
under consideration are the improved type of manual with automatic listing
and ringing, semiautomatic, and full automatic.

FIRE-ALARM SYSTEM.

The work of inspecting and maintaining the fire-alarm system has been
combined with the telephone department. New installations consisted of two
additional fire-alarm boxes at New Cristobal, four auxiliary fire-alarm boxes
on dock at La Boca, and a new fire-alarm register at the'Ancon fire --tation.
One case of trouble was reported during the year; this was a defective alarm
box at Cristobal. The complete system has been inspected and worked over.
and worn parts have been renewed where necessary to keep the system in
good state of repair and in positive operating condition.

RAILWAY SIGNAL SYSTEM.

There were a few changes made on the railway signal system during the
year on account of track changes; at Gamboa a new spur track was connected
to main line; Gamboa passing track was extended 50 feet southil, making it
necessary to move one train-order signal and two automatic si..als: minor
track changes at Monte Lirio required some changes in signal sy.-stem; the
power-operated train-order signals at Frijoles were taken out of service on
account of discontinuing this as an operating station; railway switch at Rio
Grande was remove and switch signals removed.
The overhead signal cable at slide near Mile Post 38 was taken down and
cable installed in rebuilt duct line around this slide. Also new piece of cable
cut in at north end of Bohio siding on account of threatened slide, new duct line
having been built. Two highway-crossing bells were installed at Cristobal
street crossings. All signals were thoroughly adjusted for kick offt, aiid trouble
from this cause has been practically eliminated. Derails were ins.talledl at
several places on hand-thrown switches.
There were 2,404,176 registered arm movements with 131 resp.,o,-ibl:. signal
interruptions, compared with 2,474,210 arm movements and 115 simnial inter-
ruptions of the previous year. This gave an average of 18,352 arm movements
per signal failure for 1918 and 21,515 arm movements per failure for yea;r of
1917. There were 556 train-minutes delay in 1918. compared withl -431 train-
minutes delay for 1917. There was an average of 4.2 minutes for ,al delayed
train on account of flagging. There was one reported false clear aspect on
the 120 automatic, 16 semiautomatic, 14 power operated, 12 neclianical, and
11 train-order signals for the 2,404,176 arm movements. Thi.- lone failure
occurred in November, 1917, and was- caused by broken-down installation in
cable splice.
In the following are tabulated the responsible signal failures, arm movements,
train-minutes delay for each month during the year:






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


Total s;L-nal
S:,; I ure:. Tot, I
Total arm train-
Date. mo'e- min-
R-.- Nonre- m'-.nts. utes
sprnr- :pori- dlel.,.
sible. sible.

JuJy, 1 17 .... .. ..... ................................... ....... 15 0 21 2 414-1 S
A u' st, 1917 ..................... ................................... 4 211.0..2 33
S' ptem bhtr. 191 ... ................. ... ..... ................... 14 1 21i., S74 97
O ctober, 1917 ....................... . ........................... 5 2 2.51 427 2
N ovem ber, 1917 ............... ................. ....... ......... 0 221,1 ', .5
D eceC m b r. 1 17 ................................. ...... ......... If 0 01, 51)
January, 191 ............. .... 6 0 19 2,39 1
February 1'.. 2 177,111 20
Fe-hrur,-, 1 .......... ........ ................. .... 7 2 177,141 2(
M arch, 19 S ..... ............................... . . .... 3 1 IS0S ,563 20
A. pril, .19! ................ .1..6........ . .......... 11 3 1I i.'16 42
M av, 191 ... .... .... ............. ii 0 1 2, 12 6i)
June, 191' S....... .. ....... .. .......... .... .... .... 1 4 173,2 5 ..i)
T o ta l . . ... .... .. ...... .. . .. .............. . .. 1i .1 s 2 4 11, .


There wfls .in Iaverag e of -14 trnin minutes' delay and' 10.0 respounsi le si-tnal
failures per month.
There were three dernlinieints at tlie interlocking plants as (c:'mpa red with
nine for tlie prei:ellingi ye;ir-oiie in Fl'.bru;iry. nt tlme pintoon liriilre. rau-eil by
lift rail not tering properly seated; .se'-ond in Mlarch. nt Batlbl)o Helhits. caused
lv err Ir in opierntion Iy levernimn iln :l-;in. third in A\pril. at Balboa Heights.,
cau-se remiii i unknown. There was but one derftilniment nt switches equipped
with hand-throw derails: this was ca;ised by colored lirakeuimn tlhrowinmt derail
under n'l, \in all- ir. There \\as one failure of power-oipelirated train-ordier signal,
apparently caused by poor contact adjustment.
There were GO reported signal failures at interlo'.-king iiplants for the year.
This includes bIotli meclhanicl an;d electrical s nals. This was an increase
over the preceding year. The grefiter i--irt of thee failures .**,i'urreil at the
pontoon l'riilge. maiinly from caiIses foreign to the sigugil depli'rtilent. Raphl
filling of Pedlro Mi'li el locks lowers tlie water level at this I rtilg- e about G or 7
inches in a few minutes. This. and! thle action of a lanrZe Ilipper dredge which
lihs b.een w*orkirn: very cli ie to, the bridl'e for several months, lnioeilIeit of the poniltooli which resIults in opening oif electrical contacts a ld
loosening of ineclihanical joints.

IR.?sliOn..iibli .*iIla i ll hintrrut' ion-s. fr fir r's l iy ar curdinqg J.Ilu .30, 191S.


Jul Aug. Sepr. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Track circuits:
Switci box out of adjustment; shunting track.................. ......... .... .
Poor or defective track battery, dirtvy in(.s, poor connection... 3 3 -3 4 ...... .....
Leakage. duc to low re.i tjnce, cro.st its, roa. becd, drain l'.e.............. 2 .........
Track rails not Iond d ........................................ ... .. ..... ...... ...... ...... 2
B ad1 relav contact ....... ...................................... ..... .... .. ..
Bad track wireconec t iori:: boot lg ..... ..............................
Brol:t-n ond wir................................................. ...... ...... ..............
Relay o t djustm -rit ....................... .............. 1 2 ...... .... .....
O pen track battcryv l rm final ....... ... ............... ... .... ..... I ...... ...... 1
Broken splitcotter kl ,: on sw i-tchbox pii .................... .... ....... ...... ...... ......
Discharged or e:.hausted sloraj'e batter: ;carcless mainte-rianct.... 2 ...... I ............ .....
Signal light ut ................... ............... .. .. ............. ...... 1 ...........
Signal licht out, on account of badly keroen oil............. ..... ...... 9 ...... ...... ...... ... ..
Ui nkno v i ......................................................... 4 4 4 I 'I
Op'-n coil on cont rol r ..................................... ...... ...... ...... ........ ......
Open coil on sial slot arm......................... ...... ........ ...... ...... ..... ... ...... ......
Op'en rire froni simal to main cable, in cable coun-ection ................ ............ ...... ...... 3
Pole changer; loose con ection.................................... .. .. ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
Commutator stick-ing i.n si-nal meter, account. dirty bru-hes-
rough commutation: sanded ................................ ...... ............ ..... ......
Broken sldrt arm sl ring. ........................................ 1 ..... ...... 1 ...... ......
Reversed polarity in primarv batter ......................... .. .... ...... . ..... ......
Circuit breaker on si'rnal not'properly a.jui[ted ................... ...... I ..... .... ..... ......
Loose connect ion on meter batt [er.............................. ..... ...... ...... .... ...... 2
Rich r-sist.ance iu mn,-net coils. accoiuit ch.-mical action on wire. .... .... ...... ...... ...... ......
O pen s itch............. .............. ................ .. ... .. ..... .... ...... ...... .....
T otal. .. ........................... .. . . . ... .- 11 9 i6






'(U THE PANAMA CANAL.

Rcsponstibler sign in i-rrupIi.Os .for fi..ralI y/ ar rndinj Jner 30, 19S18-Continued.


Pe rcen-
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. Total. tae- for
,ea r.

Track circuits:
Swirch box out ofadiustment:shuntirngtrack. ...... ..... ..... ... ... ... ...... 1.53
Poor or defective track 1t..'ttr.ry, dirtY zjinc.
poor connection ............................ ... ..... .. .... .. ...... ..... . I 7. SM
Leakage due to low resistance.,crn;;t ie., road-
I.ed, drainree .................... ...... ...... ...... ..... .... ... ..... 2 1.53
T rack rails not bonded.................. .... .... . .. ... .. ..... ....... 2 1. 53
B ad re. lay contact ........................... ..... . ... ...... 1 I ...... ..... .77
Bad track wire? connection; boot leg... .......... ..... .... .... .... 1 .77
B roken hand %vir, e............................ .. . . .... ... 5 3. .!
R elay out of adiurtm.nt.................... 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 6 4.57
Open track batterv terminal .... ............ ...... . .. . ... 2 1. 53
Broken split cott'.-r key of swiichl.'ox pin ..... ...... ...... ..... ..... ...... 1 .77
Discharge'd or exhausted st orae ttttery :ca reless
m ainten nc.................... ............... . ...... . ... ...... ...... ..5 3. S1
Signal lieht out............................. .. .... .. . . . .... 6 4.57
Signallieht out on account of bad kerosene oil........... .. .. ........ .... ... 9 6.S7
Unknown.................. .................. .... 2 ". 5 | 10 45 34.55
Open c il on con t rol rel ........................... .. ... .. .. ... ... ..... 77
Open coil on signal slot arm ....... ............ ... .. .. 3 1 ..... 3.5
Open wnire- from s-ivTal to main cable, in ca'le
connect ion .................... . ..... ... . 1 1 ..... ..... 6 4.57
Polechaneer: loo_;' connection .................. ..... ..... .. ... .... ...... 2 1.53
Commutator sticking on siniial meter, account
dirtv t.'ru'lhe: roiigh commutation: ;s nd d .... ...... ...... ..... ...... 6 1 6. 10
Broken slont arm spring.......................... ..... .... ... . .... ...... ...... 2 .3
ReverdI polarity iin primary batter\. ......... .... ...... ...... ... .. .... ...... 1. F,3
Circuit l.ireaker on signal not properly adiu;ted. .. ............ ...... ........... 1 .77
Loos.- connection on mrnt-ter tattr .. ............ . .......... .............. ...... 2 1.53
High reistanc(. in magnet coil'. account chemical
action on w ire...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 5 3. 1
O pen ;w irc.li ..................................... .... . .... 1 .77
Total....................... .. ......... 6 7 3 16 10 12 131 100


MISCELLANEOUS EI.ECTHICAL WORK.

The principal items of electrical Iwork not otherwise classified or mentioned
include: Tlie install tion of two .5110) kilo,%antt rotary converters for the Navy
for use in charging the liatteries of sil'marines: the temporary installation of
two 11.06)i--2.21ii-volt ibiox-co r portable substatious, one at Coco Solo submarine
base, ani one at Manzanillo nero station: the installation of motor-dlriven
pumps for the mlunicil'i:l division at Paraiso and Emiiiire: the installation of
lighting system in 72 Ibuildin.irs for the Army, 12 for the Navy, (;2 hiildings for
The Panama Canal. and 12 others. niakin. a total of 156 Itlildings illuminated.
The viwork at tlie electric repair shop, excltL'uive Iof work lone in the field or
which rei niired the men to leave the shilopl, is Iriefly summarized and include
the following::
Arniatures rewound, motors and i enerators I to 7001 horsepow\or_. -----------
Tra itsforiIiieL's, colllpetipcators, etc., repatiredl and] iewoliilln ,----------- -_-- -
Magneto and fans reliaired and re tlound-------------------------------- 71
Miscellaneous electric appliance,, repaired ------------------------------ 47
Switchboard panels manufacture ----------------------------------- 3
The work nt the marine electric shop included miscellaneous classes of repair
work, new installations, and additions or rept airs to exi-tin installations on
189 comniiiorcinl vessels, and 77 vessels of the Uniteil Stales Navy.
The work included the installations Eif ,complete \wireless uLItt 'in the steam-
ship C('rrifiban and a 10-kilowatt steam-turbine generator -;et on tlie U. S. S.
Perry. and the complete renewal (of the lightinri circuits on the dredge Coro:al.
The major items of marine electric work included tlie complete retiewal of
lighting and anuntciator systemss on tlie steamship, .n-.oi and tlihe complete
. remodelini2 of and miikin:r ad U. S. S. 'on SIbrit, 1 and tli U. S. S. Koninyin 1cr Xc'dcrlan vicn as required to
convert these vessels for transport service.





REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 71

Some items orf rmisc(ellaneous electrical material and* supplies consumed in
the work done by the electrical division during the year are briefly expressed
in the following tabulation:
Wire, rulbber-covered twin, total all sizes --------------------feet- 339, 000
Wire. rublber-covered single, total all sizes -- ------- do---- 503,200
Wire, base copper, total all sizes --------------------------- do-- 38, 600
Lamp eor1d --------- do-- 29,000
Heater cord --------------------------------------------do-- 25, 000
Calle. lead-cuvred, t,'tal sizes and types ----------- do- 383. 000
Coijnduit. rigid steel, all sizes -------------do--- 349, 100
'ondulet fittings ----------------------------------- units-- 17, 650
Outlet boxes ------- ------------------do .... 6, 025
Electric lamps, all sizes -----------------------do-- 199,700
Sockets and rceeptieles. all types ----------------do-- 35, 500
Fuses, all sizes___----------------------------------------do-- 35,600
Lighting fixtures, house -------------------------------------do-- 5,250
Lilhtit l fixtur-es. marine --------------- do .. 1.050
Distribution tranusforners, total 229 all sizes ------------kilowatts- 1,140
Electric division motor vehicles traveled -------------------miles- 43,950

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING DIVISION.

The details of the operations of the municipal engineering division
during the fiscal year are covered in the report of the municipal
engineer which follows:

DI VISION OF MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING.

The construction arid general maintenance of the division of municipal
eng.iueerinz was divided into two districts, the Southern, under the supervision
of Mr. W. J. Slpalligir. extending from Darien to Flamenco Island; and the
Northern. under the supervision of Mr. E. H. Chandler, extending from Frijoles
to Magarita.
Tle Southern district includes Darien, Gamboa, Las Cascadas, Empire,
Culehra, Paraiso. Pedro Miguel, Red Tank, Corozal, Ancon, Balboa, La Boca
and the city of Panania, Republic of Panama. The total population of this
district. exclusive of United States Military and Naval forces, is approximately

The Northern district includes Frijoles, Monte Lirio, Gatun, Mount Hope,
Cristobal, New Cristobal, Toro Point, Magarita, and the city of Colon, Re-
public of Panama. The population of this district, exclusive of the United
States AMilitary and Naval forces is approximately 40,400.
The operation of the water purification plants, the care of the sources of
water supply, the laboratory control work on concrete, sheet asphalt, concrete
asphalt, tar\ia, investigation and experimental work on paints, analysis of
.soils. by-products from slaughterhouses, etc., were under the. supervision of
Mr. George C. Bun1ler. physiologist. The staff of the physiologist was composed
of the following members:
H. W'. Nightingale, biologist.
H. T. Campio,u. superintendent of the Mount Hope filter plant up to March
0. 191S. stneceeded l by H. Gunning.
H. F. Selinidt. superintendent of Agua Clara filter plant up to July 7, 1917,
succeeded liy W. C. Dinn.
H. W. Green. engineer of tests.
A. H. Khehahadoorian, chief chemist.
H. Schluber. assistant chemist.
C. W. Saxe. assistant chemist.
J. Congo, filter operator.
R. G. Shell. filter operator.
G. C. Chevalier. filter operator.
E. J. Tucker. chief a-sistant, resigned September 22, 1917, to enter the San-
itary Corps of the United States National Army.





72 THE PANAMA CANAL.

The following is list of the morIe importtaint itonems Of t material u'edl on
construction ainid mi;-tirirena c: \\w-ork by the municipal division .luring the. fiscal
year:


70,4S0 Itarrels if ,.e: i-rt.
5,003 cut'ii ya\rdr of -nnal.
5,247 culu ic 3a .1k- 1 ti-li- h l r.i....k.
2,362 cu illic yar'l- o(f -i.r:'iieing-..
52,459 .'uih' vnrds 'of rin.-'f-i.ank gravel.
634,552 feet b. m. :.f niimlt,.r.
673,500 pi:.unds of reinfir, ing sleStl.
31,900 lin:anr feet' t it vitrifiilcd -.>.:r Ipili:'.
67,829 linp.e r f:.':r of gnlraniz.-A1ir:.nu ,:.r
pipe.
6,371 ]ina.:r feet .:,f 2i.iunch and 24 inch
concrete pilp:..


22.111) lint-ar feet :.. .:nlstiron water pip,.
51 three-way v fir hbydraiul.
2.2237 hmrrels of crude oil.
.-.5 anter uieterr.
Sli;..i ipo:uindij s f le alite.
;t. I,,tl rtneik of lead.
2. 1 i: p'' :,illu s of jutl'.
1-.i.'r. Iayviug brid''..
i.'11.311 p,:ound: of a.sphlt.
"2-'1.'.-1 gall,.u. 'if tarrin.
2.241'; tns .:f c al.
-'.,41'5 w\oirb .:.f mi:tr repair parts.


Equipment iitirc:-ltIei colsi-isteld ofr tW\i 4-L,000 gallons per I minute sewer pumps-
for New ( Cristbo)nl t"o self-lpropllig 11 cinli:- feet concrete imixers; riumpin.
equipment ftor the \\'nteir and sewe\v(r puliping stations at To")o Point and Ct'oco
Solo; 1 Iroquois portnble ?asphalt mixin..l plant; gasoline driven cen(-trifugal
pumps for tile pinu pit,g stations ait Frijtoles and MoInte Livio; mi.celhiineos
equipmentit fr rond relpinir work.
A la rgo portion of the ah l)\ovE listed nitterinia \ wa's used for mainteIn a :nce? n iil.
upkeep of vatt?r .plaints. roi'a.ls. streets, sile\vallks, tand.l aer and sew"?r sys-
tems in tihe Ca'nal Zone, on wljichli a tot''l oif $5'-s,0-1,41.50 was spent.
The follow i, ilr- stntelliejit shio\\'s thl? qua.litity of water [] tiiint1d l t e;h-ll of
the pump stntitos d during thle y'nar a ndi thle Ii 'n vi-ge quantity per mi,-nth with I
the average cost I)p?r tlhoisnuQad gallons for JpumIpilng:


Total callon Averae'e v.\rae'.
Pumping :ration. u p. nurnl:,r ',ct r.r1
durig_" ..ar. [,,r month, pumphig.


M ount H op' . ............. ...... .......................... 1, 412. 27 ,00) 120, I l .9, 4.! + ?i0 01605
Agua Clar ................. ... ............................... 42 -i1l,)1 0, 0 35, 70.1, ,:l'3 + .0:i?11
Frijoles ...................................... ......... 40i- 2r,5 71 0, 6_& 7 + .2 102
Monte Lirio) ... .... .. . ... . . ..... . ... .. ... 3: l". 20 4.237 + 41 :;3
Gam boa U S. No. I ..................... ...... . . 3, '2, 016, 0 24' r.i,0l.333 .
Miraflors U S. No). 2 ................................... .... 379, 460.0, 000 ,621, 666 .021i.
Balboa U S. N ). 3 ........................................... 2,.353, r,9,,75 19 t', 5,297 .010,5
P araiso ........................... .. ....... .. ....... . 74. 5 t). 11 ,. 211. .C ,620
Cucuracna (Mount Zin i ............ . .. ..... ...... 121,070, i000 1l.0 9, 16 ............
Cam acho (tanks) ........................................... 97, 176, 2 0 ,( ', O)1 ..i....
Camacho ,into main ) ......................................... l6 159, 15, 0 9 79,925 .



The following g stantintnt shows tih? division c-ost of water .hleliveri'Al it] tir.
various 'listric-ts of tlie Cnnial Zone:


I'iri.:i Cost. ,i ri.: Co- .'

C ristobal .... ............................. 10. e, r.: i. ........... .................. .. 0.
G atun ..................... .............. 11 ,lirailor. ................................ .)'
Gam boa ................... ..... ..... ., a B Ill .)a- .\ n r .) ... ...... ............... .07
P araiso ...... ............. .............. ,

IDivi. i,:.n ,c,-.-t for \unt>.r .]..l-iver.Il I erio<.l ending June 31), 11l11 (iier ILousan.J gall:.n-).

The litttiiipil ,li-is'ioJn rl-e..ive?'l i:'eli for tih? cost v0ttli :, of \water furnisliedl
other -.l--partiu.s its ti Ii\'i'i s of Thie Pl'nattt Cnal, itl e P jtlin., 1:ailroaNl,
the Paint:intL Gov(; iriLent, othlr deip;i'rttuents of tiie U nitedl Stn tes <(ioverlnitjt,
and indii'vilutil.-, :1n;il colujpuieP., niiotiitin;t ini all tt.i .$17j.!I'.1.225 ,.Itiri..i the tyeir.
The 'niale ,if water to vessels at thei- dock. nt (Cristol:al and at Bailloi \va.-,
handled l.y tlie iuii[ihipnil ilivisitii. Thei r-nte ci;rii'gld for water \\'is 50 'cents
per thousA nid 1-nill'ns, with ;t liilii[ntill clrlr.e -of $.3r'. Tlie f llowiviig tnlale shows
the tot;il q ntllll.it.ty of waitelr -.tI 1 a:t e:-i'4 It ti,? two Ii-rt, in thle (Cntal Zone,
with the Inuule.'r oIf vessels making \'water during the10 year:






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 73




Prort. 1suppl. :
A -it h w t ;, ,. ,- ,_.ld .


Xurmbefr. Au l,.(rr.
Cr istol.. ......................... ............................ ... ...... ......... ..., 420 4 4, 7,, (1 )
B alb,_a3... ..... ................................. . .. .. ... ... .. ........... ..7 2 1, )0 7, )


In the cities of Panaima amn C 0olon, the snian of 17.-14.'.ii]iI.S,5 was sp:'ent for the
upl)keep oif streets and \\'water an id eer sy ,te*us. All expense in connection with
this work is repaid y waiter rental, which are collected by the niiitcipa)l div\i-
sioIn. The following table shnlo\\ the quantity of \water used in each of the two
cities duiriur the fiscal year, by quar ters, together with the amount of w ter
rentals:
PANAMA WATER OFFICE.

C'on.sumnlplio l pcr1 quarter.


Paine 1 ubli Daily
Quarter ended-- c.-nn-c- Privat.t. hydrants T.tal. a.vera.-e
t i,, and taps. .,_n um p-


G.,o 'l. G7 I,'1..: ,,. G7.1.'.. Onll,,..'
S-pt. 30, 1917 ......... ..... ......... 2,2 1, 3., 001 2 39,010) 205,222.000 ?,' 2 i),1(4m
11. 1, 1 01 7............. .. ......... 2, 42.,' 1 41,0312,0 00 t67, 752,1'00)' 2 ., 7.'4, (00 2, 1201) (' )
M ar. 31, I101 .................... ..... .. 2.12'. 152,.5.'-, ( 0) 71, 7 j,I ( ) 224, 3 4 4, 000 2, 1' '2,010
June 30, 1I15.................. ... ... 2, 1 5 152,(i), 11)1) e ,I0:22,I00) 22:. 052, (1)0) 2. 14 l, )(lh)

T...tal fur y3 ar.................... .. ........ 49 ,6 03, (0) 263. Sil), 0 i %.;', 4102, (in) 2,3514, 2.50


Colltct ;.ios.


Quarter (.nde-id-


Amn.hunat
collctad
fr.,ni pri-
Valer (.cD-
.um1-rs.u


A '.'ra e

1 !In p.:.r
prva.ie on-
n,. -ion per
quart-r.


Av-erace
private
quarterly
bill.


Sbamp t. ".i, I . .. .. . . . .. . .... ... ............ . S, 1 71Q. 6 1, i01)i) 1i 5. 7"2
D ec. 31, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... . ,11 5 000 11.
M ar. 31, IAIS ............. ......... ...... ............... . ... . .. .3i.. .? 6 ,1 )00) 1t 10
June 31, '1 IS.................. .. . .. .. ... . . . ........ . . 7 1. 5 2, ()i) 1 .55.

T ..tA fr y ar........... ... . . ....... .. .. ....... .. 2. 100. ( 2 3, i .1 r0.2. 5.

I Inclu .s all I bills rc nir,. 1 again. I 3namn n '.i-.-rnil ntl fi.r v .'a :,r cuIn _'um d.1 in pulI..:h I..uil. in s in
Pa n n r -.
2 Net am,_unLt A. I.ills.

REPOR'I OF WATER COLLECTIONS OFrCE-COLON.

C(0ista Xiplti, of i/ater.

C.-nrumrniti.n per quart-r.


Quarter ende-d--


S-pt 30................
Dec.31. ... ......
M ar. 31 ........... .
Junie 0 ...............

Total for yir...


Num-
ler of

i,..rns.
a V U1i


F'rivate
1.)nn,.-5



Gi lko'n.'.
i ),i)42),0i)
3i,.44-12,WiI
',7; 4 7.5', 7.'I


Panam Panama
Panar Canal 1'' Puil..lic -re
-v a1 r-_?- pital and lIy.1rarncs
?rvaion. quarantine. andl ta?.


4. 7,.5. 7 )
4. '.,7,0001)
5.47-'.750
.",, 2' ,7.70,


GaUllr..
6. 5"'' 77,i)
6,627, (.n)
6, 15). 750.")
',717, 2'i

............


T c.ril ,.,_n-
suim'iii.in.


G .7 ..'*n e .. .7 /10, .
7i), l) ....")-. l44, 4 r;".
7', I, 7., r.75 1.,3, 191.1 5
72, 6 71, 17.) l '4.; ,. 1)
t66,6 t t ,'I.7., I 1 1.,,) -' 2 45

........ .. . I l, 2 '.1 12.,


Av erac.a
Lilly
ron.urnp-





I 6W, i),
1. 7 0. ,7

1 ;.'o). 07
1,* 11 ,727

I, 1,-I2,2-147


I -


Galli.i.





THE PANA.MfA CANAL.


I EPO iT OF WATER C(OLL..I I ION S f)I-' I. C-COLON- COti Ile d.

WnIalr ), .'u l coll cl'ions.


Quarter ended-


Sept. 30 ..........
D ec. 31 .... .....
Mar : . . .
June 311 ..... ....

TotaIl f'r year


,I ci ed
ir,,m |ri-
Vjle ci,-
siumer-.


A m,:, n t
l lRC. [ e.l
frm I' hn-
ami fR. R;.


A m,_, ,lit
col lec led
from I'm-
Ima Canal.


A rl h t
pini or tip
lie paid y,

S ern-=
I.eliht.


.92.:., 0' 5. 411 .1,427. 10 .1, I..'-l ,) .? t'4I .;..
21',4 ,:: 7 1. '. 1, .. -' O :;0 3 i',.. *MI
2 .;, l l i, I.'.. ) 1, I1,, 311 ,, i l .,
2". 177.3]5 1 ..''. ) 1,71.,. 7 ......... .
..,i'2. I. 1322 ' I 7. .31 2, ... .......


Tc.otl re'--
lire per
Ijuarter.


?30,i.';.3 S
33.551.3
32,33:9 h.
311. 4I ,5


Aver-



privare

lion per
u artLer.


Av.r-
private
ciu.ir-
ter
bill.


4,7, '1 Z27. 2.
t i,;.,l l 2_ 73
I, I 2N. 7:3
42',1 27. ':i0)
........ 111(. 74


The fdollowi R A ,taitemneit siho\\- lie -t atl oI f the cllci ta l ,o-t ac (-'couit for the
nitLiiciJip'l illmprovel-lelment, il the citie( of I'ahij;ima aI]d C('ololn at tthe close of the
fisct:al year. Thi-s statement also shows the tatuis 1of the accouIlt onM July 1,
1911i, with detail of the dlebit', anid clu-re]-lit each year since int date :according
to the azr'eeilient of Septelimber 2i2. 191i, \\ith tlie 1-Repblic of Panama, under
authority of whitli qtliarterly stIt:ImeLiilts of tIle at:cCOu1t lare made:

Slatlu. of c (pifill cov.l (c'illl fu it r 1nici;pjrl ii'pror -c c' l. c in, Prnainto nl d Colon.


Itms. I'inatuia. Colon.


Cost :of .:riinal rater .and sev (r system v. ithiti city prior to July 1, 1'10....... '.,i1,-ll.J ,7 1 .314,76.1.'.'
Ccst of :,riirnal r-avements v ilh in city pri,.. I. lily l '191 ..... ... .. . 417.4 .9'. 2. 221,07. '2
Cc t :of exItensi,:ns ta v. itter and sever sv; t:-ms. within city prior to. Jul!, 1, I'111. 122, 1 .'2 1 ', 1..2
Cost f eXrensio s t(1: ] .meli 5s trir Ir 'o- July 1, 19o. . . ...... '2, 1'3. us SS, i967. 2,
Intere:vt cn ca pita I cost v ter anid sewer systems and pav.m.nts pri Ir CJul 1, I.
I l0 . .... .. .................................................... 77,742.27 4 .314. 17
Pr,:op.,r in int i re.t on apita I ost res-rvoirs, pumpingtitations, and pipe lines
prir to July I. VI'11. . ......... .................... .. .. i, 21'.I 3 ., 12.',. 0I
Cost of mi;ant'enance later and sewer sy- t,,ms al nd pa- veuleit s and pro p-.rti cn
ost of miniaintenance revserv.wirs, pumping station s, and pipel ine: prior I( July
1. 011) ..... ............ . .... ........ .. ... .... . .[... .7 'l. 17 14 .,025.27
W ac.tr rennl coellctiuc prior toi I ly 1, I'll)-... .... .. .. .......... 12 37-- 212, 37.21- 2I:, 411. 71
Capit l cost w"ait:r and sev er system and pav M. rr nts July 1, I'!. I '': I ,,.:.'.. 4'' 1l,'3 ,36'. '7
Capital cos r-.servoirs, pipe lines. pump lit ionst i nd filt':.r plants in Z. ine July
1, hd1 ..... ...................................................... ........ . 1, 7 222.. 1 5,5,, 12. S

'anamin Gnv-rnment paj.,'s proportion of interest ,n these sunis. at 2 per cent based cni relation of
total q ua itity Of4 iat:r usl :-d I' Panima and Colon t., totil quality :f '.a jer p reduced by system.

P. N A MA.


New cr.n- MNinte- Arppli- in Water
F;c.al y a.r ending- stru .tin ,n .c'e Intertst. I'-r l .- rIel da ,
it C *. t' rk. Ital COst. deficienc.is.


Junr :3 I'll. ... .. 1 ..1, '. 71 .$3i, 121. 13 2"., 75,.. 2 i' 1'. II1. .- 4e67. 71
June 31. l112. .3 . . 3 7 1.. :3.",, '..i 3 2',;. I::2 31, : i... 1. 1 )7, 7;2. 2.2
Jun,:, 3o I'u 3. ......... ..... ... 1' I 1.. 77 3C, 47'. 7,. 2'7. I'S. !I 4 ,':];. 71 114, 7C..6 .
June 30. 191 .... . l, ':i 1 :7 I01 41'.1. 2.. I. i ..29 32, 4iS. II i ., 214. 12
June 3., 1l' . 31. 13 ,iI. 2, 414. '.r 24,.5 4.1 2",,2 7.75 ]3\ li'. .
June 3i,. l1'1,..... . ................ ... ... .. ..... ,.,4:3. :32, .11 21.2 2 .,2 .3. hi 141.''21. It,
Juie 2'i, I':17 ............... .. .... .... . 7 14. i :: 2.:. 2 .11. 7 1.,:3. 1 ;31
June :3 191. S ...... ...... . ..... ..... ... .. 1 2 *, -3'. 23 2', 2:s. 1i, i: '.2

T .,t .l .................. .... ...... '' ,)' ,2 ;. 1. i .?. : 22 ,, ,2 2 i.'jl.. II l i. ', 22. S

I Indicate, credit 0I., ', lji'l9ruLeIjF.


Aver-
1',:,e
per hy-
dr.n t.


$1-. 17
31.17
21'. 1i






REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE.


sf'ifI.us of .puaiil tj0.sf floOstllf .0' jin oh n''i l 7 imi'pruociteil.ni in Panama aitd
Colon-C oiltiuued.

COLON.

June 1.1, 1911 ............ ............... .?1 11-.'i, 24 1 l I111l.9 1 .fli i .2. l ,''I 9.'.' 1 ?7'%,, 7i. 2.S
June i.', I '2 ..................... ..... S ',2. 1 -.. 17o.i. S) 21, 7- 1.37 21i,'9-1. 410 95, 41. Is
June 3 1913 . .. . ......... . *, 1. : .i, 1i.1. .0 21, li l.i. i... :,.9'3.2 9' 1.. 19
Juni 30, ]Ill......... ... ..... ... 11,31.1.ir ..1,542.71 '..-2- 2.3. 24, JI..5 112,2 2 .7- 4
June 31., 1Il ............................ 1, 113 4 3. 33 I 125. S.. 2 .1.11. 47 2-1,..13. 22 11 ,27i.. 21
lune 31.1, 1l91 . .. . . . ). 2 i. 1. t .I ''2 2Y.'a. 2 1,..*. .. 2S 13.., 99 1.
June 3,. 1917. .... ... . . .... ., 4,7 '..7 1 .0,77T 1. I "2), 22 21 .S.S. 10', 7-, .. 2S
]une 3i.1, 191S ....................... .... 1, 7'9 *i.i 7".,1'..71.1 2 4 .3.;j? 1 '.,"' 1.92 12:., 9 .. .S
T ot' al ......... .... ... . 1l ,1., I... -1 -1.. 'i l' l-.s 9 17., .'A9 C' .., 35 1. 29


IUnde,_r the lien'. 'ffe new\v construction yiV theI munifi[.lil ilivision in the? towns
anid villi:,es O(i'upiliiel by P';nanin Canll empIIlo.h yees in the (Cnnal Zone, a total
,oif $545,723.55 was -pint. Thli? p riln(i[i;il items oif 'oniistrui'tion under thin hea'l-
Ing w\\elr? tIh? .-traliU]i 01' oL'rounils andl thlie ?xtein:iiol f i''io:i. Wntd?r in'l sewer
systems for the? ne?\\' lililin-s; ?r:et[?i in the hospital ground']s at Anoun ; the
grading of rtiounils, ii'stanlition of \\;ter an'] sewe-r -rstenis around the ne\v
s-t-hool hIul s eri- te I at Alli:ol, Il:tllii;n, Ped'ro M i_'liel. (atian, aln.l Cristohal:
the resI.urfa' ;in.; witli 'I':rete ol tiI- streets in oi1I Cristo'hIal, the Mount Hope-
Colon Io;ndl, MAlin Street. .Gaiiin. IhNe An,.oin-C('rozal Ii.i, [ile C'l'ozfll-i[',iri
M i'el Ii-;tna1, tlie Ea-t L-i B>ori Rtoad, So'isn Hill Roadi, anil roadls in the Btalloia
sho.lp listrie't: ie il'onstr:.leltion of i ,\ .n111] ext-,ension of old .siiile alksI in then?
valriotiIS towns o''l-ipie' lby (:ainal empliloyees anI.l vrionu extensions to th exist-
int;v wn;-ter an'] sewer lines.
Undiler the head of work for other divisions, thbe following: sunim were ex-
lienlde] iand] the more iluportant itelis of work iuniier this Il.ni'nlilng were as
listed 1:ielow :
Unite:, ,StAtcs .Irnv.-Total expenditure $26F,41(G.Vt-. The principlIn work
under this heading \\ns the comnipletion of on-structhif undl'er \\vly il tlie
various' posts at the end of the i an fil year 191T, 1 ;inl. sichl nmintelnan-'ce an']
I'fpair work as wal re-lueStedll, eo0illi;ict Iz tillly oi f gl':inling anl iI pIhltinr of
gra;i ''ol-'ltii'-t[in oif cIOcl'r?[t sti-'??[reets a sidel-waill-.. extenIion of vwter ain]
sower tion of water a.Ind perfo6rmeil under this liealdintg the making oif .uirvey'. an!d the preplaration of
plans anId estininte, fr ithe plroposeil new Army po-t fat (;;itut, Mirntliore',
Corozal, Diaiilo, ;ll,]j C'orunlu Iiti er, anid general mjLinitenani:ce at] repair work
in Army ,aii-ps.
The Pui'tinto ii ilromti.-Thle -111 of $1S7,401.2l \v'as expendled. The pirin-
vipial items of (iontustruction iiinder thin IlalnliInL w,'ere the completion of the
(Corlninu River sto'ni and stri:t!-. for the Folks Itiver .-e':tiion .f Colon extension; the installation of
water. sew-ers, street, a;id siiltwiallks for the Summit elli'kn firm ; the in-
stillatit.ii of water r lines alnld pills f'or irri'-tinz \\wi-rl on the various plaint:t-
tills: the coistru'lcion of rlo:is aid sewers 'ir the liog firm; the I'rnd]ing for
and con-truc'tion of rioiil andi tlle neces(-'_sry I Vlter nd seller ystei-' ant rtle
Mlinli dairy fatrm. In addition. InniieroI,- iiiellaneou- .ijle' were Ierforiledl.
Onutiicdrs.-The rotal elsxpenditUiri rw\\ $423.42 .9-. The w.v-rk done insistedd
principni-aly of that for w'liidi l-deposits were n'il]e an'] included the h on-tr'ucion
of roads. sewers, and water lilies for the area toi lie), o','-upied liy tlhe Souith itnd
Cei-.'til Am'ileric'in (CCale (-'tC., Coi-,leret cons'trul"tion W '.rk fur lthe? Panniint TIraI-
Nay Co.. replairo t. s tI',00r's h IeIt?e ?'a .-. ,OIle tIi, 0n ec?'? wl lwe?; li:lkil wat[-?r
rtl' Sewer coilr"-etiiri- for l'ri';ite plIrtie-' ill tlie 'itieW Of Cololn alld P inianma.
Tc'rminwl'.-.A 4* tail f .$.iy;.'-i!;.~!:il \\aIs exeliin].]. ,consi-ti nL in the maiin ;of
'Irntliiroo;i' under dol.ks Noi'. 1I, 1-!. 1.i, aidl pilre No. IS, a total of 12,2010 sIla'-re
yanrdl' if rlin1'for',el :oiil,:relte bein il phl-e1: ;ie]d thli extesilun of rounds in the
shop'. lietritt.
BIil.lini dirisioi.-iA total of $!1.41t9.2S \' -lpent. The work consisted] of
the installation of wnter in]d -Wlver conniicptionii for new llildinls eionstructee ;
tlie erectionl of 'lotie'slilne'w flr j K. quairter-': htle i',epari lratioii oft illil]ill
.siteso: thea il,-talltiiu 'iinf \ilu'ar linei-: tiri uOnltin'g ste-r -ylteni from Mindi
diversion ;ld < rin;struction of ronds ',. tlie ,'h ol] ,Itor;Ie plaIt ; thl. grlldinlg





76 THE PANAMA CANAL.

for the buiililIn site of Mindi dairy farm; numeroulis miscellaneous jobs of
"work.
Hrialtih dilprtinit.-The sum of .37T.:'-25.'-. was spent on such engineering
and general construction work as was requested by thie henith department; the
const'llructiIn o concrete glitches an] drains; filling of swam p reas; prepa-
ratioln of estimates for proposed work; maintenance of pumpi ng station at
tilet P;ilo Se:-ro leper colony.
.1.1s(-chlinicoiis..-For tlie divisions of fortifications, clubs and playground nds,
locks, elect.rivil, umairino. ilredi-inig, imelitaniiail, quatorerma'.tOr anld supply there
wa^s a totNil Of $11S,(092.710 spent. Thlis work conjsistedi of misi.e)llloueons (on-
str luctioni jobs.
During~ tlie yecr a total of 224,551 square ynri ls of concrete .streets andl roads
were coistilict-ll, 'S.i,''11.1 squila'e yalri,]f of which w,\re covered with a wealrin'ig
surface of -]meet ansplhllt; I2,2. sq i)arte yards of roldivoay \\elre constructed witIll
Telford Illd iiata in' lta la IIse> Xitl a wea riing sii'rface of ;is-lia ltic concrete tinud
hot tarvia mixed.l. The toi.l liiumber of square yards of road constructed during
the year was 28:i.$490.
Trouble experienced on the C-'annl Zone with courrete aggreLgates due to
their coiitainii-. ,.xcese-ive alnulilt-, of Iy., l.a i;i, aln silt resulted in insti-
tutiuncg a laboratory at iMirnfl.,res water purit.icntion p'lait. During the past
year tile work % haI been oIf a pi rctical tnaturet. er. little re'oer-hli work having
been ii idert aken. The first problem liha- been to furnisli cionvinicing evidence
that the concrete as lnial varies gieatl: in cotini'essive strength diue to lack of
uniformity of this n.uiare.uate. ;iiitd th.-ir sul:ticient care has not been taken in
mixing, policing, and curitiLg the (courete.
The inspection of \;iriclus c.uii-tructi.in jobs w-is mile will the aid of i1) the
coinpressioii cylinders In:idle as -hlow1n iii the folliwing- talIles. (2'i thle n dialysis of
the aggreeate-, <3' the time studies ,n t ilie iixer-. 4i'1 the determination of
thle am,,unt of water used, and (5,1 the methods employed by the various fore-


C'iylinUd i'.ns .l(d and brol',--i ditrin. i l till j/-'1 (rar, froni ..It'fi t rto Itl 310, llS.

[Le inches in diiani't,:-r, 12 inches high.1

C:,yli -der's-r. Age Iof e.-.n:rete, in 'Jo. s.
Loc.ition. L-
M.ile. 7r,.k-n. 7 2-' ') 12

P .icill" [.... ... .................... .................. 4 5 2 ?. ...... '2 17 I ) 142..
P i c e.', .ll -................................... 2 21 ........ ...... ...... ...... ......
A tlantie ro0 . .... ................... ..... .... 11i. 17 ...... 21 ...... 16
Ancorn H .rspit ....c.................................. 2 312 .... .7 1 ......
C l,:.i-- t,0.l Ig I nt .................................. 1"5 12*) I ...... 44 ..... ......
P i' rI N I:. C ri t:l- I...... . .. .. .............. 21 ........ .1 ...... I ...... ......
I.ir v.-n 'id factiorv. ....................... ... .. .... .I -' 4 4 .... ......
O il i i ......... ..................................... 2 4I 24 1 20 ...... ......
T l.t ... ..................................... 122 1, 24 6912 u 10 21 1.5'


II, making reports of the lqi,_i-imenus tested the following fliin was used:

COMPi:;iSSI\I: STRENGTH ''F CONCRETE.

[G i.y 12 inch e.ylinders.]
Specimerns were taken : Jarnuanr.% 1'. 191S. by II. W. Green.
.Sp:ei ci -iis \wcre lir.Il en : May 1.. 11S, Iby LI. W. (reetu.
Lu.'atii,.n: CIt:r,.zal-1I .ir7iiii:-I Hru:ndR at 172 + 75.
F.,r.-inm n : Alli.-rt Lt? i.-.'
NIniil-er Iof stb.?,linir:n< t'laen : 1i .
Mlix-.r: l'rItclh. iniunted Ilatforin.
SM ix : :i;. iii.,t-til'd .
C-'onsi-eicnty : .)ii;'king liwmby.
Tim,: ii m ix : -1 .s.-. nl -.
I'.-ri'.ii l ,i i i ix. : 1 ini i le 41)0 sto' ,tnrds.
.\ggregat:: C'.ut-'., 'CI.1 re. i -r riou ,.f lan k ,it g'I,..1] qjiility.


I In rpeI tcI.J 11. \V. I.; c-rn.




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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

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Digitized by tine Internet Arcinive in 2010 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofgo1918cana

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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30 1918 WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFHCE 1918

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i • . • • • . • • • • • • ' • • •

PAGE 9

TABLE OF CONTENTS. Page. Report of the Governor of the Panama CJanal 1 Organization 1 Operation and maintenance 2 Building division 2 Locks operation : 6 Electrical division 7 Municipal engineering division 9 Meteorology and hydrography 11 Surveys 13 Office engineer 14 Marine division 14 Dredging division 15 Mechanical division 18 Supply department ^ 19 Reorganization i_ 19 Labor 19 Quarters 20 Corrals 20 Materials and supplies 20 Fuel-oil plants 21 The Panama Canal Press 21 Subsistence 21 Accounting department '. 23 Executive department 27 Bureau of clubs and playgrounds 27 Division of civil affairs 28 Bureau of posts 28 Bureau of customs 29 Police and fire division 30 Division of schools 31 Courts 32 Relations with Panama 32 Office of the special attorney 34 Health department 36 Division of hospitals 37 Ancon Hospital 37 Corozal hospital and farm 37 Colon Hospital 38 Palo Seco Leper Asylum 38 Santo Tomas Hospital 38 District dispensaries 38 Sanitation 38 Quarantine division 39 Washington office 40 86372°— 18 I 6>7/63

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n TABLE OF CONTENTS. APPENDIX A. Page. ReiX)rt of the engineer of maintenance 43 Organization 4? Locks division 44 Lockages 44 Water consumption, Gatun Lake 45 Gatun dam 46 Towing locomotives 46 Spare parts 46 Approach wall fender cribs 46 Painting lock gates 46 Lock power and ccmtrol cables 47 Chemist's report on corrosion of lead sheaths of cables at Miraflores Locks 48 Gatun locks 54 Organization and personnel 54 Operation 54 Maintenance 55 Construction and new equipment 56 General overhauling 56 Pacific locks 57 Organization and personnel 57 Operation 57 Maintenance 57 Miscellaneous work 60 Bitumastic work and painting of lock gates and submerged parts 60 Painting 61 Electrical division 62 Character and extent of the work 62 Organization and personnel 62 OflSce and design 62 Power-plant extensions 63 Water consumption, hydroelectric station 63 Substation and transmission-line improvements 64 Distribution lines 65 Operation of power system 65 TablesMonthly output in kilowatt-hours 66 Cost of power in its various states of distribution 66 Principal loads in kilowatts added during year, principal loads to be added in the future . 67 Telephones and telegraph 67 Fire-alarm system 68 Railway signal system 68 Table — Responsible signal interruptions for fiscal year 69 Miscellaneous electrical work 70 Municipal engineering division 71 Organization and personnel 71 Table — Average quantity of water pumped at pumping stations, with average cost per 1,000 gallons 72 • Sale of water to vessels 72 Panama water office 73

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TABLE OP CONTENTS. HI Report of the engineer of maintenance — Continued. Municipal engineering division — Continued. Page. Report of water-collection office, Colon 73 Status of capital-cost account for municipal improvements in Panama and Colon ' — 74 New construction ' 75 Work for other divisions 75 Laboratory tests of concrete 76 Summary of determinations made in connection with the work on concrete aggregates 77 Work performed in connection with the operation of water purification plants 80 Section of meteorology and hydrography 81 Personnel 81 Meteorology 81 Tables accompanying meteorological section, list of 85 Hydrography 90 Tidal conditions 90 Special investigations 92 Water-supply studies 92 Branch hydrographic office, Cristobal 93 Tables accompanying hydrographica) section, list of 93 Section of surveys 99 Building lots 99 Gatun Dam 99 Supply department 100 Health department : 100 Municipal division 100 Joint land commission 100 Survey — Panama, Ancon, Balboa 100 Triangulation 101 Bench marks 101 Canal Zone boundary monuments 101 Cristobal coaling plant 101 Miscellaneous 101 Section of office engineer 102 APPENDIX B. Report of the resident engineer, building division 103 Organization 103 Building operations ; 103 Pier No. 6, floor for 104 Boat landing and launch house, Cristobal 106 Industrial plant, Panama Railroad 107 Mindi dairy farm 109 Tivoli Hotel kitchen 109 Local freight and baggage building 110 Mount Hope oil tank 110 Ancon Hospital 110 Larvacide plant 112 Nurses' quarters, Colon Hospital 113 Gatun dispensary . 113

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IV TABLE OP CONTENTS. Report of the resident engineer, building division — Continued. Building operations — Continued. Page. Gatun hydroelectric station extension 113 Balboa garbage incinerator 114 TablesBuildings on which construction work was performed during the year 134 Comparative unit costs of buildings 116 APPENDIX C. Report of the superintendent of dredging 119 Organization . 119 Dredging plant 119 Dredging 121 TablesOutput of all dredges, with total and unit costs 122 Yardage removed from the — 42-foot mean sea-level contour in the Atlantic Ocean 122 Yardage removed from Gaillard Cut 123 Yardage removed, Pedro Miguel Lock to the —45-foot mean sea level in the Pacific Ocean 123 Dredging, canal prism 128 Yardage removed from the canal prism 123 Yardage remaining to be removed from canal prism 124 Distribution of material removed from Gaillard Cut 125 Dumps 126 Subaqueous rock excavation 126 TablesMining, performance of drill boat Teredo No. 2 126 Mining, performance of well and tripod drills 127 Miscellaneous dredging 127 Sand and gravel production 12S Diversions and drainage 128 Slide inspection and reports 128 Mindi dikes and groins 129 Water hyacinths 129 Surveys 129 Ofiice • 129 APPENDIX D. Report of the marine .superintendent 131 Personnel 231 Operation incident to a state of war 132 Steamboat-inspection service 132 Report of board of local inspectors 132 Admeasurement of vessels and application of tolls 133 TablesSummary of traffic through the canal during fiscal year and since its opening to commercial traffic 135 Number of vessels of various nationalities passing through the canal ^ 13q

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TABLE OF CONTENTS. V APPENDIX E. Page. Report of the superintendent, mechanical division 139 Organization . 139 War activities 139 War worli 140 Principal work performed 140 Results accomplished 141 Needs for coming fiscal year 143 Tables accompanying report, list of 143 APPENDIX F. Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department , 1.^1 Organization l.ll Personnel 152 Labor 1.52 Quarters . 1.52 Zone sanitation . 1.58 Motor transportation 1.53 Material and supplies 154 Distribution in storehouses . 155 Sales 1.5.5 Surplus and obsolete material, equipment, and scrap 155 Scrap 155 Fuel-oil plants 1.5G Gasoline storage 1.5G Panama Canal Press 1.5(5 Subsistence 157 Commissary operations 1.58 Transfer of plantations and farms IGO New commissaries 160 Changes in retail stores 100 Soap factory 161 Milk 161 Sausage factory IGl Bone mill 1 161 Tailor shop 162 Bakery 162 Flour . 162 Beef -corning plant 162 Industrial laboratory products 162 Relief of Guatemala City during earthquake 163 Central American sugar 164 New ice and cold-storage plant and abattoir 164 Cattle industry 164 Pastures, health, breeding, sales, etc 166 Plantations 167 Poultry farm 168 Hog farm 169 Dairy farm .. 169 Tables : Occupants of Panama Canal and Panama Raili-oad quarters, June 30. 1918 170

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-VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. Report of the chief quartermaster, supply department — Continued. Tables — Continued. Page. Applications for married quarters on file June 30, 1918 170 Sales __.. 170 Value of material received during fiscal year 1917-18 on requisition 171 Statement showing sales of material, supplies, and equipment heretofore purchased or acquired for the construction of The Panama Canal, made by authority of the governor withqrut advertisement and on which time did not permit securing approval of the Secretary of War, required by Executive order of May 12, 1915 173 Houses, apartments, and occupants, by districts, of gold and silver quarters, as of June 30, 1918 173 Operation of Hotel Tivoli 174 Summary of operations of restaurants 174 Summary of operations, laborers' messes 175 Obsolete and surplus material 175 American scrap operations 175 Fuel oil handled 176 Comparative statement of output of manufacturing plants, commissary division, supply department, fiscal years 1913-14 to 1917-18 176 Statement showing quantities of certain staple articles purchased during the fiscal year as compared with the previous year 177 Statement of comparative selling prices for June 30, 1918, as against June 30, 1917 177 Statement of articles purchased by the products buyer in Costa Rica 178 Statement of Haitian, Colombian, and local purchases 178 Produce furnished the commissary division by various plantations -^.79 APPENDIX G. Report of the auditor -^§]^ Organization jgj^ Paymaster -^g-^ Collector ^ -^gc, Accounting to the Treasury for collections 189 Tolls :":" 182 Claims for damages to vessels passing through the locks 183 Examination of pay rolls _ _ -|^83 Liberty loans -j^oo Canal appropriations ,_ -^^gn Exchange of property with Panama Railroad 185 Public works, Panama and Colon ~~ ^g^ Operation and maintenance ^^86 Bu.siness operations -^g-r Material and supplies 187 Construction of canal and capital addi.tion 1$9 Manufacturing plants ~ -^q-. Canal Zone accounts -.q. Clubhou.-e accounts ~ ~~~~~ iqi

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TABLE OP CONTENTS. VII Report of the auditor — Continued. Page. Claims for injuries and deaths 192 Coupon books . 192 Inspection of accounts 193 Time inspection . 193 Freight claims 193 Bonds of employees 194 Operations with Panama Railroad Co.'s funds 194 Railroad, harbor, terminals, etc 194 Commissary 195 Farm industries 196 Tables accompanying report, list of 197 APPENDIX H. Report of the executive secretary 255 Organization 255 Special work 256 Working force 257 TablesForce actually at work on June 19, 1918 258 Force reports by months, fiscal year 1917-18 259 High and low force records, December, 1906, to June 30, 1918, by fiscal years 259 Bureau of clubs and playgrounds 260 Division of civil affairs 261 Bureau of posts 261 Bureau of customs 263 Shipping commissioner 263 Administration of estates 264 Licenses and taxes 264 Police and fire division 264 Police section 265 Fire section 267 Division of schools 268 The courts 269 Special attorney and district attorney 270 United States marslial for the Canal Zone 270 Relations with Panama 270 Legislation 272 TablesPostal Service 272 Receipts and disbursements 272 Total cash transactions of Canal Zone postal system for fiscal year 1918 273 Letters and parcels registered and parcels insured for fiscal year 1918 273 Number of insured and C. O. D. parcel-post parcels and registered articles delivered by offices during fiscal year 1918 274 Number of mail parcels on which duty has been paid to the Government of Panama, and the amouut of duty as shown by receipts on file, by offices, during fiscal year 1918— 274 Statement of vessels entered and cleared and of seamen shipped and discharged at Balboa and Cristobal, fiscal year 1918 274

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VIII TABLE OP CONTENTS. Report of the executive secretary — Continued. Tables — Continued. Page. Number of estates received and settled and amount of funds handled during fiscal year 1918 275 Police section 275 Police force as of June 30, 3918 275 Distribution of police force by stations and substations 275 Number of arrests, by fiscal years, made on Canal Zone since organization 276 Number of arrests, by months, made during fiscal year 1918_ 276 Statement of disposition of persons arrested during fiscal year 1918 277 Charges against persons arrested during fiscal year 1918 — 277 Nationality of persons arrested during fiscal year 1918 278 Occupation of persons arrested during fiscal year 1918 279 Number of prisoners in custody in common jails at the close of each month during fiscal year 1918 280 Value of labor performed by common jail prisoners during fiscal year 1918 280 House-to-house canvass of the civil population of the Canal Zone taken between June 20 and 30, 1918, by the police and fii'e division 281 Warden section 282 Convicts received at penitentiary during fiscal year 1918 282 Convicts discharged from penitentiary during fiscal year 1918 283 Crimes committed by convicts confined in penitentiary on June 30, 1918, and their aggregate sentences 283 Nationality of the convicts confined in the penitentiary on June 30, 1918 284 Sentences of convicts confined in the penitentiary on June 30, 1918 284 Value of labor performed by convicts employed on public improvements, and value of labor of convicts assigned to inside labor at the penitentiary during fiscal year 1918 284 Cost of subsisting, guarding, and clothing convicts confined in the penitentiary during fiscal year 1918 285 Convicts and common jail prisoners deported during fiscal year 1918 285 Coroner section 285 Deaths, by months, investigated by coroner during fiscal year 1918 285 Causes of deaths investigated by coroner during fiscal year 1918 285 Fire section ^ 286 Fire personnel as on June 30, 1918 286 Distribution of fire personnel, by statioul5, June 30, 1918 286 Statement of damage resulting from fires during fiscal year 1918 286 Statement of property involved in fires during fiscal year 1918 286 School section 287 Monthly enrollment and average daily attendance 287 Enrollment for fiscal year 1918, by schools 287

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TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX Keport of the executive secretary — Continued. Tables — Continued. School section — Continued. Page. Enrollment by grades 287 Number of teachers employed in schools 288 Report of annual physical examinations of children of white grade schools during October,. 1917 288 Epitome of more important statistics for the years ended June 30, 1915, to June 30, 1917, inclusive 288 APPENDIX I. Report of the district attorney 289 Criminal prosecutions during fiscal year 1918 291 APPENDIX J. Report of the special attorney 293 Land claims 293 Panama Canal land licenses in effect within the Canal Zone at the end of fiscal year 1918 295 Panama Railroad Co. matters 296 Statement of Panama Railroad leases and licenses in ert'ect July 1, 1918 296 Panama Railroad litigation 298 District court, division of Balboa 298 District court, division of Cristobal 298 Magistrate's court, division of Balboa '298 Magistrate's court, division of Cristobal 299 Panama Railroad cases pending at end of fiscal year 299 District court, division of Balboa 299 District court, division of Cristobal 299 Pending on writ of error from Supreme Court of the United States and United States Circuit Court of Appeals, New Orleans 301 Legislation 302 APPENDIX K. Report of the chief health officer 305 Organization 305 Vital statistics 306 Employees 306 Effects of race 307 Canal Zone 307 Panama City 307 Colon 308 Special remarks 308 Cerebrospinal meningitis 308 Venereal diseases 309 Meat inspection 311 Ancon Hospital 311 Permanent buildings 311 Buildings evacuated 311 Grounds -312 Administration-clinics building 312

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X TABLE OF CONTENTS. Report of the chief health officer — Continued. Ancon Hospital— Continued. Page. Administration . 312 Surgical clinic 313 Medical clinic 313 Eye and ear clinic 313 X-ray clinic 314 Steward's department 314 Linen room 314 Maintenance and repair, buildings and equipment 315 Motor transportation 315 Statistics regarding patients 316 Corozal Hospital 317 Buildings 317 Hospital department 317 Farm department 318 General remarks 319 Colon Hospital 319 Buildings 319 Personnel 320 Palo Seco Leper Asylum 320 Santo Tomas Hospital 320 District dispensaries 320 Sanitation 320 Canal Zone 320 Panama City 321 Colon : 324 Quarantine division 327 Tables accompanying report, list of 328 APPENDIX L. Report of general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office 345 APPENDIX M. Acts of Congress and Executive orders relating to The Panama Canal and to the Canal Zone index 3q1

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. [Report of the governor,] Plate. 1. Chart showing organization of The Panama Canal, July 1, 1918. APPENDIXA. [Report of the engineer of maintenance.] 2. Five and eight conductor, lead-sheathed control cables removed from the middle cross-over tunnel at Miraflores locks. 3. Transmission system ; Gatun hydroelectric station — typical daily load curves. 4. Transmission system, causes and dates of power interruptions. 5. Concrete road between Corozal and Miraflores. 6. Typical section of 18-foot concrete roadbed with sheet asphalt wearing surface. 7. Monthly rainfall year 1917 and station averages. 8. Distribution of rainfall in the Canal Zone ; maximum, minimum, current, and average years. 9. Operating uses of Gatun Lake water supply, year 1917 — dry season 1918. 10. Gatun Lake watershed ; yields and losses ; masses curved — year 1917. 11. Gatun Lake watershed ; total yields ; year 1917, dry season 1918, and 7-year average. 12. Gatun Lake watershed ; total yields massed ; maximum, minimum, average, and current years, 1911-1917. 13. Chagres River drainage basin ; mean monthly discharge at Alhajuela, year 1917, dry season 1918 and 16-year average. 14. Chagres River drainage basin ; massed curves — discharge at Alhajuela, maximum, minimum, average, and current years. 15. Studies in water supply available for canal uses based on average net yield of Gatun Lake basin for 7-year period 1911-1917. 16. Studies In water supply available for canal uses based on lowest net yield of record December, 1911, to December, 1912. APPENDIX B. [Report of the resident engineer, building division.) 17. Ancon Hospital. Administration building. 18. Ancon Hospital. Kitchen and mess. 19. Ancon Hospital. Isolation ward. 20. Gatun hydroelectric station. View from bridge showing one spillway gate open. June 6, 1918. 21. Atlantic terminals. General view of pier No. 6, Cristobal. 22. Atlantic terminals. Reinforced concrete girders and arches to support floor system of pier No. 6, Cristobal.

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XII LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS. APPENDIX C. [Report of resident engineer, dredging division.] Plate. 23. Gaillard Cut. Looking north from Contractor's Hill, showing east and west banks. June, 1918. 24. Gaillard Cut. Looking south, showing conditions on west bank. June, 1918. 25. Topography east and west Culebra and Cucaracha slides. 26. Typical cross sections Culebra slides. APPENDIX B. [Report of superintendent, mechanical division.] 27. Charts showing classes of work and source of revenue. 28. Balboa shops gross overhead expense percentage compared with the total direct labor charges, fiscal years 1916-17 and 1917-18. 29. Chart showing development of shop work for outsiders concurrent with the decrease of canal and Panama Railroad work since the official opening of The Panama Canal. APPENDIX H. [Report of the executive secretary.] 30. Ancon, Canal Zone, public school. Flag raising. March, 1918. 31. Cristobal schoolhouse. May, 1918.

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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL. The Panama Canal, Office of the Governor, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, September 21, 1918. Sir : I have the honor to submit the annual report covering the construction, operation, maintenance, and sanitation of The Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918. ORGANIZATION. The war emergency has caused several changes in personnel. The following officers of the Army and Navy were relieved from duty with The Panama Canal on the dates indicated: Commander H. I. Cone, marine superintendent, August 21, 1917. Lieut. Col. J. J. Morrow, engineer of maintenance, August 31, 1917. Lieut. Col. W. E. Grove, chief quartermaster, September 22, 1917. Col. D. C. Howard, chief health officer, October 4, 1917, and his successor, Col. A. E. Truby, February 26, 1918. Capt. F. H. Smith, assistant chief quartermaster, October 10, 1917. Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon, electrical engineer, February 6, 1918. Lieut. Commander P. P. Bassett, captain of the port, Cristobal, August 14, 1917. Lieut. Commander A. B. Eeed, captain of the port, Balboa, August 14, 1917. Capt. H. D. Mitchell, chief of police, July 8, 1917. Lieut. Col. Earl I. Brown, chief of the Washington office, August 25, 1917, and his successor, Maj. Benedict Crowell, December 1, 1917. The position of engineer of maintenance remained vacant throughout the remainder of the fiscal year. Mr. Walter J. Douglas, who was appointed to fill the position on May 13, 1918, assumed the duties on July 1, 1918. The position of marine superintendent was filled on January 23, 1918, by the appointment of Commander L. R. Sargent, United States Navy, who was detailed by the Navy Department for duty under the Governor of The Panama Canal and assignment to the position. The vacancy as chief quartermaster was filled by the appointment of Mr. R. K. Morris, who had been employed for a num1

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2 THE PANAMA CANAL. « ber of years in important capacities in that department. The position of chief health officer vacated by Col. Truby was filled by the appointment of Maj. A. T. McCormack, Medical Reserve Corps. Mr. A. L. Flint, chief clerk, was appointed chief of the Washington office as successor to Maj. Crowell, who resigned that position upon his appointment as Assistant Secretary of War. In addition to the officers mentioned, a total of 296 employees of The Panama Canal in various capacities resigned in order to enter the military or naval service, or to assume positions in the National Red Cross and other organizations immediately engaged on war work. During the existence of the vacancies in the positions of engineer of maintenance and marine superintendent, the duties of those positions were directly assumed by the Governor. During the absence of the Governor on duty in the United States, from December 13, 1917, to January 23, 1918, his duties on the Isthmus were assumed, by authority of the Secretary df War, by Judge Frank Feuille, as acting governor. Judge Feuille acted in the same capacity during the illness of the Governor from January 28, 1918, to February 25, 1918. Except as above stated the heads of the departments and divisions reporting to the Governor remained as stated in last year's report. To assist in the adminstration of the electrical division and the operation and maintenance of the locks in the absence of an engineer of maintenance, Lieut. Col. Dillon was given immediate supervision over the conduct of those branches of the work until his relief from duty with the canal, when he was succeeded in those duties by Mr. Hartley Rowe. DEPABTMENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE. On August 4, 1917, Mr. T. B. Monniche, engineer of docks, resigned, and his duties were transferred to the resident engineer of the building division on August 5, 1917. Thereafter the construction of the terminal structures in progress which had been conducted under the immediate supervision of the engineer of maintenance, was continued under the charge of Mr. Hartley Rowe, resident engineer, head of the building division. Building Division. Pier No. 6, Cristobal. — The construction of Pier No. 6 at Cristobal, authorized by the sundry civil act of July 1, 1916, was continued. At the beginning of the year the driving of the foundation cylinders was 70 per cent complete. The excavation of material from the cylinders was 73 per cent complete, and the filling of the cylinders with concrete was 50 per cent complete. The driving of the cylinders was completed September 7, 1917, with a total of 22,610 linear feet

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. in place. The excavation of material from the cylinders was completed September 19, 1917, with a total of 14,382 cubic yards removed. The filling of the cylinders with concrete was completed on October 19, 1917, with a total of 22,005 yards poured. The total cost of the completed cylinders, including excavation and concreting, was $550,894.20,' and the total cost of the substructure, including trestle, false work, power and water lines, irailway tracks, etc., was $687,677.04. Certain changes in the construction plant and in the design of the floor structure, in order to overcome so far as possible increased costs of materials, were described in the report for last year. As stated therein, when bids were received for the steel work the prices had advanced to such an extent as to make necessary the abandonment of the steel construction for the floor system and the substitution of reinforced concrete construction. On account of the heavy loads and of the large spans involved, and especially on account of the lack of rigidity against lateral movement of the long cylinders supporting the structure, considerable difficulty was experienced in determining a satisfactory design. The problem was successfully solved and the construction proceeded with a material saving in cost as compared with the original design, but in spite of the economies applied it became evident that on account of the abnormal increase in the prices of materials the completed structure could not be built for the original limit cost of $1,500,000 fixed by law. Upon representation to Congress an additional appropriation of $592,190 was obtained in the urgent deficiency bill which became a law on March 28, 1918. The original plans for the superstructure contemplated a shed of structural steel of a design similar to that of Pier No. 7. Upon obtaining bids for the material involved in this superstructure it was found necessary to redesign the shed, abandoning the structural steel plans and adopting reinforced concrete, with an estimated saving of $177,000. At the close of the year the state of completion was as follows: Floor, 35 per cent; cylinders, 100 per cent; pier as a whole, 60 per cent. The construction of the shed had not been started at the end of the year. Boat landing and launch house 'between Piers Nos. 7 and 8, Cristobal. — At the beginning of the year work on this structure was in suspense awaiting material for the superstructure. The erection was resumed on October 6, 1917, upon arrival of the materials, and by October 25, 1917, the entire amount of 511,570 pounds of structural steel for the floor and shed had been erected. The pouring of the concrete for encasing the girders and for the floor slab was begun on October 31, 1917, and completed December 8, 1917. The concrete 86372°— 18 2

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.4 THE PANAMA CANAL. work for the shed was started December 6, 1917, and completed January 12, 1918. The structure was entirely completed in March, 1918, and turned over to the marine division for use. The total cost of the completed structure was $109,939.07. Miscellaneous buildings. — Other than the construction of the terminal facilities the operations of the building division included the continuation of the Ancon Hospital group of buildings, quarters for nurses at Colon Hospital, a dispensary at Gatun, the extension of the building housing the hydroelectric generating plant at Gatun, the garbage incinerator at Balboa, the local freight and baggage building for the Panama Railroad at Docks Nos. 9 and 10, Cristobal, cold storage building and industrial plant for the Panama Railroad at Mount Hope, an oil tank for the supply department at Mount Hope, buildings for the Mindi dairy farm, quarters for canal and Panama Railroad employees, and various quarters and other buildings for the Army and Navy provided for in appropriations of Congress and alloted to the Governor of The Panama Canal for expenditure. The buildings completed and under construction in the Ancon Hospital group complete the project initiated in 1915. They include the following: Administrative and clinics building; kitchen and mess; section A, ward group; section B, ward group; section C, ward group; section D, ward group; isolation ward; dispensary; medical storehouse; laboratory and crematory; power house; superintendent's home; nurses' quarters; and garage. The plant provides a thoroughly equipped hospital of 690 beds, and is capable of expansion without undue crowding to 888 beds. The structures are all of permanent material and replace old French buildings. Several frame buildings occupied as quarters by the hospital staff and the old frame wards Nos. 17 to 23, inclusive, will remain within the hospital grounds and be utilized until their deterioration progresses sufficiently to justify their removal. Work was in progress during the year on the administration building, kitchen and mess, section C and section D ward groups, the isolation ward, the nurses' home, power house, and the garage, and covered passageways connecting different groups of buildings. By the end of the year there were completed and occupied the administration building with connecting covered ways; kitchen and mess, and the isolation ward. Section C ward group was 60 per cent complete, section D ward group 40 per cent complete, the nurses' home 98 per cent, the power house 95 per cent, and the garage 50 per cent complete. The total cost of the completed building project for the new Ancon Hospital will be $1,768,762, of which $1,292,835.04 was expended by the end of the year. The two large ward groups, C and D, are of uniform type and design of construction with the other ward groups heretofore completed.

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EEPOET OF THE GOVERNOR. 5 The nurses' home, located in convenient proximity to the ward buildings, is three stories in height, 233 feet long, and 46 feet wide, and provides accommodation for 72 nurses and one chief nurse. The power house is a reinforced concrete structure with corrugated asbestos roof, and is one story high, 48 feet 6 inches by 62 feet 6 inches,, with open sides and wide overhanging eaves. The building contains two 50-H. P. oil-burning boilers and supplies steam to all the hospital buildings and the shop for the hospital carpenter and plumber. The garage contains stalls for 8 hospital trucks and ambulances. It is a one-story structure 21 feet 3 inches by 80 feet 6 inches. The nurses' home at Colon Hospital, begun in September, 1017, was completed during the year at a cost of $34,387.51. It is a twostory building, 45 feet by 70 feet, situated on the beach adjacent to Colon Hospital, and provides quarters for 13 nurses and 2 maids. The construction is of reinforced concrete columns, girders, and floor slabs, with walls and partitions of hollow concrete blocks; the roof is of red tile. A dispensary was constructed at Gatun containing living apartments for the district physician, office of the district dentist, and the necessary office for the dispensing of medicines. The building is two stories high, 36 feet by 66 feet, of hollow block concrete construction, except the bearing columns and floor slabs, which are of reinforced concrete. The cost of the completed structure was $34,490.17. The extension of the house inclosing the hydroelectric plant at Gatun, v/hich was begun in November, 1916, was 99 per cent completed at the end of the year. The extension doubles the original size of the building and forms a continuation thereof. It is constructed with the same kinds of materials and of identical design. The garbage incinerator plant for the consumption of garbage from the towns at the Pacific terminal of the canal and from the city of Panama, was completed. The structure is 42 feet by 66 feet 6 inches, of concrete construction, with a tile roof. Its location on a point of land formerly known as Gavilan Island was determined with reference to convenience of access from the different localities supplying the garbage, reducing as much as possible the passage of garbage wagons through streets of populated districts. The building was constructed of sufficient capacity to allow for an increase in the number of incinerating units as the increase of population might make necessary. The total cost of the plant, including building and equipment, is $116,055.92. The report of the resident engineer. Appendix B, gives descriptions in detail of the buildings constructed and detailed items of cost.

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6 the panama canal. Locks Operation. There were 1,936 commercial and 335 noncommercial lockages at Gatun, and 2,096 commercial vessels were passed; at Pedro Miguel there were 2,041 commercial and 379 noncommercial lockages, and 2.083 commercial vessels were passed; at Miraflores there were 2,017 commercial and 326 noncommercial lockages, and 2,081 commercial vessels were passed. The number of ships passed, exceeded the number of lockages on account of passing more than one ship through in one lockage under certain conditions. There were no delays to ships due to the failure of the operating machinery of the locks, and as heretofore the damage to vessels has been chiefly due to the breaking of chocks and bitts. The maintenance work consisted of constant inspection of and attention to all of the lock operating machinery and such painting of gates and other steel parts as was required. The wall fenders originally installed have in some cases become unserviceable through decay and have been replaced by timbers of almendra, a native hardwood. Four new towing locomotives manufactured in the mechanical division .shops were completed and placed in service during the year, two at Gatun locks and two at the Pacific locks. The installation of electric equipment on these locomotives was done by the lock forces. For purposes of inspection and maintenance work^ lock chambers were unwatered at the different locks as follows : At Gatun, west chamber, middle and lower levels, from January 14 to February 23; east chamber, middle and Lower levels, from March 1 to March 23; east chamber, upper level, April 9 to April 15. At Miraflores, east chamber, lower level, from August 29 to September 30. Besides the necessity for painting portions of the gates, the chief indications of deterioration developing during these inspections were as heretofore the corrosion due to electrolytic action on valves and their fittings. Further inspection of the valves at Miraflores locks where greenheart lumber was used to replace metal valve seats and lignum-vitse side seals in place of machinery steel, indicated the substitutions to be the best means thus far investigated for checking the trouble, and accordingly the same means were applied this year at Gatun. At Miraflores locks trouble has been experienced from the grounding of the control cables. As originally installed these cables were insulated with varnished cambric and were lead sheathed. On investigation it was found that the lead sheathing had become badly pitted, and in some places had entirely disappeared. A total of six control cables in the middle crossover were found to be defective to varying degrees. Every case was found to be in the side wall of the vertical shafts in a position where the lead was exposed to contact with water that had seeped through the concrete, and the corrosion

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 7 and destruction of the lead covering proved to be due to the chemical action of the seepage water which contained lime salts of sufficient strength to act upon the lead. The cables affected were withdrawn and new cables were installed in a different location, supported on hangers, where they would not be exposed to the seepage water, and no further trouble has developed since the change. The timber fenders at the end of the south approach wall at Pedro Miguel locks were renewed on account of the deterioration of the original fenders by the teredo. Repairs due to the same cause but to a less extent were made to the fender at the end of the north approach wall at Miraflores locks. In order to m.aintain the level of Miraflores Lake within the prescribed limits it was necessary to make 254 operations of the Miraflores spillway gates. To provide a settling basin and reduce maintenance of the channel in Miraflores Lake, an earthern dam was constructed before the completion of the canal across the Rio Grande River that discharges into Miraflores Lake on the west of the Pedro Miguel locks. On September 6, 1917, after a heavy rainfall, the discharge from this river exceeded the capacity of the spillway in the dam and the dam overflowed, carrying it out for about 80 feet and suddenly releasing 8 feet head of water. This caused a sudden and heavy discharge into Miraflores Lake and necessitated the opening of three gates in the Miraflores spillway for 40 minutes in order to prevent an excessive rise in Miraflores Lake. The contract with the American Bitumastic Enamels Company under which the original painting of the interior of lock gates was done with a guarantee for a period of 5 years, expires in January, 1919. Under an arrangement agreed upon in January, 1918, the contractors withdrew their representative and men and turned the maintenance work under their contract over to the canal, the cost of the work to be billed to the contractors. Inspection of the interior of the gates and the application of the bitumastic wherever necessary is in progress so as to have everything in order at the expiration of the original guarantee. Electrical Division. Upon the relief from duty with the canal of Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon, United States Army, on February 5, 1918, he was succeeded as electrical engineer by Mr. Walter L. Hersh. The operation and maintenance of the steam and hydroelectric power plants, substations, transmission lines and power distribution systems, street and house lighting systems, telephone and telegraph, fire alarm, railway block signal systems, and railway interlocking plants, all under the supervision of the electrical division, were satisfactorily conducted. New work was carried on in connection with the electrical installation for light, heat, and power at additions to the Army and Navy establish-

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8 THE PANAMA CANAL. ments in the Canal Zone, as well as for the extensions of canal enterprises. The principal construction work in progress was the extension of the hydroelectric plant at Gatun spillway, as described in the report for last year. In this project three additional penstocks were installed at the Gatun spillway, providing for the No. 4 generating unit and for the two units, Nos. 5 and 6, that when installed will develop the plant to its maximum capacity. In the installation of these penstocks it was necessary to excavate 14,946 yards of material. The material v/as used in part in making a fill along the ixis of the dam just west of its junction with Gatun locks, in order to restore to full dimensions a portion of the dam, that since its construction had settled below its original elevation. The head gate house, head gates, trash racks, and head gate operating machinery, including switchboard and wiring involved in the installation of the additional penstocks, were completed. The 4,500 K. W. generator unit and the 6,750 H. P. Pelton Francis turbine were received in May and erection was started on June 1. The 275 K. W. turbine exciter set was completed. The extension of this plant as now authorized will be completed by January 1, 1919, resulting in a capacity of 13,140 K. W., with provisions for future installations of two additional 4,500 K. W. units, making a total capacity of the plant of 22,140 K. W. The changes and additions at the generating station at Gatun necessitated certain modifications at the Gatun substation to adapt it to the 6,600-volt instead of the 2,200-volt generation. The work involves the installation of one 8,400 K. V. A. 6,600-44,000 volt water-cooled transformer; the complete remodeling of concrete cells for oil circuit breakers and for instrument transformers; the installation of higher capacity circuit breakers; changes and additions to the existing switchboard; the installation of two 1,500 K. V. A. 6,600-2,200 volt water-cooled transformers; the reconnection of two 4,000 K. V. A. 2,200-44,000 transformers for 6,600-44,000 volt operation ; and the removal of two 2,667 K. V. A. 2,200-44,000 volt transformers. These changes were in progress at the close of the fiscal year, and when complete the Gatun substation will be equipped with two 1,500 K. V. A. 6,600-2,200 volt transformers for local distribution, and two 4,000 K. V. A. and one 8,400 K. V. A. 6,600-44,000 volt transformers for distant transmission, with provisions for future installation of one 8,400 K. V. A. transformer. At the Miraflores substation certain changes were made, as described in detail in the report of the electrical engineer, for the purpose of releasing equipment for service at one of the naval establishments in the Canal Zone, thus affording temporary power facilities nine months in advance of the possible receipt from the manufacturers in the States of the permanent equipment required.

PAGE 29

REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 9 At the Balboa substation an additional 2,200-volt feeder equipment was installed for the operation of the air compressing plant in Balboa shops, and a similar unit for feeding auxiliary power to the Pacific forts. The principal items involved in extensions and improvements to the underground power distribution system included extensions to the townsite of New Cristobal, new cold storage plant at Cristobal, and to the naval reservation. The net output of power generated averaged 4,419,192 K. W. H. per month, as compared with 4,190,020 K. W. H. per month last year. The increase in output has been generated principally at the hydroelectric station at Gatun, and the fuel oil consumption at the auxiliary steam plant at Miraflores was reduced from an average of 3,428 barrels per month to 2,906 barrels per month. The average cost of current generated and distributed for power purposes for the year was 0.7782 cent per K. W. H. The average cost of current per K. W. H. for lighting purposes, including cost of generation and transmission, maintenance of house lighting systems and lamp renewals, was 0.013179 cent. The Miraflores steam generating plant carries a load only at such times as the total load exceeds the capacity of the hydroelectric station at Gatun. During the year there was a total additional load on the generating plants of 1,900 K. W. for power and 270 K. W. for light. There were 29 failures of the transmission line, as compared with 17 during the preceding year, due to insulation troubles. There was a net increase of 369 telephone installations, and the average number of telephone calls per day of eight hours was 21,816. Two additional fire-alarm boxes were installed at New Cristobal; four on the dock at La Boca, and a new fire alarm register at Ancon fire station. For further details attention is invited to Appendix A. Municipal Engineering Division. The work of this division under the supervision of Mr. D. E. Wright, as municipal engineer, included the care and maintenance of water reservoirs, maintenance and operation of pumping stations and filtration plants, maintenance and repair of municipal improvements in the Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, the municipal construction work in the townsites of the Canal Zone and at the Army and Navy establishments. In the supply of water for all purposes the total number of gallons pumped during the year at the various stations was as follows : At Mount Hope, 1,442,275,000 ; at Agua Clara, 428,401,000; at Gamboa, 3,462,016,000; at Miraflores, 379,460,000; at Balboa, 2,383,659,575 ; and at Paraiso, 74,540,000. The average division cost per thousand gallons for water delivered to the various districts of the Canal Zone was as follows: Cristobal, $0,08; Gatun, $0.11;

PAGE 30

10 THE PANAMA CANAL. Gamboa, $0.09; Paraiso, $0.06; Pedro Miguel, $0.06; Miraflores, $0.06; and BalboaAncon, $0.07. These figures include the charges for pumping and the operation and maintenance of the filtration plants. At Cristobal 1,420 ships were supplied with 44,875,000 gallons of water, and at Balboa 827 vessels were supplied with 24,067,600 gallons. The citj' of Panama consumed 858,402,000 gallons, and the city of Colon, including The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad reservations in Colon, consumed 591,209,125 gallons. The water revenue derived from private consumers in Panama totaled $152,100.05, and in Colon $105,092.45. In the cities of Panama and Colon tlie municipal division expended $154,960.85 in the upkeep of streets and water and sewer sj'stems. This expense is reimbursed, under the canal treaty, from the water revenues in the two cities. For new construction work by the municipal division in the towns and villages occupied by the Panama Canal employees, a total of $545,723.55 was spent. The items included the grading of grounds and extensions of roads, water and sewer systems for the new buildings in the hospital grounds at Ancon; the grading of grounds and installation of water and sewer systems in connection with the new schoolhouses at Ancon, Balboa, Pedro Miguel, Gatun, and Cristobal; resurfacing of the streets in old Cristobal and in Gatun, the Mount Hope-Colon road, Ancon-Corozal road, Corozal-Pedro Miguel road, East La Boca road, Sosa Hill road, and roads in the Balboa shop district; and the construction of new and extension of old sidewalks in the various towns occupied by canal employees. For the United States Army the municipal division performed work at a total expense of $258,416.59, including the completion of work under w^ay the preceding year in the various posts; construction of concrete streets and sidewalks, extension of water and sewer systems, and the installation of water and sewer pumping station at Fort Sherman. There was also included the making of the necessary surveys and the preparation of plans and estimates for the proposed new Army posts at Gatun, Miraflores, Corozal, Diablo, and Corundu River. For the Panama Railroad this division performed work at a cost of $187,401.82, including the comi^letion of the Corundu River storm sewer, the filling of and installation of water, sewers, and streets for the Folks River section of Colon extension; the installation of water, sewers, streets, and sidewalks for the chicken farm at New Culebra, renamed Summit ; the installation of water lines and pumps for irrigating work on the various plantations; the construction of roads and sewers for the hog farm near Mindi ; and the construction of roads and water and sewer systems for the Mindi dairy farm. In the performance of work for various outsiders, including the construction of roads, sewers, and water lines for the area to be occupied by the cable company, concrete construction work for the

PAGE 31

EEPOET OF THE GOVERNOR. 11 Panama Tramway Co., repairs to streets in Panama and Colon where gas connections were made, and making water and sewer connections for private parties in the cities of Colon and Panama, there was a total expense of $42,282.94, covered by deposits made by the interested parties. For ratproofing of docks Nos. 13, 14, 15, and pier No. 18 a total of $56,896.93 was expended. On work requests from the building division for municipal work in connection with new buildings constructed, work was performed at a total cost of $91,419.28. In the construction of concrete ditches and drains, filling of swamp areas, preparation of estimates for proposed work, and maintenance of pumping station at Palo Seco leper colony, the sum of $37,325.83 was spent for the health department. Miscellaneous construction jobs at a total cost of $118,092.70 were done for the divisions of fortifications, clubs and playgrounds, locks, electrical, marine, dredging, mechanical, and supply. During the year a total of 224,581 square yards of concrete streets and roads was constructed, and 12,268 square yards of roadway with Telford and macadam base, with a wearing surface of asphaltic concrete and Tarvia. In the chemical laboratory at Miraflores water purification plant investigations were made of the concrete aggregates in general use on the canal in order to determine the necessity or otherwise of washing the aggregate before incorporating it in the concrete. From these investigations it has been determined that the extra expense in washing the aggregate is justified where uniformity of product and especially where the full strength of concrete is desired. This laboratory analyzed samples of paint, lime, alum, fertilizers, etc., and made special investigations of the cause of corrosion of the leadsheathed cables at Miraflores locks. In addition the laboratory performed its normal duties in connection with the operation of the water purification plants. The filtered and treated water from the purification plants was maintained at a high standard of excellence. For details of the operations of the municipal division, see report of the municipal engineer. Appendix A. Meteorology and Hydrography. The former head of this division, Mr. F. D. Willson, chief hydrographer, resigned, effective July 17, 1917, and was succeeded by Mr. E. Z. Kirkpatrick. Mr. Kirkpatrick resigned, effective April 13, 1918, to enter the military service, and Mr. H. G. Cornthwaite was appointed his successor. The existing observation stations were continued in operation and certain new stations were established, as follows: A station for the measurement of rainfall on Bohio Island, November 1, 1917, equipped with standard rain gauge ; equip-

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12 THE PANAMA CANAL. ment for the measurement of evaporation at Alhajiiela, February 23, 1918; standard rain gauge on the Pedro Miguel River, June 25, 1918; standard rain gauge at Taboga, January 10, 1918, and a rainfall station at Darien on June 29, 1918. The rainfall during the calendar year 1917 was above normal in the interior sections of the Canal Zone, and below normal along tho Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The least rainfall for the calendar vear was at Balboa, 64.11 inches, and the greatest rainfall was 115.96 inches at the Gatun River station. In the Pacific section the average for the year was 80.37 inches; in the Central section, 103.17; and in the Atlantic section 131.01 inches. The maximum 24-hour rainfall recorded was 8.58 inches at Gatun on April 28-29. During the first six months of the calendar year 1918 the rainfall averaged approximately normal at all stations. The air temperature for the calendar year 1917 averaged from 1° to 2° F. below normal. The highest temperature recorded was in April and the lowest in February. At Balboa Heights the maximum temperature recorded was 94° F. on April 25, and the minimum recorded was 58° F, at Alhajuela on February 5. During the first six months of the calendar year 1918 the temperature has been generally below normal. The wind movements over the Canal Zone have been normal. The maximum velocity recorded was at Colon on November 24, 42 miles an hour. The evaporation from the surface of Gatun Lake, as measured at Gatun, was slightly below normal during the year. The usual prevalence of fogs occurred at the interior stations, and there were no fogs at either entrance of the canal. As the fogs are, as a general rule, dissipated by 8.45 a. m., no difficulties were experienced on their account in the navigation of the canal. Thirty seismic disturbances were recorded at the Balboa Heights station during the fiscal year. They were all of low intensity, the maximum being that of August 31, 1917, which registered III on the Rossi-Forel scale. No damage resulted in the Canal Zone from any of these disturbances. The destructive earthquakes in Guatamala City and vicinity in December, 1917, and January, 1918, were recorded at the Balboa Heights instrument, but the intensity here was low. No changes were made in the hydrographic stations and equipment. A water-stage register was established at Gatuncillo at the head of the Chagres River arm of Gatun Lake. There were four freshets in the Chagres River, the largest of which occurred on May 5, 1918, and gave a maximum momentary discharge of 61,200 cubic feet per second. This has been exceeded but three times in 20 years at Alhajuela, December, 1906. and November and December, 1909.

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EEPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 13 On January 1, 1918, Gatun Lake was at elevation plus 87.02. During the dry season it gradually fell to a minimum elevation of plus 84.52 on April 21. The consumption of water from Gatun Lake was due to causes with percentages stated as follows : Spillway discharge 67 per cent; hydroelectric station 16 per cent; evaporation 9 per cent; canal lockages and miscellaneous uses and losses 7 per cent. The spillway discharge represents the necessary waste during the wet season in order to maintain the surface of the lake at and below the prescribed maximum height. As discussed in last year's report, the annual water supply for Gatun Lake has proved to be sufficient for the use of the canal to its capacity. In dry seasons of exceptional length and intensity it will be necessary to conserve the water used at hydroelectric generating plant in order to maintain the lake level above the minimum of plus 80, when the number of lockages approaches the practicable limit of an average of 36 per day. At such time the deficiency in the electrical output of the generating station at Gatun may be supplemented by the operation of the steam generating plant at Miraflores. For details see the report of the chief hydrographer, Appendix A. Surveys. Upon the resignation of Mr. O. E. Malsbury, assistant engineer, to accept a commission in the Army, the survey work was placed in charge of Mr: F. R. Fitch, assistant engineer, September 11, 1917. In Colon, corner and grade stakes were set on 46 lots and alley stakes on 35 lots. Sixteen block monuments were lowered to sidewalk level, and eight monuments were set in the section east of E Street. In Panama 19 block monuments, which had been destroyed by street improvements, were replaced ; 28 block monuments were set in Guachapali section. Monthly observations were continued on settlement hubs at Gatun dam, which indicated normal settlement. Levels were run over the settlement hubs on Cano Saddle dam, indicating a settlement hardly appreciable. Surveys were completed of pastures of the supply department as follows: Caimito, Pedro Miguel, Miraflores, Arango, Monte Lirio, Summit, and Mandinga. The total area surveyed was about 24,000 acres. A topographical survey was made for the health department of the swamp area east of Margarita railroad for the purpose of estimating the cost of a hydraulic fill. A topographical survey was made for the municipal engineering division for use in its estimates for the construction of Army posts at Miraflores dump, and of a tract east of the old road between Panama and Pedro Miguel. Surveys of several estates were made and maps prepared for the use of the special attorney in the hearings before the Joint Commission in the settlement of land claims. The survey of the Panama-Ancon-Balboa district, begun

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14 THE PANAMA CANAL. last year, was completed. Two new triangulations were established, " Corozal," near the old hotel at Corozal, and " Mole," on the outer end of the mole at Cristobal. A precise bench mark was established at Margarita. Fifty-one of the precise bench marks heretofore established in the transisthmian service were cleared, repaired, and painted. Three Canal Zone boundary monuments were reset on account of having been destroyed by street construction, and seven extra monuments were set on the boundary line between the Canal Zone and the city of Panama. The Colon Hospital, Quarantine, and Radio reservations were surveyed and monuments set on their boundaries. For further details see Appendix A. Office Engineer. This office continued under the supervision of Mr. C. J. Embree, and performed the engineering, architectural, electrical, and miscellaneous designing work for all of the divisions of the canal except the mechanical division. A total of 964 working drawings were prepared. The blue-print room attached to this office turned out a total of 292^885 square feet of prints of all kinds, at an average cost of 0.0123 cent per square foot. Marine Division. Between August 21, 1917, the date of the relief from duty with the canal of Commander H. I. Cone, United States Navy, marine superintendent, and January 24, 1918, the date of the appointment of his successor. Commander L. R. Sargent, United States Navy, the supervision of this division was assumed by the Governor, the captains of the ports reporting directly to him. The operations of the division included, as heretofore, all matters pertaining to transactions with the canal by ships using its facilities, including the actual transit through the canal. To these normal duties there were added in April, 1918, the local administration, under the Governor, of Title II of the espionage act of June 15, 1917. As the local representative of the War Trade Board the Governor also charged the marine superintendent with the enforcement of bunker license regulations of the War Trade Board, and for the performance of this function the marine superintendent and the two port captains have been designated special agents of the Bureau of Transportation. There was an increase in traffic as compared with former years. A total of 2,130 ships of all classes passed through, of which 921 were bound from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and 1,209 from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The cargo carried through the canal totaled 7,562,133 tons of 2,240 pounds. The average net tonnage of all ships was

PAGE 35

BEPORT OF THE GOVEENOR. 15 3,126, and the average net tonnage of ships carrying cargo was 3,242. The actual Aveight of cargo transported per ship was 3,681 tons of 2,240 pounds. During the preceding 5^ear there was a total of 1,876 ships passing through the canal, of which 905 were from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and 971 from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The total cargo transported through the canal in the preceding fiscal year was 7,229,255 tons of 2,240 pounds. The tolls collected for the year ending June 30, 1918, amounted to $6,439,083.99. Attention has heretofore been called to the necessity for legislation revising the present law so as to make applicable to all vessels the Panama Canal rules of admeasurement.' The legislation requested has been pending in Congress and the merits of the case have been fully set forth in special reports and in hearings before the appropriate committees of Congress. If the new law had been available during the past fiscal year, the tolls collected would have been $7,522,195.68, an increase in revenue for the canal of $1,083,111.69. This increase in revenue is not the only advantage that would have accrued, as the present law and regulations result in lack of uniformity in levying tolls on ships of different types of construction, and make it necessary to consider in each case two systems of measurement, one according to the canal rules and the other according to the United States rules of admeasurement. In enforcing certain regulations made necessary on account of the war, the personnel and equipment of the marine division have cooperated with the military and naval branches of the Government. For further details see the report of the marine superintendent, Appendix D. Dredging Division. The work of this division had so far diminished during the first six months of the year that on January 1, 1918, it was found advisible to place the dredging units on a single shift of eight hours per day, and on April 1, 1918, it was practicable to consolidate the two districts and to direct all the dredging operations from the division headquarters at Paraiso. The resident engineer, Mr. W. G. Comber, under whose direction the dredging operations throughout the canal had been conducted since May 1, 1913, and who had completed 13 years' service with the canal, resigned on June 14, 1918, effective at the expiration of his leave of absence. The position of resident engineer was abolished. The work having practically reached a maintenance basis, the division was attached to the supervision of the engineer of maintenance immediately after the close of the fiscal year. As superintendent in charge of the dredging division, Mr. J. M. Pratt was appointed, effective July 1, 1918.

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16 THE PANAMA CANAU The following equipment was in operntion as stated in each case: The seagoing suction dredge Culehra^ from July 1 to 20, 1917, in Gaillard Cut; from July 21 to October 8, 1917, in the service of the supply department as a boat for the transportation of cattle from Colombia; from October 9 to 13, 1917, salvaging and wreckmg operations for the rescue of the steamer Somerset^ at Old Providence Island ; from October 14, 1917, to April 3, 1918, maintaining and deepening the Pacific entrance channel and inner harbor at Balboa, and excavating and transporting sand from Chame Point; from April 4 to 10, 1918, salvaging and wrecking operations for the steamship Grays Harhor^ grounded at Old Providence Island;. and from April 11 to the end of the year in the service of the supply department as a cattle boat. The dipper dredge Cascadas was operated in the Pacific entrance channel and in the inner harbor at Balboa; excavating a basin for the naval establishment at Coco Solo; deepening the channel at the Fort De Lesseps wharf; and widening theCristobal approach channel. The dipper dredge Gamboa was operated in Gaillard Cut, at the Cucuracha and Culebra slides, and in the work of widening the canal channel at Paraiso. The dipper dredge Paraiso was operated at the Culebra and Cucuracha slides and at the channel improvements at Paraiso. The seagoing ladder dredge Corozal was at work in Balboa Harbor widening and deepening the Pacific entrance channel. The 20-inch pipe line dredges Nos. 82^ 83, 84, 85, and 86 were engaged on various work at different times, including the digging of sand and gravel for construction purposes in the Chagres River above jGrfimboa ; excavation at the naval establishment at Coco Solo ; filling swamp areas ; and maintaining the channel in Gaillard Cut. Dredge No. 82 was permanently retired from canal service on May 26, 1918, and dredge No. 86 on May 16, 1918, and both dredges were transferred to the construction bureau of the office of the Quartermaster General, United States Army. Of the 10 tugboats in the dredging service on July 1, 1917, 3 were transferred to the marine division, 1 to the War Department in the States, and 1 to the Navy Department. The tug Reliance was sunk off the west breakwater at Cristobal on December 27, 1916, and was floated and towed to Cristobal shops for overhaul ; it was again placed in commission on August 19, 1917. Dredges operating in the canal prism at the Atlantic and Pacific terminals and in the sand and gravel service, removed a total of 6,765,031 cubic yards of material, at an average unit cost of 45.95 cents per yard, as against a total in 1917 of 15,445,885 cubic yards at an average unit cost of 27.78 cents. The increase in cost was chiefly due to the diminished output, and in the sea-level portions of the canal to restrictions in operations imposed by war conditions. In maintaining the canal there were removed from the canal prism quantities in the different sections as

PAGE 37

EEPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 17 follows : Atlantic entrance, 19,452 cubic yards ; Gatun Lake, ; Gaillard Cut, 2,285,273 cubic yards ; Miraflores Lake, ; Pacific entrance, 596,975 cubic yards. Original excavation in the canal prism chargeable to construction included 120,000 cubic yards in Gaillard Cut and 319,880 cubic yards at the Pacific entrance, making a total for the canal prism throughout the length of the canal of 439,880 cubic yards. At the end of the fiscal year there remained to be removed from the canal prism, chargeable to construction, quantities as follows : Atlantic entrance, ; Gatun Lake, 50,000 cubic yards ; Gaillard Cut, 25,000 cubic yards; Pacific entrance, 378,200 cubic yards; chargeable to maintenance : Atlantic entrance, 732,210 ; Gatun Lake, 165,000; Gaillard Cut, 933,400; Miraflores Lake, 175,000; and Pacific entrance, 1,712,830 cubic yards. The slides at Culebra and at Cucuracha have reached a condition in which they require only intermittent dredging. At no time during the year was shipping delayed on account of slides, and a channel of practically full dimensions was maintained by the removal during the year of a total of 1,316.315 cubic yards. Excavation of an indeterminate but relatively small amount will be necessary in the future to maintain full dimensions in the canal prism as the slides move from time to time in their approach to permanent stability. Advantage was taken of the periods during which no dredging was necessary at the slides to effect improved conditions at two points in the canal. Immediately below the Miraflores locks on the west bank of the canal there was a projecting point of land which complicated the tidal currents and the currents resulting from the discharge of water from Miraflores Lake through the Miraflores locks in lock operations, and which interfered with the safe handling of ships. A project involving the excavation by dredging of 230,000 cubic yards of earth and 225,000 cubic yards of rock was approved, and of these quantities 68,400 cubic yards of earth and 14,600 cubic yards of rock had been removed on June 30, 1918. At the Paraiso point of intersection, one-half mile north of Pedro Miguel locks, and immediately south of the pontoon bridge at Paraiso, a high point of -land obstructed the view at a place where north and south-bound ships frequently meet. An improvement at this point was authorized, consisting of a slight widening of the canal and the removal of the high bank, involving a total removal of 66,000 cubic yards of earth and 370,000 cubic yards of rock. Of these quantities, 21,100 cubic yards of earth and 81,000 cubic yards of rock had been excavated at the close of the year. Inspections of slide areas were made from time to time, with especial reference to the maintenance of drainage conditions. Periodical instrumental observations were taken on the points established in 1916 on Gold, Zion, Contractors, and Purple Hills, indicating no movement.

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18 THE PANAMA CANAL. Miscellaneous dredging included the removal of 1,150,510 cubic yards of earth and 644,838 cubic yards of rock from the Atlantic terminal, and 1,160,693 cubic yards of earth and 152,975 cubic yards of rock from the Pacific terminal. The rock and timber dikes at Mindi Beach, south of Limon Bay, were maintained, only minor repairs being necessary. No new dikes were constructed. In the elimination of w ater hyacinths from the waters of the canal, 328,859 square yards of hyacinths were cleared hj arsenic spraying, and 564,132 young plants were uprooted and destroyed. For further details, reference is invited to the report of the superintendent in charge of dredging. Appendix C. Mechanical Division. The work of this division continued in charge of Commander R. D, Gatewood, naval constructor, and the mechanical plants remained as reported last year wnth the exception that the Paraiso shops were closed down on August 25, 1917, owing to the greatly diminished amount of repair work required for the dredging division in that vicinity. On October 1, 1917, the electrical forces of the mechanical division were transferred to the electrical division, except tAvo electricians at Balboa shops and two at Cristobal shops for the maintenance of plant work. Owing to the congested condition of the shipyards and docks in the States, an abnormal amount of repairs to ships was conducted, including the thorough overhaul of two large ships for the Navy and the steamship Ancon, of the Panama Railroad Steamship Line. Minor repairs were made to various ships of the Navy as they passed through the canal. Construction work was performed for the local Army and Navy establishments. Canal equipment was placed in the dry docks for repairs at Cristobal and Balboa as follows: Dredges Nos. 82, 83, 85, 86, Chagres, Cascadas, Culehra, C&rozal, Gamhoa, Marmot, and Paraiso; 26 barges and 5 scows; and tugs Porto Bello, Chame, Engineer, Miraflores, De Lessees, La Valley, Bohio, La Boca, and Mariner. Repairs not requiring the use of the dry docks were made to the tug Reliance, which required extensive overhaul; tugs La Boca, Miraflores, and Mariner. There were overhauled and shipped for the Alaskan Engineering Commission and private firms 70 locomotives, 5 steam shovels, 400 flat cars, 30 Rodger ballast cars, and 30 dump cars. On account of the high cost and difficulty of transporting lumber from the States, this division has investigated the native lumber field, with the result that about 2,000,000 feet of lumber have been obtained. Changes and improvements in the Balboa shops included the construction of a steel paling fence around the inclosure; the removal of the old Panama Railroad shed covering Pier No. 15, making the space available

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KEPOKT OF THE GOVERNOR. 19 as repair wharves; the extension of the roof over the west end of the foundry; an extension at the north end of building No. 2; an extension to the car shop ; the installation of a pipe-bending machine for the sheet-metal shop ; bending rolls and plate planer in the boiler shop; and of a band-saw mill with capacity to handle hardwood logs 48 inches in diameter by 60 feet long. At the Cristobal shops, repairs were made to the dry-dock gates, and new equipment has been installed as follows: Pipe threading and cutting machine, a power hack saw, 14-inch drill press, and an electric welding machine. For further details see report of the superintendent, mechanical division, Appendix E. SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. Following the relief from duty with the canal of Lieut. Col. W. R. Grove as chief quartermaster, and Capt. F. H. Smith as assistant chief quartermaster, changes in the organization of the department were made. The position of assistant chief quartermaster was abolished, and the work of the department was subdivided into several branches, as follows : (a) District quartermasters, hotels, restaurants, messes, and storehouses, under the direct supervision of a superintendent, reporting to the chief quartermaster. (b) Commissary division, operated under a general manager, reporting to the chief quartermaster, and including commissary warehouses, cold storage plants, manufacturing plants, abattoir, laundries, and retail commissaries. (c) Pastures, plantations, hog farms, chicken farms, and dairies, under the immediate supervision of a superintendent, cattle industry, who has also direct charge of the operation of the cattle boats, and who reports to the chief quartermaster. (d) Purchase of live stock and cattle, in charge of a cattle buyer, who reports to the chief quartermaster. (e) United States requisition bureau, under the chief of bureau, reporting to the chief quartermaster. (/) Printing plant, designated as The Panama Canal Press, and operated under the charge of a printer, who reports to the chief quartermaster. The commissaries, cattle industry, pastures, plantations, dairies, etc., and the Washington Hotel, are financed by the Panama Railroad, but the operations are conducted under the supervision of the chief quartermaster of The Panama Canal. Labor. — There was a marked reduction in the number of employees on the silver roll accomplished gradually during the year. On June 30, 1918, the number employed was 16,157, as compared with 20,597 86372°— 18 3

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20 THE PANAMA CAKAL. on June 30, 1917. The decrease resulted from the completion of construction work. The problem of caring for the unemployed, who were in general living in the cities of Panama and Colon, was someAvhat simplified by the voluntary departure of a number to Cuba and the United States, and by the repatriation of others to the islands wiience they came. Quarters. — Applications by gold employees for family quarters were reduced from 257 on file June 30, i917, to 226 on June 30, 1018. At the end of the fiscal years ther« were 1,721 applications on file by silver employeas for married quarters, distributed as follows : Balboa, 602 ; Pedro Miguel, 114 ; Gatun, 30 ; and Cristobal, 975. On account of the reduction in the volume of dredge work at Gaillard Cut, the village of Paraiso was abandoned as a residence for gold employees, and 30 family quarters vacated were converted into quarters for silver employees, providing a total of 80 apartments for occupation by silver employees of the dredging division, of the Pedro Miguel locks, and of other branches of canal work centered at Pedro Miguel. The situation as to bachelor quarters for gold employees has improved so that 60 per ceiit of all bachelors are provided for at the rate of one man to a room. Additional bachelor quarters should ultimately be provided, but the matter is held in abeyance for the duration of the war. Further experience with electric ranges in gold quarters, referred to in last year's report, indicates that they are slightly more expensive than coal-burning ranges, and no further installations are being made. The increased cost is due, not to the relative expense of electric current, but to the high cost of maintenance of the ranges. Corrals. — The number of animals in the corrals was reduced from 52 horses and 289 mules on July 1, 1917, to 39 horses and 210 mules on June 30, 1918. The reduction of animals in the corrals was due to deaths, condemnation and sale, and transfers to plantation work. There was an increase from 115 to 176 in the number of motor vehicles of all descriptions, including trucks for handling supplies for the construction divisions and vehicles for commissary deliveries, mail deliveries, and garbage collection. Experience shows not only a saving in time, but a decreased cost of operation in the use of motor-driven as compared with animal-drawn vehicles. Materials and supplies. — There was a considerable reduction in the number of requisitions prepared and forwarded to the general purchasing officer in Washington, and in the value of the materials received, compared with the preceding yeaf. For the year covered by this report there was a total of 880 requisitions for supplies, of a total value of $8,700,356.62, as compared with 1,347 requisitions to the value of $10,817,106.51 for the preceding year. There was a

PAGE 41

REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 21 reduction in the value of local purchases, being $1,349,783.84, as compared with $1,516,914.79 for the preceding year. The value of material in stock on June 30, 1918, was $6,747,688.26, showing an increase of $698,703.56 during the year. This increase is mainly due to the greater cost of material and the upward tendency of the market. A comparison of prices shows an average value increase of 131 per cent during the last four years, with a particularly marked increase during the last year, and although the amount of stores on hand shows an increase in money value, in total quantity it is smaller. Also owing to conditions resulting from th-e war, an increased stock had to be carried of certain commodities. Sales to Government departments and commercial steamships aggregated $1,630,827.60, an increase of $1,037,204.60 over the preceding year. The principal items sold were lumber, building material, general hardware, rope, cable, gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oils. The consumption of cement for the year was 149,039 barrels, as compared with 270,053 barrels for the preceding year. The details of the collections and sales of obsolete material, equipment, and scrap are contained in the report of the chief quartermaster, Appendix E. Fuel oil iJlants. — A contract with the Standard Oil Co. of California for the delivery at Balboa of 700,000 barrels, expires September 1, 1918, On June 30, 1918, a balance of 188,357 barrels remained to be delivered. A contract with the Atlantic Refining Co. for the delivery of 240,000 barrels of fuel oil at Cristobal expired June 30, 1918, with 75,000 barrels under order remaining to be delivered. The canal equipment for storing oil is to be increased by the construction of a 55,000-barrel capacity concrete fuel oil tank at Mount Hope, which was 75 per cent completed at the end of the year. A total of 2,517,217 barrels of fuel oil was handled by the Balboa and Mount Hope fuel oil plants, for a total of 438 vessels. The Paimma Canal Press. — Equipment was added to the printing plant at a cost of $3,072.21. The value of stock on hand on June 30, 1918, was $86,542.96, as compared with $81,767.72 for the preceding year. Unserviceable items were surveyed and disposed of to the value of $220.27. Subsistence. — The net revenue from the restaurants and messes operated by the canal was $598,153.51, a decrease of $42,914.08 under the preceding year. The cost of operations was $594,395.99, a decrease of $39,754.34. The charges for building repairs, fuel, and light are not included in these figures. They are absorbed by canal appropriations, the reason being that these charges are not made to employees living in family quarters, and it would be unfair to include them in the cost of meals to the employees patronizing the restaurants and messes. The new lunch room at the Balboa shops was completed and occupied on September 7, 1917. There was a

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22 THE PANAMA CANAL. considerable decrease in revenue at the hotels Tivoli and Washington. The operation of the Hotel Tivoli showed a net loss of $8,169.95, and the Hotel Washington showed a net loss of $15,-165.92. The losses are due entirely to diminished patronage which results from lack of travel on account of war conditions. The hotels must be kept open as necessary utilities for the public having business with the canal. It is not practicable to prevent losses by increasing rates, and the cost of operation has been reduced to the minimum consistent with providing hotel facilities. There is no apparent reason why, on the resumption of normal conditions, the operation of these hotels should be a burden upon the canal appropriations or upon the funds of the Panama Railroad. The efforts of the supply department to reduce the dependence of the Canal Zone population upon outside sources, especially the United States, for foodstuffs, referred to in report for last year, have been continued, and considerable progress has been made. The industries involved are financed by the Panama Railroad, but in this report it is appropriate to make a brief review of the results obtained. The production of native beef for consumption on the Isthmus and by the steamship trade utilizing the canal, has grown to such an extent that it was not necessary during the year to import beef fram the United States. The hog industry has been developed so as to provide in sufficient quantities, ham, bacon, and sausage. The chicken farm has been developed to the extent of providing 23,914 doz^n eggs during the past six months. At the Mindi dairy farm, which was placed in operation in January, 1918, there has been a monthly production of milk that has increased from 971 gallons in January to 5,373 gallons in June. The plantations have provided in significant quantities, various fruits and vegetables, including among the principal items, string beans, cucumbers, green corn, cocoanuts, onions, radishes, tomatoes, eggplant, sweet potatoes, oranges, okra, yams, plantain, bananas, alligator pears, papaya, and mangoes. With the approval of the Secretary of War, Army commissaries were established under the administration of the quartermaster department of the Army, at the military posts of Fort Sherman, Fort Randolph, Las Cascadas, Empire, Culebra, and Corozal. The canal commissaries at those points Avere consequently abandoned, except that in order to provide for the Panama Canal employees working on the west bank of the canal a commissary at Empire was continued. The regulations of the Food Administration at Washington have been applied on the Canal Zone wherever the commodities affected were imported from the United States. For further details see the report of the chief quartermaster, Appendix F.

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EEPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 23 ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT. This department continued under the charge of Mr. H. A. A. Smith, auditor. It is subdivided into the division of auditing and accounting, under the direction of the auditor, assisted by Mr. Elwyn Green; division of collections, under the collector, Mr. T. L. Clear; and the division of disbursements, under the paymaster, Mr. J. H. McLean. Disbursements were made by the paymaster in the amount of $29,962,046.32, of which $11,273,280.32 were on account of the Panama Railroad. Employees on the gold rolls of the canal were paid $6,269,614.59, and on the silver roll $5,442,626.14. The sum of $6,976,425.27 was paid on miscellaneous vouchers. Collections on pay rolls totaled $3,897,644.15, of which $3,048,091.07 were collected for coupon books and meal tickets; $87,002.45 for rent; and the remainder for miscellaneous items. The Panama branch of the Commercial National Bank of AVashington, D. C, was transferred on July 10, 1918, to the American Foreign Banking Corporation, the latter continuing as a Government depository and fiscal agent. Small deposits of United States Government and Panama Railroad funds are carried in this bank. The use of gold and of Panaman silver in making payments has been practically discontinued, and paper currency and American silver substituted therefor. The sum of $1,622,000 has been imported by the canal for use in making payments. Collections repaid to appropriations totaled $8,625,298.20. Deposits by owners and o^'ents of ships for payment of tolls and charges for supplies and services rendered by canal facilities totaled $13,859,467.05, of which $9,690,341.45 \f ere deposited with the collector on the Isthmus, and the remainder, $4,169,125.60, with the Assistant Treasurer of the United States to the credit of the collector. Of the total deposited the sum of $691,044.36 was refunded on settlement of accounts. There were transferred to the Postmaster General of the United States, in payment of money orders drawn on the United States, funds to the amount of $1,655,000. The tolls actually collected on vessels transiting the canal during the year amounted to $6,439,083.99. The sum of $2,321.25 was collected in addition for tolls on a vessel that passed through the canal during the preceding year. In further reference to the loss of revenue to the canal on account of the present legislation relating to rules of measurement of vessels, it may be stated here that, including the amounts refunded during the year, under authority of the act of Congress of June 12, 1917, the total loss of revenue since the opening of the canal has aggregated $2,797,260.26. The chief beneficiaries of the present rules of measurement have been vessels under foreign register.

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24 THE PANAMA CANAL. The sum of $26,525.82 was paid in settlement of small claims for damage to vessels passing through the locks. These claims have thus far been adjusted and settled by mutual agreement without recourse to the courts, as authorized by the Panama Canal act. Through an arrangement with the local banks, subscriptions to the First, Second, and Third Liberty Loans were settled for by payroll deductions in five equal monthly installments for each bond issued. In this manner collections were made of $218,618.47 for the First Liberty Loan; $339,960.35 for the Second Liberty Loan; and $260,870.49 for the Third Liberty Loan. Collections were also made by pay-roll deductions of $6,142.73 for War Savings Stamps, and $34,276.80 for Red Cross War Relief Fund. To June 30, 1918, the total appropriated by Congress for the canal and fortificatiDns was $441,375,781.44. For the construction of the canal and its immediate adjuncts the sum of $379,105,043.92 has been appropriated. Omitting from this sum amounts appropriated for colliers and coal barges; for the construction of Dock No. at Cristobal; for reboilering and repairing the steamships Ancon and Cristobal, all of which were specifically exempted by law as charges against the authorized bond issue, the amount appropriated chargeable against the bond issue is $372,391,853.92, leaving a balance available for canal construction within the limit of the cost and the authorized bond issue of $2,831,302.08. The amount repaid on the. cost of construction from miscellaneous receipts to June 30, 1918, was $6,879,278.03, which being deducted from the total sums appropriated chargeable against the bond issue leaves the sum of $365,512,575.89 as the total amount expended and on hand for expenditure for projects included within estimates upon which the cost of the canal v\'as based. The amount shown as the cost of constructing the canal will be further reduced by receipts from the sale of construction material and equipment, and by collections to be made to cover the money expended for waterworks, sewers, and pavements in the cities of Panama and Colon. As a matter of bookkeeping, the canal is entitled also to credit for the value of buildings and other public works, equipment and plant, transferred to the Army, the Alaskan Engineering Commission, and the State Department without actual payment therefor. The estimated value of items so transferred is $1,973,011.17. Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama, expenditures to June 30, 1918, of a total of $4,361,790.56 have been made on construction, operation and maintenance of waterworks, sewers, and pavements in the cities of Panama and Colon. These expenditures are to be reimbursed to the United States at the expiration of 50 years from July 1, 1907. There has been thus far reimbursed or is immediately due, the sum of $2,339,860.10. The amount immediately

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 25 due is $62,404.64, and the remaining total of $2,021,930.46 is payable in installments in the next 42 years. The principal expenditures chargeable to capital cost paid from construction and maintenance and operation appropriations, are as f olloAYS : From Gatun to Pedro Miguel, 120,000 cubic yards of original rock excavation at a cost of $67,864.78; from Pedro Miguel to the Pacific Ocean 319,880 cubic yards of dredged material, of which 48 per cent was earth and 52 per cent rock, at a total cost of $292,558.52. For the power producing and transmitting systems a total of $618,886.72 was expended, which includes paj'^ments on the extension of the Gatun hydroelectric station, operating machinery for the same, transformer substations, duct lines, and distribution lines. In continuing the construction of the Atlantic terminal there was expended at the Cristobal coaling plant the sum of $26,127.55 and at Mount Hope fuel-oil plant $41,243.18. In the construction of concrete Vv^alls and piers at Cristobal, $611,142.44 were expended toward the construction of Pier No. 6 and boathouse between Piers Nos. 7 and 8. At the Pacific terminal there were expended for removal by dredging of the dry dock cofferdam, $47,792.85 ; dredging inner harbor, $379,573.88, involving the removal of 1,225,833 cubic yards of material and the pumping of 687,713 cubic yards of spoil in connection with the filling of swamp areas. At Balboa sliops the sum of $204,508.97 was expended, of which the principal item was $146,996.46, for additional equipment. Rat-proofing walls and piers, $58,307.67. Dredging out berth at the fuel-oil plant, $21,171.49. For permanent townsites there was a total of $174,281.57 expended, the principal items being, Balboa toAvnsite, $65,423.03, and Colon Beach townsite, $78,581.33. For permanent buildings there were expended $1,284,935.04, of which the principal items were, storehouse, $12,500.58; hotels and mess halls, $29,669.08; gold quarters, $46,464.13; silver quarters, $94,293.79 ; hospitals, $774,038.17, of which $35,235.01 was at the Colon Hospital and $738,803.16 at the Ancon Hospital; dispensaries, $46,254.74; schoolhouses, $56,188.48; incinerator at Balboa, $105,034.28. For road construction not included in townsites there were expended $150,707.79. In payment of awards of the Joint Commission and settlements by the land office there were expended $298,556.17. Collection for licenses and taxes totaled $12,532.39 ; court fees and fines, $19,668.28; postal receipts, $107,165.85. These revenues derived by the Canal Zone Government have been deposited in the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts. Eevenues derived from operation of the various clubhouses amounted to $365.701.50, as compared with $233,544.22 received during the previous 3'ear. /*. *• '. \' r I. -'>

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26 THE PANAMA CANAL. During the year there were reported 3,413 accidental injuries, and 85 accidental deaths of employees, as compared with 4,068 accidental injuries and 39 accidental deaths reported during the prior year. Claims for compensation on account of these injuries and deaths were allowed in 1,495 cases of injuries and 3 cases of death. The sum of $42,396.54 was allowed on account of injuries to employees, including the canal and the railroad, and the sum of $3,848.77 on account of deaths, making a total of $46,254.31 allowed during the year under the act of September 2, 1916. There were expended in the operation and maintenance of the canal, $5,903,719.69, as compared with $6,788,147.60 during the previous year. The reduction was due to the decreased expenditure for dredging in Gaillard Cut on account of the improvement in the slide conditions. The expenses for operation and maintenance of the locks increased from $737,430.39 during 1917 to $744,961.00 for 1918. The expenses of the marine division were reduced from $313,036.46 in 1917 to $293,546.28 in 1918. The direct charges for operation and maintenance totaled $3,077,068.37, as against $4,250,162.99 in 1917. The overhead expense charged to operation and maintenance in arriving at the total sum of $5,903,719.69 was $2,826,651.32, including charges for civil government, $678,232.88; hospitals, quarantine, and sanitation, $635,854.03 ; and for administration, $1,512,564.44, including the executive department, accounting department, Washington office, operation of and repairs to storehouses and quarters for employees, lighting of streets, operation and maintenance of waterworks, and maintenance of sewer systems and roads. Offsetting the total expense of $5,903,719.69 are amounts earned as tolls, $6,454,198.35 ; licenses and taxes, court fees and fines, $140,918.01 ; profits on business operations, $6,159.56, making a total of $6,601,275.92. These figures indicate revenues earned in excess of expenses amounting to $697,556.23, as against a loss of $979,648.90 for the previous year. Except for a few minor items the charges to operation and maintenance above given do not include charges for depreciation of plant or interest on the capital investment. The total revenue derived from business operations carried on with Panama Canal funds, amounted to $10,324,071.91, as against a total of $7,579,588.44 during the previous year. The net profit resulting from these operations and covered into the treasury as miscellaneous receipts, was for the year $6,159.56. In reporting this fact it should be stated that shop work, work for the Panama Railroad and other departments of the Government, and all services rendered for employees are performed at cost, except that subsistence and hospital services to employees are rendered at less than cost. Fair profits are made on the sales c^f water, dry {lockage at Balboa, and on the sale of fuel. oil. The capital for carrying on the business operations of

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REPOET OF THE GOVERNOR. 27 the canal is supplied by the appropriation for maintenance and operation. The appropriations for operation and maintenance have been limited to the amounts required for current expenses, and in order to provide a sufficient fund for carrying a stock of materials required in the conduct of the operations of the canal a special item for stock is necessary and will be estimated for. For further details see the report of the auditor, Appendix G. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. This department continued under the Governor with Mr. C. A. Mcllvaine as executive secretary. In addition to the usual work, operations were expanded for the administration of laws and regulations of local application made and issued on account of war conditions. Of these the main items are the censorship of mails and the enforcement of regulations of the War Trade Board. For these purposes it was necessary to increase the number of employees of the division of civil affairs by 52 men. The division of schools employed 13 additional teachers to care for the increased enrollment of pupils. There was a reduction in the police and fire division of 21 employees, due primarily to the withdrawal of special police detailed at the locks, the guarding of these structures having been taken over by the Army. With the outbreak of the war, admission to certain areas in the Canal Zone was limited to employees and others having business therein, and permits and means of identification were required. Arrangements are in progress for the establishment of a system of photo-metal checks, similar to those used by the munition plants and Navy yards in the United States, which will take the place of the permits and which provide a positive means of identification and minimize the possibilities of unauthorized or fraudulent use. The bureau of statistics, created during the preceding fiscal year, has compiled much data of wages paid in the United States for work comparable with that on the Isthmus. This work has been abnormally large on account of the frequent changes of wages in Government establishments in the States, which changes are followed and put into effect on the canal. Investigations were made and statistics kept of living conditions of silver employees, whose rates of pay were twice advanced during the year to meet the increased cost of living. Bureau of Clubs and Playgrounds. Clubs for gold employees were maintained at Cristobal, Gatun, Paraiso, Pedro Miguel, Ancon, and Balboa, and for silver employees at Cristobal, Gatun, and La Boca. The clubhouses are social centers of the Canal Zone population and are indispensable to satisfactory

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28 THE PANAMA CANAL. community life, in the necessary absence of any other facilities for a like purpose. The clubhouses were established in the early da3's of the construction period and the buildings are of frame construction and in general are old and inadequate in size, arrangements, and equipment. When normal conditions are restored after the war, the clubhouses should be rebuilt of permanent material, and with enlarged facilities and equipment. The entertainments provided have been practically limited to moving-picture exhibitions, except on a few occasions there have been entertainments by local amateurs or by professional entertainers who chanced to be in Panama en route to other places. The stadium on the athletic field at Balboa has been in frequent use for patriotic exercises on national holidays and for special entertainments provided for the Liberty Loan and Red Cross activities. It has also been regularly used during the baseball season. The encouragement of the popular and distinctly American game of baseball has been of benefit to a large class of employees. Division or Civil Affairs. Bureau of Posts. — The number of post offices remained at 16, of which 14 are monej^-order offices. The total revenues from the postal service, including box rents, payments from the Panama Railroad Company, from the Republic of Panama for transportation of its mail between Panama and Colon, and from the United StatosPost Office Department for handling United States transit mails, were $145,231.81, as compared with $110,741.41 for the preceding year. There was a total of 167,504 money orders, amounting to $3,372,973.55, issued, on which fees amounting to $11,918.35 were collected. On June 30, 1918, there w^as on deposit the sum of $1,097.15 as unpaid money orders drawn on Canal Zone post offices in favor of remitters. The deposit money orders totaled $1,244,335. Payments on deposit money orders aggregated $1,441,225. The balance on deposit on June 30, 1918, w^as $499,490. The deposits have been less during the year, on account of subscriptions by depositors to liberty bonds and war savings stamps. Interest on deposit money orders was paid to the amount of $8,441.71, as compared with $1,813.93 for the previous year. The registry business at the post offices was largely increased ; 266,867 parcels and letters Avere handled, of which 130,894 were dispatched, and 135,973 were received. There were received in the mails from the United States 15,629 parcels containing articles imported by employees of the United States Government on the Canal Zone, as compared with 13,938 for the preceding year. The office of the director of posts issued 1,308 duplicates of lost or stolen mone}^ orders, investigated 136 cases of losses and nondelivery of registered mail, and under-

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 29 took investigations for the United States Post Office Department of mail in transit through the Canal Zone. Several arrests were made during the year for misuse of the mails, including the misuse of canceled postage stamps, false personation in attempts to cash money orders, fraudulent use of the mails in violation of section 1707, Postal Laws and Regulations. Six arrests were made and five convictions secured for rifling mail aboard United Fruit Co.'s steamers while in port at Cristobal. On account of the establishment of censorship of mail, the bureau of posts, in December, 1917, took charge of the handling of all mails entering and dispatched from the Canal Zone. Formerly certain countries in Central and South America maintained postal agents in the cities of Panama and Colon, who received and opened mail bags arriving from those countries and who dispatched mails originating in Panama, destined to those countries. Bureau of Customs. — The total number of vessels entered was 4,447, and the total number cleared was 4,443, as compared with 3,718 entered and 3,721 cleared in the previous year. There arrived on the Isthmus 447 prohibited aliens — 255 at Balboa and 192 at Cristobal. Of these, 223 were admitted to the Republic of Panama by authority of that Government, the remainder proceeded to their ultimate destination or were returned to the port of embarkation. This bureau is charged with the enforcement of the President's Executive order of February 6, 1917, relating to the exclusion of Chinese. There were seven arrests for attempted smuggling, resulting in six convictions and one acquittal. Under the arrangements with the Republic of Panama, by which employees of the United States Government are allowed free entrj' of goods imported for their own use, there were approved 1,381 requests for free entry, compared with 2,533 for the previous j^ear. The inspection and certification of household goods packed for shipment to the United States has been unusually heavy on account of the frequent departures of canal employees and Army officers transferred to the States. Merchandise arriving at canal ports for delivery within the Republic of Panama is released to the Panama officials upon receipt of papers showing the payment of duty on such merchandise. There were 5,690 permits for such releases at Cristobal and 10 at Balboa. The assistant chief of the division of civil affairs, as shipping commissioner, with the chief customs inspectors as deputies, has charge of signing on and discharging American seamen in Canal Zone ports and the settlement of disputes between the masters and members of such crews regarding wages, advance fines, and general treatment. There were 2,836 seamen shipped on American vessels and 2,549 discharged. Seamen's wages were received for deposit at the port of Balboa in the total sum of $5,293.31, of which all but

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30 THE PANAMA CANAL. $320.91 were disbursed. At Cristobal $13,300.55 were received, and $1,009.23 remained not disbursed on June 30, 1918. There were administered 199 estates of deceased and insane employees of The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company, and 35 were in the course of settlement at the end of the year. Of the 199 estates settled, 112 were delivered to the consular or diplomatic representative in the Republic of Panama or the United States, of the countries of which the deceased or insane persons were citizens ; 60 estates were settled directly with the heirs ; 5 settled with administrators or guardians; 2 were repaid to persons who had recovered their sanity ; and the net proceeds of 20 estates were applied to settle the claims against them. The total amount involved in the 199 estates was $13,562.07. A total of 2,873 licenses were issued for motor vehicles, bicj-cles, hunting permits, and the keeping and carrying of firearms. The fees collected amounted to $7,359.15. Police and Fire Division. Upon the relief of Capt. H. D. Mitchell, United States Army, on July 8, 1917, Mr. Guy Johannes was appointed as his successor as chief of the police and fire division. Besides their normal duties, the police division of the canal performed considerable extra work incident to the war in connection with the protection of the canal and the general interests of the United States on the Isthmus. This work was performed in cooperation with the Army authorities. Fiftj^two first-class policemen and 16 colored policemen were appointed; and 51 first-class policemen and 2 colored policemen left the service. There were 4,426 arrests made; 4,125 males and 301 females. The common-jail prisoners averaged 85.83 per month ; and all those physically able were employed in road work. The total value of such labor amounted to $14,199.80, figured at the rates in effect for common labor. There were two arrests and prosecutions in the district court on charges of transporting or trafficking in opium in the Canal Zone. In one case the charge for violation of the opium act was dismissed, but the accused was found guilty of violation of customs regulations and fined $100. In the other case the accused was found guilty and sentenced to pay a fine of $50. The police division maintained a continuous patrol of the harbors at Balboa and Cristobal for the enforcement of the navigation laws and prevention of smuggling and irregular traffic, and to assist in the enforcement of military regulations. Launches were maintained at two points on Gatun Lake for the same purpose. A motorcycle patrol service was maintained for the enforcement of automobile and other vehicular regulations, and for special emergency police service. Twenty-five arrests were made for trespassing on Canal Zone lands, and 24 convictions were

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EEPOET OF THE GOVERNOR. 31 secured. Eighty-four persons were deported from the Canal Zone, of whom 47 were convicts who had completed their term of imprisonment, and 37 were persons who had been convicted of misdemeanor charges and were deemed undesirable persons to be permitted to remain on the Zone. Seventy-two convicts were received at the penitentiary during the year. The terms of 52 convicts were completed and the convicts discharged. At the end of the year there were 54 convicts in custody at the penitentiary, as compared with 35 at the close of the preceding year. The cost of subsisting and guarding convicts was $20,113.77, of which $4,900.35 were expended for subsistence of convicts; $1,319.32 for subsistence of guards; $8,902.38 for salaries of officers and guards at the penitentiary ; and $4,991.72 for salaries of officers and guards employed to guard convicts on road work. Four convicts were pardoned, and parts of sentences were remitted in seven cases. There were two escapes from the penitentiary on June 23, 1918. One was recaptured on the day of the escape, and one remained at large until his recapture on July 4, 1918. There were investigations by the coroner in 52 cases of death, of which 20 were due to accidental drowning and 21 to accidental traumatism. For the fire division a new motor combination pumping engine and hose wagon was installed at Balboa on January 30, 1918. This equipment completes the substitution of motor-drawn for horse-drawn apparatus throughout the Canal Zone. Periodical inspections of Government buildings, docks, storehouses, yards, and other establishments were maintained to determine the condition of fire extinguishers, minor apparatus, and hose. There were 69 fires and 5 false alarms. The total fire loss amounted to $259,351.60, of which $230,000 represents loss due to a fire on the Panama Bailroad steamship PanaTYia^ which arrived at Cristobal with a fire in her hold. Division of Schools. Regular sessions were resumed on October 8, 1917, in the new buildings at Ancon, Balboa, Pedro Miguel, Gatun, and Cristobal, there being a slight delay on account of the late arrival of furniture and equipment for these buildings. The remainder of the Canal Zone schools were opened on October 1, with the exception of the La Boca school, where an epidemic of measles and whooping cough delayed the opening until October 8. The average daily attendance for the school year was 1,963.2 — 1,322.9 in the white schools and 640.2 in the colored schools ; compared with 1,709.2 — 1,212.2, and 495.6, respectively, for the previous year. The regular physical examination of pupils was made, resulting in the treatment of 679 pupils for defects discovered, consisting in the largest proportion of defective teeth. Courses of manual training and household arts were con-

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32 THE PANAMA CANAL. ducted at Cristobal, for Cristobal and Gatim pupils, and at Balboa, for Balboa, Ancon, and Pedro Miguel pupils. The apprentice department has been in effective operation with 40 pupils. The classes are conducted in the office building of the shops at Balboa, and in a warehouse in close proximity to the Cristobal shops. The course of physical training and athletics was continued with satisfactory results. There were 28 pupils graduated from the high school, giving a total of 89 graduates since the establishment of the high school. Courts. In the district courts, 194 cases were pending at the beginning of the year ; 930 cases were filed, and 900 cases settled during the year, leaving a total of 224 cases pending at the close of the year. There were 139 sessions. A total of 790 marriage licenses were issued, and 17 deeds were recorded. The collections of the courts totaled $6,248.20, consisting of civil costs, fines, forfeitures, and various fees. The magistrate's court at Balboa had seven cases pending at the beginning of the year, and during the year 1,863 were filed, of which 1,793 were criminal and 70 civil. Of the criminal cases tried, there were 1,330 convictions, 314 were committed to the district court, and 23 were dismissed. Total collections of fines, fees, and costs amounted to $8,086.15. The magistrate's court at Cristobal had two cases pending from last year; 1,938 cases were filed during the year, of which 1,913 were criminal and 25 civil. Of the criminal cases, there were 1,374 convictions, 263 acquittals, 26 suspensions, 39 dismissals, and 209 committed to the district court. Total . collections for fines, fees, and costs amounted to $5,667.03. The report of the district attorney is printed as appendix I. The office of the marshal for the Canal Zone received 659 writs of process in civil cases, of which 602 were served. The marshal or his deputy attended 139 sessions of the district court at Balboa and Cristobal. Witnesses attending court were paid a total of $65.10. Collections for the service of court papers in civil cases amounted to $402.40. Relations with Panama. Negotiations by correspondence or personal conference between the executive secretary of The Panama Canal and the secretary of foreign relations of the Republic of Panama included the following subjects, in addition to routine matters : Installation of buoys to mark the restricted area in the Bay of Panama for the guidance of navigators, etc. Purchases at Canal Zone commissaries by unauthorized persons. Exportation of coin and bar silver of the Republic of Panama. New schedule of coach and automobile tariff in the districts of Panama and Colon and the Canal Zone.

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 33 Desirability of not advertising departure of vessels in newspapers in connection with the closing of mails. Discontinuance of discharge of cargo at Balboa consigned to Panama by the South American Steamship Company. Preservation of neutrality of the Canal Zone and the Republic of Panama and treatment of vessels in the service of the entente powers arriving and departing from Canal Zone ports and passing through the canal. Extradition from the Republic of Panama to the Canal Zone of the former vice president of the Continental Banking and Trust Co. Collection of customs duty on dutiable merchandise arriving at Canal Zone post offices. Police protection at Colon Beach. Delay in receiving money to the credit of a deceased employee in a bank in the city of Panama by the administrator of estates. Permits for the construction of wooden houses on Colon Beach for the United Fruit Co. Permission granted to Arraijan farmers to cross canal at Balboa without restrictions as to time. Laying of underground cable from the Canal Zone to Santo Tomas Hospital, the American consulate, and the American legation in the city of Panama, for the purpose of furnishing them with electric current. Preliminary survey for the extension of the Chiriqui Railroad in the Province of Chiriqui. Handling of transit cargo at Cristobal without filing of bond to cover customs duty with the Panaman Government. Construction of sanitoriums for tuberculosis patients in the Republic lof Panama. Construction of a slaughterhouse at Colon. Exemption of payment of taxes for Panama Railroad Company's stables in cities of Panama and Colon. The newly reclaimed area of land belonging to the Panama Railroad Company on the shore of Panama Bay adjoining the old American pier. Furnishing of free medicine by the Santo Tomas Hospital to outpatients prescribed for by the Red Cross clinics. Refund of fine imposed on chauffeur of the mail car of the Ancon post office for a collision for which he was not responsible by the police in the city of Panama. Release of parcels post packages addressed to an interned alien without payment of customs duties. Regulations to prevent the introduction of tuberculosis among domestic animals in the Canal Zone. Indebtedness of the Republic of Panama to The Panama Canal.

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34 THE PANAMA CANAL. Escape of prohibited aliens in transit through the Canal Zone. Violations of the defensive area act by Panamans in entering the restricted area at the entrances of the canal. Alleged sales of second-hand furniture by employees and officials of The Panama Canal and members of the military forces on the Isthmus to residents of the Republic of Panama on which no customs duty was collected at the time of importation. Conservation of products native to Panama. Eefusal to allow settlement and cultivation of strip of land between the water level of Gatun Lake and the 100-foot contour line. Construction of a telegraph line by the Eepublic of Panama between Colon and Porto Bello, which is to pass through the Canal Zone. Anchorage of dynamite lighter in Panama Bay, and proposed construction of an explosive magazine for the Republic of Panama. Advisability of permitting removal of sand from the beach between Punta Paitilla and the sea wall in the city of Panama. Receiving and filing bills of health from the incoming vessels at the port of Bocas del Toro. Outbreak of smallpox at Bocas del Toro and failure of Republic of Panama to provide necessary funds, etc., for subsisting and caring for quarantined persons. Installation of fire-alarm system in the city of Colon. Release and failure of Republic of Panama to prosecute certain persons arrested for gambling, and control of the gambling situation in the city of Colon. Proposed sanitary improvements in Las Sabanas and Pueblo Nuevo districts. Importation of fuel oil into the Canal Zone to be sold to sea-going vessels without the payment of consular fees to the Republic of Panama. Clandestine landing of passengers from small vessels arriving at Panama from Colombia and Ecuador before reporting to the quarantine authorities for inspection and entry. Censorship of mail. Construction of highways in the Republic of Panama. Counterfeiting in the city of Panama. For further details see Appendix H. Office or the Special Attorney. Judge Frank Feuille continued as special attorney, and as such represented the Government's interests before the Joint Commission for adjusting land claims, prepared drafts for executive orders necessary to put into effect certain provisions of law, and in addition served as counsel for the Panama Railroad Company on the Isthmus^

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REPOET OF THE GOVEENOR. 35 There were 37 land claims, aggregating $80,113.90 that were settled by agreement Avithout reference to the Joint Commission. Since the President's order of December 5, 1912, including the 37 claims just mentioned, a total of 4,418 claims, aggregating $1,072,137.20, have been thus directly made, including the settlements made prior to that order, and after August 6, 1908, authorizing the law department of the canal to make direct settlements where agreements could be reached. The total number of claims for damages for land and improvements claimed by private parties and taken over for canal and railroad purposes was 5,480, aggregating the sum of $1,321,040.50. During the year ending June 30, 1918, the Joint Commission disposed of 10 claims in 8 awards, aggregating $125,190. The umpire, appointed by the Government of the United States and the Government of Panama, under the provisions of article 15 of the Panama Canal treaty, disposed of 9 claims during the fiscal year, aggregating the sum of $118,061.38. The Joint Commission dismissed 29 claims during the year; 19 on account of previous adjustment by direct settlement between the Government and the claimants; 4 by default on account of the nonappearance of claimants ; 1 for lack of sufficient evidence to support the claim; 1 because of lack of jurisdiction of the commission to try the claim; and 4 because the improvements claimed were situated on lands held under revocable leases. Two claims were certified to the umpire by the Joint Commission. The aggregate amount paid by the United States for lands and improvements to the end of the fiscal year was $2,716,382.52, covering 6,270 claims. There is a grand total of 890 claims brought before the Joint Commission and umpires, api^ointed under articles 11 and 15 of the Panama Canal treaty, and settled by them. The amounts paid under these awards totaled $1,395,242.02. Of these, 21 awards, aggregating the sum of $304,588, were made prior to the President's depopulation order of December 5, 1912. On June 30, 1918, 139 claims, involving $8,005,408.90, appeared on the Joint Commission dockets. Of these, 48, aggregating the sum of $226,790.55, are based on Panama Railroad leases and have been withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the Joint Commission by section 2 of the sundry civil appropriation act of July 1, 1916. In addition, 9 claims, aggregating $24,264,50, for improvements on lands admittedly owned by the United States and held under revocable lease from the Government, in accordance with previous rulings, will be dismissed for want of jurisdiction. There remained, therefore, on June 30, 1918, for adjudication and settlement by the Joint Commission, 82 claims, involving the sum of $7,754,353.85. Two vacancies occurred in the membership of the Joint Commission during the year; one due to the death of Mr. Nicholas Cornet, and the other due to the resigna86372°— 18 4

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36 THE PANAMA CANAL. tion of Mr. Clement L. Boiive. These vacancies were jfilled by the President of the United States by the appointment of Judge Burt New, of Indiana, and Judge George A. Connolly, of California, by Executive order of October 3, 1917. The new commissioners arrived on the Isthmus on November 26, 1917, and immediately assumed their duties. There were in effect on June 30, 1918, 51 lot licenses issued by the land agent on behalf of The Panama Canal. Of this number. 7 were issued during the fiscal 3^ear. The licenses were granted to various parties to erect oil tanks, steamship office buildings, churches, lodge halls, and residences for the employees of steamship companies and oil companies. The rents collected on these leases for the fiscal year aggregated the sum of $15,012.02. No rental was charged on licenses to churches or other religious organizations. The Canal Zone and The Panama Canal are included in several acts of Congress enacted during the fiscal year, but there has been no congressional legislation limited in its scope to the canal. An Executive order Avas issued on January 12, 1918, establishing maximum rates of fare and governing transportion of passengers for hire in the Canal Zone. This Executive order was issued by virtue of the act of August 21, 1916. On May 28, 1918, the President issued an Executive order relating to the anchorage and movement of vessels in Canal Zone waters, under authority granted to him by section I, Title II, of the act of June 15, 1917, commonly known as the espionage act. By the terms of the order the Governor of The Panama Canal is authorized to exercise, within the territorial waters of the Canal Zone, all the powers mentioned in said section of the said act, to the same extent as is conferred therein on the Secretary of the Treasury with regard to the territorial waters of the United States. HEALTH DEPAETMENT. Two changes in the head of this organization occurred during the year. On October 4, 1917, Col. D. C. Howard, Medical Corps, United States Army, was relieved from duty with The Panama Canal, and on February 26, 1918, his successor, Col. A. E. Truby, Medical Corps, United States Army, was also relieved. He was succeeded by Maj. A. T. McCormack, Medical Reserve Corps, on the date of his relief. The health conditions of the employees and other residents of the Canal Zone have continued good. No cases of yellow fever or plague occurred on the Zone, in the cities of Panama and Colon, or in the vicinity of the Canal Zone in the Republic of Panama. The number of hospital admissions for malaria during the year was 622, distributed as follows : Employees residing in the city of Panama, 22 ; employees residing in the city of Colon, 64; employees residing in

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EEPOET OF THE GOVERNOE. 37 Cristobal, 81; employees residing within other sanitated districts of the Canal Zone, 69 ; employees working outside of sanitated districts, 386. The malarial rate in the sanitated districts is 6.77 per 1,000, as compared with 128 per 1,000 in the insanitated districts. The average civil population of the Canal Zone was 24,038, as compared with 31,048 for the preceding year. In this population the death rate from disease was 10.61 per 1,000, as compared with 8.95 for the preceding year. City of Panama. — The average population was 61,369, compared with 60,778 for the preceding year. In this population the death rate from disease was 24.18, as compared with 27.93 for the preceding year. City of Colon. — The average population was 26,078, as compared with 24,693 for the preceding year. In this population the death rate from disease was 24.96, as compared with 24.54 for the preceding year. Division or Hospitals. ANCON HOSPITAL. In the progress of construction of the new hospital plant 10 of the the old frame buildings were evacuated and the buildings razed. The new permanent buildings occupied included the administrationclinics building in December, and the new kitchen and mess halls building in March. There was a total of 10,865 patients fvdmitted to the hospital during the year. In the surgical clinic there were 1,525 major operations and 2,692 minor operations performed; 3,892 cases visited the out-patient department. In the medical clinic out-patient department 3,312 cases were treated. In the eye and ear clinic 6,099 cases were treated and 976 operations performed. Corozal Hospital and Farm. — This institution for the care and treatment of insane patients continued under the supervision of the superintendent of Ancon Hospital, with a superintendent in local charge. At the close of the year there were 374 patients, as compared with 354 on June 30, 1917. There were 185 cases admitted, of whom 38 were assigned to the chronic ward. The increase in the number of patients has made it necessary to crowd to an undesirable extent the existing capacity of the wards, and makes necessary an additional ward building. The hospital provides for patients from the Republic of Panama, on a pay or charity basis, as circumstances require. As a part of the course of treatment for patients in condition to be benefited by it, the patients are engaged in some light occupation. The women do sewing, embroidering, rug and hat-making. The male patients are generally speaking fitted only for common labor and agricultural work, and under the supervision of male attendants are given plots of land to cultivate in the near vicinity of

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38 THE PANAMA CANAL. the hospital. Amusements provided for the well being of the patients include moving pictures, phonograph concerts, band concerts, and walks in the vicinity of the hospital. Church services are also provided. An adjunct to this institution is the hospital farm and dairy, which provides employment for a number of cripples injured during their course of employment with the canal, and who are in practically destitute circumstances. At the dairy, besides the milk supplied for the hospitals, about 200 quarts of milk were available for daily sale to sick adults and children, on physicians' prescriptions. CX)L0N HOSPITAL. The new nurses' home was completed during the year and was occupied on June 5, 1918. There were 526 major and 99 minor operations performed at this hospital during the year, and 2,313 patients were admitted for treatment. PALO SECO LEPER ASYLUM. No additional buildings were constructed at this asylum during the year. The average number of patients constantly cared for during the year was 68. There were 70 patients on June 30, 1918, as compared with 65 on the same date last year. Thirteen were admitted, 5 died, and 2 were discharged. SANTO TOMAS HOSPITAL. This hospital is located in the city of Panama and is owned by the Government of Panama, but is operated by agreement under the supervision of the health department of The Panama Canal. The average daily number of patients was 440.5, as compared with 440 for the previous year. DISTRICT DISPENSARIES. The dispensary at Paraiso was closed on May 14, 1918, and on account of the increased population at and near Gamboa the Paraiso dispensary will be transferred to that point. The new concrete dispensary at Gatun was completed and occupied on July 9, 1918. At the dispensaries throughout the Canal Zone a total of 552,864 persons, including employees and nonemployees, was treated. The district physicians treated 6,525 employees in quarters. Sanitation. The sanitary work within the Canal Zone was practically limited to the keeping down of malaria. The principal work was performed in the Colon-Cristobal district, which is more affected by swamp con-

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REPOET OF THE GOVERNOR. 39 ditions than the remainder of the Zone. The swamp to the northeast of the village of New Cristobal was drained during the year, and reclamation by clearing and ditching was conducted in the swampy area south of the coaling plant at Cristobal. South of Mount Hope, to the west of the Panama Railroad tracks, tidewater drains were constructed in large swamps, with marked reduction in the malaria incidence in the population living and working in the vicinity. In connection with drainage work there was a total of 92,112 linear yards of ditches dug, 5,152 linear yards of concrete ditches installed, and 17,111 cubic yards of fill deposited. In addition, 119,365 linear feet of ditches were maintained. The sanitary work in Panama and Colon is carried on under the immediate supervision of the chief health officer of the canal by the health officers of the respective cities, who are employed by The Panama Canal. In the city of Panama, as a means of improving conditions concerning the incidence of tuberculosis, particular attention was paid to the elimination of dark and poorly ventilated rooms. In this work 531 buildings were altered and repaired, 4,000 windows were installed, and 30 rooms eliminated. The regulations for the inspection of foods, supervision of building construction, garbage collection, street cleaning, and preventive measures against disease in general, were enforced. In Colon similar work was done. Quarantine Division. A serious outbreak of cerebrospinal menegitis occurred on the Japanese steamer Amjo Marni^ en route from Yokohama to Callao, Peru. Between Yokohama and San Francisco several cases of this disease occurred, and after leaving Balboa, a port of call, for Callao, there was a recrudescence of the disease, as a result of which the Peruvian authorities refused to receive the vessel. She returned to Balboa, and on her arrival, on May 28, 1918, 585 passengers and 16 of the crew were disembarked and placed in quarantine. The persons suffering from the disease, upon their arrival at Balboa, were successfully treated, and all such cases recovered without sequelse. The ship was thoroughly disinfected and permitted to proceed on its voyage without the passengers. Active steps were taken to prevent spread of the disease among the noninfected persons removed from the ship and retained in quarantine, and no additional cases occurred. As the result of this incident, ships having cases of cerebrospinal meningitis will have their sick evacuated here, passengers and crew examined, and all carriers of the disease will be detained until they are no longer a source of danger to others. In February, 1918, 3 cases of smallpox arrived at Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama, from the islands of San Andres and Old Providence. Smallpox was reported at Bluefields, Nicaragua, and at

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40 THE PANAMA CANAL. Cartagena, Colombia. In September, 1917, 2 cases of leprosy arrived at Cristobal, 1 from Colombia and 1 from Bocas del Toro. Bubonic plague was generally reported along the South American coast from Valparaiso, Chile, north. Yellow fever conditions remained unimproved in Guayaquil and vicinity. On the Atlantic side plague has been reported in the vicinity of Caracas, Venezuela. These conditions as to bubonic plague and yellow fever have made it necessary to continue quarantine restrictions to vessels arriving from ports in which the diseases are reported. For further details, attention is invited to the report of the chief health officer, Appendix K. WASHINGTON OFFICE. On December 1, 1917, Mr. A. L. Flint was appointed general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office, in succession to Maj. Benedict Crowell, United States Engineer Officers' Reserve Corps, who resigned on November 11, 1917, on his appointment as Assistant Secretary of War. The abnormal labor conditions in the United States increased the difficulties heretofore experienced in filling requisitions from the Isthmus for skilled labor, especially in marine work. Tenders of employment were declined in 60 per cent of all classes. One thousand and ninety-four persons were tendered employment in the grades above that of laborer, of which number 432 accepted, covering 65 different positions. Additional work was entailed upon the correspondence and record division on account of correspondence with respect to matters that had to be referred, on account of war conditions, to the War Trade Board and its various bureaus, the Shipping Board, Fuel Administration, Alien Property Custodian, and other new Government establishments. In the office of the assistant auditor of the canal, stationed in the Washington office, 15,999 claims were passed for payment, leaving on hand on June 30, 1918, 382 claims. There was a decrease of 2,190 claims received during the year, as compared with the preceding year, and a decrease of 2,322 claims passed for paj^ment. During the year, 13,474 vouchers for payment, amounting to $9,643,732.81; 232 collection vouchers, amounting to $335,040.15 ; and 3,075 settlements by transfers of appropriation, aggregating $1,893,490.47, were given administrative examination. There was a decrease of $1,209,549.87 in disbursements as compared with the previous year. One hundred and four contracts were prepared, amounting to $3,521,474.53, a decrease of 65 in number and $1,575,514.93 in amount, as compared with the previous year. The assistant auditor, as the legal officer in the United States of The Panama Canal, has continued to render assistance to the Department of Justice in the preparation for trial, and at the trial, in the courts.

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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. 41 of all cases in connection with contracts made with The Panama Canal. The usual routine methods of procuring and shipping materials have been materially interfered with on account of war conditions. This is especially true of materials in which a shortage exists or is imminent in the States. All such cases must be reported to the War Industries Board, in compliance with the instructions of the President to the War Industries Board, contained in his letter of March 4, 1918, with the exceptions as prescribed by executive order signed by the Secretary of War, dated May 18, 1918, with especial reference to The Panama Canal. The chief of the Washington office has been designated as representative of The Panama Canal on the Clearance Committee and the Requirements Division of the War Industries Board. The new conditions referred to inevitably entailed increased work upon the Washington office. The principal purchases in filling requisitions from the Isthmus have been made by the Washington office, although branch offices have been continued in charge of assistant purchasing officers at New York, New Orleans, and San Francisco. Preliminary inspection has been made in the States of materials purchased by a corps of inspectors under the supervision of the inspecting engineer of the Washington office. The work of inspection has been facilitated, as heretofore, by assistance rendered by the district officers of the Corps of Engineers, United States Army, by the Bureau of Standards, the Bureau of Mines, Bureau of Chemistry, and the Medical Department, Ordnance Department, Signal Corps, and the Quartermaster Corps of the United States Army. The number of orders for materials and supplies during the year was 6,608, a decrease of 2,300 as compared with the previous j^ear. The total value of the materials on the orders placed was $8,019,608.90 for the year, as compared with $10,405,157.27 for the previous year. The grand total of purchases made for the canal through the Washington office since the year 1904 is $136,582,840.43. For further details attention is invited to Appendix L. Eespectfully submitted. Chester Harding, Governor^ The Panama Canal. Hon. Newton D. Baker, Secretary of TFar, Washington^ D, G,

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GOVERNOR OF THE PANAMA CANAL Co/ CiVSSrSf) HAflD/NG USA PRESIDENT or THE PANAMA R.R.Cq Plate PURCHASING DtPAPTMENT A.i.. FLINT Cenamf F^rc/ias/ny C/fie^r Omroftyo^/tinp'or, 0//icc ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT H A ^ aM/TH EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT CM C//£Srf/! »A/IDWe USAtfcad of Dvpart^^nf CA M-' /l{/A/A/£ £xecu//ve 3ecrefary F/tAA//f ffU/ll£ Speca/ A//orney CHAHIES n w/ii/AAfs Dys/r,c/ A//orryfy DEPARTMENT OF OPERATION a MAINTENANCE Co/ c//£sre/) MABB/fva as a SUPPLY DEPARTMENT f) n MOaH/3 CAief Quof/frma^/er HEALTH DEPARTMENT MAJ. AT /llcCORMACK US.R atef //ta/M 0/r,crr THE PANAMA R R Co. S W H£ALD ^upvin/enden/ MECHANICAL DIVISION /? D GAr^yvooD /Vaya/ Cona/z-uc/or C/S/V Sujotrin/eni/wn/ BUILDING DIVISION HAHTiev flOtt/£ fie3/oten/ Sn^/neer ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE WJ DOt/at.A3 DISTRICT COURT W M JACKSON . Ju^^c Af. A. OrrSO _ Marjha/ MAGISTRATES COURTS O W. BLACIfBU/iN . Ba/i<:o i/. IV. rHOI^ff30N. CrKi/oba/ DIVISION OF MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING L>. £ W/f/GHT /ifun/apa/ £no//>eer OFFICE ENGINEER C./. £A*B/f££ MARINE DIVISION Con,a!ar,d,r Lti.3ARa£NrUSN. /War^f^e 3tj/:>er'o^en Corner jarcLS u.sNRr J^r/ Cap/am Crf.'/^ia/ l/euf Comdr CHA3 3\/£NS5af/ t/Sfl/)i fbr/ Cap/ojn Sa//>03 BOARD OF ADMEASUREMENT Common&er L R SARGENT USfJ Cha/rman Lf (jg) M C DA VIS 0. 3N Carp C.W CMADDOCK CSN BOARD or LOCAL INSPECTORS i„u/Co-^dr Ja. F£LS USHR.r l.euf ^r„irCRAS.3VCH3SC»/ USNIIF Ll(j-9) M C DAI//S USN DREDGING DIVISION t/ M fRATT Juprr/nitfni^en/ Qf Dret^finy MAINTENANCE OF GATUN DAM J. JIVAL3H Genera / forman ELECTRICAL DIVISION IV C HfPSH f/ecfrjco/ fn^meer SECTION OF SURVEYS r ff riTCN As3/3/on/ fn^/neer DIVISION OF LOCK OPERATION IV ft HOllOWAY Superin/eni^rjj/ fiie/f'C lorA't £ D 3Tlf.lW£i.L Sup^r'n/entfen/ A //an/jc looAs SECTION OF METEOROLOGY AND HYDROGRAPHY // a CORNFHWAIT£ Ch/ef //ycfroorap/>(^ ' FORTlFICATrON SECTION Co/ V\/ D AAND£R.50N USA D/3/ricf fnyinee'O/Z/cer in CAaroe /or /A^ Panama Cana/ C^l/er //e Governor /or ai/m/n/j/ra/KfG purposes on/y ORGANIZATION Or THE PANAMA CANAL JULY I. 1918

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APPENDIX A. HEPORT OF THE ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. The Panama Canal, Office of the Engineer of Maintenance, Balboa Heights^ Canal Zone, July 20, 1918. Sir: The following report of work done under the jurisdiction of this office during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918, is submitted : Organization. The duties of the engineer of maintenance were not changed during the year. The office continued under your charge throughout the year. Lieut. Col. Jay J. Morrow was ordered to duty in the United States and resigned as engineer of maintenance on August 30, 1917. On this date the division of lock operation, the section of office engineer, the section of meteorology and hydrography, and the section of surveys were transferred to supervision of the electrical engineer, Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon. The heads of the remaining divisions reporting to the engineer of maintenance were ordered to report direct to you on this date. Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon was ordered to duty in the United States and resigned as electrical engineer on February 6, 1918. On this date the electrical division, the division of lock operation, the section of office engineer, and the section of meteorology and hydrography were transferred to the supervision of resident engineer, building division, and continued under his supervision until the end of the fiscal year. The remaining divisions and sections of this office reported direct to you. The various divisions and sections have been in charge of the following personnel: Electrical division. — Lieut. Col. T. H. Dillon continued as electrical engineer until his relief from duty with The Panama Canal on February 6, 1918, when Mr. Walter L. Hersh was appointed electrical engineer. Building division. — Mr. Hartley _ Rowe, resident engineer, continued in charge of the building division. Locks division. — Mr. E. D. Still well continued in charge of the Atlantic locks and Mr. W. K. Holloway continued in charge of the Pacific locks. 43

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44 THE PANAMA CANAL. Municipal division. — Mr. D. E, Wright, municipal engineer, continued in charge of this division. Terminal construction. — Mr. T. B. Monniche, engineer of docks, resigned August 4, 1917, when this work was transferred to the resident engineer, building, division. Mr. A. R. Brown, assistant engineer, resigned October 18, 1917, and the uncompleted part of this work was transferred to the resident engineer, building division. Section of meteorology and hydrography. — Mr. F. D. Willson resigned July 17, 1917, and was succeeded by Mr. E. Z. Kirkpatrick on August 15, 1917. Mr. Kirkpatrick resigned April 13, 1918, to accept a commission in the Engineer Officers' Reserve Corps, and was succeeded by Mr. H. G. Cornthwaite, appointed April 14, 1918. Section of office engineer. -^lAv. C. J. Embree, office engineer, continued in charge of this section. Section of surveys. — Mr. O. E. Malsbury, assistant engineer, resigned from this office September 10, 1917, to accept a commission in the Engineer Officers' Reserve Corps, and was succeeded by Mr. F. R. Fitch on September 11, 1917. Locks Division. lockages. The following table gives the total commercial and noncommercial lockages of the year : Date. Gatun— To July 1,1917... During fiscal year To July 1, 1918... Pedro Miguel— To July 1,1917... During fiscal year To July 1, 1918... Miraflores— To July 1, 1917... During fiscal year, To July 1, 1918... All lockages. 4,155 2,271 6,426 4,385 2,420 6,805 4,302 2,343 6,645 Commercial lockages. 3,520 1,936 5,456 3,622 2,041 5,663 3,634 2,017 5,651 Commercial vessels. 3,889 2,096 5,985 3,863 2,083 6.946 3,856 2,081 5,937 Noncommercial lockages. 635 335 960 763 379 1,142 668 326 994 The average number of lockages made at all locks for each month of the fiscal year was 195.39 or about 6.5 through lockages per day. The greatest number of lockages made in any month of the year occurred in May when the Atlantic locks made 229 lockages and the Pacific locks 225 lockages.

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REPORT OP ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 45 WATER CONSUMPTION GATUN LAKE. Complete data regarding the hydrography of Gatun Lake for the calendar year are given hereinafter, but the following data have been compiled for the fiscal year, July 1, 191T, to June 30, 1918 : Average quantity per month. "Water lost: By evaporation By wastage over Gatun spillway By leakage, Gatun spillway By transfer to Miraflores Lake. . . By leakage at all locks Total water lost Water used: For pumping For lockages, Atlantic For lockages. Pacific For hydroelectric station Gain in storage, Gatun Lake Total water used Total water, lost and used Millions of cubic feet of water. 2, 028. 98 15,534.18 10.21 23.95 28.09 17,626.01 68. 46 812. 47 695. 93 3,317.37 116. 66 5, 010. 89 22, 636. 90 Per cent lost or used. 11.511 88.132 .058 .136 .163 100. 000 1.366 16. 21.') 13. 888 66.203 2.328 100.000 Per cent of total. 8.964 68.624 .045 .106 .127 .302 3.589 3.074 14. 655 .515 100.000 Useful water = 5010.89 = 22.135 per cent. 22636.90 Water used for lockages =6.66 per cent. It is always endeavored to have Gatun Lake level at or near its maximum allowable elevation, plus 87 feet, at the beginning of the dry season, so that there is a maximum amount of water in storage for the dry months of the year. Gatun Lake was at elevation plus 87.06 on January 1 and 2, and remained at approximately this elevation until February 1, when storage in the lake was drawn on, due to lack of rainfall. The lake level lowered gradually until it reached its minimum elevation of the year on April 21 at plus 84.52. It will be noted by the above table that the hydroelectric station uses most of the water drawn from storage, and as lockages increase in number the use of water during the dry season by the hydroelectric station will have to be limited by the necessities of the locks. If no water had been used by the hydroelectric station during the dry season months — February, March, and April — the net loss in storage due to all other causes would have carried the lake level from plus 87 on February 1 to plus 86.83 on the last day of April. In other words, the lake elevation would have remained practically stationary during the dry season if no water had been used by the hydroelectric station, and this condition would have existed in spite of the fact that the average number of lockages during these months was 196.66 per month, or 6.5 through lockages per day. A material saving in water can be accomplished at the locks by cross filling and operating tandem lockages. Precautions of this nature have not been necessary to date owing to the plentiful supply of water for all purposes, although tandem lockages are used whenever possible without causing a delay to shipping.

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46 THE PANAMA CANAL. GATUN DAM. Monthly surveys of Gatiin dam indicate a gradual consolidation similar to former years and no fills were necessary to replace settlement this year. During the year that portion of the dam over the new penstock at the hydroelectric station was backfilled. The usual maintenance work on the dam, tracks, and borrow pits was performed. TOWING LOCOMOTIVES. The four new towing locomotives constructed upon the Isthmus were completed, and all machines of this type are continuing to render excellent service. SPARE PARTS. The warehouse at Corozal was transferred during the year from the quartermaster to the locks division, and in addition to the spare parts which were in the building all of the lock-gate spares (except tlie gate girders) which were formerly at Paraiso have been added. All lock-gate spares at Corozal are being repainted and put into first-class condition. At the beginning of the past fiscal year there were 15 United States requisitions in the process of manufacture. These have been completed. Twenty-six United States. requisitions were issued during the year, 20 of them have been filled to date, the material on the balance being in process of manufacture. APPROACH WALL FENDER CRIBS. At the end of each approach wall there are installed fender cribs constructed of piling and heavy timbers, to prevent serious damage to any vessel that may approach the locks out of control. In October, 1917, it was noted that the fender cribbing at lower Pedro Miguel appeared to be very insecure and upon withdrawing one of the piles it was found to be practically honeycombed by the teredo. The fender was reconstructed with the use of creosoted piling and timbers and the M^ork was completed in December, 1917. The above cribbing was in Miraflores Lake, 54 feet above sea level which lake is fed entirely by fresh water from Gatun Lake and the watershed in the vicinity. The fact that the cribbing was attacked by the teredo is a peculiar confirmation of the fact that Miraflores Lake is gradually becoming saline through the back feeding of sea water through Miraflores locks. On March 16, 1918, when the steamship Capto approached Pedro Miguel locks from the north, she rammed the fendev cribbing at the end of the north approach wall and made it necessary to install new piling and cribbing on the east side. PAINTING LOCK GATES. During the year all of the gates and machines at the Atlantic locks were examined and the enamel removed and replaced where it was found to be in bad condition. A complete report on this subject

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 47 will be found in the report of the superintendent which follows hereinafter. It has been impossible to find an oil paint that will stand up under the severe conditions found at the locks. Arrangements have been made to apply bituminous enamel to certain of the exposed portions of the gate leaves as well as the submerged portions. It is hoped that this experiment will prove successful, in this way decreasing the maintenance work on the gates. LOCK POWEK AND CONTROL CABLES. The installation of all power and control cables at the locks was practically completed by August, 1913. During the four years which elapsed between that time and the beginning of the present fiscal year, practically no serious trouble has been experienced with the lead sheathed control cables. It has been found, however, that the rubber insulated double braided wires were being attacked by the " termite " or white ant and it became necessary to open up all closed wall chases carrying this type of wire to the lighting outlets. It was also found that the rubber insulated telephone conductors to the lamp standard outlets were becoming grounded due to the dampness in the chases and it became necessary to replace these with lead sheathed cables. These faults were to be expected, however, and it is believed that the present method of running all wires in exposed chases on the walls of the tunnels will keep them dried out and as the " termite " cannot live and work in the light no further harm should come to the exposed wires other than gradual deterioration which occurs in any climate. It had been expected that our lead sheathed cables would last for a number of years before showing signs of deterioration. However, a series of breakdowns at Miraflores locks beginning September, 1916, were experienced, and by June, 1917, about seven lead sheathed control cables had broken down and were replaced temporarily by other cables until the maintenance work on the lock gates and valves could be completed, after which the trouble was investigated thoroughly. As all control cable are run with two, three, and four cables to the duct, it was difficult to remove one without removing the others, therefore the investigation was begun in the crossover tunnel where the cables run under the lock chamber in very damp ducts. SeA-eral ducts were broken open and tests were made between the lead sheaths and the water in the sump at the base of the shaft with the following results : Readings taken in West Crossover — No tunnel lining — Walls very wet. Volts. From cable lying on top of ducts very wet to iron ground 0. 18 Same cable to copper float in water of sump . 32 Same cable to galvanized-iron wire in water of sump . 16 Readings taken in East Crossover Tunnel — Steel lining is in place — Tunnel walls dry. Volts. From cables to top of ducts to ground 0. 05 FroE* cables to top of ducts to copper float in sump . 14 From cables to top of ducts to concrete floor .02

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48 THE PANAMA CANAL. The above readings were taken with the telephone cables connected in their battery supply. It was thought advisable to remove all possibility of direct current from an external source and repeat the readings. The direct-current supply to the telephone cables was cut and the readings again repeated with results practically identical to those quoted above. While working in the tunnel one of the men complained of the fact that the seepage water from the ducts appeared caustic in its effect on his hands. Furthermore, in opening some of the ducts, water and a peculiar sediment came out. Some of the material discharged was black and some almost clear white. Samples of each were sent to the laboratory for analysis with the result that the black sediment was found to be a lead salt. Furthermore, the seepage water was found to carry a large amount of lead in solution. Two pieces of sheet lead 5 inches by 2 inches were placed at the base of the shaft, one of them in seepage water and grounded and the other in a position where seepage water would drip over its. surface. The grounded sample did not appear to be materially affected by electrolytic action. The other sample exposed to seepage water weighed 182^ grams at the beginning of the test, and in two weeks it had lost 3^ grams, or about 1.92 per cent of its weight, and this in spite of the fact that the seepage water had been flowing over about 70 feet of cable and must have had considerable lead in solution before striking the test sample. All the defective cables were then removed and found to be in the condition shown on plate No. 2. All control cables used have either five or eight conductors of No. 10 B. & S. gauge, each insulated with 1/16-inch varnished cambric with 1/32-inch varnished cambric over all, and a lead sheath 1/16 inch thick. The five conductor cables are about 7/8 inch in diameter and the eight conductor cables are about 1-1/8 inch in diameter. This information may be of assistance in studying plate No. 2. As a result of this condition found in the center crossover tunnel at Miraflores, all similar installations at all locks were examined but no further indications of trouble were found. To guard against further damage from seepage water, arrangements will be made to install all replace cables in ducts away from the wall of the tunnel shaft, in this way using the outside or wall ducts as drains for the seepage Avater. Replace cables at Miraflores were hung on porcelain hangers, and if necessity should arise and should further precaution be advisable arrangements will be made to place all cables on porcelain hangers and coat them with an insulating material such as bituminous compound. The following report has been submitted by the chemist of the municipal engineering division who investigated the cause of the chemical action above referred to: Corrosion of the Lead Sheaths of Cables at Miraflores Locks. The corrosion of the sheaths of some of the cables at Miraflores locks was first called to the chemists' attention in August, 1917. An inspection was made of the cables exposed at the west end of the middle crossover tunnel. There were irregular shaped deposits of a white scale on the cables over which water was dripping. A bottle was placed so as to catch some of the drippings on August 9, and the drippings were sent to this laboratory on August 11 for analysis.

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PLATE 2. FIVE AND EIGHT CONDUCTOR, LEAD SHEATHED CONTROL CABLES REMOVED FROM THE MIDDLE CROSS-OVER TUNNEL AT MIRAFLORES LOCKS.

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EEPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 49 Previous to the inspection several samples of materials collected in the locks were submitted for analysis. Qualitative analj'ses of these samples were made, the results obtained are as follows: 1. A brownish red material collected from the duct lines in the lower crossover. The sample contained large amount of iron, and small amounts of calcium and silica. 2. White material collected from the duct line on the west end of the middle crossover tunnel. The sample contained larse amounts of calcium carbonate and hydroxide and a small amount of lead. The claim of the helper that when collecting this sample " something ate through the skin on his hand " must have been due to the lime. 3. Black substance collected from the same location as sample No. 2 contained large amounts of lead, calcium, and small amount of iron and the following acid radicles of sulphide, sulphate, and carbonate. The sulphide must have formed by the decomposition of vegetable matter. The first sample of water collected was characterized by a total alkalinity to crysthrosine of 1,740 parts per million of which 1,680 parts were caustic or hydroxide alkalinity. The chlorine content was 1,325 parts per million. The water contained 50 parts per million of lead. On August 12 and 20 two more samples of drippings from the middle crossover at Miraflores locks were collected and the mineral analysis of the samples were as follows, in parts per million : Sample No. 3.2 Ilydroxide alkalinity as CaCOa Carbonate alkalinitv as calcium carbonate (CaCOs) Silica (S1O2) Iron and aluminum (Fe and Alj Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Lead(Pb) Sodium (Na) Potassium ( K) Chlorine (CD Carbonate (CO3) Sulphate (SO4) 2,266 192 99.1 1 Date of collection, Aug. 12, 1917. = Taleof collection, Aug. 20, 1917. Portland cement contains 60 to 65 per cent of calcium oxide. According to various authorities when the cement sets among other compounds large amounts crystallized calcium hydroxide, and some calcium alumlnate form. Calcium hydroxide is quite soluble in water, so when water comes in contact with concrete, calcium hydroxide goes into solution. Calcium aluminate is decomposed by water forming calcium hydroxide and gelatinous aluminum hydroxide. From the above mineral analyses it could be seen that the caustic alkalinity and calcium contents of tlie dripping water is quite high as compared with the mineral analyses of water obtained on August 23, 1917, from the lock chambers at Miraflores, which was as follows in parts per million : Hydroxide alkalinity as (CaCOa) Carbonate alkalinity as (CaCOs) Bicarbonate alkalinity as (CaCOs) 110 Silica (SiO^) 23 Iron (Fe) Trace. Aluminum (Al) Calcium (Ca) 35 Magnesium (Mg) 42 Sodium and potassium (Na and K) 425 Chlorine (CI) 904 Bicarbonate (HCOj) 134 Dissolved oxygen 6. 8 Temperature degrees centigrade 27 Per cent saturation 85

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50 THE PANAMA CANAL. The corrosion of the lead sheaths of cables can be due to two reasons {1> alternating current electrolysis, and (2) to the chemical action of the drinninff water saturated with lime salts from concrete. We thought the corrosion was clue mainly to the second reason above stated. In order to substantiate this theory we carried out the followiug experiments in the laboratory • The lead sheath of an unattached cable was cut open, and strips of lead were cut measuring 6 to 7 centimeters long, 2.5 to 2.S centimeters wide and 2 centimeters thick. These strips" of lead were numbered and weighed accurately to the forth place. Some water was obtained from the lock chambers and placed in bottles holding one liter. The bottles were also numbered and (lifterent amounts of calcium hydroxide solution were added to each to set the desired alkalinity. The alkalinity of the contents of each bottle was deter mined by titration. When the bottles were ready the strips of lead bearing corresponding numbers to the bottles were placed in them. The strips were taken out from time to time, dried very quickly, and weighed to find out the weight dissolved. Two series of these experiments were carried on and the following tables show the results obtained:

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 51 ^ no ca «) CD p. a) °J3 It 03 *QD CD w 0 ft CO »0 Oi lO '^ t^ lO C^ O O O OO O C5 O coiot^iOi-HOcocoTr O 05 O 05 05 GC Oa O) 03 A 03 QC 00 00 CDtN CO^i— tCOOJt^COCDCO a> '30 00 CO GO t^ CO 03 CO 00 00 00 b00 FHOOI^CSOOiiOM"^ COCO^-^OSC^OCCOi-Ht^ ror^ o o o o CDfOCiOFH-<^^-*COi-t 00 iC "^' r^ cCOr-(COy3CO lO "V lO lO -^ -^ -^ OiiOCO0000OSC^r-(Tj< coooi-^oicoococcocJ 0*C^C>iO05CO'*C0»O ^^'X5^-tC^*Ot^GO'^TP cs^i-Hcoi-Icd'-Hoico CNC^'^!NU:! CO(N lOC^ OS coo CO • CO CS oi --H CO 00 CO C4C^NC^C^C*MCSlC<» ^' CO ^* ^^ ^* ^f ^^ ^^ ^* 00 oi o c^ ^ <: sa ooooooooo ^ COCOO'^"'""^ »-t C^ COCOC CO o o w ooooooooo l£l iC -^ -ri* r-t I— r~i ,-( CO ^ lO CC' -O 00 Soa4 86372°— 18»-((NfO-*»OCOt»00O> I en .2 •a o .-a op a-a ca t9 •? o o S CQ -*^ J" m O CM S 53 .— ' "^ S rt s W C g> S: a >• ftTS-O w ^, C3 • ^ OJ o o: a> O) g =3 a o M |§^ g o.a p (Bt3 S ?3 » ° 'Z caC3-w •§-o a § P. 05 .^^ O CO •« br >-' tH »•-£; B-^^ fcT ^"g * «§a S

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52 THE PANAMA CANAL. c^'ts (N P CS i-tcor^ 5 t^oio CO 5o t^ 1-1 . MT3 CO *^ »-" S S 9 P -M CO ;?; 8 00 00 CO CO CO c^ro 00 CO CO cO"^Oi^-iC'^r-'<* ^^ rM r-n^ rirt ("Tj (^ ^4 ^M rr^ ^V» vM ICO coc i-HC^COCOOiC^-^TfCDlM'^ F-iCO COCOCO 1-1 cO'*iccpeot^i-HO.-tO(N i-ii-nNcqc^-^cooooii-HCO oi CO cocooo coco i-icO(NOCSOOCOCOI>CO CO i-< .t^i>.t*t.,t-.ts. c^jccr-c^»0"^oior^oooo •3^0 a Wi2; OOCSiOOOOOCC^lco CO iCCO CO Tt^ »-iCO C3 M fl . O C^ CC ;iV* ^.^ \^^ t.^ ^-ll-lC^(^^cs<^^c^(^*cc o "O rA S^ rv-i OiftOOOOOOOOO c^ oc c^ t-lo 00 o c^ Tf r^ i-HCS-fJiuit^oOOO r-< Oi— f O a 03 ••3 03 O C4 -O Ci3 CO & o a a "3 "3 3 a. c3 p. a C3 CO a 03 oj 59 o a 03 W o

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 53 If milligrams of lead dissolved are plotted in the above experiments, per hundred grams of lead of 0.25 centimeter thickness against the time in hours, curves showing their interrelation will be obtained. The curves clearly indicate that the rate of solution of lead is directly proportional to the concentration of OH ion ; that is, the higher the concentration (!f OH ion, the more lead goes into solution. This fact was already known before the experiment was started. This gradation of the lead going into solution is more clearly seen, especially toward the beginning of the experiment rather than at the end, because the stronger solution becomes weaker sooner by absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere than a weaker solution. Therefore, the difference in the amount of lead dissolved between the weak and strong solutions is not so much toward the end of the experiment. It is also interesting to see that sample No. 1 on page 51 and sample No. 19 on page 52, which are original lock chamber and sea waters, did not attack the lead even as nuich as sample No. 2 on page 51, distilled pure water. This is due to the fact that, in the latter case, under the joint action of water and dissolved oxygen, lead hydroxide is produced, which is slightly soluble in water, and therefore does not protect the lead. In impure water, such as samples Nos. 1 and 19, which contain sulphate and carbonate radicles, the corresponding lead salts are formed which have extremely small solubility, and form firmly an adhering layer on the lead. The conditions in the above experiments are not similar to those in the duct lines, because the strips of lead were continually immersed in the same watei except when they were taken out to be weighed, while in the duct lines saturated lime solution drips continually to the same spot or around it, and it is natural that, the reaction between fresh drip and the lead goes on much faster. In order to measure quantitively how fast the lead was corroded by the dripping water in the duct lines, the following experiment was performed : A strip of sheet lead measuring 17.1 centimeters long, 5.8 centimeters wide, 0.12 centimeters thick and weighing 182.8 grams was tied with a strip of lead to one of the lead cables at west end of the middle crossover at Miraflores locks. Wires of volt motor attached to ends of piece of lead cable gave no reading. Water dripped from cable to this piece of lead. The strip was removed after lis days and weighed. Weight of the strip plus the scale, was 184.55 grams. The weight of the strip after the removal of the scale was 179.6 grams. The loss of the strip was 3.2 grams. The corrosive action of the dripping water was plainly visible on the sheet lead and the composition of the white scale was foimd to be lead hydroxide and carbonate. At this rate the whole sheet of lead would corrode in 685.5 days. But the corrosion was only around where the water was dripping ; if the water had dripped all over the surface at one time the sheet lead would corrode in a good deal less than 685.5 days. Similar experiments were tried with another sheet of lead measuring 16.8 centimeters long, 5.6 centimeters wide, 0.12 centimeters thick and weighing 182.5 grams. The piece of lead was tied to a different lead cable at west end of middle crossover by copper wire. One end of the wire was fastened to lead cable and the other end to a copper float. Reading between end of copper wire attached to lead cable and end attached to copper float gave 0.06 volts. Water dropped from cable to the piece of lead. The strip of lead was removed after 12 days, the weight of the strip plus scale was 182.35 grams ; the weight of the same strip after the removal of the scale was 181.7 grams. The loss of the lead was 0.8 grams. In this case the loss was not as much as in the first case ; probably the dripping was not as strong. AVhile the above experiment was going on in the locks a similar experiment was started in the laboratory. A 15-gallon carboy was filled with lock chamber water and saturated with calcium hydroxide. The alkalinity of the water was as follows : Hydroxide alkalinity as calcium carbonate, 1,640 p. p. m. ; carbonate alkalinity as calcium carbonate, 460 p. p. m. The carboy was placed on a iilatform and a burrette was lowered into it to draw off the water. Two inches below the tip of the burrette a lead cable of 12 feet long was hung on a support, and the burrette was turned over it so that 2.2 c. c. of the water dripped on the cable per minute. The drippings were caught in another vessel below on the floor. The dripping water was analyzed and hydroxide alkalinity as calcium carbonate was 1,400 p. p. m., carbonate alkalinity as calcium carbonate 240 p. p. m., and the water contained 288 p. p. m. lead. When the carboy was emptied it was refilled and the dripping was continued. At the end of three weeks the corrosion on the surface of the

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54 THE PANAMA CANAL. c-able was plainly visible, which was broiight about by the action of the dripping water. There was no chance for alternating current electrolysis in this experiment, as there was no current of any sort near the support where the calble was hung. CONCLUSIONS. The following conclusions can be drawn from the above experiments : 1. Tlie rate of going into solution of lead, immersed in waters having different concentrations of hydroxide ion, is directly proportional to the hydroxide ion. 2. Lock chamber and sea water do not attack the lead as much as distilled pure water. 3. The corrosion of the lead sheaths of cables at Miraflores locks is due exclusively to the chemical action of the dripping water saturated with lime salts from the concrete and not to the alternating current electrolysis. Tlie third conclusion is substantiated by the experiment described in the last paragraph of page 53. and also by the fact that the corrosion in the cables is noticed in certain localities of the duct lines where water is dripping and no action is noticed where the cables are free from drippings. According to Mr. J. G. Myrick's report of September 19, 1917, to Mr. H. R. Holloway : " In the horizontal runs of all the crossovers the duct lines have much more water than the vertical runs and an equally good condition for electrolytic action. In no case have we found any sign of action in the horizontal runs." This fact could be explained very easily for the reason that, by the time the water reaches the horizontal runs of the crossover all the hydroxide contents of the water would be used up and therefore no action is seen in the horizontal runs. Following are extracts from reports of the lock superintendents, covering details of operation and maintenance of the locks. Gatun Locks, organization and personnel. Mr. E. D. Stillwell and Mr. H. M. Thomas continued as superintendent and assistant superintendent, respectively, throughout the year. On July 1, 1917, Mr. F. M. Easter was appointed to fill the position of mechanical supervisor which had been vacant since June 12, 1917. Mr. C. W. Roberts, electrical .supervisor, was transferred to the electrical division on September 24, 1917, and on October 3, 1917, Mr. P. R. Kiger was appointed to fill the vacancy. Mr. Kiger resigned on April 24, 1918, in order to enter the military service, Mr. A. E. Wood being appointed electrical supervisor on that date. The positions of recorder and property clerk were combined and the work is now done by one man. The personnel of the organization has changed considerably during the year, due to resignations and transfers. A total of four men resigned to enter the military service, three of whom received commissions. OPERATION. The same system of operation continued in effect as in the past year. The operation was carried on by two shifts covering the period from 7 a. m. to 8.30 p. m. It has been necessary, frequently, to extend this period to as late as midnight in order to clear the north bound ships the same day they entered the canal on account of the unusual conditions due to the war. Delays due to failure of the operating machinery and accidents to vessels during the pas.sage through the locks have been few and of negligible magnitude. The damage to vessels has been chiefly the breaking of chocks and bitts due to not being adapted for towing purposes. Thft most .serious damage occurred on February 2, 1918, to the steamship Republic, southbound, which hit the northeast wing wall and damaged the plates on the port bow above the water line. The accident occurred 1)efore the ship entered the lock and was under control of the locomotives. The longest ship, although not the greatest tonnage, locked through to date was the steamship Ceramic, northbound, on December 12, 1917. Tlie Ceramic is 655 feet long and 69.2 feet beam. Actual time of lockage was 60 minutes.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 55 The wnter consumption at Gatun locks was'as follows: Cubic feet. Leakage 186, 985, 000 Lockage 9, 952, 110, 000 Total 10, 139, 095, 000 The average amount of water taken from Gatun Lake per lockage was 4,299.916 cubic feet. The emergency dams were operated each month, except during the overhauling period. No emergency operations were necessary. No emergency tests of the chain fenders were made during the year. MAINTENANCE. Maintenance work was carried on during the year as was necessary to keep the machinery and equipment in good operating condition. A number of changes were made in order to facilitate inspection, repairs, or operation of the machines. Equipment which was found to be unnecessary was removed and placed in stock for reissue to other departments. Locomotives and tracks. — Two new locomotives made by the mechanical division shops at Balboa were received and placed in service during the year. The installation of the electrical equipment was done by the lock forces. Several accidents have happened to the locomotives on all the locks due to not having a positive brake which could be applied under all conditions. Experiments were made, but not completed, on a type of wedge brake which has for its braking power the friction Ijetween the surface of the concrete and a steel wedge which takes part of the weight of the locomotive. Emergency dams. — The electrical interlocks on the gate contactors were removed and replaced by a positive mechanical interlock on both dams. All the meters on the control panels of the dams were removed and turned in to the Balboa storehouse, as the equipment was unnecessary and was deteriorating. Miter gates. — Antirebounding devices were installed on the contactors of all the gate machines. On all the intermediate gates the handrail motors, gear boxes, and limit switches with the wiring were removed and placed in store. The cost of maintaining this eqiiipment was high and it was considered not essential to the operation. Work was practically completed on fitting hinged covers and a removable section over the handrsil equipment on the gates in order to allow ready access for inspection and repairs to the equipment. Rising stem valves. — All intermediate rising stem valves with the roller trains and rods, valve stem, and the guide bearings have been placed in good condition and when necessary to use the short lengths of lock will be reinstalled. They have also served to replace other valves during the period of overhauling. Chain fenders. — Wooden blocks with springs have been installed in the pits of all chain-fender machines. The springs take up the shock of the intermediate cylinder i.t the end of the upstroke. Caisso7i and pump barge. — The lock caisson was used from January 14 to April 15, 1918, in unwatering the lock chambers. At the completion of the work all the paint on the interior was touched up and the machines and equipment put in good condition. The spillway caisson was placed on the west lock wall for painting ; repairs were made to the wooden seals and decking and some angle irons and U bolts were straightened. • Pump barge No. 169 was dry-docked in the upper chamber and the interior and exterior of the hull painted. Miscellaneous. — The covers on approximately 14,000 linear feet of the chases for the lighting and telephone wires in the operating tunnels were removed. This was made necessary due to the trouble on these circuits caused by water and mud filling the chases. Water level indicator board and switches were installed at the top of the shafts at all crossunder sump-pump motors. The switches operating the sump pumps are now thrown manually when the indicator shows the sumps are full. An indicating device has been installed on the lock control board to show the position of the arrow on the south approach wall which can not be seen

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56 THE PANAMA CANAL. by the control-board operator, ^he device is operated by a transmitter and receiver similar to those on the control board. Approximately 3,600 feet of lead-covered telephone cable have been pulled in from the lamp-posts to the chases in the operating tunnel to replace the jutecovered cable which was unserviceable. New wall fenders of alemendra, a native hardwood, are being used to replace the old timber fenders as fast as they are broken and have to be renewed. CONSTRUCTION AND NEW EQUIPMENT. One new rowboat was constructed. A power-driven hack saw has been added to the equipment for the machine shop. A motor-operated jointer machine was made by the lock forces for the carpenter shop and a secondhand band saw is also being installed. Concrete scrap bins and an oil house have been placed on the platform in rear of the storeroom building. A new frame building was erected by the building division on the middle level, east wall, for use as a paint shop and storeroom. A rope shelter with concrete roof and posts has been erected on all wing and approach walls. GENERAL OVERHAULING. From January 14 to April 15, 1918. the lock chambers were unwatered in order to paint the gates and make necessary repairs to the valves and submerged parts. The following dates of placing and removing the caisson show the completion of the work in the various chambers : West chamber, middle and lower levels: Caisson placed on January 14, and raised on February 23. East chamber, middle and lower levels : Caisson placed on March 1, and raised on March 23. East chamber, upper level : Caisson placed on April 9, and raised on April 15. The work on the rising stem valves in addition to touching up the bitumastic enamel, covered the renewal of all parts worn due to corrosion and electrolytic action, replacing broken bronze spring strips on the side seals and grinding off the bottom seats of the valves, which were badly pitted. A number of floor plates were found missing and these were replaced. The machinery steel removable side strips on the box castings were replaced with lignum-vitiB strips on all valves in the middle and lower levels. The Babbitt seat was replaced with greenheart on all valves, except the intermediate, in the middle and lower levels. The work on the cylindrical valves consisted of the replacing of the worn leather seals and nuts. Only the valves in the middle and lower levels were overhauled. The channel irons and rollers in the roller trains, the roller train tracks on both the wall and the valve, and the front wearing pad on the rising stem valves all showed marked wear and corrosion. Extensive repairs and renewal of parts will be necessary at the next overhauling of these valves. From July to November, 1915, the exterior surfaces of the lock gates on both sides from the bottom to the freeing ports, except on gates Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 37, 38, 39, 40, on which to the full height on both sides, and on gates Nos. 33, 34, 35, 36 to the full height, only on the upstream side, were painted by the American Bitumastic Enamels Co. with bitumastic solution and enamel under a five-year guarantee. A contract has been entered into by which The Panama Canal is to do the necessary work to repair the paint on these gates, the cost of same to be billed against the American Bitumastic Enamels Co. During tfce period the locks were unwatered ; the lock forces painted these gates where necessary. In the lower level the bitumastic enamel had failed to such an extent that practically all the exterior surfaces of the gates in the lower level had to be cleaned and were repainted with hermastic solution and poison enamel furnished by the contractor. The interior of the water chambers of the gates, which are under water, were also painted at this time. At the end of this fiscal year, the work of touching up the paint under the contract on the exterior of the gates and on the interior of the gates in both the air and water compartments was about 90 per cent complete and will be entirely completed in about one more month. The five-year guarantee for the interior of the gates in the water and air compartments expires in January, 1919.

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KEPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 57 Hermastic solution and enamel is being used to paint the lock gates on tlie exterior surfaces which were not covered by the contractor. At the end of the fiscal year 19 sides of gates were completed, and the work will be carried on as fast as the oil paint fails and the surfaces need repainting. In the last annual report mention was made of applying a zinc coating by the Schoop process to one rising stem valve and portable parts and section of two of the lock gates below sea level. These parts were unwatered one year after the zinc had been applied, and it was found that practically all the zinc coating had gone and all parts were rusting, showing that this process can not be used for a protective coating on gates and valves. Pacific Locks. organization and personnel. Mr. William R. Holloway as superintendent continued throughout the entire fiscal year, making his headquarters at Pedro Miguel locks, Mr. Jesse C. Myrick as assistant superintendent, being located at Miraflores locks, Mr. Robert S. Mills as electrical supervisor and Mr. George L. Viberg as mechanical supervisor, divided their time between the two locks. The personnel of the organization was slightly changed, eight employees resigning their positions to enter into the United States Army and United States Navy service, making it necessary to fill their positions by promotion. OPERATION. The lock force has continued working on the two-shift basis, as outlined in the previous annual report, covering a period from 7 a. m. to 8 p. m. This plan has been made suitable to meet all requirements of the increased traffic. At Pedro Miguel locks 2,420 lockages were made or an average of 6.63 per day, and at Miraflores locks 2,343 lockages were made or an average of 6.40 per day. The traffic for the month of May broke all previous records as to number of lockages, commercial vessels and tonnage passing through the canal. The commercial vessels numbered 212, which is 17 more than any previous month. The total number of lockages made at Pedro Miguel locks was 229, exceeding the previous high record by 9. The steamship Ceramic locked through on December 12 northbound, is the longest ship that has been handled in the locks to date — length, 655 feet ; beam, 69.2 ; draft, 29.2 feet in fresh water — was towed by eight locomotives, being under perfect control at all times. Each emergency dam was operated once a month through the year for drill and inspection. All gold employees on the operating shift on duty respond to the signal whistle. The towing locomotive operators are all qualified to operate the gate and girder hoisting machines and the general operators to swing the dams. The spillway at Miraflores locks was operated as necessary to keep the elevation of Miraflores Lake within the prescribed limits. There was a total of 254 spillway operations made during the year. The greatest discharge through the spillway to date occurred on September 6, 1917, when three gates were raised 5.2 feet for 40 minutes. This was due to the failure of the dam for the settling basin on the west side of Pedro Miguel locks, during an unusually heavy rain. The water overflowed the dam, tearing it out for about 80 feet and releasing 8 feet head of water. As a result of this heavy discharge through the spillway, some damage was sustained by the railroad trestle bridge south of Miraflores locks and some dredging was required in the canal channel opposite this bridge. MAINTENANCE. Cables. — Two or three cases of trouble developed in the control cables. On inspection it was found that one 5 and one 8 conductor, varnished cambric insulated, lead sheathed cables in the middle crossover at Miraflores locks were grounded. These two cables were located in a closed duct, back of the other cables, next to the lock walls. Upon removal the lead sheathing was found to be badly pitted and entirely gone in places, due to seepage of water through the concrete, which entered these ducts near top of shaft, causing the chemical

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58 THE PANAMA CANAL. action, which was explained in report on cables to Col. Dillon dated September 24, 1917. A total of six control cables in the middle crossover were found to be affected to. varying degrees and the affected cables were replaced with new ones. Evei'y case of cable failure was found to be in the side wall of the vertical shafts in the outside row of ducts, on the upstream side of duct lines at Miratlores locks. To obviate this the new cables were installed in a different location supported on hangers, keeping them 2 or 3 inches from the surface of the concrete. Since this change has been made no further trouble has developed and all cables are in good condition. Chain fender machines. — To facilitate testing and setting of Ross valves, the top cylinders of all machines are drilled, tapped and nipples and valves aiiplied for a three-fourths-inch pipe connection, allowing direct connection to the highpressure testing pump. The air-operated high-pressure pump used for above testing was overhauled and rebuilt to increase its capacity. Every three months all chain fender machines are tested with high-pressure pumps, the Ross valves reset and adjusted to release at 300 and 400 pounds of pressure, then sealed with lead car seals to prevent being tampered with. All overflow tanks are washed out and refilled with fresh water at the same time. Control houses. — The control house, control boards, and all accessories have been completely overhauled and kept in perfect operating conditions at both locks. Emergency dams. — Mechanical interlocks have been installed on contacts at panels for all gate and girder hoists, replacing the electrical interlocks. Having been found to be unnecessary, all ammeters and wattmeters, with their current transformers and Y-box resistances, have been removed from all dams and returned to stock at Balboa storehouse. Fenders. — The fender timbers on all approach and wing walls at both locks have been maintained. It has been necessary to replace many of these timbers during the year, some from decay or rot, and others being damaged by ships striking them. The crib fenders at the end of south approach wall at Pedro Miguel locks were practically destroyed by teredos, making it necessary to install a complete new crib fender. One hundred and twenty new creosoted piling were driven and new fender frame installed around same. The crib fender at the north end of Pedro Miguel locks was damaged, caused by a collision of the steamship Capto on March 16. This necessitated replacing 60 of the piling and an entirely new fender frame. New chains for holding the low-tide fender timbers in place during high-tide water on south approach wall at Mirafloi-es locks were installed to replace cables used oi-iginally, which had rusted away. Crib fender at end of north approach wall at Miraflores locks was also repaired. Eighteen new piles were driven in connection with this work. Miter gate machines. — All machines were thoroughly overhauled, motors tested and inspected. The buUwheel openings at the upper guard gates at both locks were protected by one-half-inch mesh steel guards to prevent access from the outside. Miter lock gates. — Soundings were taken in all air-tight compartments weekly which were pumped out where necessary. All sump pumps were operated for test weekly and given a thorough inspection each month. Rising stem valves. — Steel footwalks and handrails were installed over all pits at all machines at both locks, to facilitate maintenance and promote safety for employees. To insure the bevel gears remaining in proper mesh, a Babbitt collar has been cast on vertical shaft under the gear and a split iron collar placed on the vertical shaft between the gear and the bearing; this work has been completed on all machines at both locks. In September, 1917, the east chamber was unwatered for the inspection of the miter gates and other submerged parts by the contractor. At this time the lock forces made a thorough inspection of the rising stem valves at the lower end of the east and center walls. The valves and fixed irons had been coated with bitumastic the previous years, at which time the steel side seal strips and the Babbitt bottom seals had been replaced with lignum-vitae and greenheart wood, respectively. The bitumastic enamel was found to be in good condition and required very little touching up. The new wood seals have been found very satisfactory and showed very little wear and no evidence as yet of teredos.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 59 Spillway. — Galvanized-iron pans were made and installed under the worms tiC each of the srate-operating machines, to catch the oil drippings which formerly went to waste ; this oil is now bein<; filtered and used again. Tel r phone and lifthiing syslein. — Considerable trouble has been experienced witli tlie telephone system during the past year. On inspection, it was found that the .iute-covered wire originally installed was the cause of the trouble; this jule-insulated wire has all been replaced with lead-covered cable. lUibberiiiKulated wire originally installed in the exterior lamp-posts for lighting, has also been replaced with lead-covered cable at both locks, which has practically eliminated all trouble on these circuits. The installing of lead-covered cable, replacing jute-covered wire, In the chases in all tunnels was completed, the chases being left open for inspection and ventilation. These chases were originally closed up with cement blocks; on removing these blocks, the chases were found to be very damp and wet and the wires covered with mold ; leaving the chase open has prevented any further trouble. Terminal boards have been installed under the control boards in control houses, on telephone cables, to facilitate testing and locating trouble. Distribution terminal boards were also installed in all crossover rooms in operating tunnels to facilitate testing and locating trouble on telephone system. Toiling locomotives. — The two new locomotives manufactured at the Balboa shops were received at Mirallores locks in June, 1917. The cars as received had no electrical work done on them. Panel boards have since been installed, together with other electrical accessories, and the cars wired complete ; they are giving satisfactory service. Several changes were made in the design of these locomotives, i. e., the cab was increased 6 Inches in height, and is a decided improvement. Electrically operated brakes were installed on the slow coiling motors, to prevent them from overhauling, a feature previously installed on one locomotive for experimental purposes, which proved very satisfactory and a valuable improvement. It is the intention to Install same style brakes on all towing locomotives, using the brakes from the discarded miter forcing machines for this purpose. Openings were cut and sliding panels made and installed in the back of each cab on all locomotives to give access to the wiring on the rear of the switchboard panels. Pipe fenders were installed on all locomotives to prevent cables from rubbing the sides. All locomotives have been maintained both electrically and mechanically and kept in practically perfect operating condition. Toning track system. — On account of faulty construction, many of the rail joints of towing tracks and the sections over the miter gate I'ecesses were found to be loose, necessitating removing the concrete and also removing the removable sections, correcting the base plate, by placing steel shims under the rails, to level them, after which the concrete was put back in place, making these tracks mechanically perfect at the present time. The vibration of theseloose joints caused many of the copper bonds connecting the rails together to break loose, which had to be renewed. Transformer rooms. — Ventilators were designed, cast out of concrete and installed In the decking covers, 20 in all, one at each transformer room at both locks. The oil in all transformer and oil switch cases at both locks was tested and filtered, or renewed where necessary. " Resuscitation " instructions and one-line diagrams of high-tension distributing system were provided with frames and hung on the walls in every transformer room for the benefit of employees. Caisson. — The floating caisson previous to being sent to Gatun locks, was pumped out to reduce the draft to 33J feet, and left Pedro Miguel locks on October 29, 1917. Deck lights. — Broken glasses were removed and new glasses placed where necessary at both locks. Approximately 8,000 new glasses were installed. Backfills and dams. — The backfills and dams at both sets of locks have been maintained throughout the year. All railroad tracks at both locks were maintained and resurfaced. The grass on all backfills and dams has been kept cut during the rainy season ; during the dry season part of this force was used in caring for and clearing up backfills, grading, ditching, and draining same. Four locomotive repair pits have been installed, one on the upper level and one on the lower level on each side at Miraflores locks. Spurs connecting these

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60 I'HE PANAMA CANAL. pits with the return traclis on the lock walls and with the main railroad tracks have been installed, requiring a large amount of grading on the west side. The west dam at Miraflores locks was riprapped from launch landing to lock wall, a distance of about 300 feet. A 5-foot concrete walk was made from west lock wall to bachelor quarters and a 5-foot oil and gravel walk connecting this with the launch landing at Miraflores locks. Launches and boats. — Launch Mary S was taken out of water, completely overhauled, and put back into service. The assembling of the new launch (knocked down) ordered from the States lias been started and is well under way. Five flat-bottom and three round-bottom rowboats were built and put into service. Locomotive cranes. — All locomotive cranes were kept in serviceable condition, ready for instant use. Lock machine shops. — The machine shops have been able to turn out nearly all parts necessary for the maintenance of the lock equipment, with the exception of a very few very heavy pieces of work, which were sent to the Balboa shops. A retaining wall was built for the platform in front of the machine shop at Miraflores. The platform was finished off with gravel and screenings. This wall was mainly built out of concrete slabs left over from the construction of the locks. MISCELLANEOUS WORK. Scaffolds. — Twelve scaffolds were made for painter, for use in painting miter gates. Cocoli shed. — All machinery and material stored at Cocoli shed was cleaned up and painted with tar paint. One carload of piping 2i to 6 inches, four carloads of scrap iron, and two cars of scrap rail were sent to storehouse for credit. A run around railroad track with two switches, was laid around Cocoli shed. Trees obstructing the view from the control house were cut off Cocoli shed, south of Miraflores locks. BITUMASTIC WORK AND PAINTING OF LOCK GATES AND SURMERGED PARTS. The floating caisson was sunk at the lower end of the east chamber at Miraflores locks on August 29, for the purpose of making an inspection and touching up of the miter gates, valves, and other submerged parts. All painting work was completed and the chamber again flooded on September 20, 1917. The water was lowered in the west chamber on September 29, for an inspection of the miter gates, which were found to be in very good condition. The contractor who had coated the portion of the gates under water with bitumastic enamel performed the necessary touching up of this work. His work had not stood up as well as anticipated and necessitated quite a lot of touching up. He was unable to procure the same kind of material originally used, so was allowed to substitute a practically new material, which is manufactured under the name of " Hermastic enamel." This seems to have formed a perfect bond and has proved satisfactory so far. Under date of January 11, 1918, a new contract was entered into by the American Bitumastic Enamels Co. with The Panama Canal, to do the necessary repair work to the enamel on these gates, to complete their five-year guarantee. They \vithdrew their representative from the Isthmus ; since this time the lock forces have taken care of this work in a more satisfactory manner than it was done heretofore, the cost of same being billed against the contractors. The interior of the gates is now being inspected and the necessary touching up is being done, as the five-year guarantee on the interior of all gates expires during 1918. The work will be done as near the expiration of the contract as possible. , Gates Nos. 100-101, 102-103 at Miraflores and gates Nos. 50-51, 52-53, 70-71, and 72-73 at Pedro Miguel have been completed. Those at Pedro Miguel locks were in fair condition, while those at Miraflores locks require about one-third of the surface to be reenameled. The material has held up well where it was applied, but inspection proved that in some places no enamel had been applied.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 61 The upper portion of the gates, which had been coated with graphite and lead paint, was gone over by the lock force at the same time, with the exception of four gates, Nos. 112-113, 116-117. Two of these gates (Nos. 116-117) were treated with hermastic enamel and solution furnished by the manufacturer, the other two gates (Nos. 112-113) being treated with enamel over Navy solution formula No. 58, for the purpose of determining which was the better. Preliminary results have proven that the latter treatment forms a more perfect bond. The exterior surface of all miter gates at Pedro Miguel locks which were coated with Navy bitumen enamel and solution, formula No. 58-59-60, during the last fiscal year, and reported as having been done by the lock forces in the last annual report, has been inspected and found very satisfactory up to the present time. PAINTING. In addition to caring for the bitumastic work and the painting of the spare parts at Corozal storehouse, the following painting has been done : Chain fenders. — Fourteen machines at Miraflores and two at Pedro Miguel locks have been painted completely and the walls of the pits whitewashed during the year. All of the chains have been painted with an especially prepared tar paint, which has proved very successful for this purpose. Rising stem valves. — The rising stem valves in the east and center wall culverts at Miraflores locks were inspected. These had been coated with bitumastic the year previous by the contractors. They were found in very good condition and the very small amount of touching up necessary was done by the contractor. Totoing locomotives. — All locomotives have been painted during the year, receiving two coats of gray paint and two coats of spar varnish. The gray color is more lasting, absorbs the heat less, and is easier to keep clean than the original black. Emergency dains. — Emergency dams at both sets of locks were due to be painted January, 191S, as they are supposed to be painted every two years, but upon inspection, they being found in fairly good condition, it'was decided to do some necessary touching up and leave a general coating go until next year. 8pilhcay. — The upstream side of the spillway gates was touched up with bitumastic and the downstream side and bridge structure painted. Ron-boats. — Flat and round bottom rowboats used around the locks to liandle lines and to put the pilots aboard ships were severely attacked by teredos, more damage being done at Miraflores locks than has been reported at any other place on the Isthmus. To obviate this these boats were coated with a special copper paint, which has been used since last November with good results. Concrete-floor paint. — After considerable study, to get a suitable paint to hold on the concrete floors of the operating tunnels and machine rooms, a small order was secured from the " Trus Con " laboratories which seems to be more satisfactory than that hei'etofore used. Condiictor-slot covers. — All conductor-slot covers have been coated with tar paint. Test plates. — A series of about 30 test plates have been made up and several different paints of various manufacturers and some paints locally manufactured by the lock forces are being tested to determine just what will make the best coating for the protection of the steel structure both under and above water. This was done on account of the climatic conditions found here. It is hoped that some very valuable information will be obtained from these test plates for future use. Paint mixing and grinding machines. — Due to the large quantities of paints required for maintenance at the locks, it was considered advisable to have a paint machine. Accordingly, a 30-inch single water-cooled Kaestner & Hecht paint machine was installed in the paint shop at Pedro Miguel locks. This mill has proved to be a valuable addition to our equipment, as a better paint is obtained and at a lower cost by buying the raw materials and doing our own mixing and grinding. A considerable saving is also effected by regrinding old paint that has dried and hardened. This machine is belt driven by a 7-horsepower induction motor secured from the stock of miter-forcing machine motors, which were considered unnecessary and were removed. Miscellaneous. — The necessary painting of all operating machinery has been kept up during the year.

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62 THE PANAMA CANAL. Electrical Division, The details of the operations of the electrical division during the fiscal year are covered in the report of the electrical engineer, which follows : ELECTRICAL DIVISION. W. L. Hersh, Electrical Engineer. CHARACTER AND EXTENT OF THE WORK. Tlie duties of the electrical division, during the fiscal year just closed, comprised the necessary work of design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the steam and hydroelectiric power plants, substations, transmission lines and power distribution systems ; municipal, street, shops, dock, building, and house lighting systems; telephone, telegraph, fire-alarm and railway blocksignal systems, and the railway interlocking plants ; the electric storage battery cargo handling trucks at the terminal docks and storehouses ; and the installation and repair of all classes of electrical apparatus for The Panama Canal, Panama Railroad Company, United States Army and INavy, and of all departments and divisions therein, and of commercial and United States Navy steamships. ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL, Col. T. H. Dillon, United States Army, continued as electrical engineer until he was ordered to Washington on February 5, 1918, when Mr. Walter L. Hersh was appointed electrical engineer. This change made the position of superintendent of power open, to which Mr. Baxter R. Grier was appointed. On April 24, 1918, Mr. W. L. Fey, superintendent of maintenance and construction, resigned to accept a commission in the United States Engineer Reserve Corps, snd his position was filled by Mr. Albert C. Garlington. Mr. Carl W. Markham, in charge of the office and I'equisitions, resigned on August 11, 1917, to accept a commission in the United States Engineer Reserve Corps, and his position was filled by Mr. M. P. Benninger. The five divisions into which the work was divided remains unchanged except as above, and is as follows : Office and requisitions, M. P. Benninger. Power and transmission system, B. R. Grier, superintendent. Construction and maintenance. A. C. Garlington, superintendent. Telephone and telegraph, C. L. Bleakley, superintendent. Railway sign;il system, E. C. McDonald, supervisor. On June 30, 1918, there were 208 gold and 393 silver employees in this division. The average monthly pay roll for the division was $46,000 ; average monthly expenditures were about $127,000, of which 80 per cent was for work done for other departments and divisions. OFFICE AND DESIGN. The usual miscellaneous office work was done throughout the year, including cori'espondence, reports, worlv orders, estimates and the preparation of 19 material requisitions, including specifications for 2,045 items totaling in value $783,903. The general plans of last year were developed in complete detail for the extension to the hydroelectric generating station and the transformer substation at Gatun. Plans were developed, specifications prepared, and requisitions placed for the complete electrical installations for liglit, lieat, and power at the Navy submarine base and the Army and Navy aero stations. Plans were prepared for the lighting and application of electric power in all buildings erected as new or remodeled by The Panama Canal, and in a few buildings for other interests located on the Canal Zone. IMans were prepared for the necessary extensions to the underground conduit and cable distribution system for light, power, telephone and telegraph, and fire-alarm service in the permanent towns of the canal, including the Army and Navy reservations. A complete revision of forms and method of handling work orders has been made and the new system is going into operation July 1, 1918.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 63 POWER-PLANT EXTENSIONS. The project of extending the hydroelectric development at Gatim spillway, includingthe installation of one additional generator unit of 4,500 kilowatt capacity, was carried on throughout the year. Considerahlp delay was experienced in this work due to the difficulty of obtaining equipment and materials from the States. Most of this delay was caused by war conditions, the congested factories of the contractors supplying this equipment, and the difficulty of railroad and ocean transportation. By the end of the year the building extension proper was practically completed, including concrete cells for oil circuit breakers, and concrete shelving for duplicate set of 6,600 volt buses. The penstocks for the proposed No. 4 unit and for the future units Nos. 5 and 6 were completed, including backfill and inside coat of bitumastic enamel. The head-gate house, the head gates, the trash racks, and the head-gate operating machinery, including switchboard and wiring, were completed. The erection of the 275 kilowatt horizontal turbine exciter set has been completed, but no final test has as yet been made. The 6,750 horsepower Pelton Francis vertical turbine, and the 4,500 kilowatt generator unit were received in May, and the erection was started by June 1. The oil pumps and pipe foi the oil system were received and their erection was started during June. The switchboard and switchboard meters were the last material to be received, and were delivered on the Isthmus during the last week in June. Copper was installed for the extension of bus No. 1, and the work on bus No. 2 was started. The work of placing switch gear in the compartments for the oil circuit breakers was started. This work was delayed to some extent when the men were taken from this work for more urgent work in line with national defense. After the installation of the No. 4 unit, the hydroelectric plant will have a capacity of three 2,880 kilowatts and one 4,500 kilowatt units, totaling 13.140 kilowatts, with provisions for the future installation of two 4,500 kilowatt units, making a total ultimate capacity of 22,140 kilowatts. WATER CONSUMPTION — HYDROELECTRIC STATION. A study has been made of the possible quantity of water to be consumed for the generation of electric power at the hydroelectric station at Gatun si)illway. After this plant has been developed to its ultimate capacity, the equipment driven by turbines will consist of three 2.880 kilowatt and three 4,500 kilowatt generating units, and one 275 kilowatt exciter unit. Actual figures covering a six months' period develop the fact that the existing three 2,880 kilowatt units were operating at an average load of 75 per cent of their capacity. Under average load of 7.5 per cent of their capacity, it was computed that these three units will each consume water at a rate of 410 cubic feet per second. Under maximum capacity load, it has been computed that these three units will consume 528 cubic feet per second. In these computations, the efficiency of the generators has been based on the manufacturer's factory tests and the turbine efficiency on the test made at the time of the acceptance of the larger capacity turbine wheels mentioned in last year's report. In estimating the water to be consumed by the 4,-500 kilowatt units, Nos. 4, 5, and 6, no actual test data are available. This computation was based on the turbine and generator efficiencies as proposed by the manufacturers. From these proposed values, it has been computed that water will be consumed by each of these units, when loaded on the average to 75 per cent of their capacity, at a rate of 657 cubic feet per second, and when loaded to full capacity this rate will be 852 cubic feet per second. The water consumption of the new 275 kilowatt exciter set, when based on generator and turbine efficiencies as proposed by the manufacturers, is computed to be 58.3 cubic feet per second. The total water consumption at the hydroelectric stations, when the ultiTuate six unit capacity of 22.140 kilowatts is operated under average load of 75 per cent, is summed up as follows : Cubic feet per sf cond. For three 2,8S0-kilowatt generator units 1,230 For three 4,500-kilowatt generator units 1,971 For one 275 kilowatt exciter unit 58.3 Total 3, 259. 3

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64 THE PANAMA CANAL. The total water consumption at this plant, when developerl to its ultimate capacity of 22,140 kilowatts and fully loaded, is summed up as follows : Cubic feet per second. For three 2,880-kilowatt generator units 1, 584 For three 4,500-kilowatt generator units 2, 556 For one 275-kilowatt exciter unit . 58. 3 Total 4, 198. 3 The estimate of 3,259 cubic feet per second is a very conservative iigure for the rate of water consumption for the average loading of this station when developed to the ultimate capacity. Tlie value 4.198 cubic feet per second would represent the rate of water consumption in case the minimum or valley output exceeded the plant's ultimate capacity requiring the generation of loads in excess of 22,140 kilowatts at Miraflores steam or other plants. But while such conditions are not impossible, there is at this time no indication of their probability for some indefinite time in the future. SUBSTATION AND TRANSMISSION LINE IMPROVEMENTS. At Gatun substation, preparations were made to adapt this station to the conditions obtaining after the conversion of the hydro station from 2,200 volt to 6,600 volt generation. This work includes the installation of one 8,400kilovolt-ampere 6,600-44,000-volt water-cooled transformer ; the complete remodeling of concrete cells for oil circuit breakers and for instrument transformers ; the installation of higher capacity circuit breakers ; the remodeling of a greater part of and additions to existing switchboard ; the remodeling of bus layout, including both 2,200 volt and 6,600 volt secondary buses ; the installation of two 1 ,500-kilovolt-ampere 6,600-2,200-volt water-cooled transformers ; the installation of a cooling water system to supply raw lake water to cool new transformers ; the reconnection of two 4,000-kilovoIt-ampere 2,20044,000-volt radiator-type transformers for 6,600-44,000-volt operation ; and the removing of two 2,667-kilovolt-ampere 2,200-44,000-volt radiator-type transformers. This work has been under way for some time, but has been delayed to some extent due to causes incident to the war conditions, such as the congestion of the factories of the contractors supplying new equipment, to the difficulty of railroad and ocean transportation, and to the need of calling men from this work in favor of woi'k in the line of national defense. When these changes now in progress have been completed, the Gatun substation will be equipped with two 1,500-kilovolt-ampere 6,600-2,200-volt transformers for local distribution, and with two 4,000-kilovolt-amperes, and one 8,400-kilovolt-ampere 6,600-44,000-volt transformers ' for distant transmission, with provisions for the future installation of one 8,400-kilovolt-ampere watercooled transformer. At the Cristobal substation one of the two 2,667-kilovolt-ampere 44,000-2,200 transformers has been rebuilt and rerated to 2,500-kilovolt-ampere 44,000-11,000 volts. There has been installed an 11,000-volt bus with complete switch gear and the necessary switchboard improvements for accommodating two transformers rebuilt as above ; two outgoing 11,000-volt feeders to refrigerating plant and submarine base, with provisions to accommodate the two future outgoing 11,000 feeders. A second 2,667-kilovolt-ampere transformer is to be rebuilt and rerated to 2,500-kilovolt-amperes upon removal from Gatun substation. When this last-mentioned item is completed, this station will be equipped with two 2,667-kilovolt-ampere transformers for 2,200-volt local distribution, and two 2,500-kilovolt-ampere transformers for distant 11,000-volt distribution. At this Cristobal substation, one 2,200 feeder equipment has been installed for supii»lying current to the townsite at New Cristobal. At the Miraflores substation one 2,667-kilovolt-ampere 44,000-2,200 volt transformer has been rebuilt and rerated 2,500-kilovolt-ampere 44,000-11,000 volts. This transformer was removed from Gatun substation, rebuilt and located at Miraflores in order that thi-ee 500-kilovolt-ampere transformers can be released for service at the Coco Solo submarine base. A small temporary 1,000-kilovoltampere 11,000-volt substation was built at Gold Hill from second-hand transformers and materials, and energized from Miraflores. By this expedient there were released three 500-kilovolt-ampere transformers for use at the Coco Solo

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OP MAINTENANCE. 65 submarine base. After these changes of rebuilding and rerating transformer equipment the Miraflores substation is now equipped with three 2,667-liilovoltampere 44,000-2,200-volt transformers, and one 2,500-kiIovolt-ampere 44,00011,000-volt transformer. Through the releasing of a total of six 500-kilovolt-ampere transformers, sufficient transformer equipment was secured to arrange for temporary power facilities at the Navy submarine base and aero stations practically nine months in advance of the proposed receipt of permanent equipment from manufacturers in, the States. At the Balboa substation two 2,200 volt feeder equipments were installed; one additional feeder to the air-compressing plant in building No. 29, and the second for feeding auxiliary power to the Pacific forts. Requisition has been placed for equipping this station with 400 lillovolt amperes transformer capacity, and necessary details to supply auxiliary power to the Pacific forts at a potential of 6,600 volts. The main power installation of this station, consisting of three 2,667 kilovolt amperes, 44,000-2,200 volt transformers, remains practically unchanged. Transmission line improvements consisted of the insertion of line-section switches at Gamboa. At this point four 3-pole sets of an improved type of disconnecting switch, arranged for steel tower mounting with facilities for operating from the ground, were installed. This installation proved so convenient and time saving in times of line faults, that all the original type of line section switches, which required the operator to climb part way up the tower, were replaced by this improved type of switch. The total installation of this type now consists of four 3-pole switches at Miraflores, four 3-pole switches at Gamboa, and four 3-pole switches at Gatun. DISTRIBUTION LINES. Extensions and improvements to the underground power distribution system included the laying of approximately 75,240 duct feet of vitrified tile duct; 25,000 duct feet of fiber duct, and the installation of 382,720 feet of lead-covered cable of all sizes and voltages. The principal items of work included in these figures are the distribution system extensions to the townsite of New Cristobal, the new cold-storage plant, Cristobal, to the submarine base at Coco Solo, and the aero station at Manzanillo. In these figures there are also included the installations of complete underground distribution systems at Balboa radio station, at Corozal ordnance depot, at Port Sherman, and the local distribution systems within the reservations at the submarine base and aero stations. Miscellaneous other items of distribution improvements include the building of a small pole line to serve Mindi dairy farm ; the placing of the greater part of the overhead secondary distribution at Ancon and Balboa underground ; extensive changes to range and beacon circuits whereby these circuits, previously energized from Pedro Miguel locks, are now enei'gized from Gamboa; and an underground circuit in the city of Panama to supply light and power to Panama Canal and other Government interests in that city. The principal additions to the street-lighting systems were those at New Cristobal and Fort Grant, and several improvements were made to the existing installations requiring a total addition of 70 standard type lighting posts and approximately 14,300 feet of lead-covered cable. OPEBATION OF POWEE SYSTEM. The power system was operated throughout the year with an average net generated output of 4,419,192 kilowatt hours per month, as compared with 4,199,020 kilowatt hours per month last year. The increase in output has been largely generated at the hydroelectric station, and the fuel-oil consumption at the Miraflores steam plant for stand-by service has been reduced from an average of 3,428 barrels per month last year to 2,906 barrels per month this year. The average cost of distributed power for the year was 0.7782 cent per kilowatt hour, as compared with 0.7301 cent per kilowatt hour last year. This increase in cost of power has been caused largely by the increased cost of labor for operation and maintenance. Plate No. 3 shows the typical curves of Sunday and week-day loads carried at the hydroelectric station. The Miraflores steam station is operated on a

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66 THE PANAMA CANAL. reserve basis carrying load only at such times as the total-system load exceeds the present three-unit capacity of the hydro station. The power used to motor the two or more generators at Miraflores operated as synchronous condensers for power-factory correction exceeds the power generated at this plant. This accounts for the negative output for this plant as tabulated In the following abstract showing the monthly output generated at both plants : Table shoivimj monthly outputs in Tcilowatt hours. Month. Net output

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EEPOET OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 67 The principal loads in kilowatts added during the past year are tabulated as follows: Submarine charging station (temporary) Storage battery charging station, Cristobal Army quarters and buildings New Hospital, Ancon New hospital, Cristobal Mindi dairy farm Balboa shops, additional machinery and miscellaneous Air compressor, Inxilding 29, 1,000 cubic feet Power. 1,000 150 20 100 10 250 200 Light. 30 100 20 Series street lighting Municipal pumping station. Empire Municipal pumping station, Paraiso Buildings at Red Tank Buildings at New Cristobal Total. Power, 120 50 1,900 Light. 10 20 90 270 The principal loads to be added in the future are tabulated as follows ;

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68 THE PANAMA CANAL. cipal items of cable installation included in these figures are a trunk cable to submarine base and necessary extensions to the underground system at Balboa Heights, Cristobal, and Pedro Miguel. The Transisthmian duct line was broken by a slide near Mile Post 17, on November 18. 1917, making necessary the rebuilding of 150 feet of 4-way duct and the transfer of cables. Also a 600-foot section of this duct line was rebuilt at Mile Post 38, new cable installed, and the overhead cable removed at this point. The principal items of work performed by the telephone department include the installation of a new cable in the Transisthmian duct line for the Central & South American Cable Co. ; the installation of one private branch exchange at Quarry Heights, and a second at the submarine base; and the installation of a complete 14 station interphone system at the Balboa radio station. Central office improvements included the installation of additional switchboard sections, consisting of two operating positions at Cristobal exchange, two positions at Pedro Miguel exchange, and one position at Balboa Heights exchange. The question of new telephone equipment for the Cristobal exchange is being investigated to determine the best type of apparatus to install. Those under consideration are the improved type of manual with automatic listing and ringing, semiautomatic, and full automatic. FIRE-ALARM SYSTEM. The work of inspecting and maintaining the fire-alarm system has been combined with the telephone department. New installations consisted of two additional fire-alarm boxes at New Cristobal, four auxiliary fire-alarm boxes on dock at La Boca, and a new fire-alarm register at the'Aucon fire station. One case of trouble was reported during the year ; this was a defective alarm box at Cristobal. The complete system has been inspected and worked over, and worn parts have been renewed where necessary to keep the system in good state of repair and in positive operating condition. EAILWAY SIGNAL SYSTEM. There were a few changes made on the railway signal system during the year on accoimt of track changes ; at Gamboa a new spur track was connected to main line; Gamboa passing track was extended 50 feet south, making it necessary to move one train-order signal and two automatic signals ; minor track changes at Monte Lirio required some changes in signal system ; the power-operated train-order signals at Frijoles were taken out of service on account of discontinuing this as an operating station; railway switch at Rio Grande was removel and switch signals removed. The overhead signal cable at slide near Mile Post 38 was taken down and cable installed in rebuilt duct line around this slide. Also new piece of cable cut in at north end of Bohio siding on account of threatened slide, new duct line having been built. Two highway-crossing bells were installed at Cristobal street crossings. All signals were thoroughly adjusted for kick off, and trouble from this cause has been practically eliminated. Derails were installed at several places on hand-thrown switches. There were 2,404,176 registered arm movements with 131 responsible signal interruptions, compared with 2,474,210 arm movements and 115 signal interruptions of the previous year. This gave an average of 18,352 arm movements per signal failure for 1918 and 21,515 arm movements per failure for year of 1917. There were 556 train-minutes delay in 1918, compared with 431 trainminutes delay for 1917. There was an average of 4.2 minutes for each delayed train on account of flagging. There was one reported false clear aspect on the 120 automatic, 16 semiautomatic, 14 power operated, 12 mechanical, and 11 train-order signals for the 2,404,176 arm movements. This lone failure occurred in November, 1917, and wascaused by broken-down installation in cable splice. In the following are tabulated the responsible signal failures, arm movements, ti-ain-minutes delay for each month during the year :

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 69 Date. July, 1917 August, 1917 Septemoer, 1917. October, 1917. . . November, 1917. December, 1917 . January, 1918. .. February, 1918.. March, 1918 April, 1918 Mav, 1918 June, 191 8 Total Total signal failures. Responsible. 15 18 14 5 9 16 6 7 3 16 10 12 131 Nonresponsible. 18 Total arm movements. 218,414 211,032 205,874 251,427 224,859 201,592 192,398 177,141 180,563 184, 096 182,512 173,268 2,404,176 Total trainminutes delay. 86 33 97 28 50 50 18 20 20 42 60 50 556 There was an average of 46 train minutes' delay and 10.9 responsible signal failures per month. There were three derailments at the interlocking plants as compared with nine for the preceding year — one in February, at the pontoon bridge, caused by lift rail not being properly seated ; second in March, at Balboa Heights, caused by error in operation by leverman in cabin ; third in April, at Balboa Heights, cause remains unknown. There was but one derailment at switches equipped mth hand-throw derails; this was caused by colored brakeman throwing derail under moving car. There was one failure of power-operated train-order signal, apparently caused by poor contact adjustment. There were 60 reported signal failures at interlocking plants for the year. This includes both mechanical and electrical signals. This was an increase over the preceding year. The greater part of these failures occurred at the pontoon bridge, mainly from causes foreign to the signal department. Rapid filling of Pedro Miguel locks lowers the water level at this bridge about 6 or 7 inches in a few minutes. This, and the action of a large dipper dredge which has been working very close to the bridge for several months, causes a lateral movement of the pontoon which results in opening of electrical contacts and loosening of mechanical joints. Responsible signal interruptions for fiscal year ending June SO, 1918.

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70 THE PANAMA CANAL. Responsible signal interruptions for fiscal year ending June 30, 1918 — Continued.

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REPORT OF ENGIlSrEER OF MAINTENANCE. 71 Some items of miscellaneous electrical material and* supplies consumed In the work done by the electrical division during the year are briefly expressed in the following tabulation : Wire, rubber-covered twin, total all sizes feet__ 339, 000 Wire, rubber-covered single, total all sizes do 503, 200 Wire, base copper, total all sizes do 38, 600 Lamp cord do 29, 000 Heater cord do 25, 000 Cable, lead-covered, total sizes and types do 383,000 Conduit, rigid steel, all sizes do 349, 100 Condulet fittings units__ 17, 650 Outlet boxes do 6, 025 Electric lamps, all sizes do 199,700 Sockets and receptacles, all types do 35.500 Fuses, all sizes do 35,600 Lighting fixtures, house do 5, 250 Lighting fixtures, marine do 1, 050 Distribution transformers, total 229 all sizes kilowatts — 1, 140 Electric division motor vehicles traveled miles — 43, 950 Municipal Engineering Division. The details of the operations of the municipal engineering division during the fiscal year are covered in the report of the municipal engineer which follows: Division of Municipal Engineering. The construction and general maintenance of the division of municipal engineering was divided into two districts, the Southern, under the supervision of Mr. W. J. Spalding, extending from Darien to Flamenco Island; and the Northern, under the supervision of Mr. E. H. Chandler, extending from Frijoles to Magarita. The Southern district includes Darien, Gamboa, Las Cascadas, Empire, Culebra, Paraiso, Pedro Miguel, Red Tank, Corozal, Ancon, Balboa, La Boca and the city of Panama, Republic of Panama. The total population of this district, exclusive of United States Military and Naval forces, is approximately 80,600. The Northern district includes Frijoles, Monte Lirio, Gatun, Mount Hope, Cristobal, New Cristobal, Toro Point, Magarita, and the city of Colon, Republic of Panama. The population of this district, exclusive of the United States Military and Naval forces is approximately 40,400. The operation of the water purification plants, the care of the sources of water supply, the laboratory control work on concrete, sheet asphalt, concrete asphalt, tarvia, investigation and experimental work on paints, analysis of soils, by-products from slaughterhouses, etc., were under the. supervision of Mr. George C. Bunker, physiologist. The staff of the physiologist was composed of the following members : H. W. Nightingale, biologist. H. T. Campion, superintendent of the Mount Hope filter plant up to March 6, 1918, succeeded by H. Gunning. H. F. Schmidt, superintendent of Agua Clara filter plant up to July 7, 1917, succeeded by W. C. Dunn. H. W. Green, engineer of tests. A. H. Khachadoorian, chief chemist. H. Schuber, assistant chemist. C. W. Saxe, assistant chemist. J. Congo, filter operator. R. G. Shell, filter operator. G. C. Chevalier, filter operator. E. J. Tucker, chief assistant, resigned September 22, 1917, to enter the Sanitary Corps of the United States National Army.

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72 THE PANAMA CANAL. The following is a list of the more important items of material used on construction and maintenance work by the municipal division during the fiscal year : 70,480 barrels of cement. 5,603 cubic yards of sand. .5,247 cuubic yards of crushed rock. 2,362 cubic yards of screenings. 52,459 cubic yards of run-of-bank gravel. 634,552 feet b. m. of lumber. 673,506 pounds of reinforcing steel. 31,900 linear feet of vitrified sewer pipe. 67,829 linear feet of galvanized-iron water pipe. 6,371 linear feet of 20-inch and 24-inch concrete pipe. 32,110 linear feet of cast-iron water pipe. 51 three-way fire hydrants. 2,237 barrels of crude oil. 395 water meters. 8,165 pounds of leadite. 61,566 pounds of lead. 2,100 pounds of jute. 19,765 paving bricks. 1,191,361 pounds of asphalt. 52,831 gallons of tarvia. 2,246 tons of coal. $2,418 worth of meter repair parts. Equipment purchases consisted of two 4,000 gallons per minute sewer pumps for New Cristobal ; two self-propelling 11 cubic feet concrete mixers ; pumping equipment for the water and sewer pumping stations at Toro Point and Coco Solo ; 1 Iroquois portable asphalt mixing plant ; gasoline driven centrifugal pumps for the pumping stations at Frijoles and Monte Lirio ; miscellaneous equipment for road repair work. A large portion of the above listed material was used for maintenance and upkeep of water .plants, roads, streets, sidewalks, and water and sewer systems in the Canal Zone, on which a total of $558,941.59 was spent. The following statement shows the quantity of water pumped at each of the pump stations during the year and the average quantity per month with the average cost per thousand gallons for pumping: Pumping station. Total gallons pumped during year. Average number gallons per month. Average cost per M gallons for pumping. Mount Hope Agua Clara Frijoles Monte Lirio GamboaU.S. No. 1 Miraflores U. S. No. 2. . . Balboa U. S. No. 3 Paraiso Cucuracha (Mount Zion) Camacho (tanks) Camacho (into mains) . . . 1, 442, 275, 000 428, 401, 000 8, 408, 250 3, 089, 250 3, 462, 016, 000 379, 460, 000 2,383,659,575 74, 540, 000 121, 070, 000 97, 476, 200 116, 159, 100 120, 189, 583 35, 700, 083 700, 687 257, 437 288,501,333 31,621,666 198, 638, 297 6,211,666 10, 089, 166 8, 230, 016 9,679,925 -t$0.01605 4.0311 4. 2400 + . 4973 .0105 .0215 .0105 .0620 The following statement shows the division cost of water delivered in the various districts of the Canal Zone : Districts.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 73 Port.

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74 THE PANAMA CANAL. Repobt of Wateb Collections Office — Colon — Continued. Water rental collections. Quarter ended—

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 75 status of capital cost account for mnnicipal improvements in Panama and Colon — Contiuued. COLON. June 30, 1911 June 30, 1912 June 30, 1913 June 30, 1914 June 30, 1915 Tune 30, 1916 June 30, 1917 June 30, 1918 Total. . 114.24 84; 528. 41 88,071.07 14,302.97 1,413.33 1,908.82 54,876.54 4,799.90 438,015.28 $43, 111. 09 54, 470. So 51,161.60 61,542.71 64, 125. 55 85, 171. 60 69, 774. 81 75,490.70 504, 848. 91 .119,041.25 21,774.37 24,101.60 26,292.38 26, 611. 47 26, 256. 02 25,062.22 25,463.52 194,602.89 S18,019.80 20, 994. 40 23, 553. 23 24,388.65 24, 513. 22 24, 569. 28 24,868.25 15,992.66 176, 899. 49 $78, 870. 28 98. 541. 48 98. 816. 49 112,223.74 115,250.24 135,996.90 119,705.28 126,946.88 886,351.29 Under the head 6f new construction by the municipal division in the towns and villages occupied by Panama Canal employees in the Canal Zone, a total of $545,723.55 was spent. The principal items of construction under this heading were the grading of grounds and the extension of roads, water and sewer systems for the new buildings erected in the hospital grounds at Ancon; the grading of grounds, installation of water and sewer systems around the new school houses erected at Ancon, Balboa, Pedro Miguel, Gatun, and Cristobal; the resurfacing with concrete of the streets in old Cristobal, the Mount HopeColon Road, Main Street, Gatun, the Ancon-Corozal Road, the Corozal-Pedro Miguel Road, the East La Boca Road, Sosa Hill Road, and roads in the Balboa shop district; the construction of new and extension of old sidewalks in the various towns occupied by canal employees and various extensions to the existing water and sewer lines. Under the head of work for other divisions, the following sums were expended and the more important items of work under this heading were as listed below : United States Army. — Total expenditure $258,416.59. The principal work under this heading was the completion of construction under way in the various posts at the end of the fiscal year 1917, and such maintenance and repair work as was requested, consisting mainly of grading and planting of grass, construction of concrete streets and sidewalks, extension of water and sewer systems at Forts Amador, Sherm.-m, and de Lesseps, and the installation of water and sewer pumping station at Fort Sherman. There was also performed under this heading the making of surveys and the preparation of plans and estimates for the proposed new Army posts at Gatun, Miraflores, Corozal, Diablo, and Corundu River, and general maintenance and repair work in Army camps. The Panama Railroad. — The sum of $187,401.82 was expended. The principal items of construction under this heading were the completion of the Corundu River storm sewer, the filling of and installation of water, sewers, and streets for the Folks River section of Colon extension ; the installation of water, sewers, streets, and sidewalks for the Summit chicken farm; the installation of water lines and pumps for irrigating work on the various plantations ; the construction of roads and sewers for the hog farm ; the grading for and construction of roads and the necessary water and sewer systems at the Mindi dairy farm. In addition, numerous miscellaneous jobs were performed. Outsiders. — The total expenditure was $42,282.94. The work done consisted principally of that for which deposits were made and included the construction of roads, sewers, and water lines for the area to be occupied by the South and Central American Cable Co., concrete construction work for the Panama Tramway Co., repairs to streets where gas connections were made ; making water and sewer connections for private parties in the cities of Colon and Panama. Terminals. — A 4^otal of $56,896.93 was expended, consisting in the main of ratproofing under docks Nos. 13, 14, 15, and pier No. 18, a total of 12,200 square yards of reinforced concrete being placed ; and the extension of roads in the shops district. Building division. — A total of $91,419.28 was spent. The work consisted of the installation of water and sewer connections for new buildings constructed ; the erection of clotheslines for new quarters; the preparation of building sites ; the installation of water lines ; circulating water sy.stem from Mindi diversion and construction of roads for the cold storage plant ; the grading

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76 THE PANAMA CANAL. for the building site of Mindi dairy farm ; numerous miscellaneous jobs of work. Health (Icpartment. — The sum of $37,325.83 was spent on such engineering and general construction work as was requested by the health department; the construction of concrete ditches and drains; filling of swamp areas; preparation of estimates for proposed work ; maintenance of pumping station at the Palo Seco leper colony. Miscellaneous. — For the divisions of fortifications, clubs and playgrounds, locks, electrical, marine, dredging, mechanical, quartermaster and supply there was a total of $118,092.70 spent. This work consisted of miscellaneous construction jobs. During the year a total of 224,581 square yards of conci-ete streets and roads were constructed, 30,800 square yards of which were covered with a wearing surface of sheet asphalt ; 12,268 square yards of roadway were constructed with Telford and macadam base, with a wearing surface of asphaltic concrete and hot tarvia mixed. The total number of square yards of road constructed during the year was 236,849. Trouble experienced on the Canal Zone vrith concrete aggregates due to their containing excessive amounts of clay, loam, and silt resulted in instituting a laboratory at Miraflores water purification plant. During the past year the work has been of a practical nature, very little research work having been undertaken. The first problem has been to furnish convincing evidence that the concrete as laid varies greatly in compressive strength due to lack of uniformity of this aggregate, and that sufficient care has not been taken in mixing, placing, and curing the concrete. The inspection of various construction jobs was made with the aid of (1) the compression cylinders made as shown in the following tables, (2) the analysis of the aggregates, (3) the time studies on the mixers, (4) the determination of the amount of water used, and (5) the methods employed by the various foremen. Cylinders made and broken during the fiscal year, from January to June 30, 191S. [6 inches in diameter, 12 inches high.] Location.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 77 Ultimate compi-essive strength in pounds per square inch after 120 days. A C Type of treatment 2568 —358 2302 -283 2826 —100 2451 —134 2888 38 2714 129 3034 108 2871 286 3315 389 Average strength 2926 1_ 2585 IIIII Maximum deviation 389 286 Average deviation 7% 200 ~8% 210 Type of treatment: A. The forms are removed after being buried two days in moist sand and the specimens then buried in moist sand. C. The forms are removed after being buried two days in moist sand and the specimens receive treatment similar to that of the road — i. e., covered with about 2 inches of clay and wet down frequently Remarks : Specimens having rough ends were capped with plaster of Paris. Distribution of load by blotting paper. Spherical head was used. Speed : Slow-slow. The table of the values of the compressive strength has been omitted from this year's report because it was desired that the cylinders be permitted to age for 28, 60, and 120 days before being broken. Inasmuch as many of the 120-day tests have not matured, the 28 and 60 day results also have been omitted. The following is an average of the various samples taken of Chagres River run of bank, from which all material is derived for concrete construction at present on the Canal Zone : Size of seive. 2 inches. IJ inches IJ inches, 1} inches 1 inch I inch AverPcr ct. 99.4 96.5 92.1 87.2 80.3 71.4 Size of sieve. J inch. I inch. No. 10 No. 16 No. 20 No. 30 Average.! Per ct. 58.7 43.1 29.2 25.6 23.8 18.0 Size of sieve. No. 40. No. 50. No. 74. No. 100 No. 150 No. 200 Average.i Perct. 13.5 8.8 4.9 2.8 1.4 .8 I Average run of bank, Chagres River, passing each sieve. Summary of the determinations made in connection with the work on, concrete aggregates. 60 mechanical analyses of the aggregate available. 40 trial mixes and curves to determine the most dense mix with different combinations of the aggregates. 1.200 briquettes made of neat cement or 1 : 3 mortar. 70 cylinders, 2 inches in diameter and 4 Inches high made of ngat cement or 1 : 3 mortar. In addition to this, determinations of siit and organic matter were made. Some work is being done with Abram's sodium hydroxide method. Both the laboratory and the field methods are being used. Special care was taken to furnish all foremen performing construction work with data showing results of the tests made on their respective jobs with various conditions under which their work was performed. The main difficulty encountered with most of the construction men was that of convincing them of the necessity of giving sufficient time to the mix, holding the amount of water to a minimum and taking the necessary precautions to pond the concrete where possible and where not possible to cover with a sufficient layer of clay, that by being kept wet, would protect the slab from the direct rays of the intense tropical sun. It is possible to demonstrate beyond question, as is the case on all concrete work where laboratory control is used, that by observing the cardinal principles of mixing a sufficient time, using a minimum amount of water, a. proper classification of the aggregate and the necessary care in curing, the same results are obtained in compressive strength with a very appreciable decrease in the amount of cement used. While this laboratory control, as stated, has only been started during the pre.'^ent fiscal year, vei-y appreciable benefits have been obtained. It is believed that by continuing the practice of laboratory control a more uniform class of work will be done at an appreciable saving.

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78 THE PANAMA CANAL. It has been found that one of the most important causes of trouble with run-of-bank gravel from the Chagres River is the lack of bond, to a greater or less extent, between the cement paste and the aggregate. The particles upon close examination show that they are coated by a film of impurities which may be removed by treatment with acid or alkali, and to a large extent by careful washing. Silt and organic matter in Chagres River sand. [Average of 10 determinations of different samples.] 1. Per cent of silt 5.1 2. Per cent of organic matter .51 3. Per cent of organic matter in the silt 10 4. Per cent of loss on ignition . 2.2 5. Rated in accordance witli Abram's sodium hydroxide index 300 The only practical method found which • will appreciably remove this iilm is by thoroughly washing the aggregate before using. Due to the expense involved in the present method of washing it has been possible to use the washed material only upon work where an extra strong concrete is necessary. It is intended to erect a suitable washing plant to take care, more economically, of future requirements. It was found that by washing Chagres River sand the tensile strength could be increased on an average over 40 per cent, and by grading and washing the Chagres River run of bank a stronger and more uniform concrete is obtained with a considerable saving of cem.ent. The laboratory control was also used on our bituminous road construction. Daily laboratory control of the asphalt plant has been instituted, and samples have been taken both at the plant and from the laid pavement. Summary of the work performed during the past fiscal year : 119 mechanical analyses and determinations of the per cents of bitumen, voids, specific gravities, and other data required to complete a report. 83 additional determinations of the per cent of bitumen. 30 mechanical analyses of aggregates available for asphalt work. 83 mechanical analyses of the aggregate mixtures for asphaltic wearing surface taken at the plant. 19 mechanical analyses of the aggregate mixtures for asphaltic binder course taken at the plant. 82 different combinations employed, of the available aggregates, with weight per cubic foot, void determinations, and mechanical analyses of the resulting mixtures to determine the most dense mis and the mix best suited for binder and wearing surfaces. The wearing surface determined upon from the experiments was made up as follows: Materials. Weight of pavement. Weight of aggregate. Bitumen Chagres River sand Sand from hydraulic fUl. Cement Per cent. 10 72 9 9 Per cent. 80 10 10 The method of laying the sheet asphalt wearing surface on a concrete foundation was as follows : The surface of the concrete was thoroughly swept, and by means of a squeegee one-quarter of a gallon of Tarvia " B " was applied to ench square yard, as a seal coat. It was found by comparing surfaces laid with iind without the squeegee coat of Tarvia that a much more i)erfect bond was obtained between tlie concrete and the wearing surface where the squeegee coat was used than where the asphalt was laid directly on the concrete. Following is the form of reporting the operation of the plant in order that the cost may be computed daily.

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KEPORT OF ENGIISrEER OF MAINTENANCE. 79 Daily cost report — asphalt plant. Material. Bitumen, pounds Chagres River sand, cubic yards. Cement, sacks Labor, mixing Labor, placing Transportation charges . Total cost . WEAKING SURFACE. Mixed, cubic yards Laid, square yards Laid, linear feet of road. Amount. Unit cost. ** ** Total cost. Date, Location, Foreman, Note.—* To be filled in by foreman. ** Data desired. Special sections of road were laid for experimental purposes using different quantities by weight of aggregate and bitumen. These sections are carefully recorded as to location and make it possible to show by practical illustration the comparative values of different mixes. The diagram on which we prepare our curves was patterned after that in use in the engineer's office of the city of Berlieley, Cal. This card appeared in the issue of Engineering and Contracting for March 7, 1917, Vol, XLVII, No. 10. Record of screen test No. 2. (Date) March 13, 1918. Lab. No. P. 33. Analysis of wearing surface. Road or street, Ancon-Miraflores Road. Laid Mar. 9, 1918. Dug out Mar. 11, 1918. Weight of sample 291.0 Weight of sample in air after soaking in water for 24 hours 295. 5 Weight of sample in water after soaking in water for 24 hours 164. Per cent of water absorbed 1-55 Apparent specific gravity of sample 2. 213 Composition of the sample. Per cent units of the aggregate. Soluble in CSs (total bitumen) Passing 200-mesh sieve Passing 150 retained on 200 mesh Passing 100 retained on 150 mesh Passing 74 retained on 100 mesh Passing 50 retained on 74 mesh Passing 40 retained on 50 mesh Passing 30 retained on 40 mesh Passing 20 retained on 30 mesh Passing 16 retained on 20 mesh Passing 10 retained on 16 mesh Passing J inch retained on 10 rilesh Retained on J inch mesh : Passing 1 inch on ^ inch mesh Passing 1\ inch retained on 1 inch mesh Passing 1 1 inch retained on 1^ inch mesh Retained on 1 J inch mesh Specific gra\-ity of original bitumen at 78778° F Apparent specific gravity of aggregates retained on i inch Specific gravity of aggregate retained on 10 mesh Specific gravity of fine aggregate retained on 16-100 mesh Specific gravity of fine material retained on 150-200 mesh, and passing 200 mesh . Maximum possible density Bitumen, rational per cent Aggregate, rational per cent Per cent of voids in mineral aggregate Per cent of voids in original sample 9.9 2.4 4.6 5.4 6.7 7.8 7.8 9.2 3.5 8.9 23.3 10.5 Per cent weights. 7.0 9.2 2.2 4.3 5.0 6.2 7.2 7.2 8.6 3.3 8.3 2L7 9.8 1.035 2.677 2.680 2.780 2.423 16.39 83.61 25. 05 2.66 Remarks: The tHickness of the samples was 2 inches. Geo. C. BiTNKER, In charge of testing laboratories.

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80 THE PANAMA CANAL. The following plates accompany this report : Plate No. 5. Concrete road between Corozal and Miraflores. Plate No. 6. Typical section of 18-inch concrete roadbed, M'ith sheet asphalt wearing surface. Following is report of work performed by chemical section of the testing laboratories at Miraflores during the year : Number of samples analyzed. Asphalt 10 Tarvia , 1 Asphalt weai'lng surface 35 Asphalt wearing surface mixtures 10.3 Bituminous concrete pavement 16 Miscellaneous work, Including samples of paints, painting materials, sand, cement, lime, alum, fertilizers, coal, minerals, rocks, seeds, etc 122 Investigations were made on the following subjects : 1. Corrosion of the lead sheaths of cables at Miraflores locks. 2. Waterproofing concrete tanks to store crude carbolic acid3. Substitute for embossing compound used at the Mount Hope printing plant. The total cost of work performed by the municipal division during the fiscal year, including labor and material and charges from other divisions and departments of The Panama Canal, was $2,051,462.08. The following is a summary of the report of the work performed in connection with the operation of the water purification plants during the year: Placed in service . District supplied. Source of supply. Rated capacity, gallons per day. Method of purification Aeration basin: Size, feet Number of nozzles Sedimentation basin: Size, feet Depth, feet Capacity, gallons Period 6i sedimentation, hours Rapid sand filters: Number of units ; Total sand area, square feet Depth of filtering materials — Sand, inches Gravel, inches Size of filtering materials: Sand, effective size Sand, xmiformity coefficient Gravel, size, inches Per cent of sand area covered by horizontal area of troughs. Washing of filters: Vertical rise per minute, inches Gallons per square feet of sand surface. . Filter bottom, type Loss of head: Average initial, feet Average final, leet Length of filter runs, hours, yearly average. Volumes of water, average gallons per day: Raw Filtered Delivered to mains Wash water Percent of filtered water Chemicals, yearly averages: Alum, pounds per million gallons , Lime, pounds per million gallons , Liquid chlorine, parts per million, available chlorine. Agua Clara. Dec. 29, 1911 Gatun, Toro Point, Agua Clara Reservoir. 2,500,000 Aeration, sedimentation, rapid sand filtration. 4by8i. 70.5 by 71. 10.5 350,000 10 , 4 1,156. 30. 24. 0.44.... l.Sl.... A to If. 22.3 19 12 Harrisburg, Pa. 0.5... 7.5... 94.22. 1,199,000. 1,171,000. 1,162,000. 9,000 0.70 212. 56.. Mount Hope. Feb. 23, 1914 Colon, Mount Hope, Margarita Point. Brazos Brook Reservoir. 8,000,000 Aeration, sedimentation, rapid sand filtration. 60 by 66. 85 171 bv 171. 12.25! 2,500,000.. 14 3,078. 30. 22. 0.41... 1.70... Jtoli. 32.0. . . 20. 12.5. Harrisburg, Pa... 1.3.. 12.5. 27.2. 4,102,000. 3,f>51,000. 3,834,000. 116,000.. 2.95 238. 0.208. Miraflores. Mar. 14, 1915. Pedro Miguel, Corozal, A n c o n, Balboa, Panama. Chagres River. 15,000,000. Aeration, sedimentation, rapid sand filtration. 86 by 130 105 300 by 125 16.5 4,500,000 12 14 5,950 30 24 0.41 1.70 tV to If 32.8 24 15 Concrete false bottom. 1.0. 11.5 37.2 8,899,000 8,799,000 8;613,000 186,400 2.11 180 0.40

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REPOET OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 81

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82 THE PANAMA CANAL. Equipment for recording soil temperature automatically was installed at Balboa Heights on February 1, 1918; the thermograph bulb is buried at a depth of approximately 4 inches. The necessary equipment was installed and evaporation records were begun at Alhajuela on February 23, 1918. A standard rain gauge was installed on the Pedro Miguel River on June 25, 1918. Records from this station are used in estimating the average rainfail over the Miraflores Lake watershed. A rainfall station, equipped with standard gauge, was established at Taboga on January 10, 1918. A rainfall station was established at Dnrien radio station on June 29, 1918. This station is equipped with standard rain gauge; the records are kept by the officer commanding the radio station. • Precipitation. — Rainfall for the calendar year 1917 was above normal everywhere in the Canal Zone and vicinity, except on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, and at Monte Lirio. Quipo, and Cano. The annual totals ranged from 64.11 inches at Balboa to 145.96 inches at the Gatun River station. The average precipitation in the Pacific section was 80.37 inches; in the Central section, 103.17 inches; and in the Atlantic section. 131.01 inches. The 1917 dry season rainfall averaged approximately 50 per cent below normal, and amounted to but 3 per cent of the annual total in the Pacific and Central sections, and 6 per cent of the yearly total in the Atlantic section. November was the month of heaviest rainfall at all stations, and February was in general the month of least rainfall. The maximum 24-hour rainfall recorded during the year was 8.58 inches at Gatun on April 28-29. Daily quantities of 4 inches or more, were recorded as follows : Station. Colon Do Brazos Brook. Gatun Do Do Trinidad Frijoles Gamboa Do Date. Sept. 6 Nov. 19 Apr. 28 ...do July 22 Nov. 18 Nov. 16 Nov. 18 Nov. 23 Dec. 6-7 Rainfall. Inches. 4.15 4.08 5.15 6.63 4.48 4.28 6.00 6.05 4.01 6.20 Station. Empire Camacho Do Culebra Rio Grande.. Do Pedro Miguel Do Miraflores Date.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 83 The absolute maximum and miuimum temperatures of record at the various stations are given below (records revised to June 30, 1918) : station. Balboa Heights Gamboa Alhajuela Gatun Colon Maximum. 97 94 96 92 92 Date. Apr. 7,1912 Apr. 28,1918 Apr. 18,19121 May 30,19151 June 3, 1909 Minimum. 63 63 58 66 66 Date. Jan. Feb. Feb. Aug. Dec. 27,1910 5,1917 5,19171 7,1912 3, 1909 Annual average °F. 80.1 78.4 78.6 80.4 79.7 Years record. 12 1 7 7 10 1 Other dates also. Note. — The minimum temperature record of 58° F. recorded at Alhajuela on February 5 and 6 andMarch 25, 1917, is the lowest temperature of record on the Isthmus. The maximum temperatvire record of 97° F., recorded at Ancon (now Balboa Heights) on April 7, 1912, was equaled at the Naos Island station on February 13, 1906. The temperature during the first six months of 1918 has been generally below normal. Monthly temperature records and other meteorological data at the two firstclass stations are presented in Tables Nos. 3 and 4. Wind.— The wind movement over the Canal Zone for the year 1917 was approximately normal. March was the windiest mouth at all stations, except Balboa Heights, where the greatest wind movement occurred in February. July was geneitilly the month of least wind movement. Northwest, north, or northeast winds prevailed at all stations, although there was a large percentage of southeast and variable winds during the rainy-season months. The average hourly-wind movement, prevailing direction, and maximum velocities at the various statiohs for the year 1917 are presented in the following table :

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84 THE PANAMA CANAL. Atmospheric pressure. — The mean atmospheric pressure for the year 1917 was slightly above normal on both coasts. February was the month of highest pressure, and October the month of lowest pressure. Relative humidity. — The mean relative humidity of the atmosphere for the year was slightly above normal on the Pacific coast, and slightly below normal on the Atlantic* November was the month of highest average humidity, and February nnd March were the months of lowest humidity. Cloudiness. — The average daytime cloudiness for the year 1917 was slightly below normal on the Pacific side, and slightly above on the Atlantic. January was the month of least cloudiness on both coasts, while June was the month of heaviest cloudiness on the Pacific side, and August on the Atlantic coast. Evaporation. — Evaporation from the lake surface at Gatun was slightly below normal during the year 1917, but the evaporation at both coast stations was above the annual average. During the first six months of 1918 the evaporation has averaged close to normal. The records at the various stations are shown in Table No. 5. Fogs. — No fogs were observed during the year at the Atlantic entrance, and but few on the Pacific coast. Numerous fogs occurred at the interior stations, but practically all fogs observed lifted or were dissipated by 8.45 a. m. Sea temperature. — The surface temperature of the sea water was slightly below normal on both coasts. Records for the year 1917 are given in the following table:

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 85 solar radiation in the Canal Zone, it is thought that under the most favorable natural conditions possible the maximum temperature of steel exposed to the sun in this climate is not likely to exceed 140° F. The following plates and tables accompany the meteorological section of this report : Plate No. 7. Monthly rainfall year 1917 and station averages. Plate No. 8. Distribution of rainfall in Canal Zone, maximum minimum current, and average years. ' Table No. 1. Monthly rainfall on the Isthmus of Panama and station averages. Table No. 2. Maximum rainfall in Canal Zone and vicinity. Table No. 3. Monthly meteorological data, Balboa Heights, year 1917. Table No. 4. IMonthly meteorological data, Colon, year"l917. Table No. .5. Monthly evaporation. Canal Zone, year 1917-18, and avera^-e Table No. 6. Seismograph records, Balboa. Heights, fiscal year 1917-18. *' ' Table No. 1.— Monthly rainfaU on Isthmus of Panama, 1917-i8, and station averages. [Values in inches.] Stations. Jan. Balboa: 1917 , 1918 , Average, 19 years Balboa Heights: 1918 Average, 20 years. Miraflores: 1917 1918 Average, 9 years . Pedro Miguel: 1917 1918 Average, 10 years. Rio Grande: 1917 1918 Average, 13 years. Culebra: 1917 1918 Average, 27 years. Camacho: 1917 , 1918 , Average, 11 years Empire: 1917 1918 Average, 13 years. Gamboa: 1917 1918 Average, 35 years. Juan Mina: 1917 1918 Average, 7 years.. Alhajuela: 1917 1918 Average, 18 years. Vigia: 1917 1918 Average, 9 years. Frijoles: 1917 1918 Average, 6 years.. Trinidad: 1917 1918 Average, 10 years. Feb. [ 0.31 1.02 1.07 .13 1.78 .99 .37 3.37 1.72 .30 3.08 1.04 .00 1.48 1.17 .00 1.75 1.59 .00 1.04 1.02 .01 1.50 .74 .09 3.0' 1.73 .04 1.35 .60 .11 .93 1.04 .13 1.37 .74 .17 3.03 1.74 .58 3.96 2.67 0.19 .00 .67 .19 T. .89 .28 .00 1.24 T .02 .81 .04 .12 .77 .09 .10 .69 .22 .02 .9 .08 .02 .83 .30 .0 .89 .08 .96 1.38 .04 .14 .81 .17 .30 1.81 .15 .24 2.78 .45 .37 2.94 Mar. Apr. May. T 1.32 .63 .02 1.25 .65 .48 .20 .48 .91 .03 .38 .17 .00 .32, .03 .02 .60 .oo' .16 .45 .01 .20 .36 .26 .54 .75 .21 .00 .28 2. .17 .02 .52 .02 .17 .46 .2 .31 .63 .47 39 20 2.03 4.33 3.78 2.24 4.52 2.84 1.10 10.89 3.43 1.25 11.01 3.56 1.85 7. 3.13 1.91 6.91 3.5 1.5 6.69 3.11 2.40 6.91 3.18 3.96 3.16 3.61 2.31 3.80 3.30 June. July. Aug. 8.14' e.17 4.57;.... 7.43; 8.24 4. 6.45 8.28 5.75 6.75 8.72 6.84 8.36 10.17j 8.971 8.47 7.38 11.34! 14.78 9.36 6.55 7.35 10.17 5. 20 ... . 7.61I 7.95 11.23' 12.23 5. 70 11.03 6.98 13.68 10.61 7.1 16.20 10.95 6.59 15.30 11.24 8.07 13.56 9.86 8.14 11.45 10.81 12.34 10.29 11.01 9.73 9.21 11.45 14.44 7.33 9. 29; '16.' 26 9.70 6.27 "7.'83 7.42 ' 's.'oo 9.45 "8." 89 9.51 "8.'72 10.28 Sept. 9.89 13.59 8.07 8.87 9.47 12.33 12.70 10.92.... 9. 66l 9. 89 1.09 17.17 6.80 11.34 3.34 .67 4.91 3.01 4.14 5.27 4.30 4.18 12.30 15.09 11.46 12.07 7.37 11.29 12.04 12.24 11.96 9.31 8.65 7.82 10.12 9.77 9.45 13.56 10.78 8.70 15.76 . 12. 33 9.66 15.58 13.26 10.04 8.06 10.60 9.45 11.64 4.75 15.101 5.39 5. Oil I3.40I 10.62 8.96 17.75 io.'si 11.66 io.'os 12.90 12." 64 13.71 i2.'22 14.71 i6.'42 11.59 "9."68l 9.97 16.' 2.5 9.95 '9.'72 8.76 "9.'44 12.62 'ii.'99 15.30 'ii'oo 13.32 12.69 15.71 'i2.'94 9.71 io.'so 16.35 i6."98 9.41 ""6.'93 11.53 ' "7.' 79 14.25 '9.' 47 11.78 Oct. 5.79 "9.'36 6.14 io.'so 7.56 i2.'2.5 6.01 Nov. 8.98| 11.96 11.39 io.'se 13.05 10.76 9.95 io.li 11.44 '8." 74 9.93 '16.49 11.51 'ii.'go 9.92 'ii.'72 10.67 is.'ii 13.78 16.' 73 8.44 ii.'is 5.92 'i2.'2i 5.56 'ii.'24 6.76 'ii'gi 6.38 'i2.'7S 11.21 'i2.'66 11.75 i4.'59 13.73 i4.'i2 16.88 m.ii 9.20 is.'ss 10.03 13.33 ' '9.' 35 13.77 i6.'37 14.65 Dec. 4.49 '5.'72 4.09 '4.'45 6.13 Year. 11.37| 7.02 19.38 7.00 11.67 24.79 ii."89 21.62 i2.'59 25.37 6.08 7.41 '5.' 5.84 '7.' is 8.70 64.11 '69.'29 68.80 '76.' 56 84.57 '83.'48 89.64 83.'i7 94.72 85.'54 88.72 87.' 7i 94.14 13.80 23.79 'i2.'24 22.05 'i2."28 22.23 "is." 73 19.83 'i4.'74 20.89 is." 54 28.10 i7.'65 28.84 6.03, 89.21 7.71 92.85 's.'so 'si.' 05 8.31102.44 '6.' 78 '92.' 07 7. 06 103. 94 "5.' 26, '94."9i 6.41|103.39 14.37 18.91 6.24 4.21 '5.'62 10.18 'e.'ss 9.14 '8.'65 102.49 107. 81 i66."64 107. 82 i62."45 111.16 iio.'ss

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86 THE PANAMA CANAL, Table No. l.-r-Montlily rainfall on Isthmus of Panama, 1917-18, and station averages — Continued. stations.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 87 Table No. 3. — Monthly meteorological data, year 1911, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone}

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88 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 4. — Monthly meteorological data, year 1917, Colon (Cristobal). Month. January . . . February. . March April May June July August September October . . . November. December . Year Atmospheric pressure (inches). 29. 882 29. 928 29. 855 29.839 29. 842 29.830 29. 825 29. 842 29.821 29. 808 29. 836 29. 844 29.846 e8 29. 918 29. 965 29. 892 29. 876 29. 879 29. 868 29. 862 29. 880 29. 858 29. 845 29. 872 29. 882 29.883 Air temperature (° F.). a s 3 a o 78.8 79.3 78.8 79.2 79.0 78.7 79.0 78.8 .79.8 79.1 77.5 77.6 78.8 a I 03 85 84 84 90 89 88 87 86 90 88 85 84 90 03 7 28 4 14 13 6 21 8 12 6 9 12 2 14 a 3 a 03 a 82.5 83.1 81.5 82.2 83.3 83.1 83.4 82.9 85.1 83.7 81.1 81.4 82.8 a 3 a a 70 73 73 72 72 68 71 72 72 72 72 69 68 03 11 3 5 27 29 19 22 7 3 25 25 30 3 19 a 3 a .a a a c9 75.1 75.5 76.0 76.2 74.7 74.3 74.5 74.8 74.4 74.5 73.9 73.8 74.8 g

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EEPOET OF ENGINEEE OF MAINTENANCE. 89 Table No. 5. — Monthly evaporation, Ganal Zone, years 1917 and 1918. [Values in inches.] Month. January . . , February.. March April May June July August September. October . . . November. December . Year, Balboa Heights.' 1917 7. 1S.S 6.934 9.2S3 6.725 4. 159 2.994 2.93) 2.971 2.929 3.157 2.845 5.325 57. 440 191S 5.495 7.732 8.242 5.201 3.513 3.234 Average (10 years). 5.860 6. 128 7.377 5.467 3.518 2.964 3.172 3.137 3.173 3.326 2.941 4.386 51. 449 Gatun. 1917 6.194 6.229 7.246 6.514 4.903 4.110 3.903 4.008 4.851 4.750 3.617 4. S99 61. 224 1918 5. .548 7.231 8.475 6.502 4.901 4.859 Average (7 years). 5.983 6.301 7.514 6. 658 5.094 4.183 4.448 4.447 4.443 4.207 3.536 4. 854 Colon. 1917 7.387 7.345 6.878 5.508 3. '769 3.040 2.932 2.876 3.364 3.001 2.909 4. 506 53. 515 1918 4. 8.58 7.871 8.960 6.960 3.949 3. 450 Average (9J years). 6.113 6.406 7.225 6.892 3.851 3.200 3. 081 3.111 3.200 3.274 2.929 4.306 52.588 1 Formerly Ancon station. Moved to Balboa Heights Oct. 1, 1914. Note.— Evaporation records are obtained from insulated tanks 10 inches in diameter at Balboa Heights and Colon. Water surface protected from action of sun and rain. Exposed pan 4 feet in diameter and 10 inches deep floating in water at Gatun. For monthly evaporation during past years see previous annual reports. Table No. 6. — Seismograph records, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, year ended June 30, 1918. [Lat. 8° 58' N.; Long. 79° 33' W.] [100 K Bosch-Omori seismographs. Greenwich mean time; midnight to midnight.] Date. 1917. Julyl July 11 July 27 July27 Aug. 30 Aug. 31 Sept. 11.... Oct. 22 Oct. 28 Nov. 13.... Nov. 16 Dec. 26 Dec. 29 Component. E.-W. K.-S.. E.-W. N.-S.. E.-W. N.-S.. E.-W. N.-S.. E.-W. N.-S.. E.-W. N.-S.. E.-W. N.-S.. E.-W. E.-w; E.'-w! /N.-S. \E.-W. fN.-S.. \E.-W. /N.-S.. \E.-W. Time of beginning. Preliminary tremors (?) (?) (?) (?) 1 04 48 04 50 59 36 59 42 26 10 26 08 38 12 38 08 11 15 11 15 21 10 20 44 13 24 48 13 24 48 8 59 02 8 59 02 (?) (?) (?) 22 54 40 22 64 40 Long waves. (?) (?) (?) (?) 09 09 05 OS 28 28 11 40 11 40 11 11 22 22 13 26 13 26 8 59 8 59 4 05 Timer (?) (?) 22 58 22 58 Time of — Maxunum. failed to 1 1 22 22 14 12 25 18 24 17 26 16 26 16 07 56 05 06 05 54 09 42 28 54 28 42 40 49 41 52 11 47 12 00 23 06 23 10 26 14 26 34 00 06 00 01 17 09 record. 25 52 25 48 55 01 55 00 End. (?) (?) (?) (?) 06 00 02 00 01 00 57 00 51 00 47 00 12 36 00 12 34 00 4 15 00 4 14 25 7 48 00 7 45 00 13 55 08 13 53 12 9 06 00 9 06 00 4 35 09 (?) (?) 23 49 00 23 48 40 Maximum arapli tude, millimeters. T. T. 0.2 0.1 10.0 9.0 1.5 0.5 3.0 1.5 62.0 46.0 1.0 0.5 2. 3. 7 7. 1, 0. 0. 1. 0. 0. 1. 5.6 .Approximate

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90 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 6.-Seismograph records, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, year ended June 30, 1918 — Continued. • bate Component. Time of beginning. Preliminary tremors. Long waves. Time of— Maximum . End. Maximmn amplitude, millimeters, Approximate distance of epicenter. Miles. Probable direction. 1918. Jan. 4 Jan8 Jan. 25 Jan. 26 Jan. 29 Feb. 20 ... . Mar. 11 Apr. 21 Apr. 25 Apr. 25 May 20 May 20 May 25 June 16 June 20 June 22.... June 28.... {f: {li t 4 35 44 4 35 36 (?) (?) 1 24 00 1 23 56 (?) (?) (?) (?) 6 35 52 6 35 48 16 25 44 16 25 44 18 01 18 01 39 04 38 58 (?) 27 48 27 44 25 20 6 6 16 16 (?) (?) ?) 40 22 35 40 14 00 13 48 24 04 24 01 18 01 28 18. 01 30 04 20 04 20 6 38 46 6 37 24 16 26 44 16 25 40 37 16 37 20 26 32 25 32 Slight tremors between 22 40 and 23 Slight tremors between 22 40 and 23 Slight tremors 3 15 00. SUght tremors 3 15 00 58 50 59 30 (?) (?) 55 00 57 00 (?) (?) (?) (?) 53 00 51 30 46 00 45 00 20. 20; 21 48 25 21 48 33 21 48 22 21 48 32 14 53 52 14 54 04 14 54 04 14 54 12 18 12 08 18 04 12 18 12 04 18 12 12 19 42 46 19 43 06 19 45 45 19 46 07 12 31 15 12 31 19 12 30 58 12 31 05 Faint trace. Faint tremors from 5 24 00 to 5 21

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REPORT OP ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 91 station.

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92 THE PANAMA CANAL. The maximum momentary discharge was 61,200 cubic feet per second, and has been exceeded but three times at Alhajuela in the past 20 years, in December, 1906, and in November and December, 1909. Flood-ivarning stations. — Vigia and Alhajuela were continued as flood-warning stations, and as previously mentioned, a new flood station was established at Gatuncillo in April, 1918. The rise in the river at Alhajuela averages about 70 per cent of the Vigia rise, and the rise at Gatuncello is approximately 40 per cent of the Vigia rise, while the rise at Juan Mina for large freshets is approximately 10 per cent of the Vigia rise. Current meter gaugings. — Sixty-eight gaugings were made at the Calle Larga gauging station (Chagres River) during the year, covering a range from elevation 116.60 feet to 95.97 feet. Sixteen current meter gaugings were made in 1917 at Dos Bocas (the forks of the Chagres) measuring the discharge of La Puente, the Pequeni, and the Chagres Rivers. SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS. Tide currents — Balboa Harbor. — A tide current survey was made of Balboa Harbor and vicinity. Current direction and velocity measurements were made at 10, 20, 30, and 40 foot depths. Most of these observations were made in February and March, 1918, during the spring tide periods when tidal currents are strongest. Current velocity. — Tide currents were found to be strongest in the canal channel, along the reloader wharf, and in the vicinity of the oil pier. The maximum surface current velocity observed was approximately 1.4 knots per hour at a point in the canal channel opposite the Panama Railroad dock with a falling tide. The maximum current velocity observed below the surface was 1.3 knots per hour at a depth of 30 feet at a point opposite the oil pier with a rising tide. Tide currents are strongest near the mean sea level stage of the tide and are reduced to zero during high and low tide slack-water periods. The tidal currents around docks Nos. 14 to 19 and in the inner harbor basin were found to be very sluggish. Effects of ivinds on tide currents. — Steady moderate to fresh northerly winds prevail at the Pacific entrance to the canal during the dry season, and light northerly or variable winds during the rainy season. These northerly winds tend to accelerate the surface currents of outgoing tides and to retard the surface currents of incoming tides. A fresh northerly wind was observed to reverse the surface current of an incoming tide at a point just off the inner end of the reloader wharf. Current directions. — Current directions were recorded by a Ritchie-Haskell current-direction meter. This instrument records accurately the direction of currents having a velocity of 0.2 knot per hour or higher. In general, the stronger tide currents in Balboa Harbor flow in directions approximately parallel to the course of the canal. Notable exceptions to this rule are found in th steady set of outgoing tide currents toward the inner end of the reloader wharf, and the tendency of the tide currents near the oil pier to cross the canal channel forming an acute angle following the channel of the old French canal. The direction of the slower currents at several locations around the docks and in the inner harbor basin was found to be variable. Troublesome currents. — Strong tidal currents are encountered in the canal channel, but they follow the general direction of the canal and do not affect navigation except by retarding or accelerating the speed of passing ships. Tidal currents in the vicinity of the Balboa reloader wharf are troublesome, especially during a falling tide, as the steady set of the current toward the inner end of this wharf makes it difficult to handle ships approaching or leaving the coal wharves by drifting the vessels toward the wharf. Northwest winds increase this drifting tendency. Currents in the vicinity of the oil pier are troublesome also. These currents cro.ss the canal channel diagonally. With a falling tide they tend to drift approaching ships against the pier, while the currents are reversed with a rising tide and tend to drift approaching ships away from the pier. WATEE SUPPLY STUDIES. A study was made jf the water supply available for canal uses, based on revised estimates of future requirements for power development and canal lockages. An abundant supply of water is available for all canal uses during

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 93 the rainy season months. It is only in the dry season that a possible shortage may exist. The conclusion was reached that during an average year it will be possible to operate the hydro station at full projected capacity, using 3,260 cubic feet per second, and take care of about 21 complete canal lockages daily throughout the dry season without utilizing additional storage. Any increase in canal lockages above this figure will have to be made at the expense of a corresponding decrease in the water used for power development. With 36 canal lockages daily during the dry est year of record, it will be necessary to cut the water used for power development to about 900 cubic feet per second throughout the dry-season months, which is sufficient to operate the hydro station at aboi:t 25 per cent of its full projected capacity. From the above it will be seen that with capacity canal traffic about 75 per cent of the generating load at the power stations will have to be carried by the auxiliary steam plant during the dryest dry season if no additional storage reserve is provided. The water supply available for canal uses during an average year and the dryest year is shown on plates Nos. 15 and 16. , BEANCH HYDEOGRAPHIC OFFICE^ CKISTOBAL. The branch hydrographic office at Cristobal is operated in connection with the Cristobal meteorological station. The charts, pilots, almanacs, and other publications for navigators sold or issued for official use during the fiscal year 3917-18 amounted to a total value of $2,223.10. Sales have shown a steady increase throughout the year. The following plates and tables accompany the report of the hydrographical section of this report : Plate No. 9. Operating uses of Gatun Lake water supply. Plate No. 10. Gatun Lake massed curved, yield and losses. Plate No. 11. Gatun Lake total yield, year 1917, dry season 1918, and average. Plate No. 12. Gatun Lake total yield massed, maximum, minimum, average, and current years. Plate No. 13. Alhajuela mean monthly discharge, year 1917. dry season 1918, and average. Plate No. 14. Alhajuela discharge, massed curves, year 1917 and average. Plate No. 15. Water supply available for canal uses, average year. Plate No. 16. Water supply available for canal uses, dryest year. Table No. 7. Hydrology of Gatun Lake watershed, year 1917. Table No. 8. Hydrology of Mirafiores Lake watershed, year 1917. Table No. 9. Monthly hydrology Gatun Lake, year 1917. Table No. 10. Maximum, minimum, and mean elevations, Gatun and Mirafiores Lakes and Chagres River stations. Table No. 11. Hydrology of the Chagres, year 1917. Table No. 12. Monthly discharge, Chagres River at Alhajuela, year 1917. Table No. 13. Principal freshets in Chagres River, year 1917, also to June, 1918. Table No. 14. Tidal conditions, year 1917, Balboa and Cristobal. Table No. 15. Comparison table, Balboa and Morro Island tides, July, 1917, to June, 1918, inclusive. Table No. 7. — Hydrology of Gatun Lake watershed, year 1917. • [Drainage area, 1,320 square miles.l Gatun lake. Elevation. Date. Yearly mean. Maximum Minimum

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94 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 7. — Hydrology of Gatun Lake loatershed, year 1917 — Continuecl. Gatiin spillway, waste Gatun spillway, leakage Gatun locks, lockages and tests Gatun locks, leakage Gatun hydroelectric plant ' Pedro Miguel locks, lockages and tests ' Pedro Miguel locks, leakage i. Maintaining Miraflores Lake through Pedro Miguel locks i Pumping at Gaillard Cut i Brazos Brook Reservior Pumping at Gamboa (a) Total outflow > ( 6) Storage ( + increase; — decrease) (c) Netyield(« ± b) (d) Evaporation (61.224 inches) (e) Total yield {c+ d) (/) Rainfall on lake (114.50 inches) (g) Yield from land area (e —f) Transferred into Miraflores Lake i Quantities in — Million cubic feet. 167,984 122 9,085 186 40, 500 7,636 158 664 172 " 262 432 227, 101 + 1,620 228, 721 23, 327 252, 048 43, 625 208, 423 8,529 Secondfeet. 5,326. 7 3.9 288.1 5.9 1, 284. 2 242.1 5.0 17.9 5.5 8.3 13.7 7,201.3 +51.4 7, 252. 7 739.7 7, 992. 4 1,383.3 6, 609. 1 270.5 Lake surface Land area Total watershed. Mean area (square miles). 164 1,156 1,320 Rainfall (inches). 114. 50 115.48 115.36 Run-off (inches). 114.50 77.65 82.12 Percentage (run-off). 100 67 71 1 Transferred into Miraflores Lake. Gatun lockages, 2,108; Pedro Miguel lockages, 2,274. Table No. 8. — Hydrology of Miraflores Lake ivatershed, year 1917. [Drainage area, 38.5 square miles.] Miraflores Lake. Yearly mean Maximum . . . Minimum Sept. 6 Oct. 25 Quantities in — Miraflores spillway, waste Miraflores spillway, leakage Miraflores locks, lockages and tests Miraflores locks, leakage Miraflores po ver plant cooling water . . Miraflores locks, lake regulation (a) Total outflow (6) Total inflow from Gatim Lake i {cj Storage (+ increase; — decrease)... (d) Net yield (a—h±c) (c) Evaporation on lake (54.216 inches) (/) Total yield (d+e) (a) Rainfall on lake (87.17 inches) (h ) Yield from land area (f—g) Includes filtration plant wash water i . . 1 Lacludes filtration plant wash water.

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BEPOET OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 95 Table No. 8. — Hydrology of Mirafloren Lake watershed, year 1911 — Continued,

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96 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 10. — Monthly maximum, minimiiiii, and mean elevations for Gatun Lake, Miraflores Lake, and Chanres River, 1911 — Continued.

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KEPOKT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 97 Table No. 11. — Hydrology of the Chagres River at Alhajuela, year 1917, and dry season, 1918. Alhajuela, 38.5 miles from Gatun. Drainage area, 427 square miles. Mean: Yearioi". Elevation (feet) 93.12 Discharge (second-feet) 3,026 Maximum : Date Nov. 25 Elevation 107. 95 Discharge (second feet) 51,300 Minimum : Date Apr. 26-27 Elevation 90. 72 Discharge (second feet) 268 r ^ 4*^ Percentage of yield at Gatun < 2 „n Length of record (years) 16 Compared with annual and dry season averages (per cent) '5 Dry season. 1918. 91.91 1,117 Apr. 22 97.47 11, 967 Apr. 7-10 91.13 466 '96 ==51 17 '16 ^ Compared with net yield. ^ Compared with total yield. 2 Above. * Below. Note. — All elevations are in feet above mean sea level. Table No. '12. — Monthly discharge, Chagres River at Alhajuela, year 1917. [Drainage area, 427 square miles.] Month. January... February.. March April May June July August September October... November. December . Year Discharge in secondfeet. Maximum. 1,510 884 969 3,830 33,284 18, 250 12,345 20, 650 36, 735 20, 825 51,300 10, 546 51,300 Date. 19, 1 1 20 30 25 22 18 15 6 24 25 13 125 MLnimum. 862 502 410 268 784 1,268 1,850 2,664 2,502 2,437 3,069 1,704 268 Date. 27, 28-31 27,28 28 26,27 20 11 4 1 29 6-9 3 30 2 26, 27 Mean. 073 663 555 453 996 065 313 724 732 207 307 143 3,020 Inches on watershed. Rainfall. 0.49 .24 .33 1.16 15.05 11.43 15.02 15.82 12.94 14.66 22.33 7.12 116. 59 Runoff. 2.894 1.614 1.499 1.183 5.384 8.011 8.946 12. 751 12. 362 11.356 21.701 8.485 96. 186 1 November. April. "Note. — Annual run-ofE equaled 83 per cent of rainfall.

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98 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 13. — Principal freshets in the Chagres River for the year 1917 and January to June, inclusive, 1918. Date. Vigia. Elevation of crest. Rise. Alhajnela. Elevation of crest. Rise. After Vigia. Maximum discharge. Juan Mina. Elevation of crest. Rise. After Vigia. Vigia rise. Alajuela rise. 1917. May 25 June 22 Sept. 6 Oct. 12 Oct. 24 Nov. 4 Nov. 16 Nov. 20 Nov. 23 1918. Apr. 22 May 5 May 15 June 5 June 9 142.00 135. 60 141.55 135. 45 136. 80 139. 10 145. 80 138. 80 149. 75 133.40 152. 80 140. 40 135. 90 144.25 Feet. 16.05 8.10 14.00 7.50 8.65 10.15 16.30 8.35 18.82 6.40 25.30 11.90 8.70 16.35 103. 40 99.50 104. 15 98.40 100. 25 101.90 105. 60 101.50 107.95 97.47 110.00 101.90 99.20 104.90 Feet. 11.20 5.90 10.37 5.02 6.91 8.21 11.05 6.40 12.33 5.17 17.15 8.95 6.70 11.90 Hours. n n 1 H li 1 1 1^ n 1 C.f.s. 32, 625 18,250 35, 500 14, 765 20, 825 26,910 41,300 25, 350 51,300 11,967 61,200 26,910 17,290 38, 500 84.52 84.41 86.10 85.30 86.22 86.94 87.42 87.22 88.25 84.80 87.35 85.42 85.42 85.90 Feet. 0.57 .36 1.03 .28 .22 .79 1.18 .62 1.55 1 .20 2.45 .37 .32 .85 Hours. 2 2i 5 2 li 2| 3 If 2^ 4 2h 2i If 3 .ct. 4 4 7 4 3 8 7 7 8 3 10 3 4 5 .ct. 5 6 10 6 3 10 11 10 13 4 14 4 5 7 1 No crest at Juan Mina. Rise is increase in lake level due to additional storage. Table No. 14. — Tidal conditions, year 1917. [Elevations in feet, referred to zero of rod approximate mean sea level.! PACIFIC COAST— BALBOA, CANAL ZONE. Month.

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REPORT OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 99 Table No. 15. — Comparison tabic — Balboa and Morro Island (Taboga) tides, Pacific coast, July, 1917, to June, 1918, inclusive. [Elevations in feet referred to zero of rod approximate mean sea level.] [Morro Island data reduced to plane of Balboa gauge.] Monti 1917. July August September.. October November. . December. . . Maximum high water. Balboa. 191S. January February . . . March April May June Year . 9.6 10. S 11.0 10.5 9.7 S.3 9.1 10.2 10.1 10.3 9.9 9.0 11.0 Morro Island. 9.0 10.0 10.5 10.2 9.3 8.2 9.1 10.2 10.0 9.7 9.4 10.5 Extreme low water. Balboa. — S. 6 — 9.2 — 9.J —10.1 — 9.3 — 8.5 9.9 -11.0 -11.0 -10.5 9.1 8.3 -11.0 Mofto Island. 9.1 9.3 9.5 9.7 9.0 8.3 9.0 -10.6 -10.5 -10.4 9.0 7.9 10.6 Maximum amplitude.' Balboa. 18.2 20.0 20.5 20.5 19.0 16.7 19.0 21.1 21.1 20. S 19.0 17.3 21.1 Morro Island. 17.7 19.2 19.8 19.9 18.3 16.1 18.4 20.8 20.5 20.1 IS. 3 16.7 20.8 Minimum amplitude.! Balboa. 7.1 7.3 7.0 7.1 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.2 6.7 7.6 7.4 7.0 6.2 Morro Island. 6.8 7.0 6.8 6.9 6.7 6.5 6.2 •6.0 6.5 7.4 7.3 6.8 Monthly mean tide level. Balboa. 6.0-1-1-0.82 -t-0.81 + 1.07 -1-0.71 +0.63 +0.43 +0.33 +0.02 +0.13 +0.74 + 1.16 + 1.17 Morro Island. +0.83 +0.69 +0.75 +0.80 +0.75 +0.52 +0.41 +0.10 +0.15 + 0.60 + 1.07 + 1.30 +.664 1 For consecutive tides. Section of Surveys. The section of surveys has continued to attend to all Panama Railroad land and lot surveys and has maintained the established Canal Zone monuments, triangulation stations, and bench marks; this section has also made surveys and prepared maps for other divisions and for the Joint Land Commission. Attention has been given to various features of the canal requiring precise observation. The report of the assistant engineer gives the detail of the work accomplished : Section of Subveys. B. B. Alexander, Acting Assistant Engineer. BUILDING LOTS. Colon. — Corner and grade stakes were set on 46 lots and alley stakes on 35 lots. Sixteen block nionunients were lowered to level of sidewalk. A survey was made for the purpose of monumenting block No. 65. In the section east of E Street eight block monuments were set. Corner and grade stakes were set on one lot in Cristobal. A survey was made of a lot on Colon Beach and map made to accompany lease. Panaina. — Nineteen block monuments in Las Esplanadas section, which had been destroyed by street improvements, were replaced. The houses on lots Nos. 20 and 21, block No. 6, Guachapli section, were located and map made to accompany new lease. Twenty-eight block monuments were set in Guachapli section. Balboa. — Lot No. 1, in the block leased to oil companies, was staked. GATUN DAM. Settlement hubs. — Readings were taken on the settlement hubs once a month throughout the year, showing normal settlement. A survey was made and plan drawn up showing locations of all settlement hvibs md bencli marks, 86372°— 18 8

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100 THE PANAMA CANAL. Bench marks. — The bench marks in the East Valley were checked by a precise level circnit. South approach tmll. — Bimonthly readings were taken over the settlement points on the sonth approach wall and showed an average settlement of 0.14 foot. This is about 0.04 foot less than the average reported last year. A preci.se level circuit was run from P. B. M. 7, through P. B. M. " G " to P. B. M. 7A, then from P. B. M. " G " to the reference B. M. used in the settlement readings on the approach wall. This reference B. M. is located on the center wall about 250 feet north of the break in the approach wall. The precise levels showed no change in elevation of the reference B. M. since August, 1915. Cano Saddle. — Levels were run over the settlement hubs on Cauo Saddle three times during the year, showing normal settlement. The settlement of this saddle is hardly appreciable. SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. Pastures.— Surveys of the following pastures were completed during the year: Caimito, Pedro Miguel, Miraflores, Arango. Monte Lirio, Summit, and Mandinga. The work comprised the running of the perimeter of each pasture and all inside fence lines, the pastures having from 6 to 20 divisions. Areas were obtained, sketch maps made, and blue prints furnished the superintendent of cattle industry. The total area surveyed was, in round numbers, 24.000 acres. All the clearing on these pastures was done by contract and sublet to individuals. All the different areas thus involved were measured up by this section. Plantatioii.<. — All the contract clearing work was measured up and areas obtained on the following-named plantations : Limon, Las Guacas, Juan Mina, Flatrock, and Rio Palenque. Drainage ditches were staked and the yardage of all ditching computed. Reports and blue prints of above were furnished to the superintendent of plantations. These plantations are located on the Chagres River,, about S miles above Gamboa. A survey and map were made of the chicken farm at Summit. A survey was made and map prepared for the study of a proposed irrigation project on La Pita farm, situated just north of Summit. HEALTH DEPARTMENT. Work was started on a topographical survey of the swamp area east of Margarita Railroad, between Rio Majagual and Rio Coco Solo for the purpose of estimating the cost of a hydraulic fill. This survey is about 60 per cent completed. MUNICIPAL DIVISION. A topographical survey was made for the municipal engineering division, covering the ftliraflores dump and a tract east of the old road between Panama and Pedro Miguel. JOINT LAND COMMISSION. Surveys of the following estates were made: Cuatro Calles, Santa Cruz, San Antonio, Charco Barnco, Otro Lado, El Pihiva, and La Pihivia. These estates are situated on the Rio Chagres north from Gamboa to the Canal Zone boundary line. Maps of these estates were prepared and furnished the special attorney for use in hearings before the Joint Connnission. Mandinga and PiJiisba estates. — A survey of the Mandinga and Pihisba estates was completed and maps furnished the special attorney. These estates are situated on the IMandinga River, and west of the town of Empire. Palo Differente estate. — The accuracy of a map of the Palo Differente estate, presented by the claimants, was investigated on the ground and findings reported to the special" attorney. Macia and Verner. — The boundary lines of the Macia claim near the mouth of the Chagres were run out and those of the Verner claim investigated. SURVEY — PANAMA, ANCON, BALBOA. A survey of the district was about 75 per cent complete last year and is now complete. As to method, the district was divided into 7 sections over. which

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EEPOET OF ENGINEER OF MAINTENANCE. 101 were established 14 stations by precise triangulatiou, wiiicli, together with those already established, made a total of 18 stations. Starting from these stations the district ^v;ls covered with n network of closed traverses by transit and steel tape. There were (ner 500 of tliese control traverse points put in whose geodetic coordinates and elevations have been determined. The map, as its close control would indicate, is a very comprehensive one and is used extensively by the various divisions and dei)artments of the canal. The scale is 1 : 2000, and the territory covered is about 5 square miles. TEIANGULATION. Two new triangulatiou stations were established, Corozal and Mole. Corozal is located near the old hotel at Corozal, and Mole on the outer end of the mole at Cristobal. Stations Espinosa, Luisa, Cocoli, Semaphoi-e, INIare, anil (Jatun were repaired. Stations New Culebra and Cocoa Grove were replaced. The angles in the " slide " triangulatiou system were observed twice during the year and found to be the same as previous observations, indicating that there had been no movement on either side of the canal at these points. These stations are situated on Gold Hill, Mount Zion, and Contractor's Hill. BENCH MARKS. A precise B. M. was established at Margarita. Fifty-one P. B. Ms. were cleared, repaired, and painted. The number and elevation were stenciletl on each. Four P. B. IMs. were reset on account of having been destroyed or disturbed. CANAL ZONE BOUNDARY MONUMENTS. Three Canal Zone boundary monuments were reset on account of having been destroyed by street construction. The boundary line was cleared from iMonument F to IMonument 84, and each monument on the line cleared and marked with its number. Seven extra monuments were set on the boundary line between the Canal Zone and the city of I'anama. This was done at the request of the Canal Zone police department. CRISTOBAL COALING PLANT. Three times during the year readings were taken on the east and west walls of the coal pocket, over established monunieiited lines, to determine the spread of the reclaiming bridge tracks which are laid in these concrete walls. No movement has been found in the west wall since construction. The east wall seems to have a slight continuous spread, as, for example, in June, 1917, the average total spread since ()ctol)er, 191G, had been 0.029 foot; in June, 1918. it had been 0.040 foot; in June, 191S, the east wall had a maximum total spread since October. 1916, of 0.081 foot ; in IVbruary. 1918, the maximum was also 0.081 foot, but at a different place in the wall. The point where the maximum of 0.081 foot occiu-red in February, 1918, showed a spread of only 0.068 foot in June, 1918. This would seem to indicate that the maximum movement varies with the positions of the liridge and the high coal piles, and that there is a si>ring in the wall. From information obtained from those in charge at the plant, no difficulty has been experienced in the movement of the bridges recently. MISCELLANEOUS. Colon Hospital and Quarantine Reservation, and radio reservations. — These reservations have one boundary which is common to both. Fourteen monuments were set on the boundaries, a traverse run over them, and a description written up by metes and bounds. A map was made on a scale of 1 : 1200, thus completing the work on these reservations. Isolated 100 foot contour boundary inonunicnts. — The 100-foot contour around Gatun Lake area is marked by iron pipe monuments. Eighty-five of these moHuments were cleared, repainted, and pointed out to the police patvoJ,

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102 THE PANAMA CANAL. Instniments. — All surveying instruments which were turned into the instrument-repair shop were tested for estimated cost of repairs or for recommendations as to whether they should be sold or scrapped. Stadhi intervals were determined for several transits and stadia boards were laid out and made for same. Sufficient surveyins instruments wliich are in first-class condition have been kept on hand for issue to other divisions as their requirements demanded. Examination. — An examination for the grade of junior engineer was given on IMarch 3, 191S. There were 12 applicants, 5 of whom received a passing grade. Section of )netcorolo{i]j and ]nj(lro(/rai)h!j. — The water stage register gauge staffs at Pedro IMiguel, Gamboa. Frijoles, IVIonte Lirio, and Gatun, were checked with Y-level elevations. The tide gauges at BalI)oa and Cristobal were checked for elevations. Mile.s of line. — Transit, 58; Y level. 236; precise level, 28; stadia traverse, 299 ; side shots, 587 ; trail and trocha, 24. Total miles of line, 1,282. Section of Office Engineer. The details of the work accomplished by this section are given in the report of the office engineer, which follows : Section of Office Engineeb. C. J. Enihrce. Office Engineer. This section has continued to handle the engineering, architectural, electr'cal, and miscellaneous design work required by all divisions of the canal except the mechanical division. The most important work handled has been that required by the building and electrical divisions. Ixith of which have carried through large programs of construction. The designers and draftsmen working on Pier No. 6 were consolidated with the force of this office when the construction woi'k was placed under the direction of the resident engineer, building division. On account of the gradual completion of the authorized constrTiction program for the year, the drafting force has been gradually reduced from a maxiiiium of 30 mento the present force of 14 electrical, architectural, engineering, and general draftsmen. The average force consisted of 27 men. who have produced a total of 9G4 working drawings, or an average of 1 complete drawing for every 49 man-hours. The detail description of the work covered by the designing forces will be found in the reports of the heads of divisions concerned. The Idue-print room maintained in connection with the drafting room lias continued to issue the necessary white, blue, and brown prints required, the total being as follows : Sqiiaio feet. Blue prints 2(j."). ."80 AVh'ite prints 2-!. 000 Brown-print negatives 4 30."» Total 293,885 The average cost of producing the above prints, inclusling labor and material, has been 1.23 cents per square foot. This office has continued to write the si>ecitications jind requisitions, as \j-ell as keep a record of all spare parts and supplies required by the division of locks. Respectfully, H. EowE, Resident Engineer. Col. Chestek Harding, United States Army, Governor^ The Panama Canal, Balboa IJeights, Canal Zone,

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APPENDIX B. REPORT OF THE RESIDENT ENGINEER, BUILDING DIVISION. Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, J\dy 20, 1918. Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of oi^erations of this division for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918 : Organization. The or2:anization of the division is the same as outlined in the report for the fiscal year of 1917, with the followingadditions: The terminal construction work (construction of docks) was transferred to this division August .5, 1917. The terminal construction work (dry clock and coal plant completion) was transferred to this division August 30, 1917. On August 4, 1917, Mr. T. B. Monniche, engineer of docks, resigned and his duties were transferred to the resident engineer of the building division by Circular 660-34, effective August 5, 1917. Mr. T. C. Morris continued as assistant to resident engineer. Mr. S. M. Hitt continued as architect. Mr. C. A. Nelson was transferred to the division on August 5, 1917, as superintendent of construction. Pier No. 6. Mr. J. B. Fields continued as superintendent of construction, Southern district. Mr. J. Cosgrove resigned as superintendent of construction. Northern district, on May 5, 1918, and w'as succeeded by Mr. R. C. Hardman. Mr. C. C. Snedeker continued as superintendent of submarine base construction. Building Operations. Construction work on new Pier No. 6, Ancon Hospital, ice and cold-storage plant, concrete and frame quarters, and other projects for the canal were carried on during the year. The construction work authorized in 1917 for the Army barracks and quarters was completed, and the aviation base authorized for Manzanillo Bay was designed and carried to 90 per cent of completion. For the Navy, the construction of an aviation and a submarine base was carried to 95 per cent of completion. The report on the status of work on Pier No. 6 is as follows : At the close of the fiscal year 1916-17. the condition of the substructure of Pier No. 6 was as follows : The driving of caissons was 103

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104 THE PANAMA CANAL. 70 per cent complete, with a total of 15,855 linear feet in place ; the excavation from cylinders was 73 per cent complete, w^th a total of 10,503 cubic yards of material removed; and the concreting of the caissons was 50 per cent complete, with a total of 10,987 cubic yards poured. The driving of caissons was completed on September 7, 1917. with a total of 22,610 linear feet in place. The excavation of material from the caissons prior to concreting was completed on September 19, 1917, with a total of 14.382 cubic yards removed. The concreting of the caissons was completed on October 19, 1917, with a total of 22,005 cubic yards poured. The cylinders were 6 feet in diameter and were rolled from fineh and ^-inch flat plates furnished by the Riter Conley Company at $0.0357 per pound. The rolling of the caissons was performed by the mechanical division at the Cristobal shops, at a cost of $-1.20 per linear foot, and the cylinders in place cost a total of $15.25 per linear foot. The excavation of material from the cylinders cost $6.01 per cubic yard, and the concreting of the caissons cost $5.51 per cubic yard. The total cost of the completed cylinders, including excavation and concreting, was $550,894.20, corresponding to $24.36 per linear foot; while the cost of the substructure as a Avhole, including the cost of trestles and falsework, power and water lines, tracks, overhead charges, etc., was $687,677.04, or $172,629.47 in excess of the corresponding cost for Pier No. 7. This increased cost was due to the increased cost of material, especially steel and piling. The .steel •->n Pier No. 6 cost $0.0357 per pound, against $0.01447 per pound on Pier No. 7, while the piling used in the trestlework on Pier No. 6 cost $0.46 per linear foot, against $0.19 per linear foot on Pier No. 7. A considerable economy was etlected by the use of only one trestle on Pier No. 6 in connection with floating equipment. In case four trestles had been used on Pier No. 6, as was the case on Pier No. 7, the cost of same would have been approximately $194,000, against the actual cost of $47,993, showing a gross saving of $140,000 on this item. The cost of operating the derrick barges was approximately $32,000, so that an actual saving of approximately $114,000 was effected by this change in the method of construction. As shown above, however, this saving was not sufficient to offset the increased cost of material. FLOOR FOR PIER NO. 6. As mentioned in the annual report for the fiscal year 1916-17, the floor for Pier No. 6 was originally designed and the cylinders spaced for a structural-steel floor system. The bids received for the steel work, however, showed that the lowest price for which this material could be secured was $0,058 per pound, including erection, and $0,052 per pound, not including erection. This would have brought the cost of steel in place up to approximately $650,000, not including overhead charges, or $381,000 more than the corresponding cost for Pier No. 7. ' In view of this large increase in the cost of structural-steel floor system, studies were made to determine the advisability of substituting a reinforced-concrete floor system for the structural steel. The caissons, a large numl^er of which were alreadv in place, were spaced 45 feet apart in the longitudinal direction an^ 26 feet 6 inches apart in

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REPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER, BUILDING DIVISION. 105 the transverse direction, a spacing which proved highly economical on Pier No. 7 with reference to the total cost of the pier. The span of 45 feet, however, offered serious difficulties to a reinforcedconcrete construction, and the use of continuous arch-shaped girders with steel tie-rods in alternate bays, designed to take either compression or tension, was at first determined upon. Later it was found advisable to use arches in the same bays as the struts, but elsewhere to use ordinary haunched girders. This design was eventually approved for the 45-foot longitudinal spans, while in the transverse direction tee beams were used to transmit the loads to the girders and arches. Due to the continuity of the arches and girders and to the movable abutments resulting from the flexibility of the cylinders and the extensibility of the tie-rods, the stresses were indeterminate to a high degree, but the analysis was successfully carried out by the aid of the elastic theory. After the development of the design in the floor system, the next problem encountered was to find a means of supporting the concrete forms plus the weight of the fresh concrete, amounting to a total of approximately 350,000 pounds for the girders and 250.000 pounds for the arches. After an investigation of various methods of carryins this excessive load, it was finally decided to use long secondhand steel bridge girders to support the forms for the concrete girders, while smaller girders supported at the ends of the bridge girders were used to carry the forms for the arches. The bridge girders were supported by H-beams running between cylinders at right angles to the direction of the bridge girders. The general appearance of the arches and girders is shown by plate No. 22. The concrete being used on Pier No. 6 consists of one part cement to four parts run-of-bank gravel, and the design assumed that the concrete would stand 2,000 pounds per square inch compression when 28 days old. Compression tests made with sample cylinders indicated, however, that the concrete was not as strong as assumed. Various experiments were accordingly made with a view to strengthening the concrete, and it w^as found that by washing the gravel and removing a certain amount of the very fine sand the strength of the concrete was increased nearly 100 per cent. Accordingly all gravel is now being washed over one-sixteenth-inch mesh screens placed at 45° to the horizontal, so that the required amount of fine sand is removed in the same operation. During September and October, 1917, the first drawings for the arches and girders were completed, and the pouring of concrete was started in October. During the remainder of the fiscal year a total of 10,115 cubic yards were poured or 35 per cent of the required total of 28.820 cubic yards to be used in the floor system. It is estimated that this concrete can be put in place for approximately $20 per cubic yard, including the cost of the forms and reinforcing. Toward the close of the fiscal year 1916-17 it became evident that Pier No. 6 could not be constructed for the appropriation of $1,500,000 provided by Congress. This was due entirely to the large increase in the costs of materials which followed the preparation of the estimates upon which the apj)ropriation was based. The prices of steel and piling, for instance, each advanced to more than two and one-half times the cost of these items used on Pier No. 7. As pointed

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106 THE PANAMA CAISTAL. out above, floating derricks AA'ere used to save trestle work on the foundation, and a reinforced concrete floor system was decided upon to save steel in an effort to offset these abnormal increases in cost. Otheichanges in design effecting economy without impairing the usefulness of the pier were also made. These included the elimination of paving bricks, except between the rails, a considerable reduction in the size of door openings wdiich will result in a large saving in the cost of the doors, and a redesign of the fender systems, bringing the creosoted timber required down to a minimum. A further saving will be effected by the use of a reinforced concrete shed in place of a structural steel shed. In spite of these changes, however, it Avas necessary to request an additional appropriation of $593,190 from Congress, which was provided by the passage of the urgent deficiency bill, on March 28, 1918. Bids were o]5ened in Washington on April 30, 1918, covering the cost of furnishing approximately 4.400,000 pounds of structural steel for the shed of Pier No. 6. The most favorable bid for the material was $4.99 per hundredweight delivered at New York, indicating that the structural steel in place would cost approximately $302,000, or about 150 per cent more than the corresponding cost on Pier No, 7. The cost of the roof, doors, electrical Avork, concrete, and miscellaneous items would bring the total cost of the shed up to $515,000, and in view of the unusually high cost all bids were rejected after careful estimates of cost, and preliminary plans were prepared for a reinforced concrete shed. The design requires 66.000 cubic yards of concrete, which is estimated to cost not more than $200,000. Adding to this figure the cost of the doors, electrical work, louvers, and miscellaneous items, it is estimated that the total cost of the shed will be $338,000, representing a saving by the adoption of this type of construction of approximately $177,000. The design involves the use of reinforced concrete roof trusses, which will be cast on the floor of the pier and erected into place by locomotive cranes. Plans for these trusses are well under way and working drawings will be finished at an early date. The condition of Pier No. G at the close of the fiscal vear is shown by Plate No. 21, " General View of Pier 6, July 1, 19i8." BOAT LANDING AND LAUNCH HOUSE BETW^EEN PIERS NOS. 7 AND 8, CRISTOBAL. At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, the 2,107 linear feet of 3-foot and 4-foot diameter caissons required for the foundations for the boat landing and launch house had been put in place, excavated, and concreted, completing all work on the substructure. The cost of the caissons in place amounted to $5.98 per linear foot. A total of 536 cubic yards of excavation was performed at a cost of $5.45 per cubic yard, while the concrete, of which 750 cubic yards were used, was poured at a cost of $7.10 per cubic yard. The total cost of the foundations, including preliminary work and overhead charges, was $23,174.72. No work on the floor of the boat landing Avas performed until October 6, 1917, due to delays in the delivery of the floor steel, the erection of Avhich Avas started on tliat date. By October 25, the entire amount of 511.570 pounds of Ftruftm-al steel for the floor and shed

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EEPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER, BUILDING DIVISION. 107 had been erected, including 297,887 pounds for the floor and 213,683 pounds for the shed. The floor steel was furnished by the J. B. Kendal Company at $0.0491 per pound, and the shed steel was furnished by the Belmont Iron Works at $0,06 per pound. The pouring of concrete for the girder encasement and floor slab was started on October 31, 1917, and completed December 8, 1917, a total of 481 cubic yards having been used. The concrete work for the shed was started on December 6, 1917, and completed on January 12, 1918, a total of 280 cubic yards having been used. All work on the boat landing and launch house was completed in March, 1918, and the structure turned over to the marine division. The total cost of the completed structure was $109,939.07. The following is a description of the principal structures constructed or in course of construction during the past year: INDUSTRIAL PLANT — PANAMA RAILROAD. Construction was begun this past fiscal year on a group of industrial buildings at Mount Hope that it is proposed will ultimately consist of a cold-storage building, an ice plant, an abattoir, a meatCanning factory, a bone-meal, fertilizer, and soap-making plant; a laundry, bakery, and grocery warehouse ; and all the necessary buildings necessary to the most economical operation of such an establishment — namely incinerator, boiler house, machine, pipe fitting, blacksmith and carpenter shops, and garage. The buildings under construction are the ice and cold-storage plant and the abattoir, which will be completed and equipped for operation conjointly with the power plant. These buildings are of the reinforced concrete column, beam and floor slab and filled-in block-wall type of construction, and are to have flat slab roofs, waterproofed with cement and temperature steel. C old-storage, huilding.— This building is 105 feet 8 inches by 341 feet 3 inches in over-all dimensions above the first story, and three stories high. The first story has an additional width of 10 feet. The building has three electric elevators in shafts, 9 by 10 feet, and two automatic meat drops. Floors, walls, and ceiling are lined with 4-inch, 6-inch, or 9-inch thickness of cork where low temperatures are required, and the building is equipped with modern machinery for the industries described below : On the first floor is an ice-cream manufacturing plant, comprising freezing and hardening rooms, brick cutting and finished product, vestibule, storage, and wash room. All these rooms and those of the dairy products storage are floored with red ceramic tile. On the third floor are rooms equipped for corning beef, and for hamburger and sausage making and pickling. The remainder of the building is planned for the packing and shipping of meat, vegetables, and dairy products and for cold storage of the following capacities : Vegetable stoi-age. 17,670 square feet or 193,000 cubic feet. Butter storage. 1,110 square feet or 12,130 cubic feet. Egg storage. 2,254 square feet or 24,650 cubic feet. Boxed goods storage, 4,705 square feet or .53,400 cubic feet. Beef storage, 20,710 square feet or 333.100 cubic feet. Chilled rooms. 4,440 s(iuaie feet or 72.500 cubic feet.

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108 THE PANAMA CANAL. The beef -storage rooms are all equipped with overhead tracks, which will accommodate 4,815 head of dressed beef if stored in halves, or 2,957 head if stored in quarters. The building has office and toilet accommodations for the employees, Ahattoir. — This building, which covers 95 by 134 feet in ground area is three stories high and of the same type of construction as the cold storage and ice plant. The live stock is driven up from the stockyards over a 6-foot wide exterior concrete runway to the third floor, where all killing is done. Provision has been made for slaughtering 300 cattle per day on six killing beds, with allowance for installation of a seventh bed, and 200 hogs per day, with capacity for further expansion, as a clehairing machine with a capacity of 200 per hour is to be installed. The dres-cd beef and hogs are run upon overhead rails across a bridge and directly into the chill rooms of the cold-storage plant. All offal and by-products from the killing floor are dropped through chutes and delivered by gravity to the floor below, where they are cleaned and sent to the proper department. On this floor are also located the bone room, tlie upper part of the tank house, and the upper part of the lard and oleo oil department. The tank house, which extends to the basement, is equipped with six rendering tanks, two blood cookers, and a press from which the tankage is conveyed by trucks to the fertilizer plant and the grease in barrels to the soap plant. The lard and oleo department extending through the first and second floors is provided with machinery required for the manufacture of steam lard, open-kettle lard, oleo oil and stearine, together with the cold room for storage of the finished products. A small chicken killing space has been provided on the first floor where (iOO chickens may be killed daily. The remainder of the first floor is occupied by the hide department. Tlie hides a're dropped direct from the killing floor, after which they are trimmed, dipped, and finally stored in salt vats, which have a storage capacity of 0,000 hides. The buihling occupies a convenient location with respect to the cold-storage building, boiler house, and -repair shops, and is reached by a road on the east side and by railroad tracks on the west. Freezing room. — This structure adjoins the cold-storage building and is connected with it by a 30-foot platform, and also through the ice-storage room. Three 50-ton freezing tanks with necessary agitators, air lilowers. filters, tipping tables, precoolers, and dipping tanks are located in this room. Raw water ice will be manufactured in 300-pound cakes, and three overhead cranes, one for each tank, are provided for handling the ice. Eng'ine rflow?.— Engine-room equipment consists of three 200-ton refrigerating units of vertical high speed type, direct connected to 400 horsepower motors. One pump-out machine is provided. Three vertical centiffugal pumps, 1,000 gallons per minute capacity are located in a sump under the engine room, directly connected to vertical motors located on the main floor of the engine room. Water is furnished to this sump from the East Diversion by gravity through a

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REPORT OP RESIDENT ENGINEER, BUILDING DIVISION. 109 24-inch concrete pipe, 3,900 feet long, and is pumped to double tube condensers on the roof of the freezing room. A 20-ton overhead electric crane is provided covering the entire area of the engine room. The main electrical switchboard, transformers, and distribution system are also located along one side of this room. MINDI DAIRY FARM. The buildings of this industry consist of those described below : Barns. — The barns are in four units, each having two rows of milch cow stalls of 40 stalls each, making a total of 320 stalls in the group of buildings. Each of the four building units has a feed room, 16 by 33 feet, and a 16-foot diameter silo 36 feet high. The over-all dimensions of the concrete floor forming the floor and yards of the four units of barn buildings are 196 feet 8 inches by 232 feet 8 inches. The stall sections are screened above the block and stuccoed side walls of 5 feet minimum height up to tlie roof plate. The roof has a continuous ridge ventilator and a 6 by 10 foot skylight in each 14-foot bay. The feed rooms and silos are built of blocks, stuccoed, the silo walls being reinforced by rods in the horizontal block joints. All of these buildings have roofs of asphalt shingles on wood framing. Milk house. — This is a hollow block structure, stuccoed, 27 feet 6 inches by 47 feet, one story above platform height, with asphalt shingle roof on wood framing. It contains the dairy office, boiler, refrigerator, and washing rooms, an 11 foot 4 inch by 12 foot 8 inch refrigerator, a workroom, sterilizing room, can storeroom, and toilet and showers for the -help. All of the above rooms, except the office, boiler room, and toilet, but including two exterior platforms, are paved in red ceramic tile. Cattle pens. — This is an open v\'ooden structure, 29 feet 6 inches by 48 feet 8 inches, of concrete flood and asphalt shingle roof, and contains 8 pens for calving and calves. Bull pen. — This is a similar structure to the cattle pen. 12 feet two inches by 48 feet 8 inches, containing 4 pens. Quarters. — The quarters consist of one 1-story wooden dwelling for the gold roll manager, and one wooden barracks for the quartering of 40 silver roll employees. TIVOLI HOTEL KITCHEN. The new Tivoli Hotel kitchen is located adjacent to the Tivoli Hotel at Ancon. and is designed to not only replace the present kitchen of the hotel but with the purpose to fit and be a part of the hotel in permanent materials that is proposed for the site at a future date. The new kitchen is 60 feet by 78 feet, one story and basement high. The type of construction is reinforced concrete foundations, columns, beams, floor and roof slabs, with walls and partitions of hollow concrete blocks, stuccoed. The kitchen proper is on the first floor and has an area of 2,400 square feet, with red tile floor and white tile wainscot. The equiDment is grouped in the kitchen to form departments; the dishwashing

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110 THE PANAMA CANAL. department with pantiy for silver and glassware and plate warmer; .i_ pantry with coffee urns ; the bakers' department with mixer and oil-burning ovens: and the cooks' department with two oil-burning ranges, broiler, stock pots and steamers, cook tables, steam tables, and short-order refrigerators. On the same floor are the cold-storage rooms, storerooms, servants' dining rooms, and boiler room with two oil-burning boilers to supply hot water and steam. The refrigeration machinery is on the mezzanine floor and over the cold-storage rooms. In the basement are the servants' toilets and locker rooms, and an equipment storeroom. LOCAL FREIGHT AND BAGGAGE BUILDING. This building occupies the angle between Docks Nos. 9 and 10 at Cristobal, and is connected with the former through wide openings without doors in every bay. It is 75 feet 8 inches wide by 919 feet long, and is constructed of leinforced concrete floor, walls, and foundations, on piles, the floor having an additional reinforcement of steel rails. The roof is of corrugated asbestos on steel trusses, offering a clear span l)etween the side walls. This building receives, stores, and discharges all local incoming and outgoing freight and baggage. Held-over baggage and mail consigned to other boats for distant ports are stored here. For the latter, special sorting compartments are provided, and the building also contains a 16-foot by 20-foot fire and burglar proof vault for the storage of specie and valuables. This building, being virtually an annex of Dock No. 9, is used in its far end in the same capacity when the dock is congested. MOUNT Ti'OPE OIL TANK. This is located on a spur near the Mount Hope railroad station. It is cylindrical in form, 115 feet in diameter and 30 feet high, and has a capacity of 55.000 barrels. Because of the price and the difliculty at this time in securing delivery of steel, and the fact also of a lowered temperature being obtained in concrete, which lessens the loss of oil by evaporation, the wall is of reinforced concrete, being 12 inches thick at the bottom and battered on the inside to C inches at the top. The roof is of steel plates on iron-pipe columns and steel framing. The inlet and outlet pipe is 8 inches in diameter and located near the bottom of the tank. Connected to it is a swivel-jointed adjustable spout which permits drawing oft of the oil from the surface. A wall drain at the bottom is also provided for drawing off collected water. ANCON HOSPITAL. The construction of the Ancon Hospital group of buildings, which began three years ago in permanent materials, will be com]^,leted during the fiscal year as a thoroughly equip])Gd hospital of GOO beds, with the exception of the quartering of employees of all classes other than the superintendent and the nurses. Physicians, surgeons, intei'ues and other technicians, the administration force, and a few other emjjloyees on the gold roll — both married and bachelor — and

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EEPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER, BUILDING DIVISION. Ill maids and orderlies on the silver roll, are still housed in wooden buildings. With the construction of the buildings covered by the last appropriation the hospital will consist of the following units in the main group, all of which are connected by covered passageways : Administrative and clinics building: Kitchen and mess, section A ward group, section B ward group, section C ward group, section D ward group, isolation section. Besides, there are the following detached buildings within the hospital grounds : Dispensary, medical storehouse, laboratory and crematory, power house and shops, superintendent's home, nurses' quarters, garage. The main group of buildings extends irregularly about a tract that in over-all dimensions is GOO by 1,200 feet, and they are from two to four stories in height. The total length of covered passageways connecting the different buildings, including the porches of the wards, which vary in width from 6 to 10 feet, is about 6,800 linear feet. The buildings on which work was performed during the past fiscal year are herewith briefly described. Ward group, section C. — This building is designed in the shape of the letter V, to conform to the peculiar topography of the site, and a covered passageway connects this unit with the kitchen building and other buildings of the hospital group. The building has a capacity of 192 patients, and consists of a central unit 53 feet wide by 129 feet long, and two side Avings each 42 feet wide and 129 feet and 137 feet long, respectively — all three stories and basement in height. The central unit comprises the waiting room for visitors, service rooms, kitchens, dining rooms, cells, quiet rooms, dressing rooms, nurses' and doctors' offices, laboratories, and toilets. The basement of tlie side wings is intended for storage space and the other floors are arranged for large wards opening on continuous porches on either side with a capacity' of 29 patients in each. In eacli ward a built-in cabinet and service room equipped with a linen closet, ice box, sink, and hot plate outlet, are provided. One electric elevator and dumbwaiter, ice water bubbling fountains, and linen chute are also installed. The construction of the building is reinforced concrete skeleton, concrete floor slabs, and cement block curtain walls and partitions! The roof is built up of trussed wood rafters, sheathed and covered with Spanish style vitreous red tile. The interior of the building is finished in white lime plaster excepting in a few special rooms Avhere Keene's cement plaster is used. In conformity with the finish in the other hospital buildings best grade vitreous porcelain plumbing fixtures are installed, and all electric light fixtures are finished in white enamel. All of the woodAvork is painted and enameled, and 6 by 6 inch red floor tile is used throughout, excepting in the private rooms and cells, Avhere wood floor occurs. _ Ward (jrou'i\ section D. — Ward group, section D, is a separate section from an administrative 'standpoint, but it is built as a continuation of section C. This group is the shape of the letter T, consisting of a central unit o>3 by 91 feet and side wings 42 feet wide and 123 feet and 131 feet long, respectively. The building is three stories and basement in height except one wing, which has only a portion of its area excavated for a basement.

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112 THE PANAMA CANAL. The building has a capacity of 192 patients and besides three large wards, with a capacity of 29 patients each. This building provides special wards for white and colored children and an obstetrical section for colored patients. In the central unit is located a waiting room for visitors, service rooms, kitchens, dining rooms, cells, quiet rooms, dress rooms, nurses' and doctors' offices, laboratory, toilets, and obstetrical operating rooms. The children's Avards are provided with special service rooms, where bathtubs, sinks, and other equipment is installed. Special service rooms are also arranged in the obstetrical department for the nursery and adult patients. In this department the women's ward has a capacity of 16 beds and the nursery 12 beds. The construction and general finish of this section is the same as section C. Nurses' quarters. — The nurses' quarters are located in proximity to the ward and other hospital buildings on a prominent spur overlooking Panama City and its environs. . The building, three stories in height, 233 feet 6 inches long and 46 feet 1 inch wide, provides a suite for one chief nurse and quarters for 72 nurses. Besides a reception room, 29 feet wide and 52 feet long, a kitchen and tea room is provided on the first floor. In the basement, two maids' rooms, a laundry, and several small service rooms are provided. A central corridor on each floor affords circulation between the various rooms, stair halls, and toilets, and each room opens upon a common screened porch. Each room has a lavatory with hot and cold water, medicine cabinet, and built-in dry closet. A linen chute and bubbling drinking fountains are also installed in the corridors. A telephone booth is provided on each floor in order to eliminate the necessity of installing a telephone outlet in each room, excepting in a few rooms where nurses are subject to call at all hours, and magnifying phones are installed in the corridors of each floor, operated by the maid on the first floor. The type of construction of the building is reinforced concrete skeleton, witii concrete floor slabs and cement-block curtain walls, cement plastered on the exterior. The roof is built of wood rafters, sheathed and covered with red vitreous roof tile. The interior is finished in white-lime plaster with wood trim and staircases. Boiler house ayid shops. — The i)ower plant of the hospital is 48 feet 6 inches by 62 feet 6 inches in dimensions, one story high, of open sides, with wide overhanging eaves. The construction is reinforced concrete, with a corrugated asbestos roof on Avood rafters. Besides two oO-horsepower oil-burning boilers that supply steam to al] the hospital buildings, this structure contains the hospital carpenter and plumbing shop. /?r//Y/r/^.— Dimensions. 21 feet 3 inches by 80 feet 6 inches. This building is of the general type of hospital permanent construction, and contains stalls for eight hospital trucks, ambulances, etc. Tavo of the sfalls are partitioned off as a workroom, with bench and pit for repairs. I.ARVAC1DE PLANT. This is a one-story building, located near the Ancon laundry, 40 feet 6 inches by 70 feet, of cement block, stuccoed, and reinforced concrete construction, with an asbestos-shingle roofp

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REPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER, BUILDING DIVISION. 113 The building contains an office foithe sanitary inspector, storeroom for the health department, toilets, and workroom for the manufacture of larvacide, which is used for the extermination of mosquitoes. The carbolic-acid storage tank of 10,000 gallon capacity is of concrete and located below the floor, as is also the larvacide storage tank of 3,300 gallons. All other necessary chemicals and the barreled-finishecl product are stored upon the first floor, being handled by a small one-fourth-ton overhead trolley. Shipping entrance to the building is from the switch track adjoining the shipping platform, which is reached also by wagons. nurses' quarters, colon hospital. The nurses' house is a two^story building, 45 by TO feet, situated near Colon beach, adjacent to the hospital, and provides quarters for 13 nurses and 2 maids. The construction is of reinforced concrete columns, girders, and floor slabs, with walls and partitions of hollow concrete blocks and with red-tile roof on wood framing. Interior finish is wood floors, trim, and stairway, white plastered walls and ceilings. The exterior finish is cement plaster. A bedroom, 12 by 12 feet, is provided for each person, and contains a dry closet, lavatory, and built-in medicine cabinet. The rooms are arranged along a directly lighted central corridor, and open onto connnon-screened cement-floored porches on the front and rear of the building. Each floor has a white-tiled toilet, shower, and bathroom, and, in addition, the building contains a living room, dining room, kitchen, laundry, and an isolated maid's room with separate toilet and shower. GATUN DISPENSARY. This building, 36 by 66 feet and two stories high, is constructed of a reinforced concrete slab forming the first floor, and the columns and beams up to the roof are of the same material. All exterior walls and the first-story interior walls are of hollow blocks, stuccoed or plastered. The second-story floor is on wood joists, and the interior partitions of this story are wood studs plastered on expanded metal. The roof is of red Spanish tile on wood framing. The fii-st floor houses the district dispensary, with all the necessary rooms for patients on both the gold and silver roll, and, with an independent entrance, the district sanitary department. On the second floor is the business suite of the district dentist, and one married living apartment for the district physician. GATUN HYDROELECTRIC EXTENSION. The Gatun hydroelectric plant was extended to double its original size, in the same materials and character of construction as the original building. The dimensions of the new extension are 120 feet by 61 feet 2 inches. A detailed description of the ecjuipmeut is in the report of the electrical engineer.

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114 THE PANAMA CANAL. BALBOA GARBAGE INCINERATOR. This plant consumes the garbage of Panama and the towns at the Pacific terminal of the canal. It is located on the point of land formerly known ds Gavilan Island, which extends into the sea near the Zone line. The structure is 42 feet by 66 feet 6 inches, of reinforced concrete slabs, trams, and columns, with block walls, and red Spanish tile roof, and is constructed on an irregular rock formation that was blasted level to receive the building. The concrete chimney, 150 feet high, was built by the firm that contracted to supply and install the furnace and equipment. A more extended description of this plant is in the report of the health department. The following table shows the buildings on which construction work was j^erf ormed during the year : PANAMA CANAL BUILDINGS. Item. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 23 Description. Storehouse, lumber^ Balboa l-family quarters, ( ristobal 4-family quarters, Cristobal 4-family quarters, CristobfJl 12-family silver quarters Restaurants, Balboa, Ancon, Cristobal (Pedro Miguel) Balboa sbofs' iness building and rattern-making shop School buildings, ( ristobal, (iatun, Pedro M^iguel, Ancon, Balboa Ancon Hospital, administration building Passageway Ancon Hospital Kitchen arid mess, Ancon IIosi ital. Ancon IIosj ital, group. 7 Ancon Hospital, t'roup S Isolation ward, Ancon Hosiital... Nurses' home, Ancon Hospital Garage, Ancon Hospital Nurses' home, ( olon Hos] ital l.arvacide plant, Ancon Boiler house, Ancon Hosi I'al Dispensary, Gatun Cnide-oii tanK, Mount Hope 12-family silver tiuarlers, Balboa... Tivoli liotel kitchen ' Extension hvdroelectric plant, Gatun . Office building, dentist and sanitary insi ector Incinerator, Gavilan Island Dispensary, Pedro Miguel Number of buildings 1 25 19 8 32 4 1 Class L. 1-story. A. 1-story. A. 2-storv. A. 2-story. A, 2-story. .1. 1-slory. J. 2-story . 1. 1 and 2sl()rv ( '{1: 1 I. 2-story 1-story L'-story 2-story 2-storv 2.storv 2-story 1-story 2-story Istofy ]-s1ory 2story ecial 2-story 2-stor.v J. 3-story. I. 2-storv. J. 2-storv. 1. 2-storv. Date started. Per cent completed June 30, 1918. July, 1916 Apr., 1917 Apr., 1917 .-Vpr., 1917 June, 1917 Aug., 1916 leb., 1916 June, 1916 Mar., July, June, Mar., Mar.. June, Aug., June. t-'ert.. Jan., Nov., Aug., Jan.. Nov., Dec, 1917 1917 1917 191.8 1918 1917 1917 1918 1917 1918 1917 1917 1918 1917 1917 Nov.. 1916 Jan.. 1917 Jan., 1917 Dec, 1913 100 100 100 100 100 96 100 100 100 100 100 60 40 100 9.S 50 100 50 95 100 90 100 90 89 100 100 100 Cost to June 30, 1918. $127,126.03 63, 236. 88 122, 269. 22 52, 497. 04 198, 632. 70 237, 761. 64 58,405.77 435, 194. 15 173, 249. 90 30,366.28 127,831.33 134,682.95 68,330.81 120, 235. 66 125, 235. 87 1,978.84 34,387.51 7,639.21 13,328.65 34, 490. 17 36, 9S6. 42 9,171.57 32, 703. 39 280, .580. 31 25,'*11.91 116,065.92 36,995.61 PANAMA RAILBOAD BUILDINGS. Ice Plant, Cristobal Slaughter house, Cristobal 12-family silver quarters, Balboa. Q. 3-storv Q. 3-story A. 2-story Aug., 1917 June, 1918 Aug., 1917 50 2 100 S397, 930. 96 1,111.48 7,418.04

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REPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER, BUILDING DIVISION. ARMY BUILDINGS. 115 Description. MANZANILLO BAY Seaplane hangars Boathouse Stable Garage Technical storehouse Machine shop and garage building. FORT GRANT Lieutenants' quarters Lieutenants' bachelor quarters Band stand FORT SHERMAN Headquarters building Noncommissioned officers' quarters. Field officers' quarters Lieutenants' quarters Incinerator FORT DE LESSEPS Noncommissioned officers' quarters. Captains' quarters Field oflQcers' quarters Headquarters barracks, storehouse. Number of buildings. Glass. A A A A M M I. 2-story. I. 2-story. I. 1-story. A. 2-story A. 2-story A. 2-story A. 2-story P. 2-story. 1. 2-story. I. 2-stor5r. I. 2-storv. L 2-storv Date started. Per cent completed June 30, 1918. Feb., 1918 Feb., 1918 Feb., 1918 Mar., 1918 Jan., 1918 Feb., 1918 Oct., 1916 Mar., 1917 May, 1917 Oct., 1916 Dec, 1916 Mar., 1917 Mar., 1917 June, 1917 Dec, 1916 Dec, 1916 Jan., 1917 Jan., 1917 85 100 100 100 100 80 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Cost to June 30, 1918. $49,118.91 4, 448. 42 3, 155. 96 2, 514. 09 11,441.28 37, 155. 58 50, 709. 83 33, 322. 90 3, 305. 37 39, 261. 53 39, 062. 35 25, 067. 76 52, 632. 35 9, 859. 33 57, 471. 87 60, 715. 35 43, 242. 32 97, 294. 98 NAVY BUILDINGS Provision storehouse Coco f-'olo. .. . Ordnance workshop and torpedo storage building. Shop and power house Barracks Barracks and kitchen Laundry and boiler hoti.'^e , Boathouse Sick quarters and dispensary Individual stores build iu.; Dirigible hangar Hydro generating shed Barracks Officers' quarters I'aymasters'storehoiise Seaplane hangar Oil storehouse Officers' quarters Officers' mess Commanding officers' quarters Officers' building Storage battery and acid store building. Q. 1-story. M. 1-story. M. A. A. A. R. A. A. R. A. A A. A. R. Q. A. A. A. A. M. 1-story . 2-story. 2-story. 1-story. 1-story. 1-story. 1-story. 1-story. 1-story. 2-story. 2-story. 1-story. 1 -story . l-stoi\v. 2-story. 2-story. 2-story , 1-story. 1-storv . June,

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116 THE PANAMA CANAL. 1

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KEPOET OF RESIDENT ENGINEER, BUILDING DIVISION. 117 O .I -^ 9 o 00 CO

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118 THE PANAMA CANAL. In addition to the work outlined in the above tables, construction and repair work was performed for the various departments and divisions. Respectfully submitted. H. RowE, Resident Engineer. Col. Chester Harding, United States Army, Goven^OT^ The Panama Canal^ Balhoa Heights^ Canal Zone,

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APPENDIX C. REPORT OF THE RESIDENT ENGINEER, DREDGING DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE. Pakaiso, Canal Zone, July 28, 1918. Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of operations in the dredging division during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918: Division Organization. From July 1, 1917, to March 31, 1918, the division was divided into two districts, the first embracing all dredging operations in the Pacific entrance, Miraflores Lake, and Gaillard Cut; the second district, all dredging operations in the Atlantic entrance and Gatun Lake. On April 1, 1918, the two districts were consolidated and all dredging operations handled direct from the division headquarters at Paraiso. Dredging Plant. The following dredges and other floating plant were in operation during the year : The seagoing suction dredge Culehra was engaged in deepening the channel through Gaillard Cut from July 1 to July 20, 1917; in the service of the supply department as a cattle boat from July 21 to October 8, 1917; salvaging and wrecking operations, steamer Somerset aground at Old Providence Island from October 9 to 13, 1917 ; maintaining and deepening the Pacific entrance channel and Balboa Harbor, and excavating and transporting sand from Chame Point from October 14, 1917, to April 3, 1918; salvaging and Avrecking operations, steamship Grays Harhor aground on Old Providence Island, April 4 to 10, 1918, and in the service of the supply department as a cattle boat from April 11 to the end of the year. The 20-inch pipe-line dredge No. 82 was engaged in reclaiming sand and gravel from the Chagres Eiver above Gamboa, from July 1, 1917, to May 26, 1918, on which date it was permanently retired from the canal service, towed to Cristobal and turned over to the chief quartermaster for transfer to the States. The 20-inch pipe-line dredge No. 83 was engaged during the year excavating the Coco Solo submarine basin, filling the swamp areas around Coco Solo, filling at the Navy and Army aviation fields near Coco Solo and widening the Cristobal approach channel. 119

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120 THE PANAMA CANAL. The 20-inch pipe-line dredge Xo. Si was engaged during the j^ear excavating the Coco Solo submarine basin, deepening the Atlantic entrance channel, filling swamp ai'cas at the Navy and Army aviation fields near Coco Solo, uncovering the submerged oil and water lines across Cristobal Harbor and excavating in the Inner Harbor at Balboa. The 20-inch pii^e-line dredge Xo. So was engaged in excavating Balboa Harbor and maintaining the Pacific entrance channel from July 1, 1917, to May 15, 1918; and was permanently retired from the canal service on May 16, 1918, and turned over to the chief quartermaster for transfer to the States. The 20-inch pipe-line dredge Xo. SO was engaged during the year in maintaining the channel and removing slides in Gaillard Cut, excavating the Coco Solo submarine basin, filling the Navy and Army aviation fields near Coco Solo, and reclaiming sand and gravel from the Chagres Piver above Gamboa. The 15-yard dipper dredge Cnscadas was operated in the Pacific entrance channel, excavating rock and hard clay from Balboa Harbor, deepening the channel along the Panama Railroad steel wharf at Balboa, excavating the submarine basin at Coco Solo, deepening the channel at the Fort De Lesseps Avharf and widening the Cristobal approach channel. The 15-yard dipper dredge Gaiiiboa was operated in Gaillard Cut, excavating and deepening the channel at Cucaracha, Culebra, and various other small slides, and at the Paraiso P. I. channel improvement work. The 15-yard dipper dredge Paraiso was operated throughout the year in excavating and deepening the channel at Cucaracha, Culebra, and various other small slides, and at the Paraiso P. I. channel improvement work. The seagoing ladder dredge Corozal was engaged in excavating the Balboa Harbor, widening and deepening the Pacific entrance channel and excavating rock from the oil berths along the old Panama Railroad steel wharf. The French ladder dredge Marmot w^as engaged in excavating various small slides, the Tower-R incline, Gamboa dike, and on general maintenance w^ork in Gaillard Cut, deepening the Balboa Inner Harbor and excavating at the Miraflores P. I. improvement work near Miraflores locks. The drill Teredo Xo. 2 was operated during the year at Culebra and Powderhouse slides in Gaillard Cut, at the dry dock cofferdam, in Balboa Harbor, and at the old Panama Railroad steel wharf at Balboa, in the Pacific entrance channel, and at the Miraflores and Paraiso P. I's channel improvement works. The hydraulic grader Xo. 1 was engaged during the year ditching and grading the east and Avest Culebra, Powderhouse, Whitehouse, Las Cascadas, Buena Vista, and Cucaracha slides, cleaning out the old drainage ditches and sluicing ahead of drills at Paraiso P. I. improvement work. The hydraulic graders Xo. 2 and Xo. 3 Avere engaged in sluicing at east and west Culebra slides and on the high level bank improvement work at Rio Grande and north of Contractors Hill.

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REPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER, DREDGING DWISION. 121 The floating air compressor No. 27 was operated from July 11, 1917, to January 12, 1918, supplying air to the drills at work on the high level bank improvement work north of Contractors Hill, was retired from service from January 13, 1918, to April 9, 1918, was placed in commission again on April 10, 1918, and operated to supply air for the drills at w^ork at the Paraiso P. I. improvement w'ork to the end of the year. The United States tug Reliance sunk off the west breakw^ater at Cristobal on December 27, 1916, was floated and towed to the Cristobal dry dock on July 13, 1917, where it was overhauled and again placed in commission on August 19, 1917. Of the 10 tugboats in the dredging service on July 1, 1917, 3 have been transferred to the marine division, 1 to the States, and 1 to the Navy. On June 30, 1918. the division was operating 5 tugboats and 2 steam launches in dredging, and sand and gravel service. A total of 20 launches, including the watch boats Sir-i and Pequeni^ inspection boats Search and Patrol, and the steam launch Hyacinth,, were in operation on July 1, 1917. During the year the Pequcni, Patrol, and G smaller launches were retired or transferred to other departments. The following table shows the number of days the dredges were retired from dredging service for repairs, alterations, or on detached service : Table No. 1. — Nnmhcr of (hiu-s (Jicihivs were retired from drcdnin;/ service. Dredge.

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122 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 2. — Output of all dredges, with total atid unit eosts. Dredge.

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EEPORT OP RESIDENT ENGINEER, DREDGING DIVISION. 123 Table No. 4. — Yardage removed from Gaillard Cut, Gamioa Dike to Pedro Miguel locks. Month and year.

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124 THE PANAMA CANAL. At the close of the past fiscal year there remained to be removed from the canal prism, including siltage, slides, and original material, 3,337,640 cubic yards of earth and 834,000 cubic yards of rock. The following table shows the classification and location of all yardage remaining to be removed from the canal prism on June 30, 1918: Table No. 7. — Yardage remaining to he removed from the canal prism. Location.

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BEPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER, DREDGING DIVISION. 125 Table No. 8. — Distribution of material removed from GaiUard Cut. Location. Fiscal year. Earth. 3,235 5,470 2,525 40 Gamboa Dike Tower " R'' incline Hout Obispo slide, west Buena Vista slide, west Cascadas slide, east Whitchouse slide^ east ^ _ , , -,v^ Powderhouse sliae, east | s, S60 La Pita (lower) slide, east j Empire slide, east i 12,600 Division Office slide, west ! Lirio slide, west ] Culebra, new slide, east and west 1 144, 202 Culebra, old slide, east and west -' Contractors Hill, north , 13, 800 65-foot berni, west Cucaracha slide, east Contractors Hill slide, west Paraiso Incline, east Paraiso P. L, west 21,100 Pedro Miguel slide, east Miscellaneous 3 1 346, 667 42, 129 6,400 Total 619,728 Rock. 6,400 83,505 16,300 5,900 27,085 7,350 88,670 6,280 32,400 1,093,775 139,600 47, 700 105,080 28,100 20,300 81,000 Total, Total to date. Earth. 6,400 83,505 3,235 5,470 18,825 8,640 35,945 7,350 101,270 6,280 32, 400 1,237,977 153,400 47, 700 147,209 34,500 20, 300 102, 100 6,100 352, 767 1,795,545 2,405,273 23,856 3,235 5,470 2,525 9,928 39, 768 23,945 990' 1,677,799 28,449 13,800 1,464,906 6,400 21,100 1,956 2,853,578 6,177,705 Rock. 59, 505 83,505 32,670 17,132 57,992 59,803 206,217 6,280 69,080 21,730,301 1,061,337 139,600 73,430 4,364,546 28, 100 20,300 81,000 7,254 157, 860 28,255,912 Total. 83,361 83,505 3,235 5,470 35, 195 27,060 97, 760 59,803 230, 162 6,280 70,070 23, 408, 100 1,089,786 153,400 73, 430 5,829,452 34,500 20,300 102, 100 9,210 3,011,438 34,433,617 1 Since Oct. 14, 1914. 2 Prior to Oct. 14, 1914. 3 Small slides and fills in the canal. Cucaracha slide, which had been quite active during a part of the past year, has been fairly quiescent throughout the year and at no time has it been a menace to the safe navigation of the canal. A total of 5,829,452 cubic yards has. been removed from this slide to date by dredges. Culebra slide has been more or less active throughout the year but the channel has been maintained at all times and no delays to shipping occurred. The slide areas have not materially increased durinor the year. There has been removed from the Culebra slides to date by dredges a total of 24,4:97,880 cubic yards of material, and it is estimated that 1,000,000 cubic yards more Avill have to be removed before slides become permanently quiescent. The west bank of the canal between Contractors Hill and West Culebra slide, which was fioni 280 to 310 feet in elevation, Avas considered a menace to canal navigation, as a slide, which threatened to occur at any time, would probaUy have closed the canal to navigation for a considerable period of time. A project for reducing the slope and weight of this bank was approved, which involved the removal of 241,000 cubic yards of material. There were 87,(300 cubic yards removed by steam shovel from the higher levels; 153,400 cubic yards were sluiced down and removed by dredges and 158,255 cubic yards, too hard for the graders to handle, were drilled and shot before grading. The entire project was completed within the year. The smaller slides have been semiquiescent during the year and at no time have they given serious trouble or in any way affected the channel. The passage of commercial shipping through the canal was not delayed nor suspended at any time during the year by the slides in GaiUard Cut.

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126 THE PANAMA CANAL. Drag surveys were made daily in the vicinity of all active slides, and all lumps or shoals found were immediately removed by the dredges. DUMPS. The material removed from the Atlantic entrance was deposited in the swamp lands west of the canal at Mindi. The spoil from (laillard Cut was. disposed of on dumps located in Gatun Lake from Tabernilla, mile 24, to Mamei, mile 27. in the Rio Grande Valley south of Cucaracha, and in jSIiraflores Lake. There were 2,038,877 cubic yards dumped in Gatun Lake, 335,096 yards in the Rio Grande Valley, and 11,300 cubic yards in Miraflores Lake. Dredge No. 86 rehandled 11,300 cubic yards. The material excavated in the Pacific entrance was deposited in the swamp along the west bank of the canal opposite Balboa and on the sea dump located to the westward of the canal entrance in Panama Bay. There were 117,700 cubic yards deposited in the swamp along the west bank, and 799,155 cubic yards on the sea dump. SUBAQUEOUS ROCK EXCAVATIONS. During the year 2,123,685 cubic yards of liard and soft rock were removed from th<^ canal prism and Balboa Harbor as follows: 160,565 cubic yards from the Pacific entrance channel; 1,093,775 cubic yards from Culebra slide; 105,080 cubic yards from Cucaracha slide; 218,185 cubic yards from various small slides; 139,600 cubic yards from the bank improvement work north of Contractors Hill ; 6,400 cubic yards from Gamboa Dike; 83.505 cubic yards from Tower-R incline; 20,300 cubic yards from Paraiso incline; -47,700 cubic yards from the 65-foot berm ; 81,000 cubic yards from the Paraiso P. I. improvement work; 14,600 cubic yards from Miraflores P. I. improvement work; 141,020 cubic ^^ards from Balboa Harbor, and 11,955 cubic yards from in front of the Panama Railroad steel wharf at Balboa. Of this amount, 75,578 cubic yards were drilled and blasted by the drillboat Teredo No. 2, and 230,697 cubic yards by well and tripod drills at Culebra slide and the Paraiso P. I. 299,704 pounds of dynamite were used during the year by the Teredo No. 2, well and tripod drills, by dredges in dobying large rocks and on other small jobs. The following tables show the location, feet drilled, area covered, theoretical breakage, and costs of all rock mined by the Teredo No. 2^ well and tripod power drills: Table No. 9. — Mining — Performance of drill boat " Teredo No. 2." Month.

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f BEPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER, DREDGING DIVISION. 127 Table No. 9. — Mining — Performance of drill hoat " Teredo No. 2 " — Continued. Month.

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128 THE PANAMA CANAL. 300,710 cubic yards of earth and 408,438 cubic yards of rock from the submarine base at Coco Solo; 3,000 cubic yards of earth from Coco Solo Harbor ; 828.400 cubic yards of sand and 216,900 cubic yards of rock from borrow pits, and 2,600 cubic yards of earth from alongside wharf at the Fort De Lesseps. All material excavated was disposed of as follows: 421,148 cubic yards in sanitary fills and the aviation field at Coco Solo; 764,800 cubic yards in the Army aviation fields; 585,100 cubic yards on the toes of the east and submarine breakwater fills; 21,700 cubic yards in sanitary fills near the coaling station, and 2,600 cubic yards on the Cristobal mole. PACIFIC TERMINALS. There w^ere 1,166,693 cubic yards of earth and 152,975 cubic yards of rock removed from the Pacific terminals as follows : 1,160,068 cubic yards of earth and 95,765 cubic yards of rock from the Balboa Inner Harbor; 1,700 cubic yards of earth and 45,255 cubic yards of rock from the dry-dock cofferdam, and 4,925 cubic yards of earth and 11,955 cubic yards of rock from the oil dock berths. This material was disposed of as follows: 683,000 cubic yards excavated by pipe line dredges were used in reclaiming swamp lands east of the Corozal-Panama Road ; 636,668 cubic yards excavated by seagoing suction, ladder, and dipper dredges were towed to sea and deposited on the sea dump. In addition, 4,713 cubic yards of material were rehandled by pipe line dredges and placed in swamp fills. Sand and Gravel Production. The sand and gravel necessary for construction purposes was excavated by pipe line dredges .Yo. 8:2 and No. 86 from the gravel beds in the overflow district of the Chagres River above Gamboa, and by the seagoing dredge Culehra at Chame Point on the Pacific coast. There Avere 47,345 cubic yards of sand, 10,625 cubic yards of No. 1 gravel, 45,737 cubic yards of No. 2 gravel, and 200,641 cubic yards of run-of-bank gravel excavated from the Chagres River and delivered to the gravel plant and stock piles at Gamboa. In addition, the dredge Culehra excavated 8,800 cubic yards of sand at Chame Point, of which 4,087 cubic yards were delivered at the Gamboa gravel plant, and 4,713 cubic yards unfit for use were dumped in Balboa Harbor and rehandled by dredge No. 85. Diversions and Drainage. The ditches diverting the Avater of the Obispo diversion into the canal were cleaned of grass and small earth slides. Ditches were maintained at east and Avest Culebra, Cucaracha, and all other smaller slides by the hydraulic graders to provide the necessary drainage for surface and storm waters AA'hich AA'ould other Avise collect in pools and keep the sliding material constantly saturated, thereby tending to accelerate its movement toAvard the canal. Slide Inspection and Reports. Inspections AA'ere made of all slide areas from time to time, new breaks reported, and drainage conditions noted.

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REPORT OF RESIDENT ENGINEER, DREDGING DIVISION. 129 MiNDi Dikes and Groins. The rock and timber dikes and groins in Mindi Beach, south of Limon B;iy. have been successfully maintained throughout the year. No new dikes or groins have been built, and only minor repairs have been necessary to those previously constructed. The erosion of the beach, which in past years had been as much as 88 feet annually, has been practically stopped and during the past year the only noticeable change was where the beach had filled or eroded slightly in the gradual adjusting of the sands into a uniform shore line. Water Hyacinths. Regular monthly inspections Avere made of the waters of the canal, Gatun Lake, and tributaries. All hyacinths found were destroyed either by spraying with an arsenic solution or b}' hand pulling where the plants were young and scattered. No new beds of old plants were found, but great difficulty was ex]ierienced in keeping the old beds of previous years clean, as the water grasses, lettuce, and other plants, matted up with the logs and debris from the dead timbers in the overflowed areas, made it most difficult for the woi-l^men to thoroughly cover the area. There were 328,8r)i) s(juare yards of hyacinths killed by arsenic spraying, and 564,132 young plants pulled and deposited on shore. So far as is known, no plants were allowed to seed or grow to maturity during the year. Surveys. The usual progress surveys were made of the dredged areas in the canal prism. Cristobal Harbor, Coco Solo. Limon Bay, Gaillard Cut, Miraflores Lake, and Balboa Harbor. Topographic surveys were made of Culebra and Cucaracha slides, and maps prepared. The points established at the request of the chairman of the slide commission on Gold, Zion, and Contractors Hills were checked from time to time to determine any movement or indication of sliding. The test borings being made at the site of the proposed dry dock at Cristobal were completed, profiles plotted, data tabulated, and report made. Office. Eoutine clerical work, preparation of progress records, estimates, requisitions, etc., were satisfactorily performed during the year. Respectfully submitted. J. M. Pratt, Superintendent of Dredging. Col. Chester Harding, United States Army, Governor, The Panama Canal, Balboa Heights, Canal Zo)ie.

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GAILLARD CUT. LOOKING NORTH FROM CONTRA r AND WEST bank;

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GAILLARD CUT, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING CONDITIONS ON WEST BANK, JUNE, 191

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Plate 26. IBOO IftOO I400 irOO lOOO 800 GOO 400 UJC TOO 400 GOO BOO lOOO IZOO 14O0 CAST CUt-CBHA SUQE ItST CULEBR* SLIDE

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APPENDIX D. REPORT or THE MARINE SUPERINTENDENT, MARINE DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE. Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, July £9, 1918. Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations of the marine division for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918 : On August 15, 1917, Lieut. John G. Fels, U. S. N. K. F., and Lieut. Charles Svensson, U. S. N. E. F., were appointed captain of the port at Cristobal and Balboa, respectively, vice Lieut. Commander P. P. Bassett, United States Navy, and Lieut. Commander A. B. Eeed, United States Navy, detached from Panama Canal service. Under date of March 19, 1918, Lieuts. Fels and Svensson, were promoted to the grade of lieutenant commander, U. S. N. E. F. Commander H. I. Cone, United States Navy, marine superintendent, was detached from Panama Canal service on August 21, 1917, from which date until January 23, 1918, the office was administered under the direct supervision of the Governor, The 'Panama Canal. On January 24, 1918, Commander L. E. Sargent, United States Navy, was appointed marine superintendent, in addition to his other duties as commander, naval forces. Canal Zone, and commandant, fifteenth naval district. Canal Pilot Fred Kariger continued throughout the year in charge of the lighthouse subdivision (aids to navigation). Additions to the complement of pilots and changes in assignment were made as found necessary. By arrangement with the local naval establishment, pilots belonging to the Naval Eeserve were ordered, in appropriate number, to active naval duty, and in that capacity were employed as mine field pilots, under the joint cognizance of the naval patrol and the marine division (captains of the ports). Eesults of this procedure, adopted to meet peculiar requirements incident to a state of war, have been satisfactory. A new concrete boathouse between Piers Nos. 7 and 8, Cristobal, was placed in service under the captain of the port on March 1, 1918, replacing temporary shed between Piers Nos. 1 and 2, Colon. The floating equipment of the division has been augmented by three launches and a new hull has been supplied for an engine previously installed in a launch recently condemned. Effects of service have become noticeable in the case of certain launches of the older equipment, forecasting the necessity of replacement, and the preeminent fitness for local requirements has become increasingly apparent in the case of certain types of small craft — both as to engines 131 86372°— 18 10

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132 THE PANAMA CANAL. and hulls, as contrasted with other types that have been found less successful under test to date. The necessity of a consistent and progressive practice of standardization in that regard is apparent. Cooperation in the effort of The Panama Canal to contribute to the limit of its resources to the needs of the military and naval branches of the Government in the existing exigency has reduced the marine division's complement of tugs somewhat below a conservative minimum. Adjustment is in progress. It is considered necessary to maintain at each terminal port at least two seagoing tugs. Circular No. 660-33, dated August 1, 1917, has served a useful purpose in defining and strengthening the coordination in the offices of the port captains of the authority and obligations incident to the control and service of shipping. The enforcement of bunker license regulations has been delegated to the marine division. The marine superintendent and both port captains have been designated special agents of the Bureau of Transportation, War Trade Board, performing their functions in that capacity under the direction of the Governor, who represents the War Trade Board. Executive order, dated May 28, 1918, authorizes the Governor of The Panama Canal to exercise in the Canal Zone the powers mentioned in section 1, Title II, of the espionage act, approved June 15, 1917 (anchorage, movement, searching, etc., of vessels). Pending the approval of " Rules and Regulations " submitted to the President, the marine division has represented the Governor in the immediate ex&rcise of these powers along the same general lines as defined in Circular No. 660-33 of August 1, 1917. (Note. — " Hules and Regulations," confirming the above, were approved by the President on July 9, 1918.) Arrangements have been made with the local naval establishment for the furnishing of " naval port guards " to safeguard vessels during canal transit and while in terminal ports, and similarly to safeguard canal utilities from enemy activities initiated on shipboard. The combination of the duties of marine superintendent in the same person with those of commandant, fifteenth naval district (Canal Zone), has tended to facilitate legitimate arrangements of this character and their subsequent administration. STEAMBOAT-INSPECTION SERVICE. The details of the operations of the board of local inspectors for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918, are covered in the report of that board, which follows: Report of Boabd of Local Inspectors. On August 7, 1917, Lieut. Commander John G. Fels, U. S. N. R. F.. was appointed chaii'man, and Lieut. Commander Charles Svensson, U. S. N. R. F., was made junior member, relieving Commanders P. P. Bassett and A. B. Reed, United States Navy, respectively, soon thereafter detached from canal service. Since the departure of Mr. James Macfarlane from the Isthmus on March 30, 1918, no appointment was made to the position of engineer member ; Mr. John Ross acted in that capacity from Februai'y 6, until his resignation from the canal service on May 21, 1918.

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EEPOET OF SUPERINTENDENT, MARINE DIVISION. 133 With a view to the preservation of life and property and the nplceep of the plant under all conditions, an inspection was made of the floating equipment of the canal and railroad, the report thereof was approved, and the heads of divisions interested were notified to make their equipment conform thereto. Annual inspections M'ere made and certificates of seaworthiness issued to 4 American steamers, 19 foreign steamers, 46 motor boats of The Panama Canal, 3 motor boats of the Panama Railroad Company, and 63 privately owned motor boats. With a view to determining the alterations necessary to fit them for safe voyages overseas, inspections and reports were made on the following pieces of canal equipment : Tugs TJ. S. Miraflores and U. S. La Boca, dredges V. S. 4 U. S. 82, and V. S. 85, and barges U. S. 26 and U. S. 28. Tugs [7^. S. Reliance and [/. S. Porto BeUo were inspected in order to determine what changes will be necessary in order to fit them for occasional offshore service without lessening their value for canal work. Various small craft on survey requests were inspected and disposition recommended. Inspection and hydrostatic tests were made of 73 boilers on floating equipment of the canal and railroad, and the heads of divisions interested were furnished reports and certificates thereof. On requests from the several heads of divisions, inspections and appraisals were made from time to time of floating plant for sale and transfer. Licenses were issued to 27 pilots, 2.5 masters, 28 mates, 32 engineers, 102 operators of motor boats, and 673 chauffeurs. Licenses were refused 1 pilot, 1 master, 4 mates, 4 engineers, 44 operators of motor boats, and 304 chauffeurs. The licenses of 1 operator of motor boats and 9 chauffeurs were revoked. The grade of 1 motor-boat operator's license was raised. ADMEASUREMENT OF VESSELS AND APPLICATION OF TOLLS. No report from the marine division would be complete that failed to reiterate the comments contained in previous reports relative to the desirability of adopting the Panama Canal rules as the sole criterion in determining tonnage for the purpose of computing Panama Canal tolls. Discrimination as between individual vessels as well as between vessels of various nationalities (with particular prejudice to United States vessels), together with serious loss of revenue to the United States, results from the present alternative method, and will continue as long as that method is tolerated. Careful and sustained study on the part of this divisign has failed to reveal just ground for its tolerance. Eemedial legislation is recommended. Tolls collected under existing alternative rules of measurement amounted to $6,439,083.99. Had all tolls been based upon Panama Canal rules alone, the amount collected would have been $7,522,195.68 ; increasing the revenue from this sourceby $1,085,111.69; The total number of ships making the transit of the canal during the fiscal year in seagoing traffic was 2,130. The aggregate gross and net tonnage of these ships, according to the rules of measurement for The Panama Can-al, were' 9,371,339 a-nd 6,658, 858 tons, respectively. The cargo carried through the canal amounted to 7,562,133 tons of 2,240 pounds. Ships making the passage of the canal without cargo, including naval ships and pleasure craft which did not carry cargo, as well as merchant ships in ballast, aggregated 509. Of these, 299 were in transit from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and 210 from the Pacific to the Atlantic ; net tonnages were 802,271 and 427,107, respectively.

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134 THE PANAMA CANAL. The average net tonnage of all ships was 3,126 tons. The average net tonnage of the ships carrying cargo was 3,242 tons. The average loading of the ships with cargo was 3,681 tons of 2,240 pounds. The ratio of tons of cargo to net tonnage of ships with cargo was 1.336. As distributed over the aggregate of traffic for each of the 6,658,858 net tons that passed through the canal, there were handled 1.13 tons of cargo. Statistics of seagoing traffic through the canal are presented in attached tables Nos. 1 and 2. Respectfully, L. R. Sargent, Marine Superintendent. Col. Chester Harding, United States Army, Governor, The Panama Canal, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone.

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EEPOKT OF SUPERINTENDENT, MARINE DIVISION. 135

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136 THE PANAMA CANAL. •1b:>ox

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Report of superintendent, marine division. 137

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APPENDIX E. REPOET or THE SUPERINTENDENT, MECHANICAL DIVISION. Balboa, Canal Zone, July 18, 1918. Sir: Complying with instructions of your circular letter of May 3, 1918, I submit herewith the following report relative to the operations of the mechanical division for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918. ORGANIZATION. The general organization of the division remained essentially the same as obtained at the close of the last fiscal year, except for Paraiso shops which were closed down, effective August 25, 1917, owing to the constantly decreasing amount of repairs for the dredging division, and the force absorbed by Balboa and Cristobal shops with the exception of two or three men who requested their discharge. Effective March 15, 1918, Mr. William J. Daglish, as the result of competitive examination, was assigned as general foreman of the Cristobal shops, vice Mr. W. H. Stone, who resigned to accept a commission in the Corps of Engineers for service in France. Effective June 14, 1917, Mr. William J. Auten was appointed mechanical engineer, vice Mr. A. L. Bell, who resigned to accept appointment with the United States Shipping Board. The chief draftsman at Balboa shops resigned, effective July 20, 1917, and the amount and character of drafting work has been such that this position has not been refilled. The chief clerk of the mechanical division, Mr. F. G. Swanson, resigned and, effective April 11, 1918, Mr. R. H. Adams, United States requisition clerk, was appointed in his stead with duties of the two positions combined. Effctive October 1, 1917, the electrical forces of the mechanical division were transferred to the electrical division, with the exception of the retention of two electricians at Balboa shops and two electricians at Cristobal shops for the maintenance of plant work. WAR ACTIVITIES. The following comments are made relative to the war as a factor in the life of the division. (1) Notwithstanding the fact that there has been no draft registration on the Canal Zone, numerous employees have registered while on vacation in the States and several have resigned to enter the 139

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140 THE PANAMA CANAL. Army ; 30 ex-employees of the division became service men and also doubtless a considerable number more of those resigning of whose whereabouts this office has no laiowledge. (2) This division has actively participated in Libert}^ loan rallies, and its employees have for the most part made liberal subscriptions to the Liberty loans and contributed regularly (by pay roll deduction) to the Bed Cross. (3) For alleged disloyal expression, the Governor's office ordered the discharge of a small number of employees of the division' with objection to their reemployment for the duration of the war. (4) A greatly increased amount of work has been perfonned for the Army and Navy. WAR WORK. During this fiscal year the efforts of the division have been directed iDarticularly toward the "war work" requested of it. a separate report of which has already been submitted, the principal items of which are as follows: (1) Construction of a Coast Guard cutter for the Navy and various small craft and two troop cars for transporting troops and supplies for the Army. (2) Overhauling, changing gauge, and preparing for shipment numerous locomotives, flat cars, dump cars, rock barges, tugs, locomotive cranes, steam shovels, etc. (3) Repairs to a damaged transport. (4) Repairs and convereion of a large steamer into a troop transport. (5) The manufacture of a large number of anchors for the Navy at a price of from7 to 8 cents per pound less than could be obtained from private manufacturers in the United States, with earlier delivery than was obtainable in the United States. (6) Manufacture of large steel castings for the Navy. (7) Manufactureof about 60,000 linear feet of boat fenders of almendra native wood for use on all the small boats of 'the Navy. (8) The cutting and shipping of over 15,000 feet of seasoned lignum-vitoe from the Gatun Lake area for use on the new ships being constructed. (9) Work of greater or less extent on over 50' naval vessels, indicating that these shops* fill a ne^d toward maintaining naval units in thoroughly first-class serviceready for the emergencies of war. PRINCIPAL WORK PERFORMED. The items of work mentioned above under " war work " together with the folloAving constituted the principal items of work carried on during the year by the mechanical division. At Cristobal, overhauling the tug Relimwe (which was sunk at Colon breakwater and later floated), including overhaul of boilers, rebuilding engines, replacing pilot house which was entirely gone, and renewing all the wood in the deck, deck house, and fenders which Avere destroyed by the teredo worms, the tug being put in commission in 30 working days after the work commenced; overhauling of the tugs La Boca and M irajlores ; the tugs La Boca and Mira-

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BEPOET OF SUPERINTENDENT, MECHANICAL DIVISION. 141 flores being shipped to the United States for the Army. The tug Mariner was overhauled and is in use by the Navy Department on the Isthmus. Miscellaneous work was performed on a large number of commercial steamships, including those of the Panama Railroad Steamship Line. At Balboa important items of work were: Eepairs to six submarines of the Chilean Navy; alterations and repairs to the cargocarrying boat Caribhean; extensive overhauling and converting of the tug La Boca into an oil burner from a coal burner ; converting the Cidehra from a dredge into a cattle-carrying boat for the supply department in five days' time ; repairs to damaged bow of the steamship Republic^ working 24 hours a day, the ship being at the plant from February 2 to 26; repairs to the French schooners Divmude and Santa Elena^ including general overhaul of the engines ; the construction of a 33-foot motor sailing launch for the supply department, two 31-foot launches for the Canal Zone police department, and one 28-foot launch for the health department: about 70 locomotives, 5 steam shovels, 400 flat cars, 30 Eodger ballast cars, and 30 dump cars overhauled and shipped from the Isthmus for the Alaskan Engineering Commission and private firms. The following canal equipment was in dry dock for repairs either at Cristobal or Balboa dry dock during the year: Dredges 5^, 85^ 83, 86, Chagres, Cascadas, Cidebra, Corozal, Gamhoa, Marmot, Paraiso; barges %, 3, 13, 16, 17, 19, 26, 36, 47, 82, 86, 91, 96, 106. 131, 133, 136, m, l-W, 11^1, IJfi, 156, 157, 159, 161, 171; scows 108, 117, 119, 122, 123; tugs Porto BeUo, Chame, Engineer, MirafjOres, De Lesseps, La Valley, BoMo, La Boca and Mariner. The total number of vessels other than tugs, barges and dredges worked on at Balboa and Cristobal shops during the year was 466. One of the largest marine jobs performed during the year at Balboa shops was on the steamship Ancon, of the Panama Railroad Steamship Line. This ship was given a thoroughoverhaul, involving the installation of new boilers, and extensive structural repairs to inner bottom, floors, and bulkheads throughout ship. All work was completed with practically no overtime in a period, of four months, at a cost of approximately $400,000. On account of the very high prices of lumber from the States and difficulties of arranging transportation, the native lumber field has been developed, and during the present fiscal year nearly 2,000,000 feet b. m. of lumber have been ol3tained from the jungles and sawn into serviceable lumber. At the close of the fiscal year the new bandsaw mill was turning out an average of about 12,000 feet of lumber daily. Following are some of the more prominent native woods which have proven very satisfactory substitutes for oak, pine, fir, etc.. and which have been obtained in quantities: Almendra, alcavu, alcareto, belario, bateo, caoba blanca, maria, and roble. RESULTS ACCOaiPLISHED. This division has" been successful in its efforts to encourage individuals and companies to bring their work to this plant, as indicated by the increased number of vessels on which work has been performed. An arrangement has been made whereby all major repairs on ships of the Panama Railroad Steamship Line will be made in the future on the Isthmus.

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142 THE PANAMA CANAL. Within the division progress has been made along the following lines: (1) It lifis been found possible to reduce the organization by about 130 positions on the gold roll, which positions were abolished ; and the actual working force, gold and silver, has been reduced by about 500 during the year. (2) The hours of clerks and draftsmen employed in the office building continued to be seven hours per diem. (3) Effective October 1 and May 1, the wages of silver employees were raised ; and material increases in gold wages were also made, effective July 1, 1917, September 24, November 16, and May 1, 1918. (4) A further reduction in direct labor surcharge to 25 per cent to apply on work performed for The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad was effected October 1, the surcharge on work for individuals and companies continuing to be 35 per cent. Statement relative to the nature of this surcharge was included in last year's report. (5) A modern lunch room was installed at Balboa shops at a cost of about $35,000. It has a seating capacity of 250. During the past year the average number of men at the noon meal has been 200, and the average cost of the meals 32 cents. (6) Rearrangements have been made in the office to obtain greater efficiency. The planning section was placed on the first floor Instead of the second floor, thus bringing it in more convenient touch with the main office and with the shops and the public. The personnel section and the general file section have been united into one filing division under one head. (7) The shops at Balboa have been inclosed with a steel paling fence, and entrance and exit of employees and other authorized persons are concentrated at the main entrance to the plant ; here an employment office has been established for the employment of all silver labor, which office provides a means for keeping unauthorized men out of the shops and precludes the annoyance to foremen of constant applications from the unemployed and also provides a convenient medium of exchange or adjustment of labor between one shop and another. (8) A "safety-first" campaign has been successfully canned on during the fiscal year ; during which time there were 493 injuries and 1 death from accident in the forces of the division. During the previous fiscal year 746 injuries and 2 accidental deaths were reported. (9) The old and unsightly Panama Railroad shed covering Pier No. 15 was removed and the space made available as repair wharves. (10) The old terminal construction building at the northwest end of Dry Dock 'No. 1 was renovated and now consists of a rigging and sail loft, a garage, and outside tool room. (11) Extension of the roof over the west end of foundry building No. 12 was made; and the north end of building No. 2, used as a copper shop, pipe shop, and tin shop, was extended to avoid a crowded condition and now the work is carried on in three separate shops instead of in a combined shop as previously. (12) An extension of the car shop was recently completed for the use of the cabinetmakers, and machines installed there, including scraper, scraper-grinder, planer, universal saw, and woodworker, all purchased in the United States; also the following transferred from Paraiso and from the machine shop, Balboa — bolt cutter, furnace (oil), punch and shear, axle lathe, wheel press, boring mill, and triple valve-testing machine. (13) Owing to great difficulty in getting the parts for ears from the sawmill, which is now engaged mostly in carrying on marine work, it was decided to shift the machinery in connection with car-building work from the sawmill and locate it in the east end of the lumber shed, building No. 10, which is in close proximity to the car shop. All wood work for cars is being carried on there at the present time. The following machines were transferred to building No. 10 : Timber sizer, tenoner, .gainer, mortiser, ripsaw. (14) In addition to the machines referred to above as having been installed in the car department, the following equipment has been purchased and installed during the year at Balboa shops : A pipe-bending machine for the sheetmetal shop; bending rolls and plate planer installed in the boiler shop; a bandsaw mill with capacity for center-splitting hardwood logs 48 inches in diameter by 60 feet long, complete with motor and transmission equipment. (15) To sui)plemcnt the electric-driven air compressors, at Balboa shops, a 2,500 cubic foot steam-driven air compressor has been transferred from the

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REPOKT OF SUPERINTENDENT, MECHANICAL DIVISION. 143 power plant (building No. 14) at the north end of the dry dock and Installed in the air-compressor plant (building No. 29) near the south end of the dry dock, and these two buildings connected through a tunnel with a 6-inch steam line. The steam-driven air compressor is an independent unit, capable in emergency of furnishing sufficient compressed air for all needs of the dry dock repair work and forge shop. (16) At the Cristobal shops repairs were made to the dry dock gates, involving building a cofferdam to enable repairs to be made. (17) The following equipment has been purchased during the year and installed at the Cristobal shops : Pipe threading and cutting machine, power hack saw, 14-incli drill press, and an electric welding machine. NEEDS FOR THE COMING FISXTAL TEAR. The principal needs of the division for the coming year, exchisive of those for Avhich estimates have ah^eady been snbmitted covering purchase of additional machine tool equipment, are the following: (1) The construction at Balboa and Cristobal of additional quarters for gold and silver employees, the lack of which is a serious handicap toward maintaining an efficient force. This recommendation was made a year ago and is renewed. (2) The construction of new shops and dry dock facilities at Cristobal. This was also recommended in last year's report, to which report attention is invited in this connection. (3) Further development and study of native woods, including a study of methods for reducing the cost of handling to make the business as profitable as possible, and a more thorough cruise and study of the country with a view to enlarging the sources of supply. (4) Adoption of a better system of identification for employees than that furnished by the identification metal check now in use. Attachedhereto are plates and tables as follows showing the various phases of the operation of the mechanical division for the fiscal year 1918 : Plate No. 27. Showing the classes of work and source of revenue. Plate No. 28. Showing the gross overhead expense percentage of the Balboa shops compared with the total direct labor charges. Plate No. 29. Showing development of shop work for outsiders concurrent with the decrease of canal and Panama Railroad work since the official opening of The Panama Canal. Table No. 1. Abstract of expenditures. Table No. 2. Statement of overtime work performed, showing the per cent of the total pay roll. Table No." 3. Force report. Table No. 4. Statement of foundry outputs. Table No. 5. Expenditures and output of the oxyacetylene plant. Table No. 6. Operation of Panama Canal dry docks. Table No. 7. Number of repairs to rolling stock. Table No. 8. Statement of hostling costs. Table No. 9. Amounts of completed work and for whom performed. Table No. 10. Comparative statement of work performed by shops at Balboa. EespectfuUy submitted. E. D. Gate WOOD, Superintendent^ Mechanical Division. Col. Chester Harding, United States Army, Governor^ The Panama Canal^ Balboa Heights, Canal Zone.

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144 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 1. — Abstract of expenditures. Month. Labor. Material. Other expense. Total. BALBOA SHOPS. 1917. July August September October November December 191S. January February March April May June Total Average per month this year Average per month last year CRISTOBAL SHOPS. 1917. July August September October November December 1918. January February March. .'. April May June Total Average per month this year Average per month last year TOTAL. 1917. July August September October November December 1918. January February March April May June Total Average per month this year Average per month last year .$165,897.70 162, 220. 87 149,599.66 155,606.19 141,866.20 161,637.99 174,466.38 150,062.39 185,859.64 170,847.90 175,052.13 168,950.55 $126,869.38 197,022.06 1.35,036.50 139,974.29 139,581.45 174,261.68 151,866.89 162,218.31 144,922.94 108,916.67 156, 672. 49 105, 178. 62 $18,496.20 14,946.95 16, 203. 77 15, 188. 20 19,191.39 13, 133. 11 27, 441. 82 27,593.82 28,946.20 22,056.21 18,111.24 31,209.37 $311,263.28 374, 189. 88 300,840.02 310, 768. 68 300, 639. 04 349,032.78 353,775.09 339,874.52 359,728.78 301,820.78 349,835.86 305,338.54 1,962,067.60 163,505.63 150,140.51 1,742,521.37 145,210.11 145,246.55 252,518.28 21,043.19 19,091.89 3,957,107.25 329,758.93 314,478.95 57,251.90 49, 167. 80 47, 287. 19 40, 239. 80 43,368.51 46, 192. 10 39,267.92 34, 639. 24 46,571.78 38,995.52 41,010.13 36,530.33 28, 367. .32 23,744.05 26,657.36 13,915.11 19,160.34 13,846.25 15,985.89 18,030.93 27,194.55 25, 656. 08 25, 104. 77 14,897.30 4,386.89 14,103.43 9,331.66 924.20 4,458.26 6,822.99 3, 758. 34 1,238.88 4,339.72 5, 164. 85 967.76 3,369.00 90,006.11 87,015.28 83,276.21 62, 230. 71 66,987.11 66,861.34 59,012.15 53,909.05 78, 106. 05 69,816.45 65,147.14 54,796.63 529,522.22 44,126.85 48,046.62 252,559.95 21,046.66 17, 672. 52 55,082.06 4,590.17 4,809.82 837, 164. 23 69,76.3.68 70,528.96 223, 149. 60 211, ,388. 67 196, 8S6. 85 204, 845. 99 185, 234. 71 207,830.09 213, 734. 30 184,701.63 2.32,431.42 209, 843. 42 216, 062. 26 205,480.88 155,236.70 220,766.11 161,693.95 153,889.40 158,741.79 188,107.93 167,852.78 180,249.24 172, 117. 49 134,572.75 181,777.26 120,075.92 22,883.09 29,0.50.38 25,. 535. 43 14,264.00 23,649.65 19,956.10 31,200.16 28,832.70 33,285.92 27, 221. 06 17,143.48 34,578.37 401,269.39 461,205.16 384,116.23 372,999.39 367,626.15 415,894.12 412,787.24 393,783.57 437, 834. 83 371,637.23 414,983.00 360, 135. 17 2,491,589.82 207, 632. 49 218,543.65 1,995,081.32 166, 256. 77 179,934.83 307, 600. 34 25,633.36 26,261.55 4,794,271.48 399,522.62 424,740.03

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REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT, MECHANICAL DIVISION. 145 Table No. 2. — iStatement of overtime work performed, showing the per cent of the total pay roll. Month. July August September. October November . December. . 1917. 1918. January. . . February. March April ...... May June Total Average per month this year. Average per month last year. Balboa shops. Overtime. $14, 579. 50 12,359.68 8, 428. 05 10,597.44 8, 187. 24 11,100.39 26, 587. 74 7,661.15 8,172.81 9,233.57 7, 807. 34 20, 990. .S5 145, 705. 76 12,142.15 11,916.34 Per cent of pay roll. 8.79 7.62 5.94 6.81 5.84 6.87 1 15. 22 5.11 4.40 5.40 4.47 112.42 Cristobal shops. Overtime. 7.43 7.43 7.94 $12, 126. 26 5, 688. 33 5,202.26 7, 450. 23 5,035.72 2, 728. 95 4,525.61 2,653.27 8, 260. 86 4,550.40 7,645.09 5, 610. 62 71,477.60 5,956.47 4,449.75 Per cent of pay roll. 21.18 12.49 11.85 16.01 11.61 6.38 12.51 8.90 17.74 12. 59 20.59 17.10 Total. Overtime. 13.50 13. .50 9.26 $26, 705. 76 18,048.01 13,630.31 18,047.67 13,222.96 13,829.34 31,113.35 10,314.42 16,433.67 13,783.97 15,452.43 26,601.47 217,183.36 18, 098. 62 2 18,903.36 Per cent of pay roll. 11.97 8.54 6.92 8.81 7.14 6.65 14.56 5.58 7.07 6.57 7.15 12.95 8.72 8.72 2 8.65 1 Urgent military work on steamships Von Steuben and Koningin der Nederlanden. ^Includes Paraiso shops. Table No. 3. — Force Report. Month. Balboa shops. Cristolml shops. Gold. Silver. Total. Gold. Silver. Total. Total. Gold. Silver. Total July August September. October November. December. . 1917. January . . February. March April May June 1918. Total Average per month this year Average per month last year. $745 636 590 599 611 593 628 653 623 618 589 548 7,433 620 797 $1,448 1,273 1,204 1,140 1,160 1,120 1,251 1,406 1,393 1,401 1,394 1,144 $2, 193 1,909 1,794 1,739 1,771 1,713 1,879 2,059 2,016 2,019 1,983 1,692 15,334 1,278 1,585 22,767 1,898 2,382 $195 164 144 150 156 143 116 117 110 109 96 93 $534 439 424 412 378 368 314 306 335 351 322 276 $729 603 568 562 534 511 430 423 445 460 418 369 $940 800 734 749 767 736 744 770 733 727 685 641 $1,982 1,712 1,628 1,552 1,538 1,488 1,565 1,712 1,728 1,752 1,716 1,420 ,593 133 209 ,459 372 522 6,052 505 731 9,026 752 1,006 19,793 1,&49 2,107 $2,922 2,512 2,362 2,301 2,305 2,224 2,309 2,482 2,461 2,479 2,401 2,061 28,819 2,401 3,113

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146 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 4.— Statement of foundnj outputs. Month. 1917. July August September October November December 1918. Januarj' February March.." April May June Total Average this year Average last year Nonferrous. Patterns. 21 49 14 29 20 51 17 40 42 32 30 60 405 34 40 Castings. 1,059 1,528 937 541 568 922 2,142 1,102 1,245 915 715 1,943 13,617 1,135 1,320 Weight. 26,836 23, 849 16,811 8,117 7,400 5,813 9,767 11,319 14,112 7,411 12,346 20,253 164,034 13,669 21,163 Iron. Patterns. 20 50 37 55 57 54 29 44 61 58 47 87 599 50 59 Castings. 1,651 1,571 1,450 1,667 3,464 3,658 3,960 3,336 3,315 3,341 3,969 3,469 34, 851 2,904 2,734 Weight. 131,348 151,427 171,925 121,919 136,717 215,133 224,907 167,069 108,215 168,377 177,111 145,625 1,919,773 159,980 162,611 Month. Steel. Patterns. Castings. Weight. Total. Patterns Castings. Weight. 1917, July August September October November December 1918, January February March April May June Total Average this year Average last year 13 12 23 16 18 5 6 21 10 14 11 7 990 855 736 1,042 804 862 788 1,147 1,351 1,077 872 1,496 85,503 81,674 95, 764 164,782 135, 568 132,716 128, 896 152, 646 129, 820 130, 961 140,434 105,279 54 112 74 100 95 110 52 105 113 104 88 154 3,700 3,954 3,123 3,250 4,836 5,442 6,890 5,585 5,911 5,333 5,556 6,908 243, 687 256, 950 284, 500 294,818 279,685 353,662 363,570 331,034 252,147 306,749 329, 891 271,157 156 13 28 12,020 1,002 1,008 1,484,043 123, 670 169,993 1,161 97 127 60,488 5,041 5,062 3, 567, 850 297,321 353, 766 Table No. 5. — Expenditures and output of the oxy-acetylene plant— Balboa shops. Month. Total expenditiu'es Oxygen output. Acetylene output. Hydrogen output. 1917. July August September October November December 1918. January February. . . , March. .". April May June Total Average this year Average last year S2, 062. 99 1,788.66 3,107.04 1,977.31 1, 998. 44 2,416.60 2,351.97 3, 026. 03 5,043.65 2,893.55 2, 188. 79 2,297.01 31,152.04 2,590.00 6,347.97 Cubic feet. 97, 900 110,600 115, 100 118,500 109, 400 117, 200 116,500 110, 800 140, 700 110,500 106,300 105, 700 Cubic feet. 59, 923 54, 225 59,373 62, 393 61, 723 56,921 55,584 47, 167 56, 423 61,699 48,069 51,132 Cubic fee t 1,000 9,942 3.050 4)700 4,500 7,200 11,100 9,600 13,300 17,800 10,400 10,100 1,359,200 113, 267 91,615 674,632 56,220 50,554 102,692 9,558 4,268

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REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT, MECHANICAL DIVISION. 147 Table No. G. — Operation of Panama Canal dry docks. BALBOA.

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148 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. S.—Statcuteut of hostling costs. Month. 1917. July August September October November December 1918. January February March April May June Total Average per month this year A verage per month last year . Nujuber of hostlings. 2,264 2,206 2,208 2,235 2,219 2,249 2,188 1,864 2,051 1,952 1,872 1,846 25, 154 2,096 3,004 Direct labor. $1,691.46 1, 774. 39 1, 720. 26 1,697.82 1,741.28 1,805.29 1,763.25 1,658.57 1,603.36 1,661.13 1, 746. 23 1,572.94 20, 435. 98 1,702.99 1,968.14 Surcharge. $592.01 621. 04 602. 09 424.45 608.99 631.85 609. 69 570. 65 559. 77 574. 27 609. 87 549.00 6,9.53.68 579.47 945. 92 Material and service. $304.40 340. 22 224. 23 350. 32 234.. 33 316. 86 194. 90 259. 21 211.32 201.62 174.27 181.12 2,992.80 249. 40 239. 39 Total cost. $2, .587. 87 2, 735. 65 2,546.58 2,472.59 2,584.60 2,754.00 2,567.84 2,488.43 2,374.45 2,437.02 2, 530. 37 2,303.06 30,382.46 2,. 531. 86 3, 153. 45 Average labor per hostle. .7471 .8043 .7791 .7597 .7847 .8027 . 8059 .8898 .7817 .8510 .9328 .8521 .8124 .8124 .6552 Average total cOvSt per hostle. $1.1431 1.2401 1.1533 1. 1063 1. 1648 1.2245 1. 1736 1.3350 1. 1577 1.2485 1.3517 1.2476 1.2079 1.0498 1. 0498 Table No. 9. — Amounts of completed icork and for tcliom pcrform,ed. Individuals and companies Panama Railroad Manufacturing Dredging division United States Navy Quartermaster Department ' War Department Building construction Marine division Other departments of Government Fortifications Municipal engineering division Electrical division Damage to vessels Subsistence $1, 025, 020. 74 928. 025. 46 741, 818. 09 714, 881. 16 339, 142. 88 164, 859. 16 129, 329. 36 90, 727. 56 39, 868. 71 38, 902. 57 37, 232. 32 25, 356. 11 16, 724. 73 14, 437. 88 9, 186. 80 Lock operation Health department Dams and backfill Administration Official motor cars Civil government Meteorology and hydrography Clubs and playgroundsAuditor Paymaster Surveys Special attorney Office engineer Collector Land office , Joint commission $8, 026. 35 7, 028. 87 4, 321. 71 4, 227. 64 3, 758. 51 2, 845. 28 1, 064. 08 823. 65 637. 36 245. 81 176. 47 135. 14 128. 56 121. 20 102. 46 32.73 Total 4, 349,189. 35 Table No. 10. — Comparafive statement of work performed hij shops at Balboa. PRODUCTIVE SHOPS. Boiler and ship fitting Car shop Rigstmg loft Forge shop Balboa roundhouse Cristobal roundhouse Instrument repair shop Machine shop Pattern shop Paint shop Outside marine gang Wood shop Yard gang Superintendent's office Total : Productive labor. 1917-18 $309,025.16 185,423.69 52,216.04 40, 872. 44 70, 563. 81 26,959.18 24,224.80 231,700.60 13,246.38 46,342.96 136,090.52 100, 827. 79 5, 996. 91 44,043.78 1,287,534.06 1916-17 $255,466.66 168,019.63 25,776.54 48,257.91 56,661.46 30, 833. 64 16,376.36 241,598.03 30, 075. 73 74,031.37 96, 729. 39 11,338.16 24, 525. 85 1,079,690.73 Indirect expense. 1917-18 $112,407.33 60, .543. 57 15,047.28 44,390.86 36,012.81 12,629.64 11,364.98 131,257.80 8, 440. 57 7,172.81 41,916.19 44,340.14 24,491.46 124,085.56 674,101.00 1916-17 $146,468.77 72, 904. 22 9, 945. 31 63,328.88 37, 192. 54 20,260.82 10,309.94 198, 889. 13 10,215.28 28,216.02 47, 699. 24 20, 628. 30 113,116.29 779, 174. 74

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EEPOET OF SUPEEINTENDENT, MECHANICAL DIVISION. 149 Table No. 10. — Co^nparative statement of work performed by shops at Balboa — Continued.

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00 CM Q) a. ^ m ^>0 5^ -1 If) 111 >0 UMSssr^,^ ^ ? 5i ?) N I 91 5:! il ^ iz: ?f l ixi :: 333i^3:ya aasi^syicrj SQBWSjLd^ A^ynagsj ^sivnuyr. zr3at^3jsa S/3Bl^3J.t^9 ri

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Plate 29. \3\A—\SlS 1915-1316 1916-1917 I9I7-I9\S OUTSIDERS P. R. R. IWi C/KN/^U, CHART SHOWING THE 'DEVELOPMENT OF SHOP VJOHY^ FOR OUTSIDERS COIslCUR,«EMT V^ITH THE. DECieEASE. OF CANAL AND PANAMA RAlLROAti WORK. SINCETHE OFFICIAL OPENItSQ OF THE PANAMA CANAL.

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APPENDIX F. REPORT OF THE CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, July 20^ 19^lb. Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report covering the operations of the supply department for the fiscal year ended June 30. 1918. ORGANIZATION. The organization continued the same as for the fiscal year 1917, up until October 8, 1917, at which time the following organization was put into effect : The position of assistant chief quartermaster was abolished and the department was subdivided as follows : {a) District quartermasters, hotels, restaurants, messes, and storehouses. These units were placed under the direct supervision of the newly created position of superintendent, supply department, who reports to the chief quartermaster. {h) Commissary division: This division is operated under the direction of the general manager, reporting to the chief quartermaster, and has charge of the various commissary warehouses, cold-storage plants, manufacturing plants, abattoir, laundries, and retail commissaries. ((?) Pastures, plantations, hog farms, chicken farms, and dairies, were placed under the immediate charge of the supervisor, cattle industry, on October 8, 1917; but were later — April 15, 1918 — turned over to the superintendent, cattle industry, reporting to the chief quartermaster. The superintendent of cattle industry also has direct charge of the two cattle boats, the Caribhean and Culehra. id) Purchase of live stock and cattle: Under date of October 8, 1917, the purchase of live stock and cattle was placed in charge of the superintendent, cattle industry; but was later — April 15, 1918 — placed in charge of the cattle buyer, cattle industry, reporting to the chief quartermaster. {e) United States requisition bureau, in charge of United States requisition clerk, reporting to the chief quartermaster : This bureau prepares and checks all requisitions for material and supplies to be purchased in the United States, except for the commissary division. The clerk in charge is now rated as chief. United States requisition bureau. (/) Printing plant : This plant is in charge of a printer, reporting to the chief quartermaster. All stationery for use on the Isthmus is 151

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152 THE PANAMA CANAL. issued from the printing plant. The plant is now designated as The Panama Canal Press. PERSONKEL. Mr. R. K. Morris was appointed chief quartermaster nnder date of October 8, 1917, vice Lieut. Col. William R. Grove, relieved from duty with The Panama Canal and ordered to military duty on September 22, 1917. Maj. F. H. Smith was relieved from duty as assistant chief quartermaster. The Panama Canal, under date of October 10, 1917, and ordered to military duty. The following promotions were made effective October 8, 1917 : Mr. R. R. Watson was appointed superintendent, supply department, being promoted from district quartermaster, Ancon-Balboa district. Mr. J. J. Jackson was appointed general manager, commissary division, being promoted from general storekeeper. Mr. M. D. Smith was appointed general storekeeper, being promoted from United States requisition clerk. Mr. W. B. Brown continued as superintendent, cattle industry, and Dr. W. J. Taylor continued as supervisor, cattle industry. LABOR. There has been a surplus of silver labor throughout the year. The number of silver employees June 30, 1917, was 20,597; of gold, 3,549; total of all employees. 24,146. For 1918, the total silver employees was 16,157 ; total gold, 3,108 ; total of all employees, 19,265. This is a decrease of 4,440 silver and 441 gold employees. The decrease was due to considerable construction work being finished. Repatriation of those for whom it was impossible to give employment was continued and a number of them emigTated to Cuba. The reduction was gradual throughout the year. QUARTERS. There were 257 applications for family quarters on file June 30, 1917, as compared with 226 applications June 30, 1918. Number of applications on file for married quarters for silver employees : District quartermaster, Balboa 602 District quartermaster, Pedro Miguel 114 District quartermaster, Gatun 30 District quartermaster, Cristobal 975 Total 1, 721 The following new quarters were completed and assigned during the year : Applications at New Cristobal for gold employees 137 Applications at Mindi dairy farm 1 Applications at Summit poultry farm 4 Total 142 Applications at Mount Hope cattle ranch for silver employees 4 Applications at Mindi dairy farm for silver employees (5 Applications at Sunnnit poultry farm for silver employees 6 Applications at Rod Tank (Pedro Miguel) for silver employees 64 Applications at Balboa for silver employees 24 Total 104

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REPORT OF CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION. 153 The following buildings used for gold quarters and hotels were converted into silver quarters at Paraiso during the year : Apartments. 1 hotel converted into 16 2 type 18 bachelor quarters converted into 24 2 type 5 bachelor quarters converted into 16 Total 56 The following were undergoing alteration at the close of the year and will be completed by August 1, 1918 : Silver apartments. 5 type 14-4 family quarters converted into 40 10 type 15-1 family quarters converted into 20 10 type A-1 family quarters converted into 10 5 type O. F. 1 family quarters converted into 10 Total 80 The buildings were made available for conversion because of the gold force of the dredging division being greatly reduced due to cessation of slides. The operation of electric ranges in gold quarters was found to cost slightly more than coal-burning ranges and no further installations were made. The increased cost of operation and maintenance is due principally to high cost of repair parts for these ranges. No funds have been granted for the building of additional quarters to care for the present applicants, and the list is increasing gradually, as the majority of new appointments to canal service are married men due to war conditions taking a number of single men. The bachelor-quarters situation is better than last year, permitting 60 per cent of all bachelors to have single rooms. Some bachelors in the force have been replaced by married men, but no reduction has been made in the number of bachelor houses. More bachelor quarters should be built in order to provide every bachelor employee with a room, and such quarters shoLdcl be of permanent concrete construction. ZONE SANITATION. No change has been made in the method of collecting and disposing of garbage and cutting grass. This work has been carried on by the supply department for the health department. Cost, 1918, $22,797.36'; 1917, $29,181.91. Improved methods of taking care of garbage and replacement of pit closets with standard water-closets and disposing of pit closets where construction work was completed accounts for reduction in costs. MOTOR TRANSPORTATION. Motor transportation has increased to take care of moving of construction material for building and municipal engineering division animals released from this service have been transferred to plantations.

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154 THE PANAMA CANAL. Vehicles on hand, operated by all departments.

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REPORT OF CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION. 155 terial on hand at beginning and end of j-ear and total of all issues from the different storehouses for 1917 and 1918, exclusive of obsolete material and scrap : General storehouse. Cristobal storehouse. Paraiso storehouse. Total. On hand, 1917. On hand, 1918. Issued, 1916-17 Issued, 1917-18 1 $4, 291, 310. 27 4, 932, 204. 69 < 9, 576, 799. 71 9,439,032.03 2 $609, 151. 24 675,412.40 < 1,398.972.13 1,740,223.65 $935,515.86 903, 775. 77 < 1,416,581.28 858,601.44 3 $5, 835, 977. 37 6,511,392.86 < 12, 392, 353. 12 12,037,857.12 > Shown in annual report for fiscal j'ear 1917 as $4,017,836.54, which figure is in error, as it did not include fuel oil on hand. 2 Shown in annual report for fiscal year 1917 as $1,373,259.50, which figure is in error, as it included obsolete material and scrap on hand at Cristobal. 3 ShowTi in annual report for fiscal year 1917 as $6,326,611.90, which is in error, as explained by foregoing paragraphs (1) and (2). * Difference between figure shown in this year's report and report for last fiscal year due to fact that issue of fuel oil is taken into consideration this year, which was not the case for the fiscal year 1917. The increase in stock as compared with June 30, 1917, is attributed to the following : First. The unusual increase in cost of all items of material, ranging from 15 to 500 per cent. A recent calculation indicates that the net increase in cost of 100 representative stock items during the past two years amounts to 131 per cent. Second. Due to existing conditions resulting from the present war, it has been necessary to increase stock of some commodities such as fuel oil, gasoline, lubricating oils, chemicals, foundry supplies, etc., in order to provide for emergencies. /Sales. — Table No. 3 covers the total of all classes of sales made on the Isthmus for the year, showing 25,612 sales, amounting to $1,630,827.60, or an increase of $1,037,204.60 over the previous year. Saleis to steamships show an increase of $<)77,428.79, and 1,917 vessels were handled as compared with 1,648 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917. Sales to the United States Army amounted to $422,753.32 and sales to the United States Xavy totaled $107,738.68, The principal items sold were lumber, building material, general hardware, rope, cable, gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oils. During the year a total of 244.392 requisitions and foreman's orders were handled, distributed as follows : Greneral storehouse 158, 838 Cristobal storehouse 65, 371 Paraiso storehouse 20, 183 The consumption of cement for the year was 149.039 barrels. /Surplus and obsolete material^ equipment, and scrap. — The Mount Hope obsolete storehouse, under the supervision of the storekeeper, Cristobal store, was operated as during the previous year as a concentration point for obsolete and surplus material, equipment, and scrap. Table No. 10 shows the status of obsolete and surplus material at the beginning and end of the fiscal year, the receipts and issues during this period, and the balance on hand June 30, 1918. Scrap. — Table No. 11 covers American scrap operations during the fiscal year.

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156 THE PANAMA CANAL. The French scrap situation is as follows: Gross tons. On hand July 1, 1917 18, 332. 41 Receipts, 1918 Total 18, 332. 41 Shipped on Rovetta contract 3, 166. 21 Balance, June 30, 1918 .. 15, 166. 20 Table No. 5 covers the sales of material, supplies, and equipment heretofore purchased or acquired for the construction of The Panama Canal, made by authority of the Governor without advertisement and on which time did not permit securing approval of the Secretary of War, required by Executive order of May 12, 1915, fiscal year 1918. Fuel-oil flants. — The operation of the Balboa and Mount Hope oil plants continued under the supervision of the general storekeeper during the fiscal year. The contract with the Standard Oil Co. of California for delivery of 700,000 barrels of fuel oil at Balboa at a price of $1.60 per ban-el expires September 1, 1918. A balance of 188,357 barrels remains to be delivered under this contract. The contract with the Atlantic Eefining Co. for delivery of 240,000 barrels fuel oil at Cristobal at a price of $2.01 per barrel, expired June 30, 1918. An outstanding order against this contract provides for delivery of 75,000 barrels. Construction of a 55,000-barrel capacity concrete fuel-oil tank for The Panama Canal was started February 25, 1918, and as of June 80 was 75 per cent completed. Table No. 12 indicates total fuel oil handled by the Balboa and Mount Hope fuel-oil plants in amount 2,517,217 barrels for 438 vessels. Gasoline storage. — Storage of bulk gasoline in tanks Nos. 31 and 37 at Balboa and Mount Hope was continued during the year, the principal iasues from same having been made to Navy vessels and to the Army on the Isthmus. PANAMA CANAL PRESS. The value of stock on hand at the close of the fiscal year was $86,542.96, as against $81,767.72 for the preceding fiscal year, which increase was due almost entirely to the increased cost of material as well as to the heavier supply of forms carried in stock. There were added to the equipment of the printing plant during the year equipment valued at $3,072.21, as follows: 1 heater, jrlue, electric $30. 7.^ 1 machine, lacer, clipper belt 22. 78 1 machine, Monroe, calculating 250. 21 1 machine, Oswego paper cutter 1, 168. 46 1 motor, electric, Boston wire stitcher . 74. 00 1 motor, electric, Tatum pimch 150.00 1 motor, electric. Oswego paper cutter 166.73 1 motor, electric. Brown & Carver paper cutter 170.73 1 motor, electric, air compressor 163. 50 1 motor, electric, press No. 28 135. 00 1 motor, electric, press No. 3081 68.00 1 motor, electric, press, No. 2158 75.00

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EEPOET OF CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION". 157 1 motor, electric, press No. 16144, 16284 $166. 00 1 motor, electric, press D29, DS22, D9S9, D1077 372. 00 1 torch, vulcanizing, rubber stamp 11. 50 Miscellaneous ^ 47. 55 Total 3, 072. 21 Unserviceable items surveyed and disposed of during the year amounted to $220.27, as follows: 1 machine saw, stereotype $25. 00 1 machhie, paper cutting 125.00 Miscellaneous Total 70. 27 220. 27 The following table shows the principal items of manufacture: Pads, desk 404 Pads, scratch 101,991 Sheets, rules 68,530 Tags, assorted 1,154,250 Canal records 482,650 Binders 1, 609 Programs 30, 450 File boxes 81 Forms 32, 727, 992 Books 104,807 Sheets, carbon 15, 700 Time-tables 19, 100 Cards, guide, etc 1,010,141 Stamps and daters ' 4, 709 Cardboard 56, 550 Sheets paper 3,574,234 Badges 4, 211 The total value of material issued was $107,302.55, as compared with $87,482.47 for the preceding period. The total value of material used in manufacture was $51,096.31, as compared with $38,736.70 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917. SUBSISTENCE. The supply department continued the operation of the hotels Tivoliand Washington during the fiscal year, also the line restaurants and messes. The Hotel Aspinwall, Taboga, was reopened on May 20, 1918, after having been closed and used as intern camp by the Army from April 12, 1917. The Hotel Y/ashington is financially supported and owned by the Panama Railroad, but is operated under the managementof the supply deparbment. The general method of administration was the same as in the past. The net revenue for the year from restaurants and messes wais $598,153.51, a decrease of $42,914.08 from the previous year, while the total cost of operations was $594,395.99, a decrease of $39,754.34, making a profit of $3,757.52, a decrease of $3,159.74 from last year. Plad the charges for building repairs, fuel, and light been made, a net loss of $17,356.45 would have been shown. No charge for equipment has been made, the charge being absorbed by allotments of The Panama Canal. The ratio of supplies consumed to revenue was 2.91 per cent less than last year. The ratio of total cost of operation to revenue was 0.45 per cent less than last year, making the percentage of profit to revenue 0.45 per cent more than last year. The net expense for salaries and wages was $90,931.64, an increase of $11,177.18, making ^ Items the value of which is under $10.

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158 T-HE PANAMA CANAL. the proportion of net pay roll to revenue 15.20 per cent, or 2.80 per cent more than last year. The Balboa shops' lunch room was completed September, 1917. Kebuilcling of Pedro Miguel restaurant will be completed by the middle of August, also the new kitchen for the Hotel Tivoli. No appreciable change was made in the forms of any of the restaurants or hotels, except that at Paraiso, where the gold, forces of the dredging division have been transferred to Pedro Miguel, and the restaurant at this point has been abandoned. A cafeteria restaurant for silver employees was opened at Camp Bierd (Cristobal) as a branch of regular silver mess. The Hotel Tivoli showed a net loss of $8,169.95 compared with a net profit of $1,081.86 for the previous year. The Hotel Washington showed a net loss of $15,465.92, compared with a net profit of $11,185.33 for last year. There is a considerable decrease in revenuein both the Hotels Tivoli and Washington. This is due mostly to the war conditions and the difficulty of traveling, as there -are few people traveling for pleasure at present; also the great inconveniences that business men find in traveling has, no doubt, contributed to the decrease over previous years. COMMISSARY OPERATIONS. The commissary division has been in charge of Mr. J. J. Jackson since October 8, 1917. Prior to that date it was in charge of the undersigned*. This division operates the line commissaries, wholesale •and manufacturing plants, etc. The plantations and hog, chicken, and dairy farms were operated by this division up until October 8, 1917, at which time they were taken over by the cattle industry. An increase is recorded in the business of all the manufacturing plants with the exception of Cristobal laundry. This unit shows only a slight decrease in output, despite the large amount of work transferred to Ancon when the laundry at that point was opened. The most notable growth in production was at the abattoir, the output as compared with the preceding year having more than doubled. This is mainly accounted for by the fact that during the previous year no poultry was killed and dressed at the abattoir, and the number of hogs slaughtered was practically negligible. The kill of beef is steadily mounting, being almost treble that of the fiscal year 1916 — the first year this unit was in operation. The use of native beef on the Isthmus and by the steamship trade has grown to such an extent that no beef was imported from the United States during the year, withthe exception of 25 hind quarters and a very few items, such as beef tenderloins, sweetbreads, beef and calves' liver, and these only in limited quantities. The sausage plant also doubled its output, and marked increases are shown in the sales of the industrial laboratory and ice-cream plant. Table No. 13 gives a detailed comparative statement covering the output of manufacturing plants for fiscal years 1914 to 1918, inclusive. Since January 1, 1918, the United States troops stationed on the Isthmus have protected their own requirements on nearly all important foodstuffs, other than cold storage, which has resulted in decreased purchases by this division of articles thus affected. The

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REPORT OF CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION. 159 quantity of sugar bought was approximately half that of the previous year, explained largely by the fact that a big stock was stored during 1916-17, with consequent diminished orders in 1917-18. Ta,ble No. 14 covers the detail of purchases made during fiscal year 1918, as compared with purchases made during the preceding fiscal year. The steady upward trend in price revealed by the 1917 report continued throughout the past year, notably so on coid-storage products. The increase in price on grocery items was small, and, in some instances, prices have been kept at the same level as last year. There has been practically no increase worth mentioning on vegetables, and on three staples — potatoes, onions, and beans — prices are lower than last year, especially on the first-named item, where we have been enabled to m.ake a reduction from 8 cents to 3 cents per pound. Table No. 15 gives a comparative statement of selling prices obtaining June 30, 1918, as against prices on June 30, 1917. The total value of supplies bought in Costa Eica — $80,192.12 — represents a decrease of $33,331 from the total for the previdus fiscal year. This is accounted for by the fact that heavy purchases of coffee and s.ugar — to the extent of approximately $65,000 — were made in the last few months of the* fiscal year ending June 30, 1917. The coffee purchased was sufficient to cover the requirements of the commissary division for a long period in advance, and as a consequence it was found unnecessary to buy any of this commodity inCosta Rica during the past fiscal year. It may be stated, however, that of a purchase of 250,000 pounds of coffee made in Panama early in 1918 approximately one-half had be^n produced in Costa Rica. Purchases of sugar show a decline of about 75 per cent, this, in large measure, being due to conditions resulting from the entrance of the United States into the war, and the trading restrictions imposed thereby upon firms from which practically all our Costa Rican purchases of this product had been made. Purchases of fruits and vegetables represent an increase of $18,315.55 over those of the previous year. The quantity of potatoes, cabbage, and cari-ots bought was more than double the amount of the previous year, while other staple items, in practically all instances, showed increases of greater or lesser proportion. Two ships carrying connnissary cargo from Port Limon to Cristobal were lost, the Colomhla-, which was bringing fruits, vegetables, and sugar valued at $3,200, burning to the water's edge, and the Sail Bias capsizing at the wharf at Bocas del Toro, Panama. The latter vessel was bringing to Cristobal a cargo of fruits and vegetables worth approximately $1,000. After the sinking of the San Bias the commissary division's cargo was handled for a time entirely on the schooner Caroline^ which was too small for this purpose. In October, the Orotina^ a 100-ton boat of America-n registry, was chartered for a period of six months, this being necessary because of the dearth of small vessels plying regularly between Cristobal and Port Limon, and at the expiration of that time was recliartered for another j)eriod of six months. On June 15, the products buyer established a temporary subagency in San Jose in order that he might buy fruits and vegetables in increasing quantities. Table No. 16 gives a detail of the purchases made in Costa Rica for the fiscal year 1918.

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160 THE PANAMA CANAL. A representative of this division was sent to Cuba, Porto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Haiti to investigate the possibility of purchasing supplies. The best field appeared to be in Hditi, and an office was opened on October 11, 1917, at St. Marc. The main agency for Haiti was transferred to Port au Prince on June 30, 1918, due to the change in routing of the Panama Eailroad steamships. A warehouse, however, is still maintained at St. Marc. So far, the products bu3'er has purchased foodstuffs and miscellaneous products to the amount of $16,478.76. A list of the items shippedis given in Table No. IT. _ Also included in Table No. 17 are local purchases, from which it will be seen that large quantities of foodstuffs were bought on the Isthmus; some from producers, some from contractors, and some from importing agencies. The commissary local buyer in Panama City bought a great number of hogs and large shipments of corn during the past year. The Colombian purchases listed in the same table do not include the beef cattle shipped from that country, as such information will be shown in the report of the cattle industry. A greater quantity of sugar was purchased in Colombia than in any other market excepting the United States. Transfer of plantations and farms. — On October 8, 1917, the plantations, poultry farm, hog farm, and dairy were transferred from the commissary division to the cattle industry and placed under the supervision of Mr. W. B. Brown. Neio conwmswries: — A commissary at Eed Tank was opened during the past year. It is operated as a branch of the retail store at Pedro Miguel and was necessary in order to relieve the congestion on the silver side atPedro Miguel commissary. Branches of Gamboa commissary were opened on April 16 at JuanMina plantation and at Limon plantation, on the Chagres River. These stores handle only a small stock of groceries, tobacco, etc., for the benefit of the men employed in the plantation and -pasture clearing gangs in that vicinity. Changes in retail stores. — Alterations were made at the Paraiso commissary during the past year which considerably improved the appearance of that store and effected economies in the handling of the silver trade, most of the .gold trade (because of changed conditions of employment) having removed to Pedro Miguel. At La Boca commissary a 20-foot extension was made and a change in the lighting provided. On January 1 the United States Army took over the commissaries theretofore operated by this -division at Fort Sherman, Fort Randolph, La^ Cascadas, Empire, and Culebra. In order to serve the Panama Canalemployees working on the left bank of the canal, this division still continues -to operate a commissary at Empire. Necessary minor repairs were made at the Monte Lirio commissary. Among other things, a n,ew roof was put on and a small wareroom added. The addition replaced the box car formerly used as a warehouse. Painting was done throughout. Business at Cristobal commissary increased to such an extent that it was imperative to take measures to relieve the congestion and inadequate service in certain silver gi'ocery sections. This was accom-

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REPORT OP CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION. 161 plished by building booths each inclosing a section having a complete stock of practically all items carried. Besides enabling customers to make all purchases of nonperishable foodstuffs at one counter, the efficiency of the sales force, all selling the same article, may be more readily determined and regulated. The commissary at Corozal was closed on June 1, the establishment of an Army commissary there having made unnecessary the maintenance of a Panama Railroad conmiissary also. However, the residents of that town still enjoy solicitor and delivery privileges, the district being taken care of by the Ancon commissarj^ Soajp factory. — On February 15 the soap factory went into operation as a separate unit, having been before that time a department of the industrial laboratory. The present capacity of the plant is about 100,000 pounds monthly, and soap of all grades can be turned out. At present, soft soap, family soap, and yellow, white, and brown laundrj^ soap are being manufactured. Sauerhraut. — Machinery for the manufacture of sauerkraut was installed in the industrial laboratory the latter part of August, 1917, but on account of the time required for proper fermentation this product was not offered for sale in the line commissaries until November 1. The output of this' plant has sold readily in the line stores. In fact, it has been impossible to manufacture enough to take care of the demand. Theaverage production is 1,200 pounds per week. Milk. — Another step in thedirection of becoming independent of the United States on perishable products was the establishment of the dairy farm at Mindi, and the installation of equipment in the ice-cream plant for the pasteurization and bottling of milk from this farm. Prior to the opening of this farm, the average consumption on the Canal Zone was 400 gallons of fresh milk daily, all of which had to be brought from the United States in refrigeration. The one other supply was from the Corozal Hospital farms, the milk from which place was used only in the hospitals, on physician's prescription, and for babies. Since Mindi dairy farm milk has been available, the consumption on the Canal Zone of milk brought from the United States has decreased to 265 gallons daily, 175 gallons of this being bottled for the retail trade, the remaining 90 gallons being used in the manufacture of ice cream. Of the milk being produced at the new farm, approximately 185 gallons are sold per day. Sausage factory. — Besides manufacturing eight kinds of sausage in the sausage factory during the past year, as soon as importation of hogs from Colombia and interior Panama became heavy the commissary division began curing its hams and bacon, with such good results that it was unnecessary to draw on the United States for this product until recently, when a small order for hams was placed. Bone mill. — In line with the policy of waste prevention wherever possible was the setting up of a bone mill in connection with the abattoir in March, 1918. Although most of the bones from the cattle killed are sent to the United States, there have been produced 105,373 pounds of bone meal, a greater part of which has been used by the cattle industry on the plantations.

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162 THE PANAMA CANAL. Tailor shop. — In February the commissary division opened a tailor shop in Ancon laundry, a cutter and tailor having been brought from the United States for the purpose. A large volume of business "was done from the very outset, at present 2T men being employed. To take care of the increased demand two American cutters came to the Isthmusin April, one being placed in charge of the shop in Cristobal commissary, the other making weekly trips to Pedro Miguel commissary, besides assisting the chief cutter. Sales of dress goods have increased greatly since the opening of this establishment. Bakery. — The manufacture of rolls was discontinued in February, and the baking of Victory bread, in 12, 16, and 30 ounce loaves, made of 80 per cent wheat flour and 20 per cent corn meal, was begun in March. When the Victory loaf w^as put on the market, the baking of pies, doughnuts, fancy cakes, and of every kind of bread, except rye and graham, was discontinued. This has resulted in a saving of flour estimated at approximately 100,000 pounds per month. Working only five days the week has, of course, resulted in pay roll economies, in addition to the labor saving effected when fancy baking was discontinued. Production has fallen from 191,507 loaves the week in July, 1917, to 102,000 loaves the week in June, 1918. The present force consists of 42 men, whereas prior to the enforcement of conservation regulations 70 men were employed. Saving in four. — The regulations prescribing the observance of wheatless Mondays and the baking of Victory bread have resulted in a considerable and gratifving decrease in the amount of flour consumed. During the period March 20 to June 20, 1917, 2.073,180 pounds of flour were issued from the wholesale grocery warehouse of the commissary division. During the same period in 1918, representing the first three months in which the new regulations were in effect, 1,622,882 pounds were issued, showing an actual decrease in consumption of 450,298 pounds. Chilean four. — In order to avoid, as much as possible, drawing on the wheat supply of the United States, it was decided to try other markets in which to purchase flour. It was found that a very good grade was to be obtained from the Chilean markets, and purchases were immediately begun from that source. Up to the present time 1,308,000 pounds have been received, and 1,692,000 pounds are still due. The commissary division will probably continue to buy from these markets in the future — at least until such time as flour can be more easily obtained from the United States. Beef-coming plant. — On March 13 a beef-corning plant was opened at the Balboa ice and cold storage plant. There are five tanks, with a capacity of 10,000 poimds. Nothing but corned beef is being turned out at this unit. The demand for this product from Balboa, Ancon, and La Boca commissaries, and Ancon market has recently grown to such an extent that approximately 40 per cent of the commissary sales of this article are made on the Pacific side. Considerations of transportation and space prompted arrangements for the handling of this product for the commissaries mentioned. Industrial laboratory products. — In addition to the items already manufactured by the industrial laboratory of the commissary division, a number of new products were put out and sold in the line

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EEPORT OF CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION. 163 stores during the past year. Included in these were mapeline extract, lard compound, leaf lard, mango preserA'e, watermelon preserve, guava, peach, grape, and roselle jelly, Worcestershire sauce, chili sauce, extract of peppermint, extract of wintergreen, canned tomatoes, tomato ketchup, apple sauce, chowchow, India relish, mustard pickles, and fig preserve. lee cream peddle service. — An ice cream peddle service, operated on Sundays and holidays, was begun on September 16 by the Cristobal commissary, and includes the routes in Cristobal, Colon Beach, and New Cristobal, two wagons being used in this work between the hours of 4.30 and 6 p. m. A similar service has been in effect at Ancon and Balboa commissaries for some time. Eggs. — For the first time, the commissary division imported during the past year a grade of eggs known as " candled firsts." Heretofore, nothing has been brought down from the States except the •very best stock known as " fresh-gathered extras." The egg market, h.owever, reached such high levels during the midwinter months that the necessity arose of having eggs which could be offered to the public at a lower price. Requisitioning material. — When the United States declared war rail transportation in the United States was already badly congested. Uncertainty was felt as to just what the immediate consumption would be and it was thought there might possibly be some interruption of ocean transportation. The commissary division therefore purchased heavily in essential items with the idea of securing a large stock of supplies and transporting them to the Isthmus as soon as possible. This policy resulted in the division not only securing a large stock of essential supplies before war demands became insistant, but resulted in a substantial saving to employees, as in all cases prices greatly increased a few months after the declaration of war. Principal among these items may be mentioned work shirts, work pants, overalls, khaki pants, white-duck pants, Palm Beach suits, men's and women's hosiery, mutton, evaporated milk, condensed milk, beans, rice, and canned goods of all kinds. Foreign shipments. — A large consignment of chinaware, cloth, and notions, shipped from England in August, was lost at sea. This is the first and only inconvenience of the kind suffered by the commissary division since the beginning of the war, withthe exception of a shipment of Porto Rican cigars lost when the steamship Carolina was sunk in June, 1918. The largest single shipment. — The largest single shipment by the commissary division during the fiscal year was made in January. When news reached the Isthmus of the destruction and suffering caused by the earthquake in Guatemala City, the local chapter of the Red Cross requested the National Red Cross to appropriate $100,000 for the relief of the suffering there. Within 24 hours of the receipt of advice from Washington that the appropriation had been approved, the commissary division had loaded 26 cars of foodstuffs, amounting in value to over $100,000, sent them across the Isthmus and placed this cargo aboard the steamship Caribbean for dispatch to San Jose, Guatemala. Some of the items included in the shipment are as follows: Rice, 380,000 pounds; flour, 406,790 pounds; evaporated milk, 178,272 tins; hard bread, 63,200 packages; 80372°— 18 12

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164 THE PANAMA CANAL. sugar, 7,600 pounds; lard compound, 20,000 pounds; salt, 32,000 pounds; onions, 10,500 pounds; salt pork, 20,600 pounds; cotton blankets, 300; beans, 76,023 pounds; baking powder, 2,196 tins. By-products from the abattoir to the value of $373,310 were shipped to the United States during the year. Beef to the value of $273,475.80 was shipped to the United States for the Army during the year. Central American sugar. — During the past year the demand for the so-called Central American sugar has greatly increased. This sugar is not as finely processed as the grade purchased in the United States, and is a trifle darker in color, but the saccharine content compares very favorably with that of the American granulated and, besides, it is considerably lower in price. In order to make no further withdrawals from the sugar supply of the United States, every effort was made to supply the entire requirements of The Panama Canal with Central or South American white and brown sugar exclusively, but with only a partial measure of success. Construction of ice and cold-storage plant. — The cold-storage and ice plant now under construction at Mount Hope is rapidly nearing completion. The cold-storage plant will be three stories in height. The length will be 371 feet over all, including platforms and approaches. The main building will have a length of 330 feet. The width is 115 feet 6 inches on the first floor, which will be diminished to 105 feet 8 inches for the second and third floors. The first floor has five rooms for boxed goods, freezer, cutting and packing and storing rooms for the butchers, meat coolers, etc. At the south end is the hardening room of the ice-cream plant. On the second floor will be located the vegetable storeroom and separate storerooms for eggs, butter, cheese, milk, etc., and salted and cured meats. An auxiliary room for the ice-cream plant will occupy the south end of the second floor, directly over the hardening room. On the third floor will be a sausage-manufacturing plant, with pork and beef storage room and a chill room occupying the remainder of the floor. The building is insulated throughout with 4-inch cork. The ice plant will be a one-story structure adjacent to the coldstorage plant. New abattoir. — It is estimated that this plant will be ready for operation by January 1, 1919. The plant will afford facilities for the slaughtering of 300 steers and 600 hogs per day. The abattoir will be located just east of the new cold-storage plant at Mount Hope Avith which it will .be connected by a passage* at the third-floor level. The length will be 134 feet 8 inches, the width 95 feet 2 inches, and it will have three stories and basement. CATTLE INDUSTRY. The cattle industry was in charge of Mr. W. B. Brown up until October 8, 1917, at which time the pastures, plantations, hog farms, chicken farms, and dairies, which were taken over on that date from the commissary division, were placed in immediate charge of the supervisor. Dr. W. J. Taylor. Under date of April 15, 1918, however, Mr. Brown Avas placed in charge of all operations of the cattle

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REPORT OF CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION. 165 industry, with the exception of cattle purchases, including pastures, plantations, etc., and has continued in charge to the present time as superintendent, cattle industry. Mr. J. H. Humphrey was appointed cattle buyer, cattle industry, under date of April 1, 1918, reporting to the chief quartermaster. Pu7'chases. — The cattle contract for 1917-18 was completed during April of this year. A new contract for 1918-19 was entered into with Colombian cattle men for 37,500 head of beef cattle at $0.04975 per pound. The purchase price has changed very little in the last three years, as is evidenced by the following table : Year.

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166 THE PANAMA CANAL. The above items were all brought to the Isthmus on the steamship Carihhean. Transportation: — The steamship Carihhean completed 40 trips to Colombian ports during the year, bringing to the Canal Zone 18,499 head of beef cattle, 1,300 head of 3-year-olds, and 975 cows. This ship had alterations made during August and September, increasing her carrying capacity from 450 to 550 head of fat cattle. In February the steamship Caribbean commenced carrying a limited amount of commercial freight from Colombia to the Isthmus for reshipment to New York. From the period of February to May, inclusive, 1,800 such shipments had been handled, in which were included gold and platinum to the amount of $388,688,55. The dredge Cvlebra had temporary alterations made and was placed in the cattle service during the period of August and September, 1917. This ship was again taken for cattle service in April of this year, and is now transporting cattle. She completed 20 trips during the year, bringing a total of 4,440 head of beef cattle and 1,834 head of 3-year-olds. PASTURES. Mount Hope. — Beef pasture, total area 4,147 acres remaining, 2,045 acres having been set aside as dairy pastures. An average of 2,000 head of cattle pastui'ed during the year. Monte Lirio. — A total of 1,628 acres; no additions. An average of 600 head of cattle pastured during the year. Summit. — Total of 4,867 acres, 833 acres of which were added this year. From 500 to 1,500 cattle pastured during the year. Mirafores. — A total of 3,972 acres, 1,628 acres of which are additional this year. From 800 to 2,000 cattle pastured during the year. Pedro Miguel. — A total of 2,697 acres, 840 of which, were added this year. From 600 to 3,500 cattle pastured. Cahnito. — A total of 4,516 acres. This area was cleared from December, 1917, to May, 1918, and sowed with Guinea grass seed. The grass is coming in excellent condition. Mandingo Valley. — A total of 6,375 acres, 1,789 acres of which were added this year. This area was formerly known as Mandingo, Alligator Creek, Bas Obispo, and Gorgona tracts. All have been consolidated and will hereafter be known as Mandingo Valley pastures. From 1,200 to 1,500 cattle pastured during the year. Corn was planted on 600 acres of the new clearing, which gives promise of an extra good crop. Dips. — Additional dips and corrals have been installed at Mandingo and Summit. Ilealth. — The general health of all animals has been good. With the dipping facilities available the tick infestation has been greatly reduced, resulting in the general better physical condition of all stock cattle. Anthrax. — Since February 1 about 100 head of cattle died of anthrax. It is now definitely known that the infection takes place in Colombia. Pr^ic^ically all cases of anthrax have occurred in fat cattle, and within 10 days or 2 weeks after arrival. No deaths in stock cattle on the Isthmus have occurred.

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REPORT OF CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION". 167 Breeding. — Cows to the number of 650 were selected for breeding, and with the imported bulls have been placed on the range at Miraflores. The results have been so satisfactory that an order has been placed for 30 additional bulls, to consist of 15 Herefords and 15 Short Horns. Clearing. — The total virgin clearing for the year amounts to 9,602 acres, reclearing 5,700 acres, and 10,200 acres seeded. The total area of completed pasture on June 30 was 21,253 acres. The grand total of complete and uncompleted pastures was 30,247 acres. All constructing gangs were laid off at the commencement of the rainy season, May 1, except small fencing gangs that had been kept in the fields. The total of fence lines run amount to 91 miles of fourstrand barbed-wire fence. Sales of cattle. — Sent to the abattoir to June 30, 21,731 head of beef steers, 155 bulls, and 221 cows. Sales were made to ships of live cattle numbering 99 head. PLANTATIONS. Of 15 plantations and farms, in operation at the close of the last fiscal year, 1 has been eliminated, i. e., Emiliani, consisting of a cocoanut grove, this area being taken over by the Army. Three plantations have been consolidated with other adjoining plantations to minimize the accounting and supervision, as follows: Mindi and Bracho, and now known as Bracho-Mindi ; Davis Place with Frijoles; and Las Guacas with Limon. 'Two plantations have been added, Flat Eock on the Chagi-es River and Gatun corn farm. While it is true that the operating expenses for the past fiscal year exceeded the revenues, the productiveness of the plantations have been greatly increased and an important step taken toward placing the Isthmus on a self-supporting basis, thus decreasing the tonnage required to import foodstuffs. Our experience has demonstrated that small crops and truck gardening is unprofitable to handle directly. Crops of this character will be operated under contract with Chinese, as is now being done a;t Frijoles and Summit, the Chinese being the only labor that can be relied upon to give the intensive cultivation these crops require. Table No. 18 covers the items produced by the various plantations and furnished the commissary division during the year. Pena Guapa. — Coconuts. This place has been continued on the contract basis as heretofore. Man^iwa. — Consists at this time of 60 acres planted in sugar cane and 50 acres in cocoa, bananas, and plantains. This plantation will be limited to the above area, as it is not considered a location favorable to other crops. Bracho-Mindi. — This plantation reached its highest yield in May, producing more than 11,000 pounds of papayas. A production of 8,000 to 10,000 pounds monthly may be expected from this point. Sweetwater. — Approximately 50 acres, bearing coconuts, is now producing 2,500 to 8,000 nuts monthly. This acreage will not be increased and will be placed on contract basis after July 1. Gatun corn farm. — A new farm of approximately 80 acres located north of New Gatun. This farm is planted to corn with the exception of 10 acres in sweet potatoes.

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168 . THE PANAMA CANAL. Fnjoles. — Operated as an avocado orchard of about 35 acres. Additional trees to the number of 800 have been set out in the past year. There are 1,600 avocado trees at this point. Also 100 imported mangoes of Cuban varieties have been set out here. The truck farm at this point, operated under agreement with Chinese gardeners, has been very satisfactory. Juan Mina. — Has been continued as a citrus grove and has now approximately 40 acres planted to citrus fruit trees. The progress of these trees during the past year has been excellent. A major part of this grove should be bearing in two years. Also 40 avocado trees have been set out. Approximately 20 acres of this place had been planted in April and 20 acres in May to cowpeas. An irrigation system has been installed, and there is now no lack of water during the dry-season months. A nursery of fruit trees was started in April to provide trees for citrus groves at other points. There have been 12,000 trees set out from this nursery. Flat Rock. — This is a new plantation consisting of 60 acres on the upper Chagres Eiver and lying between the plantations of Juan Mina and Limon. This is now planted in yucca, but it is expected to establish this place as a citrus grove during the coming year. Chilihre. — This was planted with plantains a year ago and has been increased by another 19 acres of plantains, having now 58 acres of same. Ten acres of plantains were also planted with yucca. Limon. — The acreage at this place has been almost doubled within the past year. The following acreage is now under cultivation : 163 in bananas, 5 in yams, 5 in dasheen, 35 in corn, 30 in sugar cane, 155 in sweet* potatoes. An irrigation system has been installed covering about 50 acres. Las Cascaclas. — This plantation, consisting of 150 acres, has been continued in cocoa. About 25 acres have been planted with bananas to afford temporary shade for the young cocoa. A thousand young avocado trees have been set out and an additional 1,000 to 1,500 will be planted during the next year. The production of cocoa from January to May was 16,655 poimds. Summit (formerly known as New Culebra Plantation).— Has the following under cultivation: 25 acres in corn, 5 acres in yams, 10 acres in pineapple. Experiments made here recently with a grain —Guinea corn — imported from Haiti have been very promising, and about 40 acres will be put in this crop. This grain closely resembles feterita and is well adapted for chicken and stock feed. The truck farm here has been continued under the Chinese, with very satisfactory results. Ve7iado. — Consists of 150 acres of coconuts and contains approximately 18,000 trees. There have been set out 250 new trees, but no additional area will be cleared. POULTRY FARM. Mindi. — At the close of December the Mindi poultry farm was abandoned, principally due to heavy losses sustained by the birds during the rainy season. These losses were due to unfavorable location, making it impossible to expand or properly take care of the stock.

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EEPORT OF CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION. 169 Summit. — This farm was completed early in the year and provided with model yards, buildings, and equipment. The plant represents an investment of approximately $100,000. In October 1.180 birds of pure-bred stock were imported from the States, and again in December 153 were so imported. These birds were selected by an expert from the farms in the Eastern States, and represent the following breeds : Single and Rose Comb Rhode Island Reds, Blue Andalusians, SilverGrey Dorkins, White Plymouth Rocks, Single Comb Minorcas, Single Comb White Leghorns, White Wyandottes, and Buttercups. Weekly shipments of fowl are received from Colombia and the best of these are'selected and retained for the farm, the balance being sent to the abattoir. With the .native Colombian birds retained the imported strains are bred. Two 3,600-egg incubators are now being used, and hatches are obtained approximately every three weeks. In the past six months 23,914 dozen eggs have been supplied the commissary from this farm, and the monthly shipments are now averaging 3,500 to 4,500 dozen eggs. In addition, weekly shipments of broilers are being made to the commissary. This farm is practically on a paying basis at the present time and a promising future is assured. HOG FARM. All construction work has been completed, and the cost of the plant is approximately $50,000. The most serious obstacle we have had to contend with here is hog cholera, introduced through native hogs. This has been finally controlled, and the months of May and June were our first months without loss from this source. We have gradually built up a good breeding stock, consisting of 210 sows, of which 100 are Berkshire, and also have 5 registered Duroc and 2 registered Berkshire boars. This breeding is meeting with much success, and in another year will go far toward supplying pork on the Isthmus. During the year 8,640 hogs were sent to the abattoir, most of which were imported from Colombia. DAIRY FARM. The construction of the dairy farm was commenced in July on a location about half way between Gatun Road and Mindi station on a line with the Mindi diversion. Four milking barns, with a capacity of 80 head per barn, 4 silos, a refrigerator and milk house — all concrete — have been erected. Also a frame cottage for foreman, twostory barracks for laborers, and stable have been erected. The plant investment represents approximately $103,000. A thousand head of range cows were brought from Colombia to stock this dairy. It is expected to purchase in the States 100 Holstein cows and a few good Holstein bulls, and from this stock gradually build a representative herd. The silos are being filled with cane and corn ensilage, to be used in feeding dairy cows. This farm has been in operation since January, and the milk production has steadily grown from 971 gallons in that month to 5,373 gallons in June. In

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170 THE PANAMA CANAL. addition to this milk production, 336 calves have been sent to the abattoir for veal. This plant is on a paying basis. Respectfully submitted. R. K. Morris, Chief Quartermaster. Col. Chester Harding, United States Army, Governor, The, Panama Canal, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. Table No. 1. — Occupants of ranania Canal and Panama Railroad quarters June 30, 1D18. Place.

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BEPORT OF CHIEF QUAETEEMASTEE, SUPPLY DIVISION. 171

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172 THE PANAMA CANAL. .a fl o O o .s -I e 6

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EEPORT OF CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION. 173 Table No. 5. — Statement shoicing sales of material, supplies, and equipment heretofore purchased or acquired for the construction of The Panama Canal, made bi/ authority of the Governor icithout advertisement and on which time did not permit securing approval of the Secretary of War, required by Executive order of May 12, 1915, fiscal year 1918. Sale No. CS-232. CS-273. CS-324. CS-3.59. CS-360. CS-947. CS-951 . CS-1015CS-1207 . CS-1467. CS-1553. CS-1636. BS-37S4. BS-3897. BS-3960. BS-3944. BS-4102. Name of purchaser. Secretary public works, Panama. Messrs. J. A. White & Co. . . . A. Levingston , Chile Exploration Co A. Levingston .do. .do. Pearce & Sexton. A. M. Loeb F. Beaufrand A. Levingston . do Sisters of Charity H. R. Carson Panama Electric Co. do Coca Cola Co Article sold. 500 feet dredge pipe, 16-20 inch . Star well drill 8.9584 GT pipe fittings Lot 101 cl. loco, parts Locomotive, Cooke No. 27 Locomotive, Cooke No. 36 21.071 GT scrap rail, 30-pound Lathe, turret, DD-70 Machme, shear, rotary, splitting, B-3. Engine, hoisting, dbl. drum 7,317 pounds scrap iron 1 l;)oiler, Nagle, 80-horsepower, B-11. . 1 boiler, Nagle, 80-horsepower, B-12. . Steam shovel, 70-ton, No. 108 Steam shovel, 70-ton, No. 124 Steam shovel, 70-ton, No. 134 Steam shovel, 95-ton, No. 205 Steam shovel, 95-ton, No. 206 Steam shovel, 95-ton, No. 212 2 boilers, Nagle, 100-horsepower Roofing, galvanized do Pipe, 6-inch Channels Nails, fin. 10-D Sale value. S175. 00 150.00 179. 17 1, 060. 13 450.00 400. 00 842. 84 125.00 200.00 150.00 737. 17 200.00 200. 00 900.00 900.00 900.00 1, 200. 00 1,200.00 1, 200. 00 200.00 200. 00 307. 03 3,060.00 2, 880. 00 373. 03 Table No. 6. — Houses, apartments, and occupants, by districts, of gold and silver quarters, as of June 30, 1918. Districts. Gold. Family. Bachelor. Silver. Family. Bachelor, Total. Family. Bachelor. Ancon-Balboa: Houses occupied Booms or apartments Number of occupants . Coro/al: Houses occupied Rooms or apartments Number of occupants. Paraiso-Pedro ]\Iiguel: Houses occupied Rooms or apartments Number of occupants , Gamboa: Houses occupied Rooms or apartments Number of occupants . Gatim: Houses occupied Rooms or apartments Number of occupants Cristobal: Houses occupied Rooms or apartments Number of occupants Total: Houses occupied Rooms or apartments Number of occupants 473 1,036 3,660 6 8 18 97 172 511 4 9 21 52 138 448 158 395 1,299 790 1,758 5,957 73 784 878 3 6 10 9 94 110 4 13 14 6 32 41 26 383 501 121 1,312 1,554 53 429 1,780 1 2 6 67 517 1,905 12 64 239 55 504 1,386 61 409 1,722 249 1,925 7,038 30 174 769 3 25 62 19 142 640 9 49 170 10 110 436 25 41 1,932 96 541 4,009 526 1,465 5,440 7 10 24 164 689 2,416 16 73 260 107 642 1,834 219 S04 3,021 1,039 3,683 12,995 103 958 1,647 6 31 72 28 236 750 13 62 184 16 142 477 51 424 2,433 217 1,853 5,563 Note.— The above does not include 9 and 64 apartments at Culebra, Empire, and Las Cascadas, accommodating 9 gold families and 64 silver families, respectively.

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174 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 7. — Operation of Hotel Tivoli Jiiltf 1, 1917, to June SO, 1918. Month. 1917. July August September October November December 1918. January February March April May June Total... Supplies consumed. Salaries and wages. $6, 454. 36 6, 050. 00 4,069.23 4,143.97 3, 999. 92 5,027.79 6,329.46 5, 359. 37 5, 233. 17 5,111.89 5, 863. 31 4, 813. 66 02, 056. 13 82, 705. 64 2, 805. 10 2, 598. 39 2,643.11 2, 589. 70 2,573.27 2, 630. 07 2, 654. 85 2, 715. 84 3, 009. 51 2, 757. 90 2,912.17 32,595.55 Miscellaneous expenses. $3, 048. 82 3, 253. 63 3, 728. 99 2,308.09 2, 244. 95 2, 534. 13 2, 817. 24 3, 622. 79 2, 723. 20 2, 998. 09 2, 867. 03 2,617.67 34, 764. 63 Total cost of operation. $12,208.82 12, 108. 73 10, 996. 61 9, 095. 17 8,834.57 10, 135. 19 10, 776. 77 11,6.37.01 10,672.21 11,119.49 11,488.24 10,343.50 129, 416. 31 Revenue. $12,136.35 9, 913. 20 8, 264. 60 8, 192. 25 7, 849. 45 10, 120. 75 11,664.50 11,443.05 10, 168. 70 11,24.5.70 11,736.95 9, 744. 75 122,480.25 Profit. $887. 73 126. 21 248. 71 1,262.65 Loss. $72. 47 2, 195. .53 2, 732. 01 902. 92 985. 12 14.44 193. 96 503. 51 598. 75 8, 198. 71 Net loss, $6,936.06; net loss, including repairs to building, $8,169.95. Table No. 8. — Summary of operations of restaurants, July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918. Month. 1917. July August September October November December 1918. January . . February. March April May June Total. Supplies consumed. $31,. 551. 07 30,025.39 28,931.41 30, 202. 96 26, 854. 22 28, 947. 36 28, 927. 56 25, 071. 98 29, 195. 27 26, 228. 73 26,931.71 27, 471. 82 Salaries and wages. $5, 993. 71 6,165.76 6, 190. 08 6,927.12 6, 547. 78 6,231.89 6,380.26 6,3.56.81 6,615.01 6,37.5.72 6,391.72 6, 788. 01 Miscellaneous expenses. $3,221.48 3, .383. 19 2, 929. 03 2, 806. 56 2,918.81 2, 853. 85 3,312.59 2, .566. 61 2, 82, . 70 2, 728. 06 2, 987. 98 2, 962. 78 340,339.48 76,963.87 35,498.64 Total cost of operation. $40, 766. 26 39, .574. 34 38, 050. 52 39, 936. 64 36,320.81 38,033.10 38,620.41 33,995.40 38, 637. 98 35,332.51 36,311.41 37, 222. 61 452, 801. Revenue. .$40, 594. 15 38, 894. 67 36, 727. 03 38,729.13 36, 626. 82 38,151.00 39,553.17 34,362.33 38,158.93 35, 403. 53 37,112.82 39, 915. 86 454,229.44 Profit. $306. 01 117. 90 932. 76 366. 93 71.02 801. 41 2, 693. 25 5, 289. 28 Loss. $172. 11 679. 67 1,323.49 1, 207. 51 479. 05 3, 861. 83 Profit $1, 427. 45 Charges against restaurants for fuel, Light, repairs to buiidings, etc 21, 113. 97 Total 19, 686. 52 Profit on messes (see Table No. 9) 2, 330. 07 Net loss on laborers' messes and restaurants if charges for fuel, Ught, repairs to bmldings, etc., had been made 17,356. 45

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EEPOET OF CHIEF QUAETEEMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION. 175 Table No. 9. — Summary of operations, laborers' messes, July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918. Month. Supplies consumed. Salaries and wages, Miscellaneous expenses. Total cost of operation. Revenue. Profit. Loss. 1917. July August September October November December 1918. January February March April May June Total... $12, 046. 42 11,989.04 11,029.11 11,024.69 10, 315. 92 8, 415. 73 9, 207. 03 8, 162. 12 8, 873. 60 8, 429. 08 9, 573. 47 6, 746. 21 SI, 094. 31 1,056.36 1,063.72 1,213.53 1,215.76 1,252.75 1,223.84 1,141.19 1,163.05 1, 170. 84 1,185.82 1,186.60 ?919. 84 1, 022. 63 693. 65 1, 137. 94 890. 22 708. 88 922.84 965. 71 918. 94 753. 55 , 883. 68 995. 93 $14,060.57 14,068.03 12, 786. 48 13,376.16 12, 421. 90 10, 377. 36 11,353.71 10, 269. 02 10, 955. 59 10, 353. 47 12, 642. 97 8, 928. 74 $14,090.36 12, 909. 74 12, 400. 26 13, 226. 07 13,088.85 11,046.54 12, 219. 89 10, 339. 21 11, 154. 58 11,212.33 12, 887. 36 9,348.88 $29. 79 666. 95 669. 18 866. 18 70.19 198. 99 858. 86 244. 39 420. 14 115,812.42 13, 967. 77 11,813.81 141, 594. 00 143, 924. 07 4, 024. 67 , 158. 29 386. 22 150. 09 1, 694. 60 Table No. 10. — Obsolete and surplus material. (Appraised value.) On hand July 1, 1917 $583, 583. 50 Received during fiscal year 1918 185, 758. 98 Not yet taken up, but included in sales (surveys unaccomplished) 10, 500. 00 779, 842. 48 Account sales, over appraised values, sales, and issues' R. F. S. (cars, etc.) 250,904.37 $1, 030, 746. 85 Shipped to the United States 38, 601. 17 Sales 352, 400.91 Transfers and issues 78, 056. 11 Survoj'ed and scrapped 201, 785. 08 670, 843. 27 Balance to account for June 30, 1918 359, 903. 58 Table 11. — American scrap operations. American and shop

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176 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 12. — Fuel oil handled.

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REPORT OF CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION. 177 Table No. 14. — Statement showituj quantities of certain staple articles purchased during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, as compared ic-ith the previous year. Groceries and meats: Sugar pounds. Milk, evaporated and condensed do. . . Tomatoes, In tins do. . . Flour do . . . Com do... Rice do Fish , canned do . . . Coffee do... Beef, native do. . . Fresh meats do. . . Cured and pickled meats do. . . Butter do... Milk, fresh gallons. Eggs dozen. Hogs pounds. Fresh vegetables: Potatoes, white do. . . Onions do... Cabbage do... Yams do... Fresh fruits: Apples do... Oranges dozen. Grapefruit each. 1917 5, 448, 536 4, 325, 136 1, 105, 648 8, 118, 193 2, 239, 304 377, 498 689, 071 7,117,613 1, 832, 714 923, 206 430, 702 145, 800 753,874 7, 742, 630 1,062,012 803, 540 653, 833 970, 068 189,155 216, 533 1918 2,741,921 3,675,566 691,290 7,673,504 1 1, 881, 566 3, 740, 219 71,666 535, 703 20,171,423 457,385 200, 508 458, 976 138, 745 728, 522 2,091,231 6, 528, 482 959, 684 1, 149, 456 888, 724 813, 183 225,931 241,853 I Does not include 5,015 pounds of seed com. Table No. 15. — Statement of conrparative selling prices for June 30, 1918^as against June 30, 1917. Prices. Fresh meats: Beef, stew (native) Beef, chuck roast, 3 pounds and over (native). Beef, rib roast, not under 3 pounds (native) — Beef, rump roast (special) Beef, rimip roast (native) Beefsteak, sirloin (special) Beefsteak, sirloin (native) Mutton, 1 oin chops Pork, hams, fresh Pork, loin, chops Veal, loin, chops Cured and pickled meats: Bacon, breakfast, whole piece Ham, sugar-cured, whole Poultry and game: Chickens, com-fed Dairy products: Butter, creamery, special E ggs , fresh Fish: Codfish .dried Fish, fresh (native) Vegetables: Onions Potatoes, white Fruits, fresh : Apples Groceries: Beans, navy , dried Coffee, groimd. No. 1 Com, sugar Flour ._ Lard compound .* Milk, evaporated Peas, extra sifted Rice, 2d grade Soap, laundry Sugar, granulated Tomatoes Pound. do.. do.. do., do., do. do., do., do., do. do. .do. .do. .do. do. Dozen. Pound. ....do.. .do. .do. .do. do.... do.... Tins, 2s.. Pound... do.... Tins, Is.. Tins, 2s.. Pound... Cake Sacks, 5s. Tins, 3s.. $0. 07 .10 .15 .29 .15 .30 .15 .38 .25 .32 .42 .43 .34 .43 .49 .46 .11 .11 .06 .08 .06' .13 .20 .14 .056 .17 .14 .15 .05 .05 .39 .16 .08 .12 .17 .53 .18 .53 .18 .57 .32 .46 .47 .46 .45 .50 .52 .53 .18 .12 .04 .03 .10 .10 .20 .16 .075 .24 .14 .18 .08 .08 .42 .19

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178 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 16. — Statement of articles purchased Ity the products buyer in Costa Rica during period from July 1, 1911, to June SO, 1918. Commodity. Sugar Oranges, tropical. . . Beets Cabbage Carrots Kohl-rabi Turnips String beans Green peas Parsley White potatoes Tomatoes Lettuce Preserves Plantains Young onions Grapefruit, select... Sweet potatoes Honey Chayotes Bananas Chocolate Sweet peppers Grapefruit, tropical . Eggplant Hay Balsa wool Cucumbers Artichokes Squash Seeds Radishes , Banana flour Guinea grass seed. . . Oranges, select Horse-radish Cheese White beans Pineapple Total. Quantity. 214,800 pounds... 1,003,267 34,210 pounds... 268, 103 pounds.. 332, 282 pounds.. 153 pounds 73,768 pounds... 9,942 pounds 8,423 pounds 169 bunches 2,226,111 pounds 65,749 pounds . . . 7,406 pounds 3,430 bottles 111,678 2,353 bunches 665 boxes 229,459 pounds . . 1,245 pounds 9,105 pounds 8, 776 bunches... 159 pounds , 5,106 , 140,368 158 pounds 2,409 pounds 1,747 pounds 1,475 pounds 69 pounds 27,494 pounds 289 bunches . . 1 sack 6,343 pounds . 999 boxes 131 pounds . . . 93 pounds 6,000 pounds . 8,342 pounds . Amount. $11, 283. 15 1,767.83 562,23 3, 176. 64 3,954.34 2.07 860. 19 191.44 230. 82 1.83 32,957.58 7,325.86 138. 29 2,401.00 641.11 17.43 1,410.00 2,416.08 63.85 41.47 2, 194. 00 45.00 27.81 490.84 5.56 15.66 268. 12 39.89 4.18 197. 87 15.25 3.20 7.50 1,099.34 2,990.50 5.11 36.27 210.00 92.81 80, 192. 12 Table No. 17. — Statement of Haitian, Colombian, and local purchases. List of the more important articles 1 purchased by the products buyer in Haiti during period from Oct. 11. 1917,3 to June 30, 1918 : Chickens 968 Ducks 498 Turkeys 146 Beans pounds__ 105, 862 Coffee do 97, 298 Cottonseed meal do (>(>, 364 Corn pounds 106, 216 Corn, guinea do 10, 212 Grapefruit 27, 437 Honey ^pounds 7, 014 Plantains 94, 870 Potatoes, sweet pounds 44, 097 ^ In addition to those enumerated, moderate quantities of other products were supplied, such as alligator pears, eggs, baskets, cottonseed oil, etc. ^ Total value of all purchases made in Haiti was $16,478.76. ^ Date of opening of agency. * Small quantities of various other commodities were purchased at different times, among them being sweet potatoes, bananas, grapefruit, palm oil, bran, lard, etc., and several items of native manufacture, such as mochilas (hand bags), grass mats, etc. * Total value of all purchases made in Colombia for the commissary division was .?202,381.70. The superintendent, cattle industry, will include in his report information as to the cattle, horses, and seed purchased in Colombia and received on the Isthmus during the fiscal year 1918. List of the more important articles ^ purchased by the cattle buyer in Colombia ^ for the commissary division during the period from July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918 : Chickens Ducks Turkeys Hogs ShoatM Butter pounds Coconuts Coffee pounds Corn do Molasses gallons Sugar pounds-Yams do 41, 837 4,677 5, 372 8, 229 423 . 4, 065 42, 980 50, 125 121, 728 13, 800 380. 000 375. 889

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REPORT OF CHIEF QUAETEEMASTER, SUPPLY DIVISION. 179 List of the more important articles 1 purchased locally ^ by the commissary division from the plantations of the cattle industry, 3 from Corozal farm and Army truck gardens, from local producers and importing agencies, and by the commissary local buyer, Panama : Hogs pounds__ 813, 5Rr, Coconuts 67,123 Coffee pounds— 251, 224 Corn do 1, 137,957 Eggs dozen 55, 922 Fish pounds— 1, 377, 712 Grapefruit 13, 008 Lettuce pounds-31, 410 List of the more important articles purchased locally by the commissary division, etc. — Continued. Milk, fresh gallons— 19, 745 Onions pounds 69, 685 Oranges 928, 574 Papaya pounds — 41, 547 Pineapples do 67, 784 Potatoes, white do 95, 772 I'otatoes, sweet do 278, 469 Rice do 2, 161, 500 Squash do 36, 387 String beans do 34, 389 Sugar do 340, 374 Tomatoes do 53, 539 Yams do 512,835 1 In addition to the commodities listed, various small purchases of fruits and vegetables in season were made, including turnips, carrots, spinach, chayotes, parsley, eggplant, celery, cucumbers, okras, watermelons, mangoes soursop, alligator pears, peppers, etc. 2 Total value of all local purchases was $398,775.77. s Detail of all supplies received from Panama Canal pastures, plantations, etc., will be Included in the report of the cattle industry. Table No. 18. — Produce furnished the commissary division by various plantations during the fiscal year 1918. Akee 2, 148 Beans, string pounds 43, 930 Beans, green do 2, 290 Beans, Lima do 10, 009 Beets do 31 Bananas, large bunches 8, 126 Bananas, medium do 4, 856 Bananas, small do 851 Breadfruit 11, 360 Cabbage pounds 3, 573 Cucumber do 18, 606 Celery hunehes— 24, 673 Corn ears — 3, 594 Corn, green dozen 3, 313 Corn, shelled pounds 572 Corn, unshelled do 6,238 Corn, seed do 1,687 Chayotes do 12, 152 Cabbage, Chinese bunches 143 Citron pounds 107 Coconuts, dry 66, 865 Coconuts, water 5, 781 Carrots pounds 518 Cane sugar sticks__ 10, 882 Chocolate balls— 4, 015 Cane sugar pounds 115, 800 Cane seed do 253. 000 Corn, Milo maize do 29, 500 Corn, seed head kafir do 19, 226 Lettuce do 23. 698 Onion green do 130, 094 Radishes bunches-72, 991 Spinach do 29, 0(55 Parley do 71, 807 Pepper, hot pounds 3, 172 Pepper, hot do^en 20, 715 Pepper, green pounds-16, 149 Eggplant do 9, 657 Tomatoes do 14, 399 Tomatoes do 45, 082 86372°— 18 13 Mustard, green bunches 3, 653 Kale pounds 651 Squash do 14, 603 Limes 136, 269 Lemons 11, 682 Potatoes, sweet pounds 431, 144 Potatoes, white do 9, 223 Oranges, .sweet 239, 468 Oranges, sour 835 Pineapples 278 Watermelons pounds 22, 864 Melons, Cascaba 51 Okras pounds-89, 622 Endive, green bunches 2, 550 Mint do 3, 637 Ginger pounds 78 Papaya do 83, 372 Yams do 442, 660 Roselle do 884 Tangerines 1, 272 Palmettoes 386 Plantains 49, 196 Guavas dozen-17, 298 Peas, cow pounds 4, 310 Grapefruit 11, 360 Soursop pounds 4, 043 Yucas do 68, 472 Dasheen do 734 Yampee do 1, 805 Pears, Alligator 11, 405 Pears, Avocado 269 Mangoes 92,443 Mami 17 Nut palm pounds 1, 144 Oat grain do 2,000 Tania do 2, 157 Sunflower seed do 1, 710 Feterita , do 738, 139 Grass, sudan do 50

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APPENDIX G. REPORT OF THE AUDITOR IN CHARGE OF THE ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT. Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, Sepfemher 2S, 1918. Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of transactions of the accounting department for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918: ORGANIZATION. There has been little change in the organization of the accounting department during the year. The department is divided into three main divisions, viz, the division of auditing and accounting, under the immediate direction of the auditor, and the assistant auditor on the Isthmus, Mr. Elwyn Greene ; the division of collections, under the collector, Mr. T. L. Clear; and the division of disbursement, under the paymaster, Mr. John H. McLean. Judge B. F. Harrah has continued as assistant auditor in charge of the office of the department in the United States. Mr. H. P. Merrill is disbursing clerk in tlie Washington office. The work of the auditor's office is conducted through four main bureaus — canal accounting and cost keeping, canal auditing, railroad accounting, and claims — with other less important bureaus and sections. Px^YMASTER. Disbursements to the amount of $29,962,046,32 were made during the year b}^ the paymaster. Of this amount the sum of $11,273,380.32 was on account of the Panama Railroad Company. Employees on the gold rolls of The Panama Canal were paid $6,269,614.59, and those on the silver rolls $5,442,626.14, while the sum of $6,976,425.27 was paid on miscellaneous vouchers. (See Table No. 34.) Collections on pay rolls amounted to $3,897,644.15. Of this amount, the sum of $3,048,091,07 was collected for coupon books and meal tickets, $87,002.45 for rent, the remainder being for miscellaneous items. Of the collections made on pay rolls, the sum of $3,659,820.51 was disbursed directly by the paymaster, the balance, $237,925.56, being transferred to the collector's accounts. The Panama Branch of the Commercial National Bank of Washington, D. C, was transferred to the American Foreign Banking Corporation, the latter continuing as a Government depository as well as fiscal agent. Small deposits of both Government and Panama Railroad funds are carried in this 181

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182 THE PANAMA CANAL. JDank. The cash situation on the Isthmus has tightened greatly during the year. The use of gold as well as Panaman silver in making payments has been practically discontinued. Paper currency and a small quantity of American silver have been substituted. The climate greatly deteriorates paper money and requires its frequent replacement. The sum of $1,622,000 has been brought by the paymaster from the States for use in making payments. COLLECTOR. The collections during the year repaid to appropriations amounted to $8,625,298.20. The sum of $6,738,334.09 was collected for deposit as miscellaneous receipts. Of these amounts, the sum of $254,226.03 was received by the disbursing clerk in Washington. Deposits for • the payment of tolls and bills for supplies and services were made with the assistant treasurers of the United States, to the credit of the collector, in the sum of $4,169,125.60. Similar deposits were made with the collector on the Isthmus in the sum of $9,690,341.45. Of the total, $13,859,467.05, the sum of $691,044.36 was refunded upon settlement of accounts. Money-order funds to the amount of $1,655,000 were transferred to the Postmaster General in the United States in payment of money orders drawn on the United States. Other disbursements of miscellaneous trust funds to the amount of $297,260.46 were made by the collector. Collections were also made for account of the Panama Railroad Company in the amount of $17,271,667.70. (See tables Nos. 35, 36, 40.) ACCOUNTING TO THE TREASURY FOR COLLECTIONS. During the past fiscal year, no examination of the collection accounts Avas made by employees from the offices of the Auditor for the War Department and the Comptroller of the Treasury as contemplated by the provisions of section 3 of the sundry civil act of March 3, 1915, probably due to the stress of Government affairs in Washington. The reports submitted by the inspectors in prior years have indicated that they were very well satisfied with the manner in which the receipt and disbursement of Government funds on the Isthmus were safeguarded. TOLLS. Tolls actually collected on vessels transiting the canal during the year amounted to $6,439,083.99. In addition, the sum of $2,321.25 was collected for a vessel that passed through the canal during the prior fiscal year. The statement of operation and maintenance shows tolls earned as $6,454,198.35. This includes unpaid bills amounting to $15,114.36, the main items being the tolls charged on certain Government-operated vessels that may not be finally held liable for tolls. Under the ruling of the Attorney General, tolls' on vessels with cargo or passengers are collected in accordance with the Panama Canal rules of measurement only in cases where the amount derived by multiplying the Panama Canal net tonnage by $1.20 per ton is less than the amount ascertained l)y using the rate of $1.25 and the net registered tonnage as defined by United States statutes. Had

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 183 Panama Canal rules been applied in all c'ases, the sum of $7,522,195.68 would have been collected. The limitation therefore resulted in a loss to The Panama Canal during the past year of $1,083,111.69, as compared with a loss of $1,034,001.88' for the fiscal year 1917, and $390,711.05 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, or a loss to the canal since the decision of the Attorney General was applied, of $2,507,827.62. This amount, plus the sum of $189,432.64, which was tlie amount refunded during the year under the authority of the act of Congress of June 12, 1917, on account of the erroneous collections made prior to the ruling of the Attorney General, and approximately $100,000 still to be* refunded, gives the total loss suffered by the canal as $2,797,260.26. Vessels under foreign registry have been the beneficiaries and not the vessels of the United States, except a few American vessels carrying deck loads. The sum of $45,614.40 would have been collected on deck loads had Panama Canal rules of measurement been applied. The loss is 13.11 per cent of the total of $21,336,526.06 that would have been collected if Panama Canal rules only had been applied. CLAIMS FOR DAMAGES TO VESSELS PASSING THROUGH THE LOCKS. Several small claims for damages to vessels passing through the locks have been made in accordance with the provisions of section 5 of the Panama Canal act ; also a few claims for damage arising in the canal and harbors. The sum of $26,525.82 has been paid in settlement of these claims. All claims so far have been adjusted and settled by mutual agreement without recourse to the courts, as authorized by the Panama Canal act. EXAMINATION OF PAY ROLLS. The work of checking pay rolls under the provisions contained in the legislative, executive, and judicial appropriation act, approved August 23, 1912, that "Disbursing officers shall make only such examination of vouchers as may be necessary to ascertain whether they represent legal claims against the United States," has continued very satisfactorily. LIBERTY LOANS. Through an arrangement with the local banks, subscriptions to the first, second, and third Liberty loans were accepted for pay roll deduction in five equal monthly installments. In this manner collections were made on the pav rolls during the past fiscal year to the amount of $218,618.47 for the first Liberty loan, $339,960.35 for the second Liberty loan, and $260,870.49 for the third Liberty loan. War savings stamps were also sold for pay roll deduction to the amount of $6,142.73. Collections were made on the pay rolls to the amount of $34,276.80 for the Red Cross war relief fund". CANAL APPROPRIATIONS. Congress, to June 30, 1918, appropriated for the canal and the fortification thereof, a total of $441,375,781.44. Of this amount, $29,950,572.30 were for fortifications, $1,750,000 to cover seven annual

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184 THE PANAMA CANAL. payments of $250,000 each to the Republic of Panama for Canal Zone rights, and $6,000 for the expense of presenting the launch Louise to the French Government. The sum of $24,050,006.22 has been specifically appropriated for the operation and maintenance, sanitation, and civil government of the canal and Canal Zone. Of the amounts appropriated other than specifically for maintenance and operation, the sum of $4,289,159 was charged against operation and maintenance to the end of the fiscal year 1915, while $2,225,000 of the general aj^propriations have been used for the stock of material and supplies for the operation and maintenance of the canal. (This amount has been found to be too small for the stock required; the subject is discussed further below.) Deducting from the total appropriations the amount appropriated for fortifications, $29,950,572.30, for Panama $1,750,000, for presentation of the launch Louise $6,000, for operation and maintenance $30,564,165.22, including the amount for the stock of material and supplies, leaves $379,105,013.92 appropriated for the construction of the canal and its immediate adjuncts. Of this amount, $3,600,000 appropriated for colliers and coal barges, $2,093,190 for Dock No. 6, Cristobal, $300,000 for work on the colliers Ulysses and Achilles^ $720,000 for reboilering and repairing the steamships Ancon and Cristobal., were specifically exempted by law as charges against the authorized bond issue. This leaves the sum of $372,391,853.92 as chargeable against the bond issue. The balance available for appropriation within the limit of the cost of the canal and the autho'rized bond issue is $2,831,302.08, the actual difference between the amount appropriated and the items which are exempted as a charge against the bond issue being increased by the appraised value of the American legation building in Panama, $22,256, which was transferred to the Department of State. Miscellaneous receipts to June 30, 1918, amounted to $26,434,907.57. Deducting tolls, $18,654,380.16, Canal Zone revenues collected since July 1, 1915, $401,773.61, profits on business operations, $57,485.66, interest on the cost of public works in the cities of Panama and Colon and on bank balances, $441,225.85, and miscellaneous collections, $764.26, gives the amount repaid on the cost of construction as $6,879,278.03. I have taken credit for the amount paid by the Panama Railroad for subsidies, dividends and interest for The Panama Canal Avould have obtained the benefit of these amounts in reduced rates if they had not been added to the expenses of the railroad. Deducting the amount repaid on the cost of construction leaves the sum of $365,512,575.89 as the amount expended or on hand for immediate expenditure for projects included within the estimate upon which the cost of i\\& canal was based. The amount now shown as the cost of the canal will be further reduced by receipts from the sale of construction material and equipment and by the collections to be made to cover the amount expended for waterworks, sewers and pavements in the cities of Panama and Colon. The cost of the canal as a commercial venture is also entitled to credit to the value of buildings and other public works, equipment and plant transferred to the Army, to the Alaskan Engineering Commission, and to the State Department without any actual payment therefor. The estimated value of items so transferred is $1,973,011.17, of which $470,387.50 was paid for by the Canal Zone government. (See tables Nos. 3, 4, and 12.) The status of the authorized bond issue is

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REPORT OF AUniTOR. 185 shown in Table No. 1; the general balance sheet is published as Table No. 2. EXCHANGE OF PROPERTY WITH PANAMA RAILROAD. There is a loan standing against the Panama Railroad Company to enable the company to reequip its line, $1,399,114.61, also one to enable the company to take up its first-mortgage bonds, $1,848,217.50, a total of $3,247,332.11. By section 2 of the act of Congress of March 4, 1911, it was provided that the company should not make any further payment on the principal of or interest on the notes given to the United States for the money appropriated for its use. As a result, the company has been enabled to construct docks at Cristobal at an expenditure about equal to the amount of the loans. Considerable equipment was purchased and paid for by The Panama Canal which is required in connection with the operation of the railroad and its steamshij^ line, viz, the steamships Panama and Colon and a large amount of rolling stock. Certain docks at Balboa have been constructed by The Panama Canal and others by the Panama Railroad Company. I can only repeat recommendations made previously, that to simplify the transactions between the two interests, an exchange of property be made and that one interest only have the title to each class of property. A provision authorizing this was included in the estimates for the fiscal years 1917, 1918, and 1919, but no action so far has been taken by the Congress. The railroad should own all equipment used in railroad operations; also the steamships it operates in its commercial business. The exchange that has been contemplated would effect this result and the United States would own directly all docks and terminal facilities at both ends of the canal, and the outstanding accounts would be settled. PUBLIC WORKS, PANAMA AND COLON. Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama, which requires the reimbursement of the United States for expenditures connected with the construction, operation, and maintenance of waterworks, sewers, and pavements in the cities of Panama and Colon, the expenditures to June 30, 1918, in Panama were $2,248,667.56 and in Colon $2,113,123, a total of $4,361,790.56, including accrued interest to date at the rate of 2 per cent per annum on the capital cost balances and on the proportionate cost of waterworks in the Canal Zone used for supplying water to the two cities, based upon the quantity of water consumed. For the work in Panama, this interest has amounted to $252,673.31, for the work in Colon $209,052.97, and for the proportionate cost of waterworks in the Canal Zone $96,757.20, a total of $558,483.48. There has been reimbursed to the United States, or is immediately due, the sum of $2,339,860.10, leaving a balance due of $995,569.49 for the work in Panama and $1,026,360.97 for the work in Colon, a total of $2,021,930.46 payable in installments in the next 42 years. The amount which is payable immediately under the agreement is $62,404.64 and is covered by bills for the difference between the current charges for the work plus the quarterly payments required and the amount collected as water rentals. The Panama Canal continues to maintain the pavements in the

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186 THE PANAMA CANAL. two cities under tlie temporary agreement reached at the beginning of the fiscal year. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE. [Table Xo. 6.] There was expended in the operation and maintenance of the canal the sum of $5,903,719.69 as against $6,788,047.60 last year. The reduction was due entirely to the decreased expenditures for dredging Gaillard Cut. The total cost of maintenance dredging was reduced from $2,854,631.25 to $1,726,803.54. There were 2,285,273 cubic yards of material removed from slides in Gaillard Cut at an average cost of $0.6373 per cubic yard, while last year 8,149,634 cubic yards of material were removed at an average cost of $0.3206 per cubic yard. (For detailed costs see Table No. 26.) The expense for operation and maintenance of the locks increased from $737,430.39 expended during the fiscal 1917, to $744,961 expended for the fiscal year 1918. The marine division expenses were reduced from $313,036.43 to $293,546.28. This decrease was largely due to the transfer of many pilots to the Naval Reserve Force and the payment of a part of their salaries from naval funds. The charges for the operation of floating derricks were reduced from $202,034.37 to $148,889.03. This reduction resulted from a change made in charges to the resers^e to cover repairs, it being found that the earlier rate used was too high. The direct charges for operation and maintenance totaled $3,077,068.37 as against $4,250,163-99 for the prior year. The overhead expenses charged to operation and maintenance amounted to $2,826,651.32, as against $2,537,883.61 charged for the prior year. In the overhead expense accounts are included charges for civil government amounting to $678,232.88; expenses for hospitals, quarantine, and sanitation, $635,854.03, and for administration, including among the overhead accounts the executive department, the accounting department, the Washington office, operation and repairs to storehouses and quarters for employees, lighting of streets, operation and maintenance of waterworks and maintenance of sewer systems and roads— $2,822,156.23, of which $1,512,564.44 was charged to operation and maintenance. The increase in overhead expenses is due largely to an increase of over $200,000 in the amount expended in repairing roads during the fiscal year. Offsetting the total expenses for operation and maintenance are the amounts earned as tolls for vessels transiting the canal during the year, $6,454,198.35 (this amount differs from the amount actually collected for vessels transiting the canal by about $15,000, as tolls were not received for a few Government-operated vessels) ; as licenses and taxes, court fees and fines, $140,918.01 ; and as profits on business operations, $6,159-56, or a total of $6,601,275.92. The revenues earned in excess of expenses amounted to $697,556.23, as against a loss for the prior fiscal year of $979,648.90. These charges to operation and maintenance, with a few minor excej^tions, do not include charges for depreciation of plant and equipment. Interest on the capital investment is also excluded. The total of the expenses charged to operation and maintenance to date is $23,980,676.44, as against the total revenues from tolls, civil govermnent collections and profits on business operations of

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KEPORT OF AUDITOR. 187 $19,136,786.73, a deficit of $1,843,889.71, which will be increased by not exceeding $100,000 when refunds of tolls erroneously collected are made. This deficit would have been reduced to $2,146,629.45 had Panama Canal tonnage rules been applied. BUSINESS OPERATIONS. [Table 2V'o. 7.] The total revenues derived from business operations carried on with Panama Canal funds amounted to $10,324,071.91, as against a total of $7,579,588.44 received during the prior fiscal year. The cost of carrying on these operations cluring the present fiscal year amounted to $10,317,912.35, leaving a net profit of $6,159.56 to be covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts under the Panama Canal act and the regTilar Panama Canal appropriation act. The net profit for the fiscal year 1917 was $39,427.66 and for 1916 $11,898.44. This is an exceedingly small profit, for the amount of business transacted and is due to the policy that has been adopted of making the charges in most cases so as to barely cover the cost. Shopwork, work for the Panama Eailroad and other departments of the Government, and all services rendered for employees (the major items), are performed at cost, except that subsistence and hospital services rendered employees are consistently rendered at a loss. This rule has been applied to the following items: General construction and repair work, $1,826,134.91, mainly for the Panama Eailroad and other departments of the United States Government; shop and electrical work, $2,901,643.55, for the Panama Eailroad, other departments of the Government, and shipping; subsistence, mainly to employees, $813,924.93 ; sales of material from stock, $1,629,393.44 (a surcharge is added on material sold to outsiders, but these sales are small) ; health department services, $561,942.44; and miscellaneous services for the Panama Eailroad, $411,088.56 ; a total of $8,147,211.80. Fair profits were made on sales of water, dry dockage at Balboa, and sales of fuel oil. The profit on the use of the dry dock at Balboa was due to the fact that it was used considerably more than contemplated when the rates were originally fixed. The increase in business operations at the canal are well shown by the increase in the numbers and amounts of formal bills registered, as follows: In 1915, 8,686, amounting to $12,197,170.74; in 1916, 12,754, amounting to $11,786,187.91; in 1917, 16,386, amounting to $17,007,342.16; and in 1918, 22,070, amounting to $20,887,460.60. In addition, Panama Eailroad commissary bills increased from 10,733, amounting to $3,459,038.28, in 1917, to 13,100, amounting to $4,838,725.57, in 1918; the regular Panama Eailroad bills increased from 9,285, amounting to $8,993,007.41, to 9,652, amounting to $10,282,388.24, or a total increase from 1917 to 1918 in numbers from 36,404 to 44,822 bills and in amount from $29,459,387.85 to $36,008,574.41. The charges to the various accounts into which the business operations are classified include the direct costs, the proper proportion of the indirect expenditures of the division performing the work, in some cases a charge for depreciation of plant and equipment, and 10 per cent additional to cover the general overhead expenses of the

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188 THE PANAMA CANAL. canal. Charges for depreciation are made in comparatively few cases, the main accounts to which depreciation is charged being electric work, electric current, tug services, handling and sales of fuel oil, dry dockage, dredging operations, and storehouse accounts. No charge is made for the use of the plant or equipment of the shops, it having been considered that the shops were built and equipped on their present large scale so as to provide facilities for repairing naval vessels, and that commercial business could not bear the charges necessary to cover these items. The percentage to cover overhead expense that is added to the business operations is not the average overhead expense incurred by the canal. The percentage was fixed to include as nearly as practicable only the additional expenses incurred by the Panama Canal organization on account of handling other operations than the primary functions of operating and maintaining the canal. The overhead expenses that are absorbed in part by charges to business operations include the expenses incurred in operating and maintaining quarters and storehouses, purchasing, inspecting, distributing, and accounting for material and supplies, transporting employees to and from the Isthmus, together with the expenses of paying them and furnishing them such privileges as transportation on the Isthmus and as are afforded by the clubhouses. The total overhead expenses for the year amounted to $5,518,837.02. This includes not only the classes of expenses referred to above but also expenses of the executive office, which in part only are considered as properly chargeable to outside interests, the expense of surveys, meteorology and hydrography, civil government, and sanitation. This amount was distributed against maintenance and operation of the canal, construction, fortification, business operations, and certain miscellaneous items. Against the expenses for construction, fortifications, and the miscellaneous items 10 per cent of the division cost was added to cover overhead expenses; in the cost of business operations $627,211.16 was added on the basis of 10 per cent; $411,088.56 was charged directly on account of work being done for the Panama Railroad, or a total charge for overhead expenses of $1,038,299.72 on a division cost of $9,276,247.27, the amount charged being a little less than 12 per cent. The expense of handling material in the storehouses is about 18 per cent of the value of the material issued, while only 10 per cent is charged as the additional cost of handling such material for operations other than the operation and maintenance of the canal. The percentage added for overhead expenses is certainly a reasonable one, is believed to have been fair to all interests, and no change therein is recommended at the present time. MATERIAL AND SUPPLIES. For use in making estimates for appropriations, for furnishing to stores and divisions statements of the value of material issued by or to them, and to aid in controlling the purchases to the amount appropriated, a material classification of 145 different classes has been adopted. Tabulating machines are used in the compilation of the necessary data, and these machines are operating very satisfactorily. The value of materials and supplies in the storehouses on June 30, 1918, amounted to $6,747,688.26, as compared with $6,048,984.70 on

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 189 July 1, 1917. In addition there was in the hands of divisions material not charged into the accounts to the amount of $1,077,438.31. Material issued during the year amounted to $8,773,192.96, while the sales amounted to $1,484,849.90. For the prior year, issues and sales amounted to $8,797,096.55 and $548,988.32, respectively. (For further information see Tables Nos. 57 and 58.) The value of the stock carried is out of all proportion to the amount of cash that is appropriated and is available for the maintenance and operation of the canal. In 1915 it was estimated that $2,225,000 would be sufficient to cover the material and supplies required. The great expansion in business operations, including work for other departments of the United States Government, repairs to ships, the supplying of fuel oil and other material and supplies, the difficulty in replacing stock within what was a reasonable time under peace conditions, and the rapid increases in prices, have made it necessary to use for material a sum three times the amount originally estimated. It has only been possible to carry this stock by making use of construction appropriations and by drawing more largely upon the maintenance and operation appropriations than satisfactory, though perfectly legal, use of that appropriation warranted. By the end of the present fiscal year there must be a reduction in stock of $3,000,000 or an additional appropriation for stock must be obtained to properly and satisfactorily handle this matter. A reduction of about $1,000,000 is assured through the use of stock of that value in construction work which will not require replacement. An ajDpropriation of $2,000,000 should therefore be obtained for the purpose of carrying the balance, as the supply department claims that it is impossible to reduce further and supply the necessary requirements of the canal, the railroad, the other United States interests located on the Isthmus, and shipping, etc. The making of the appropriation will not result in an increase in the present stock ; it will enable the present stock on hand to be paid for without encroaching on moneys primarily designed for other uses. The capital for carrying on the business operations of the canal, which last year amounted to over $10,000,000, is supplied by the appropriation for maintenance and operation. Until last year the estimates that have been made under this appropriation and all the appropriations that have heretofore been made have been limited to the amount required for current expenses. The time has come when a fund must be provided which will permit the carrying on of the essential functions of the canal without the necessity for the exceedingly careful watching required in the past and without using funds necessary for other purposes. An appropriation of $2,000,000 is immediately necessary and should be urgently requested. CONSTRUCTION OF CANAL AND CAPITAL ADDITIONS. [Tal)les Nos. 16 et seg.] During the fiscal year just ended there were classified as construction of canal $4,144,218.31, which amount included $348,137.74 for overhead expenses, leaving $3,827,870.58 directly charged bv (Uvisions. In addition there were expended for capital additions $801,924.21, which amount included $78,250.48 for overhead expenses. The principal items included in the cost of the above are as follows :

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190 THE PANAMA CANAL. Dredging from Gatiin to Pedro Miguel, $67,804.78, includes 120,000 cubic yards of rock removed from Gaillarcl Cut at an average cost of $0.5630 per cubic yard. (See Table No. 24.) From Pedro Miguel to the sea there were expended $292,558.52 in dredging. 319,880 cubic yards of material at an average cost of $0.9146 per cubic yard. Of this material 48 per cent was earth and 52 per cent rock. (See Table No. 24.) There were expended for the power producing and transmitting system $618,886.72, which includes the extension of the Gatun hydro electric station $176,013.23, and operating machinery for same $329,165.62; transformer substations, $108,177.24; duct lines, $1,695; and distribution lines, $3,241.53. "In, continuing the construction of the Atlantic terminal, $26,127.55 were expended for the Cristobal coaling plant and $41,243.18 for the Mount Hope fuel-oil plant ; $36,986,42 of this amount being expended in construction of concrete tank No. 43. In the construction of concrete quays, wharves, and piers at Cristobal, $611,142.44 werQ expended for the construction of Pier No. 6, and boathousQ between Piers Nos. 7 and 8. (See Tables Nos. 18 and 19.) In continuing the construction of the Pacific terminal there were expended in preparatory work $47,792.85; dredging inner harbor, $379,573.88, involving the removal of 1,255,833 cubic yards of material b}^ dredges at an average cost of $0.3244 per cubic yard, and the pumping of 687,713' cubic yards of spoil in connection with the reclamation of land at an average cost of $0'.O140 per cubic yard. Balboa shops, $204,508.97, the principal item being $146,996.46 for equipment. Quays, wharves, and piers, $58,307.67, the principal item, entering into this expense being rat-proofing, $46-,673.89. Fuel-oil plant, $29,171.49, this entire amount being expended in connection with dredging berth for ships. For permanent townsites there were expended $174,281.57, the principal items entering into this expense being Balboa townsite, $65,423.03, of which amount $26,513.99 covered lot improvements and $33,860*.99 underground duct system; Colon Beach townsite, $78,581.33, the main items being for general work and sewer system. (For further details, see Table No. 21.) For permanent buildings there were expended $1,284,935.04, the principal items and their cost being: Storehouses, $12,500.58; hotels and mess halls, $29,669.08 ; gold quarters, $46,464.13 ; silver quarters, $94,293.79 ; hospitals, $774,038.17, consisting of $35,235.01 for Colon Hospital and $738,803.16 for Ancon Hospital ; dispensaries, $46,254.74 ; schoolhouses, $56,18^.48 ; incinerator, $105,034.28. (For further details, see Table No. 22.) For construction of roads, not included in townsites, there were expended $150,707.79. There were charged to real estate for depopulation of the Canal Zone, $298,556.17, l)eing awards of the Joint Commission and settlements by the land office. Among the miscellaneous items of construction there were $26,185.26 charged to Zone water supply system, and $17,225.77 to Cristobal shop.

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BEPORT OF AUDITOR. 191 MANUFACTURING PLANTS. During the fiscal year just ended 219,514 cubic yards of sand and gravel were reclaimed from the Chagi-es River at an average Cost of $0.8422 per cubic yard. (See Table No. 27.) The Gatun hydroelectric plant and the Miraflores steam electric power plant generated 45,214,312 kilowatt hours during the past year at an average production cost of $0.0077 per kilowatt hour. Included in the above cost is a charge for depreciation of the power transmission system of $96,000, or $0.0021 per kilowatt hour. (See Table No. 28.) The Ancon-Balboa-Panama waterworks system produced 2,383,670,000 gallons of water at an average cost of $0,0754 per thousand gallons. Of this amount, 865.058,000 gallons were used in the city of Panama. The Gatun system produced 428,401,000 gallons of water at an average cost of $0.1036per thousand gallons. The ColonCristobal system produced 1,442,275,000 gallons at an average cost of $0.0871 per thousand gallons. Of this amount, 591,209,000 gallons were used in the city of Colon. (See Tables Nos. 29-31.) CANAL ZONE ACCOUNTS. Since July 1, 1915, the revenues derived by the Canal Zone government from licenses and taxes, court fees, and fines, postal receipts, etc., which had theretofore been appropriated separately for the support of the Canal Zone government, have been deposited in the Treasury of the United States and credited to miscellaneous receipts. The collections for licenses and taxes during the year amounted to $12,532.38 ; court fees and fines, $19,668'.28 ; postal receipts, $107,165.85; with miscellaneous items amounting to $1,323.50; a total of $140,690.91. During the prior year the sum of $131,478.90 was collected. The cash balances of Canal Zone and miscellaneous funds in the hands of the collector have decreased from $1,090,252.70 on June 30, 1917, to $945,061.95 on June 30, 1918. All of the expense of the Canal Zone were paid out of the regular appropriations for civil government, as contemplated by the appropriation acts. (See Table No. 40.) During the year 168,022 money orders to the value of $3,382,663.69 were issued, as against 173,475 to the value of $3,782,763.71 during the previous year, or a decrease of $400,100.02. This decrease was due to the fact that employees have diverted their savings from money orders to Liberty loan bonds and war savings stamps. Since the establishment of the money order business on the Isthmus, •2.188,262 orders have been issued to the. value of $51,216,396.56. There have been paid $36,498,269.93 on money orders drawn on the United States. (See Tables Nos. 41-45.) CLUBHOUSE ACCOUNTS. The revenues derived from the operation of the various clubhouses amounted to $365,701.50, as compared with $233,544.22 received during the prior fiscal year. The disbursements amounted to $352,912.70. Soda fountain, receipts amounted to $160,563.63; cigars and candies,

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192 THE PANAMA CANAL. $112,332.77; moving pictures, $21,253.73. These items show large increases over prior years' receipts, while the receipts on account of membership fees were reduced from $8,738.07 to $3,835.27. The cash balance on hand June 30, 1918, including amounts due for commissary coupons and from other sources, amounted to $38,671.41. (See Tables Nos. 46-^9.) CLAIMS FOR INJURIES AND DEATHS. During the past fiscal year there were reported 3,413 accidental injuries and 35 accidental deaths of emploj^ees, as against 4,068 accidental injuries and 39 accidental deaths reported during the prior year. Of the number reported during the fiscal year 1918, compensation was allowed in 1,495 cases of injuries and 3 cases of deaths. Of the injury cases disallowed, 1,728 were on account of the fact that period of disability was for less than 3 days, 2 for the reason that disability commenced more than 6 months after the injury, 44 because evidence was insufficient to establish claim, 48 for the reason that injury was not received in the performance of duty, 27 because disability was not the result of the injury, 5 for failure to give notice required by the act, 2 for the reason that the evidence showed intention to cause injury to self or another, and 5 because the evidence showed diability to have been caused by willful misconduct. Ten death claims were disapproved, 8 for the reason that death resulted from injuries received while not in the performance of duty or directly engaged in actual work, 1 for the reason that the evidence showed death to have been caused through intention to cause injury to self or another, and 1 because death was caused by willful misconduct of the employee. The sum of $42,396.54 was allowed on account of injuries to employees of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Company, and the sum of $3,848.77 was allowed on account of deaths, or a total of $46,245.31 allowed under the act of September 7, 1916. In addition, paj-ments to the amount of $185.98 for injuries and $740.18 for deaths were made under the Executive order of March 20, 1914. The total amount paid by The Panama Canal as compensation on account of injuries and deaths of emploj^ees from Augiist 1, 1908, the effective date of the act of May 30, 1908, to June 30, 1918, was $1,471,115.91. Further details as to the amounts paid, the causes of accidents, and the nature of the injuries received, will be found in Tables Nos. 50-56. COUPON BOOKS. The use of the coupon book in the form of a mileage book has been continued through the year. Books to the value of $4,131,235 have been issued to employees for pay roll deduction, and $1,703,154.13 sold for cash, as compared with $3,726,495 issued for pay roll deduction and $1,660,000.25 sold for cash during the prior year. In addition, commissary books were issued to officers of the United States Army, contractors, etc., to the value of $90,237.50. The use of sales slips in the commissaries has almost entirely been discontinued. Wlien a sale is made, the saloman registers the amount on a cash register and immediately deposits the detached coupons in a

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REPORT OF AUDTTOR. 193 locked compartment; these coupons are sent to this office each day without being tampered with in any way. In a package separate from the coupons are sent the tapes from the cash registers, which are collected each day by the manager or other responsible employee of the commissary and on which are inserted the cash register readings. The coupons are counted by means of measuring machines, three of which are electrically operated and five hand operated. If there is any material difference between the amount of the coupons as determined by the measuring machines and the amount as shown by the cash register readings, a recount is made, and if a shortage still exists which can not be explained the salesman is held responsible for the difference. During the past year meal tickets to the value of $132,766 were issued to the silver employees as compared with $137,649.89 issued during the prior year. (For further details see Table Xo. ?,d.) INSPECTION" OF ACCOUNTS. The accounts of all officials and employees charged with the collection, disbursement, and custody of Panama Canal, Canal Zone, and Panama Railroad funds, or with other funds which are semipublic, have been examined at frequent and irregular periods, as contemplated by the regulations. There were 563 examinations made during the year. These inspections involve the counting of cash and the examination of over 160 money accounts, besides a number of accounts of clerks issuing coupon books, meal tickets, and other papers having a money value. No cases of default developed during the year. TIME INSPECTION. The inspection of time books and methods of timekeeping has been continued on the same general plan as heretofore used. During the year, 11,634 gangs were inspected, involving the checking of 755,568 employees. Many minor errors in the keeping of time were discovered and corrected. There were also discovered some cases of " padded " time books and cases where time had been given erroneously by timekeepers for the purpose of securing commissary books for themselves, in a few of which cases it was possible to make arrests and secure convictions. The known saving to the canal through the time-inspection bureau was slightly over $4,500; the indirect saving can not be estimated. FREIGHT CLAIMS. During the fiscal year 1918 the freight-claim section handled 3,034 new claims, involving approximately $240,000, as compared with 4,687 claims involving over $300,000 handled during the prior year. The amount paid on account of claims and charged to the Isthmus operating accounts was $61,952.17, while considerably in excess of $60,000 will be charged against steamer operations. The exact figures of the latter are not available on the Isthmus.

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194 THE PANAMA CANAL. BONDS OF EMPLOYEES. The schedule bond of employees of the canal, executed to insure the faithful performance of their duties, was renewed with the Maryland Casualty Co. at the rates provided for the preceding year, namely, 65 cents lor postal clerks, $1.25 for postmasters, and $1.70 for other employees. An agreement was also entered into with the Maryland Casualty Co. whereby said company became surety for Panama Railroad employees on the Isthmus at the same rates and under the same conditions applying to Panama Canal employees. This agreement, however, will not become effective until during the fiscal year 1919. This will greatly simplify the transfer of bonded employees between The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad, which is frequently necessary in the best interests of the service. Upward of 200 employees were bonded during the whole or part of the year. OPERATIONS WITH PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY FUNDS. The railroad operations on the Isthmus consist of the operation of the railroad proper, harbor terminals (mainly covering the transfer of cargo between vessels), coaling plants at Cristobal and Balboa, and the stables in Colon and Panama, the transfer of baggage, the operation of motor busses in Ancon and Balboa and the motor-car repair shop, all under the superintendent of the railroad ; the operation of the telephone system under the electrical engineer of The Panama Canal; the rental of lands and buildings under the land agent, repo'rting to the special attorney; and operations under the supply department of The Panama Canal, which include the commissaries, plantations, cattle industry, dairy farm, poultry farm, hog farm, and the Hotel Washington, No change of importance has been made in the system of accounts of the railroad company during the past year. Monthly statements are prepared which show at a glance the total revenues, the total expenses^ the net income from month to month from the various operations. RAILROAD^ HARBOE;, TERMINALS^ ETC. The operations of the railroad proper show a profit of $315,967,46 during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, as compared with a profit of $18,730.66 for the prior year, or an increase of $297,236.80. This increase was largely due to a decrease of $265,087.61 in railroad expenses, the balance being due to an increase in railroad revenues. The gross revenues from harbor terminal operations amounted to $1,405,579.62, and the expenses to $1,170,435.49, leaving the net revenue derived from this source as $235,144.13 as compared with a net revenue of $135,425.78 for the prior year. The revenues at the Atlantic terminals amounted to $1,332,853.31, as compared with $1,281,169.50 for the prior year, or an increase of $51,683.81. The revenues at the Pacific terminals amounted to $72,726.31, which is an increase of $3,625.87 over the previous year. The expenses at the Pacific terminals show a decrease of over $50,000. The receipts from the sale of coal during the year amounted to $5,283,029.25. netting a profit of $1,016,784.91, as compared with

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 195 sales to the amount of $3,467,178.40, netting a profit of $523,003.03 for the prioi* year. The total cost of unloading, storing and delivering coal, including repairs to plants, depreciation on plants and equipment, and interest on the Panama Canal investment, amounted to $1,022,742.70. Stable operations, baggage transfer, motor busses, and motor-car machine shop also showed losses during the year; although the revenues at the Hotel Washington during the year were increased by $1,714.78, the cost of operation increased to such an extent that the net results was a loss in operation of $15,465.92, as compared with a gain of $2,464.99 last year. The amount derived from the rental of land during the past year was $111,565.23, against which an expense of $16,691.72 was diarged, leaving a net revenue of $94,873.51, as compared with $95,085.14 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917. After deducting repairs, dfipreciation, and other operating expenses, the net revenue derived from the rental of buildings was $2,728.52, as compared with $7,623.63 for the prior year. The operation of the telephone system during the year cost $126,117.04, while the revenues amounted to only $119,992.54, resulting in a loss of $6,124.50, as compared with a profit of $7,607.97 last year. The telephone system, however, is operated primarily for the convenience of the canal and railroad and is not a commercial venture. COMMISSARY. The commissary accounts show that supplies to the value of $8,186,209.83 were purchased during the year, ag compared with purchases during the preceding year amounting to $8,218,597.56. Included in these purchases is the sum of $1,738,854.65 for cattle, hogs, and poultry slaughtered on the Isthmus during the year 191^ and $811,923.97 for the year 1917. Supplies costing delivered on the Isthmus $8,499,138.31, including the beef, hogs, and poultry just referred to, were sold for $10,239,703.37, an increase of $1,690,782.24 over the previous year. The net profits for the year were $242,677.27, as compared with $194,605.01 for the prior year. The c. i. f . value of supplies on hand June 30, 1918, was $2,395,388.47, as agamst $2,708,316.95 on June 30, 1917. On January 1. 1918, the branch commissaries at Las Cascadas, Empire, Culebra, Corozal, Toro Ponit, and Fort Kandolph were turned over to the United States Army. At present there are 11 retail commissaries in optjration, and 21 manufacturing plants. During the year a new commissary was built at Eed Tank at a cost of a little over $15,000. The total commissary investment amounts to $5,480,686.84 made up as follows : Commissary plant, stores, and other property, $1,570,634.81; equipment, $90,561.05; uncompleted improvement and construction work, $424,102.51; supplies on hand, $2,395,388.47; floating capital approximately, $1,000,000. The profits were 4.43 per cent on the investment, and 2.37 per cent on the sales. The total profits from commissary operations since August, 1905, amount to $1,167,254.98, but considerably in excess of that amount has been expended since tnat time in improving and enlarging the plant. The amount set up as accrued depreciation is $500,955.01. A new cold-storage plant is being 86372°— 18 14

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196 THE PANAMA CANAL. built at Mount Hope, estimated to cost approximately $800,000. The amount expended to June 30, 1918, was $418,703.27. A new slaughterhouse at Cristobal is also under construction estimated to cost $225,000. (See Tables Nos. 59 and 60.) FARM INDDSTSIES. The accounts of the cattle industry have continued to be kept so as to show separately the amount paid for cattle, purchasing expenses, transportation expenses, consisting mainly of the operation of the steamships Caribhecm and Culebra (the latter having been transferred from The Panama Canal in April, 1918), and pasturing expenses. During the year there were purchased 23,275 fat cattle, costing $1,028,964.15, and 5,170 young cattle, costing $124,296.79, or a total expenditure for cattle of $1,153,260.94, as compared with $641,634.52 expended for the prior year. The purchasing expenses during the year amounted to $9,280.47; operating expenses of the steamers Caribbean and Culebra^ $262,642.39^ against which there is a credit of $26,143.81 for freight earned outside of cattle shipments; and pasture operations, $90,094.54, making a total of $335,873.59 for operating the industry. During the year 21,898 cattle were turned over to the abattoir, for which the commissary was charged $1,246,749.91, and which resulted in a profit to the cattle industry of $100,863.36. The following amounts are invested in the cattle industry: Cost of making pastures, including cost of construction of buildings, fences, etc., $604,940; uncompleted work in the pastures, $79,444.80; equipment, $299,613.48 ; other material. $13,925.72 ; value of cattle on hand, $423,062.26; otlier live stock, $21,852.80; making a total of $1,442,839.06. Expenses in connection with the operation of plantations during the fiscal year 1918, amounted to $203,401.68. The value of produce sold amounted to $75,634.10, and the difference, $127,767.58, is partly made up of losses on crops already harvested, and partlj^ represents the cost of planting and cultivating crops which have not been harvested. The total investment in plantations to June 30, 1918, representing the cost of clearing and preparing the ground, planting fruit trees, and the erection of necessary buildings, etc., amounts to $212,134.30, with an additional sum of $1,546.34 to cover uncompleted improvement and construction work and $21,853.80 for equipment. If there is added to these items the amount of $138,461.83, expended in the operation of the plantations during the fiscal years 1917 and 1918, in excess of the revenues derived from produce, the result gives a total investment in plantations of $373,996.27. During the last fiscal year a dairy farm was started at Mindi for the purpose of supplying fresh milk to employees. The investment in buildings and equipment amounts to $107,949176. Cows to the number of 576, valued at $30,523.16, produced 23,704 gallons of milk during the last six months of the fiscal year 1918. The sale value of this milk was $12,746.98, and the operations of the dairy for this period resulted in a profit of $6,815.69. The operations of the poultry farm and the hog industry resulted in a slight loss for these industries. The amount expended on buildings, etc., for the poultry farm was $108,056.22, and for poultry, $29,539.92. The investment in

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REPORT OF AtTDITOR!: 197 buildings, fences, etc., at the hog farm amounts to $47,604.78; the vahie of the hogs on hand June 30, 1918, was $12,201.19. All the operations of the railroad on the Isthmus show a net revenue of $1,762,122.98, as compared with $1,000,419.06 for the preceding year. During the year nearly $2,000,000, representing completed improvements, was set up in the capital account of the company. This includes $775,000 paid The Panama Canal toward the Panama Railroad Company's $1,000,000 investment in the Cristobal coaling plant, that being the amount the railroad company agreed to consider as its proportion of the total cost of the plant. The statements of revenues, expenses, and statistics of the Panama Railroad Company will be published in the annual report of that company. The essentials are included here so as to cover in one place, in a general way, all of the operations on the Isthmus. Respectfully submitted. H. A. A. Smith, Auditor^ The Panama Canal. Col. Chester Harding, United States Army, Governor, The Panama Canal, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. INDEX OF TABLES SUBMITTED WITH REPORT OF THE AUDITOR, THE PANAMA CANAL, FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1918. Table 1. Status of authorized bond issue. Table 2. General balance sheet. Table 3. Statement of appropriations by Congress. Table 4. Detail of miscellaneous receipts, United States funds. Table 5. Statement of overhead expenses and distribution thereof, fiscal year 1918. Table 6. Statement of operation and maintenance of canal. Table 7. Statement of profit and loss on business operations. Table 8. Statement of equipment and tools. Table 9. Detail of work in progress. Table 10. Detail of material and supplies. Table 11. Statement of assets received from Canal Zone government. Table 12. Statement of assets transferred to other departments of United States Government. Table 13. Statement of Panama Canal property operated by Panama Railroad. ^ ^ ^ , Table 14. Statement of Panama Railroad property operated by Panama Canal. Table 15. Statement of reserves. Table 16. Construction of canal to June 30, 1918. Table 17. Capital additions. Table 18. Detailed cost of Dock No. 6. Table 19. Detailed cost of Atlantic terminals. Table 20. Detailed cost of Pacific terminals. Table 21. Detailed cost of permanent townsites. Table 22. Detailed cost of permanent buildings. Table 23. Detailed cost of power producing and transmitting system. Table 24. Unit cost of construction dredging, fiscal year 1918. Table 25. Unit cost of dredging inner harbor and reclaiming land, fiscal year Table 26. Unit cost of maintenance, dredging, fiscal year 1918. Table 27. Unit cost of sand and gravel production, fiscal year 1918. Table 28. Unit cost of electric current, by months, fiscal year 1918. Table 29. Unit cost of water per 1.000 gallons, Ancon-Balboa-Panama system, fiscal year 1918. ^ . ^ ^ ^ « , Table 30. Unit cost of water per 1,000 gallons, Colon-Cristobal system, fiscal year 1918.

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198 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table 31. Unit cost of water per 1,000 gallons, Gatun system, fiscal year 1918. Table 32. Cost of operation and maintenance of quarters, fiscal year 1918. Table 33. Statement of appropriation, receipts, and disbursements, fiscal year 1918. Table 34. Disbursements by fiscal ofiicers. Table 35. Classified statement of collections. Table 36. Statement of collector's special-deposit account. Table 37. Audited pay rolls. Table 38. Accounts receivable registered. Table 39. Statement of commissary books and coupons and meal tickets. Table 40. Canal Zone funds, balances with collector. Table 41. Value of money orders issued and paid to June 30, 1918. Table 42. "Value of money orders issued and paid, by months, to June 30, 1918. Table 43. Postal service revenues to June 30, 1918. Table 44. Postal service revenues, by months, to June 30, 1918. Table 45. Statement of postal-savings transactions, by months, fiscal year 1918. Table 46. Clubhouse receipts in detail, fiscal year 1918. Table 47. Clubhouse disbursements in detail, fiscal year 1918. Table 48. Clubhouse receipts and disbursements, fiscal year 1918. Table 49. Clubhouse balance sheet, June 30, 1918. Table 50. Injury and death payments, 1908 to 1918. Table 51. Injury compensation payments under Executive order of March 20, 1914. Table 52. Duration of disability of injured employees. Table 53. Statement showing disposition of claims. Table 54. Nature of injury and period of disability. Table 55. Character of work and cause of injury. Table 56. Cause and nature of injuries. Table 57. Purchases of material and supplies and storehouse transactions. Table 58. Comparative statement, by classes, of material on hand June 30, 1917 and 1918. Table .59. Panama Railroad commissary, purchases and sales. Table 60. Panama Railroad commissary, distribution of sales. THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 1.— Status of authorised bond issue. Authorized bond issue $375,200,900.00 Appropriations by Congress to June 30, 1918 $441, 375, 781. 44 Less appropriations for — Fortifications $29,950,572.30 Presentation of launch Louise 6, 000. 00 Annual payment to Republic of Panama 1,750,000.00 Maintenance, operation, sanitation and civil government of canal 24,050,006.22 55,756,578.52 Appropriated for canal construction 385,619,202.92 Less amounts exempted by law — Twocolliers $2,000,000.00 Two barges 1,600,000.00 Dock No. 6, Cristobal 2,093,190.00 Equipping colliers Ulysses and Achilles 250,000.00 Covering unprotected surfaces of colliers T . 50, 000. 00 Repairs to steamships .4 neon and Cristobal 720,000.00 Expended for operation and maintenance of canal to June30, 1915 4,289,159.00 Stock of material and supplies for operation and maintenance of canal 2,225,000.00 13,227,349.00 372,391,853.93 Balance available for appropriation after June 30, 1918, within limit of cost of canal and authorized bond issue 2, 809, 046. 08 Appraised value of American legation building in the city of Panama, exempted from charge to bond issue, act July 1, 1916 22, 256. 00 Balance available for appropriation within the limit of cost of canal and authorized bond issue 2, 83 1 , 302. 08 Note.— Of the amount authorized for construction under the authorized bond issue there have been collected for reimbursement of capital cost of public works in cities of Panama and Colon, $201 ,040.40, and for material sold, services rendered, etc., $4,989,573.28, a total of $5,190,613.68, which has been deposited as miscellaneous receipts to the credit of the general fund of the United States Treasury.

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REPORl OF AUDITOR. 199 Table No. 2. — General balance sheet, June 30, 1918. ASSETS. Construction of canal (Table No. 16) $348, 870, 782. 40 Capital additions (Table No. 17) . . . 1, 840, 263. 54 Equipment (Table No. 8) 9, 247, 263. 14 Material and supplies, etc. (Table No. 10) 8,111,571.52 Fortifications 24, 760, 368. 79 Public works in Panama and Colon . 2, 479, 521 . 99 Presentation of launch Louise to French Government 5, 840. 99 Reequipment loans to Panama Railroad Company 1,399,114.61 First-mortgage bond loan to Panama Railroad Company 1,848,217.50 Operation and maintenance of canal (Table No. 6) 23,980,676.44 Annual payment to Republic of Panama fcr Canal Zone rights 1, 500, 000. 00 Property transferred to other departments, United States Government (Table No. 12) 1,973,011.17 Panama Canal property operated by Panama Railroad (Table No. 13) . . 1, 925, 166. 71 Miscellaneous receipts credited to assets 5,047,058.94 Work in progress (^Table No. 9) 348, 010. 45 Accounts receivable 3,053,931.95 Unclassified credits '468,047.07 Appropriation balances subject to requisition 10,375,902.57 Cash in hands of fiscal officers 4, 078, 508. 23 Total 450,377,163.87 LIABILITIES. Appropriations by Congress (Table No. 3) $441,375,781.44 Trust funds and security deposits . 112, 063. 25 Reserves (Table No. 15) 3', 725, 952. 51 Assets received from the Canal Zone goverrmient (Table No. 11) 544,792.37 Panama Railroad property operated by Panama Canal (Table No. 14) 851,080.78 Property received from United States Shipping Board 2,432.71 Reimbursement acccunt public works in Panama and Colon repaid to appropriations 396, 956. 06 Miscellaneous receipts not deposited in United States Treasury (Table No. 4) 314,812.27 Accounts payable 3,053,292.48 Total 450,377,163.87 Table No. 3. — Statement of appropriations by Congress. Cfinal rights from French company (act of June 28, 1902) $40,000,000.00 Canal Zone rights from Republic of Panama (act of Apr. 28, 1904) 10, 000, 000. 00 Canal connecting Atlantic and Pacific Oceans : Act of June 28, 1902 $10, 000, 000. 00 Act of Dec. 21, 1905 11, 000, 000. 00 21, 000, 000. 00 Deficiency for fiscal year 1906 (act of Feb. 27, 1906) : Miscellaneous material purchases in United States 1, 000, 000. 00 Miscellaneous material purchases on Isthmus 400, 000. 00 Payments to Panama Railroad Company 200, 000. 00 Isthmus pay rolls 2,100,000.00 Salaries and services in the United States75, 000. 00 New equipment purchases 1, 565, 786. 00 Reequipment of Panama Railroad 050, 000. 00 5. 990, 786. 00 Total for purchase of rights and for lump-sum appropriations common to all departments 76, 990, 786. 00 Expenses in the United States : Salaries . $1, 476, 056. 33 Incidental expenses 583, 179. 36 Con.struction and engineering : Pay of officers and employees 29.443,212.00 Pay of skilled and un-skilled labor 101, 809, 961. 00 Miscellaneous material purchases, etc 109. 881. 514. 24 Incidental expenses on Isthmus 6, 640, 2.50. 00 2, 059, 235. 69 247, 774, 937. 24 1 Credit.

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200 THE PANAMA CANAL. Civil administration : Pay of officers and employees $4, 507, 000. 00 Pay of skilled and unskilled laborers___i.__ 191, 000. 00 Material and expenses 1, 178, 200. 00 $5,876,200.00 Sanitary department: Pay" of officers and employees 5, 391, 000. 00 Pay of skilled and unskilled laborers 3, 036, 968. 00 Material and expenses 5, 662, 367. 15 14, 090, 335. 15 Reequipnient of Panama Railroad 4, 185, 000. 00 Relocation of Panama Railroad 7,815,000.00 Redemption of first-mortgage bonds of Panama Railroad Company 2, 298, 367. 50 Sanitation in cities of Panama and Colon 800, 000. 00 Survey of lands. Canal Zone ^ 75, 000. 00 Relief of Pembroke B. Benton for injuries 10, 000. 00 Construction and equipment 23, 598, 190. 00 Total fiscal years 1907 to 1918, inclusive 308. 582, 265. 58 Total for canal construction, rights, etc., to June 30, 1918_ 385, 573, 051. 58 Private acts for relief : Elizabeth G. Martin. June 17, 1910 $1,200.00 Marcellus Troxell, Jan. 13, 1911 1. 500. 00 W. L. Miles, Feb. 13, 1911 1, 704. 18 Chas. A. Caswell, Mar. 2, 1911 1,056.00 Heirs of Robert S. Gill, July 3, 1912 2, .520. 00 Douglas B. Thompson, July 3, 1912 1, 500. 00 Alle.sandra Comba, July 10, 1912___ 500. 00 Peter Wiggington, Feb. 7. 1913 500.00 Raymond R. Ridenour, Feb. 7, 1913 500. 00 Heirs of Charles E. Stump, Feb. 7, 1913__ 1, 500. 00 Parents of Edward Maher, Feb. 18, 1913__ 1, 980. 00 Oscar F. Lackey, Feb. 18, 1913 1, 500. 00 Pedro Sanchez, Feb. 18. 1913 2.000.00 John H. Cole, Feb. 18, 1913 1, 951. 38 Robert Coggen, Feb. 18, 1913 _' 1, 500. 00 Wife of William Goodley, July 17, 1914 1, 000. 00 John Burrows, Feb. 27, 1915 1, 433. 33 F. W. Theodore Schroeter, Mar. 3, 1915 1, 397. 66 L. V. Thomas. Mar. 3, 1915 1,680.00 Joseph A. Buckholdt, Aug. 4, 1916 3, 000. 00 Olaf Nelson, Aug. 8, 1916 1, 200. 00 31, 122. 55 Judgments of the Court of Claims, War : Act of Aug. 26, 1912 196. 45 Act of Mar. 4, 1913_-_ 900. 00 Act of July 29. 1914 905. 38 Act of Feb. 28, 1916 1, 000. 00 Act of Sept. 8, 1916 2, 537. 20 • 5,539.03 Judgment, United States court (act of Apr. 6, 1914) 9,489.76 Presenting steam launch Louise to French Government, act of Aug. 25. 1914 6, 000. 00 Fortifications : Aeronautic stations $2.50, 000. 00 Aviation seacoast defenses 500, 000. 00 Armament of fortifications 13, 103, 000. 00 Army quarters, storehouses, etc 3, 990. 000. 00 Buildings and materials 57. 375. 00 Causeway 150, 000. 00 Electric light and power plants 264, 631. 00 Field fortifications and camps 394, 350. 00 Fire control 633,301.30 Land for military purposes 50, 000. 00

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y REPORT OF AUDITOR. 201 Fortifications — Continued. Land defenses $29, 500. 00 Maintenance of deaf ings and trails 116, 900. 00 Maintenance, etc., of fire-control installations 20, 000. 00 Maintenance of searchlights and electricpower equipment 22, 500. 00 Ordnance depot 367, 900. 00 Preservation and repair of fortifications 49, 400. 00 Protecting Panama Canal and structures — 450, 000. 00 Reserve equipment for fortifications 50, 000. 00 Sanitary clearing, filling, etc 210,000.00 Seacoast batteries 6, 102, 000. 00 Searchlights for seacoast fortifications 443, 440. 00 Submarine mines 6.59, 450. 00 Submarine-mine structures 322, 200. 00 Submarine base 1, 652, 625. 00 Surveys 62, 000. 00 Annual pavment to Republic of Panama : Act of Mar. 4, 1913 250, 000. 00 Act of Apr. 6, 1914 2.50, 000. 00 Act of .Tan. 25, 1915 250, 000. 00 Act of Feb. 28, 1916 2.50, 000. 00 Act of July 1, 1916 250, 000. 00 Act of Mar. 3, 1917 250, 000. 00 Act of Apr. 15, 1918 250, 000. 00 Maintenance and operation of the canal : Maintenance and operation 19, 950, 000. 00 Sanitation , 2, 250, 000. 00 Civil government 1, 840, 000. 00 Increases of compensation, Panama Canal, 1918 10, 006. 22 $29, 950, 572. 30 1, 750, 000. 00 24, 050, 006. 22 Total appropriations by Congress to June 30, 1918 441, 375, 781. 44 DETAIL OF ACTS FOR MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION, SANITATION, CIVIL GOVERNMENT, AND CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT. Act of Mar. 3, 1915 Act of July 1, 1916 Act of June 12, 1917 Act of Mar. 28, 1918 Act of June 4, 1918 Increases of compensation, Panama Canal, 1918 TotaL Amount appropriated for construction but used for maintenance and operation and not chargeable against authorized bond issue (act of Aug. 1, 1914, sec. 12): Maintenance and operation prior to July 1, 1915 Stock of material for maintenance and operation Total for maintenance and operation Maintenance and operation. Sanitation, Canal Zone. Civil government, Panama Canal, Canal Zone. $5, 200, 000. 00 $700, 000. 00| 5, 750, 003. 00 700, 000. 00 9, 000, 000. 00 700, 000. 00 isOjOOO.oo Total. S540, 000. 00 $6, 440, 000. 00 600,000.00 7,050,000.00 700, 000. 00 10, 400, 000. 00 10, 006. 22 19,960,006.22 $10,500,000.00 9; 750, 000. 00 2, 755, 000. 00 593, 190. 00 150,000.00 10, 006. 22 2,250,000.001,840,000.00 24,050,006.22 4,289,159.00 2,223,000.00 30, 564, 165. 22 Construction and equipment. 23, 598, 190. 00

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202 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 4. — Detail of miscellaneous receipts, United States funds. Receipts involving no appropriation expenditures : Subsidies from Panama Railroad Company $631, 875. 00 Dividends on Panama Railroad stock 344, 945. 00 Interest on reequipment loan 320, 799. H Interest on first mortgage bond loan 152, 395. 16 Interest on public works, Panama and Colon 321, 321. 35 Interest on Zone water-supply systems, proportion 96, 757. 20 Interest on bank balances 23, 147. 30 Miscellaneous rentals 238, 650. 08 Overages 505. 66 Forfeitures 28. 00 Salvaging steamship Moselle 210. 50 Miscellaneous 20. 10 $2, 130, 654. 46 Receipts involving expenditures from appropriations : Not credited to assets — Capital cost, Panama waterworks and sewers 54, 115. 44 Capital cost, Panama pavements 46, 981. 55 Capital cost. Colon waterworks and sewers 52,081.58 Capital cost. Colon pavements 47, 861. 83 Tolls 18, 654, 380. 16 Licenses and taxes 41, 989. 42 Court fees and fines 54, 594. 65 Postal receipts 301,965.97 Miscellaneous. Canal Zone 3, 223. 57 19, 257, 194. 17 Credited to assets — Sale of property 850, 500. 11 Sale of French material and equipment 117, 730. 03 Sale of Panama Canal building in city of Panama 80,000.00 Sale of water 255. 43 Mess accounts 46, 879. 48 Hospital receipts 79, 992. 68 Quarantine receipts 24, 900. 53 Laundry receipts 7,382.01 Rental of lands and buildings 41, 427. 24 Rentals, miscellaneous 137, 822. 99 Telegraph and telephone receipts 3, 547. 35 Hotels and messes 758,470.34 Hotel coupon books 32, 238. 28 Corral receipts 8, 628. 56 Labor furnished Panama Railroad Company 180, 336. 97 Other labor furnished 27, 449. 55 Repayments, reequipment loan 1, 387, 714. 92 Repayments, first mortgage bond loan 300, 000. 00 Sale of Panama Railroad stock 1, 300. 00 Miscellaneous 93, 805. 47 Sale of construction material and equipment 796, 897. 82 Profit on business operations 57, 485. 66 Forfeitures by contractors 12, 293. 52 5, 047, 058. 94 Total 26, 434, 907. 57 Miscellaneous receipts deposited in United States Treasury 26, 120, 095. 30 Cash on hand June 30, 1918 202,836.99 Amount of water rentals, Panama and Colon, credited to miscellaneous receipts $619, 118. 95 Amount of water rentals, Panama and Colon, deposited as miscellaneous receipts 567, 788. 82 51, 330. 13 Profit on business operations, 1917 and 1918, not transferred to miscellaneous receipts 45, 587. 22 Unpaid bills 15, 057. 93 Total 26, 434, 907. 57 Table No, 5. — Statement of overhead expenses, fiscal year 1918.

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REPORT OP AUDITOR. 203 Table No. 5. — Statement of overhead expenses, fiscal year 1918 — Continued. Fiscal year— 1918 1917 Schools Fire protection Police and prisons : District court Magistrate courts District attorney Canal Zone marshal Municipal expenses Total civil government Charged to other interests Amount apportioned Health department: Administration Medical storehouse Ancon Hospital Colon Hospital Santo Tomas Hospital Palo Seco Leper Asylum Corozal Farm and Insane Asyliun Other hospitals and dispensaries Quarantine service SanitationPanama Colon Canal Z one Street cleaning and garbage disposal — Panama Colon Total health department Charged to other interests Amount apportioned Supply department: Maintenance and care of administration building Operation of storehouse Repairs to storehouse Handling freight on docks Operation of quarters Material stock losses Repairs to quarters Inventory adjustments Repairs to other buildings Umted States bills, adjustments Ancon nursery Total Charged to other interests Amount apportioned Accounting department: Accoxmting office ^ Paymaster's office Collector's ofiBce Total Charged to other interests Amount apportioned Washington office: Assistant auditor's office Disbursing clerk's office General bureau Purchasing expenses Total Charged to other interests Amount apportioned ' Credits. $141,091.67 So, 924. 22 265, 000. 57 17, 852. 02 13,025.65 8,443.06 7,711.91 45.27 741,687.89 63, 455. 01 678, 232. 11,564.64 16, 696. 23 455,553.30 70, 208. 71 12, 608. 64 29, 687. 78 92, 159. 80 47,530.07 85, 988. 04 52,531.08 42, 701. 49 114,736.91 61, 785. 26 31,155.62 1, 124, 907. 57 489, 053. 54 635,854.03 29, 946. 21 548, 072. 20 1,671.35 16,611.69 479, 708. 59 55, 695. 64 202, 851. 04 1 49, 659. 28 27, 948. 25 1 3, 587. 13 9, 212. 34 1,318,470.90 219, 194. 98 1,099,275.92 370. 478. 48 50, 778. 13 38, 461. 64 459,718.25 164,815.95 294.902.30 37, 532. 26 10, 265. 71 52, 215. 88 184,566.69 284, 580. 54 3, 627. 52 280,953.02 $85, 820. 09 68, 528. 28 244, 274. 18 17,643.62 11,459.90 7,621.69 8,281.66 49.36 630, 722. 53 34, 402. 32 5%, 320. 21 4,374.54 3, 774. 20 382,961.50 59,501.80 11, 740. 69 24, 102. 89 92, 898. 02 40, 988. 69 71,410.33 47,910.90 33, .555. 35 164, 874. 99 56, 088. 62 29,041.82 1,023,224.34 441,303.13 581,921.21 26, 403. 87 586, 486. 15 912.32 93,423.26 395, 117. 68 219, 026. 89 "'i,"3i4.'63 2, 062. 16 1,324,746.96 155, 702. 45 1,169,044.51 333,645.55 45,303.77 34.860.57 413, 809. 89 136, 002. 87 277, 807. 02 41,543.32 11, 008. 83 60, 235. 29 200, 924. 26 313,711.70 1,637.67 312, 074. 03

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204 THE PANAMA CAKAL. Table No. 5. — Statement of overhead expenses, fiscal year 1918 — Continued. Miscellaneous: Transportation of employees on Isthmus. Recruiting and repatriating Compensation to injured employees Land office Special attorney Payments to deported alien cripples Total Charged to other interests . Amount apportioned Administration: Executive office — Executive Miscellaneous bureaus — Correspondence Record bureau Personnel bureau Property and requisition bureau . General bureau ' Timekeeping bureau Clubs and playgrounds Canal Record Official motor cars Cables and radiograms Miscellaneous Bureau of statistics Total executive office Charged to other interests. Amount apportioned Engineer of maintenance: Office engineer Surveys Meteorology and hydrography . Total Charged to other interests. Amount apportioned Electrical division: Lights— street, lodge halls, and churches . . . Amount apportioned Municipal engineering: Operation and maintenance of waterworks . Repairs to sewer system Repairs to roads Total Charged to other interests . Amount apportioned. Grand total— administration Charged to other interests . Amount apportioned. Total overhead expenses Charged to other interests . Fiscal year — 1918 $141, 667. 20 43, 064. 35 5, 523. 39 11,902.64 11.241.78 2,926.00 216,324.36 24, 085. 55 192, 238. 81 33,753.66 45,614.14 48,195.94 25,367.10 31,126.07 51,287.82 95,720.27 90,434.79 8, 669. 36 17, 600. 70 9,017.64 5, 369. 01 13, 235. 38 475,391.88 109, 872. 19 365, 519. 69 66, 364. 45 28, 660. 26 29, 174. 28 124,198.99 66, 420. 88 57, 778. 11 7, 802. 40 7, 802. 40 403, 329. 40 18,851.91 346,923.51 769, 104. 82 245,418.84 523,685.98 3,655,592.14 833,435.91 2. 822, 156. 23 5, 522, 187. 60 1,385,944.46 Total amount apportioned I 4,136,243.14 Distribution: Operation and maintenance of canal Construction of canal Fortifications Business operations Expenses of sales — construction, material, and equipment Public works in cities of Panama and Colon Repairs to steamsliips Ancon and Cristobal Village— New Chagres Total. 2,826,651.32 416,529.24 213. 686. 63 627,211.16 28, 788. 92 436.35 21,958.07 981.45 4, 130, 243. 14 1917 $144,025.50 55,823.04 25,894.45 11,348.37 10, 772. 99 247. 864. 35 22, 865. 69 224,998.66 33. 005. 40 47,913.60 43, 677. 78 21,217.42 25, 769. 54 42, 791. 44 86, 560. 85 62.481.89 11, 514. 48 18. 529. 41 8, 070. 11 7, 197. 55 10, 823. 37 419,552.84 93,579.93 325, 972. 91 64.418.53 30, 774. 66 31,081.04 126, 274. 23 59,998.63 66, 275. 60 7,529.78 7,529.78 342, 567. 45 12, 823. 73 123,605.62 478.996.80 219, 650. 00 259, 346. 80 3. 332. 486. 55 689, 437. 24 2,643.049.31 4,986.433.42 1, 165, 142. 69 3,821,290.73 2, 537, 883. 61 702. 234. 23 187.298.95 370. 133. 78 18,751.39 4,988.77 3,821,290.73

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 205 Table No. 6. — Panama Canal operation and maintenance to June 30, 1918. Marine division: Admeasurement of vessels Local inspection Aids to navigation Pilotage Operation of harbor tugs— balance Operation of port captain's office— balance. Assisting vessels through cut Total marine division. Locks, operation and maintenance: Gatun locksSuperintendence Operation Maintenance Total Gatun locks. Gatun spillway Pedro Miguel locks — Superintendence. . Operation Maintenance Total Pedro Miguel locks. Pedro Miguel dams Miraflores locks — Superintendence. Operation Maintenance Total Miraflores locks Miraflores spillway and east dam Miraflores west dam— Maintenance Total lock operation and maintenance. Dredging: Atlantic entrance Gatun Lake i*GaillardCut Miraflores Lake Pacific entrance Total dredging. Gatun dam, maintenance Removal of floating obstructions Gatun-Mindi levee, maintenance Colon west breakwater, maintenance. . Colon east breakwater, maintenance. . . Naos Island breakwater, maintenance. Damages to vessels in locks Damages to vessels in canal Operation floating derricks Maintenance of transportation tracks. . Dry excavation— Rio Grande Shop expense, Balboa— balance Loss on sales and services to outsiders . Fiscal year 191/. $13,759.01 4,515.46 97, 823. 93 104, 216. 83 60,566.91 26, 120. 91 6,033.38 313,036.43 19, 174. 89 107,750.57 140,327.78 267, 253. 24 19,852.49 20,969.18 62, 159. 26 126, 349. 70 209, 478. 14 Fiscal year 1918. $16, 167. 58 3,940.34 82,855.73 95,237.08 58,285.37 36,975.53 84.65 293,546.28 24,316.13 132,137.54 127,979.14 284, 432. 81 11,602.24 17,846.54 94,867.83 93, 176. 86 35.37 24,826.93 105, 966. 93 108,290.76 239,084.62 1,619.05 107. 48 737, 430. 39 22,864.17 442. 88 2,612,480.17 83,024.52 135,819.51 205,891.23 Total to date. 18, 682. 42 145,067.82 77,927.05 241,677.29 1,357.43 744,961.00 2,854,631.25 15,889.75 23,203.11 2,582.14 41,479.89 9,642.89 141. 36 3,818.44 202,034.37 46,273.97 Total operation and maintenance. Proportion of overhead expenses Total. Revenues: Tolls Licenses and taxes, fees^ fines, etc Profit on sales and services to outsiders. Total revenues Revenues earned in excess of expenses. Expenses in excess of revenues earned. 4,250,163.99 2,537,883.61 7,577.76 'i,'456,"297.'68' "'"262," 928.' 70 1,726,803.54 8, 202. 78 36,014.71 32.31 11,419.29 5,950.09 20,574.73 148,889.03 65,906.20 37,606.99 3,077,068.37 2.826,651.32 6,788,047.60 5,631,781.66 137, 189. 38 39,427.66 5,808,398.70 '979,648.96 5,^03,719.69 6,454,198.35 140,918.01 6, 159. 56 6, 601, 275. 92 697,556.23 1 Indicates credit. $48,499.24 17,210.24 288,399.71 302,573.12 1C4,064.63 63,096.44 6,118.03 889,961.41 73,860.21 424,511.71 592,217.52 1,090,589.44 63,370.29 70, 106. 67 286,772.60 396, 388. 85 753,268.12 168. 96 78, 409. 81 421,244.53 425,502.37 925, 156. 71 16,642.69 832.37 2,850,028.58 182, 483. 58 442.88 9,215,157.37 85, 277. 96 427,564.63 9,910,926.42 93,095.86 110,648.94 31,326.04 81,523.46 14, 193. 55 6,879.23 27,759.07 452,781.44 164,954.43 37,606.99 19, 158. 55 61,8-23.17 14,752,667.14 9,228,009.30 23,980,676.44 18,654,380.16 424,920.91 57,485.66 19,136,786.73 4,843,889.71

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206 THE PANAMA CANAL, Table No. 7. — Statement of profit and loss on business operations for fiscal year ended June 30, 1918. DEPARTMENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE. Construct ion and repairs Shopwork E lect ric work Electric current Train service and use of rolling equipment Tug service Service of other floating equipment Pilotage Wharfage Sales of water Panama waterworks Panama pavements Colon waterworks Colon pavements Handling lines on docks Handling lines on locks Steamship inspection Minor services, supplies and property Dry dockage — Balboa Dry dockage — Cristobal Total, department of operation and maintenance SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. Subsistence: Hotel TivoH Hotel Aspinwall lane hotels Messes ; Total , subsist ence QUARTERMASTER. Material from stock Fuel oil Rock, sand, gravel, and screenings Printing and binding Corral Rental of gold quarters Rental of silver quarters Garage rental Aneon nursery Handling of fuel oil Operation of stores Operation of quarters Minor services, supplies and property Total, quartermaster ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT. Lost metal checks Cablegrams Sen'ice of Panama Railroad HEALTH DEPARTMENT. Ancon Hospital: Fees Mess Burials Miscellaneous Colon Hospital: Fees Mess Miscellaneous Palo Seco Leper Asylum Line dispensaries . . ". Quarantine: Subsistence Other charges Sanitation: Panama Colon Zone Street cleaning: Panama Colon Cost. $1, 2, 826, 134. 91 635,680.15 235,963.40 96, 195. 21 2, 508. 50 199, 292. 53 69,036.13 30,877.33 5,341.62 178, 304. 42 85,975.44 8,990.81 63,302.99 12, 187. 71 33,354.71 30,420.53 932. 32 47,509.18 81,906.09 23,708.64 5,697,622.62 143,371.82 5,543.83 514,039.21 150, 970. 07 Revenues. $1,826,779.84 2,659,271.44 267,917.36 97,798.98 2,595.12 200, 874. 92 70,345.84 35,085.00 24,572.16 191,776.48 85,975.44 8,990.81 63,302.99 12, 187. 71 813,924.93 1,629,393.44 811,839.21 13, 519. 68 24,792.47 58,599.64 2, 151. 86 101,181.25 1,919.67 4,440.72 28,489.04 54,000.00 87,000.00 100,363.47 2.917.690.45 47.78 2,366.55 159,057.80 161,472.13 262,720.71 19,614.60 4.595.93 1,790.52 30,476.25 3,922.24 173. 75 18,38f. 70 1,795.18 18,858.16 11,964.54 8,615.70 10,907.92 10, 221. 34 38,914.01 18,336.28 23,650.10 3,240.01 47, 689. 19 131,573.95 16, 826. 29 6.770,453.63 122,098.60 3,099.31 448,006.51 139,404.71 712,609.13 1,646,218.35 8d8, 374. 76 13,519.68 2.5,076.12 61,404.35 2, 151. 86 103,651.22 5, 806. 02 4,440.72 29,601.72 .54,000.00 87,000.00 101,474.66 2,972,722.46 1.102.05 3, 603. 69 159,058.20 163, 763. 94 Profit or loss. 147, 253. 69 19,614.60 4,-595.93 1, 790. 52 23,745.65 3,922.24 173. 75 11,656.51 1,795.18 66, 063. 35 30,694.21 8,61.5.70 10,907.92 10, 221. 34 38,914.01 18.336.28 $644.93 23,591.29 1,953.96 1,603.77 86.62 1,582.39 1,309.71 4, 207. 67 19,230.54 13,472.06 33,354.71 6, 770. 43 2.307.69 180. 01 49,667.86 6, 882. 35 72,831.01 21, 273. 22 2,444.52 66,032.70 11,565.36 -101,d15.80 16,824.91 26,535.55 ""'2S3."65 2,804.71 2,469.97 3, 886. 35 1, 115. 68 1,111.19 55, 032. 01 1,054.27 1,237.14 .40 2,291.81 -115,467.02 6, 730. 60 — 6, 730. 19 47, 205. 10 18, 729. 67

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 207 Table No. 7. — Statement of profit and loss on business operations for fiscal year ended June 30, 1918 — Continued.

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208 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 10.— Detail of material and supplies. Balboa store $4, 667, 21.5. 70 Cristobal store 667, 218. 60 Paraiso store 90.3, 775. 77 Medical store 114, 635. 74 Fuel oil ^ 264.988.99 Stationery store, administration building 18, 972. 41 Printing plant store 85,377.30 District quartermaster store : Cristobal $919. 24 Gatun 19, 641. 44 Paraiso 977. 80 Balboa-Ancon 3, 965. 27 25, 503. 75 Total, quartermaster stores $6,747,688.26 Material on hand with divisions, not yet charged to the work 1, 077, 438. 31 Containers in transit 63, 442. 02 Obsolete store 223, 002. 93 Total 8, 111, 571. 52 Table No. 11. — Detail of assets received from the Canal Zone government. School buildings $72, 115. 00 Roads 451, 887. 50 Waterworks and sewer system 18, 500 00 Stationery stock 2, 167.04 Miscellaneous 122. 83 Total 544, 792. 37 Table No. 12.— Detail of assets transferred to other departments of the United States Government. To Army on Canal Zone : BuiMinjis— Corozal $206, 552. 25 Cristobal 22,261.51 Culebra 244, 586. 41 Empire 368, 606. 67 Gatun 51,925.15 Las Cascadas 126, 416. 00 Margarita Island 375. 50 Toro Point 24,076.24 $1, 044, 7»9. 73 Roads 249, 200. 00 Waterworks and sewer system 361, 550. 00 Chagres village 34, 846, 27 To State Depiirtment, legation building, city of Panama 22,256.00 To Alaskan Engineering Commission 258, 700. 56 To Army and Navy on Canal Zone, boathouse, Colon 1, 649. 61 Total 1, 973, Oil. 17 Table No. 13. — Detail of Panama Canal property operated by Panama Railroad. Floating equipment $134, 013. 94 Rolling stock 753, 834.76 Machinery ^ 10, 913. 41 Docks, wooden : Cristobal $62. 000. 00 Balboa 8, 100. 00 70, 100. 00 Steamships : Colon 400, 000. 00 Panama 400, 000. 00 Caribbean 156,304.60 956, 304. 60 Total 1, 925, 166. 71 Table No. 14. — Detail of Panama Railroad propertii operated by Panama Canal. Buildings $297, 847. 08 Floating equipment 38, 585. 00 Rolling stock 50, 290. 32 Machinery 10, 655. 00 Gamboa gravel plant 79,961.28 Concrete dock, Balboa 37.*^ 742. 10 Total 851, 080. 78

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EEPORT OF AUDITOR. 209 Table No. 15. — Detail of reserves. For gratuity $779, 095. OS For depreciation: Structures — Shop buildings $20,267.02 Power system 355, 028. 70 Docks and piers 22, 569. 91 Waterworks systems 36, 863. 13 Storehouses 43, 162. 16 Balboa dry dock 60,000.00 $537,890.92 Equipment — Mechanical division 33, 272. 00 Storehouses 17, 666. 62 Dredging division 1, 493, 311. 03 Building division 426. 99 Terminal division 8, 106. 65 Corrals 34,420.24 Marine division 33, 045. 18 Gatun locks division ' 423. 97 Balboa power house 30, 607. 34 Pacific locks division '3, 813. 99 Electrical division 6, 050. 80 Health department 22, 510. 10 Colon breakwater 8. 85 Gamboa gravel plant 116, 8.59. 30 Fuel oil plants 76, .500. 00 Contractors 1 , 916. 19 Gamboa crusher 9, 708. 80 United States tank No. 62 84.00 Atlantic tank farm 3, 483. 55 Pacific tank farm 4, 328. 23 1,888,067.91 2,425,958.83 For repairs: Structures — Balboa shops buildings 25,042.29 Storehouses 17,934.32 Power system 15, 717. 51 Cristobal roundhouse 985. 33 Fuel oil plants 72,765.58 132,445.03 EquipmentMechanical division 41, 380. 23 Storehouses 27,838.49 Dredging division 318, 776. 47 Marine division 10, 107. 81 Pacific locks division ' 586. 18 Motorcars 2,171.91 Locomotives 912. 27 Cranes, lock operation 586. 18 United States tank No. 62 102.00 Gamboa crusher i 4, 107. 25 Municipal engineering '8, 728. 36 388, 453. 57 520,898.60 Total 3,725,952.51 1 Debit balance. • Table No. 16. — Construction of canal, fiscal year 1918 and to June 30, 1918. lAinounts include canal overhead.]

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210 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 1G.— Construction, of canal, fiscal year 1918 and to June SO, 1918 — Con. CANAL CONSTRUCTION— continued. Pedro Miguel dams Miraflores west dam La Boca locks and damsColon east breakwater Colon west breakwater . . . Naos Island breakwater. . A Ids to navigation -abandoned. Total canal . AUXILIARY WORKS. Power producing and transmitting system (Table No. 23): Gatun hydroelectric plant Miraflores steam-electric plant Power-transmission system Total power producing and transmitting system. Pacific terminals (Table No. 20): Coaling station Fuel-oil plant Dry dock [, Docks Dredging inner harbor Entrance basin , Preparatory work Total Pacific terminals. Atlantic terminals (Table No. Coaling station Fuel-oil plant Dry dock Docks 19): Total Atlantic terminals . Gatxm dock , Permanent townsites (Table No. 21): Cristobal Colon Beach G atun Pedro Miguel Red Tank Balboa-Ancon La Boca Total permanent townsites CANAL CONSTRUCTION. Buildings (Table No. 22): Designing and preliminary expenses Oflices— Administration, Balboa Administration, Santa Rosa Balboa shops Balboa terminals ShopsBalboa Paraiso Cristobal Storehouses Hotels and mess halls Gold quarters Silver quarters Ancon Hospital Colon Hospital Dispensaries Asylums Quarantine stations Medical storehouses Miscellaneous buildings, health department . Fiscal year 1918. To June 30, 1918. I $11,955.86 11,955.86 555,696.72 "65,'5i9."93 621,216.65 54,836.67 ' 8, 596. 42 2,341.82 64, 138. 43 451,912.14 52, 572. 15 617,204.79 121,058.40 45,367.50 5,849.35 672, 256. 68 844,531.93 52,235.03 1,. 583. 12 6,342.39 5,352.71 28,245.56 93, 758. 81 40, 345. 88 22,921.94 10,320.18 26,346.71 20,303.99 19, 252. 17 08, 759. 98 38, 758. 50 50,880.19 17,264.81 9433,835.38 1, 165, 516. 74 751,748.32 3,785,604.79 4,291,747.21 1,020,666.41 818, 697. 37 102,516,749.94 1,564,591.97 307. 485. 78 3, .545, 231. 97 5,417,309.72 2,289,394.44 404,093.48 3, ,536, 296. 45 3, 172, 276. 04 2,693,793.67 489, 480. 39 1,808,921.65 14,394,256.12 3, 672, 890. 09 235, &3S. 87 73, 475. 51 1, 257, 194. 67 5,239,399.14 8,951.33 350,643.34 22, 758. 43 181,199.02 25, 178. 64 1,641,744.72 192,562.94 2,414,087.09 73, 232. 90 1,203,601.01 130,892.39 238,553.94 JO, 634. 42 3,799,211.75 145,460.61 ',087,532.43 518, 453. 26 4,623,993.26 607, 676. 56 1,354,913.62 248,937.91 160,528.96 184,073.47 72,469.36 2J,471.15 46,719.23

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 211 Table No. 16. — Construction of canal, fiscal year 1918 and to June 30, 1918 — Con. CANAL CONSTRUCTION— continued. Buildings (Table No. 22)— Continued. Post offices Schoolhouses Courthouses, police stations, jails, etc. Fluviographs Miscellaneous buildings Total buildings Playgrounds, including Balboa grand stand. Sanitary fills Sanitary ditches Landscape improvements. Waterworks systems: Colon-Cristobal Panama-Gamboa Gatun Other Zone systems. . . Total waterworks systems. Zone sewage system Zone roadways Real estate: For canal construction and flooded areas. For auxiliary works and buildings For depopulation of the Canal Zone Total, real estate . Miscellaneous: Gravel reclaiming plant, Gamboa Reloeation, Panama Railroad Investment, Panama Railroad stock . . Concessions from Republic of Panama. Purchase from New Panama Canal Co. Total miscellaneous Total construction of canal . Fiscal year 1918. 169, 450. 63 127,684.88 1,242,289.86 5,065.51 18,184.36 279. 42 279. 42 13, 666. 44 308,415.15 308,415.15 I 4,904.36 » 4.904.36 4,144,218.32 To June 30, 1918. $35,982.62 474,446.61 90, 454. 10 13,709.02 473, 221. 57 15,690,170.15 60, 273. 49 601,463.67 99, 299. 61 18, 184.. 36 585, 642. 89 1, 765, 222. 58 550, 376. 89 2,901,242.36 68, 457. 15 316, 132. 34 879, 583. 06 146, 258. 94 1, 750, 279. 35 2,776,121.35 1 1, 168. 96 9,800,626.46 155, 818. 24 10,000,000.00 38,728,484.05 58,683,759.79 348, 870, 782. 40 J Credit. Table No. 17. — Capital additions. Fiscal vear 1918. To June 30, 1918. Maintenance and operation: Gai-un locks Pedro Mieuel locks Miraflore.= locks Aid? to nai"ation Improverren ?, Cristobal Harbor Power-transmission system Cristobal fuel-oil plant Other Zone water-supply systems Zone sewage system Roadways Permanent townsite, Cristobal Permanent townsite, Gatim Permanent townsite, Pedro Miguel Permanent townsite, Ancon-Balhoa Landscape improvements Gamboa gravel plant Shops, Balboa Shops, Cristobal Storehouses Hotel? and mess halls Quarters, gold Quarters, silver Miscellaneous buildings Miscellaneous buildings, health Courthouses, police and fire stations, jails, etc. $34, I 48, 10, 16, 59, 40, 573.85 899.44 612.. 50 280. 80 027. 61 558. 73 685.06 28, 152, 49, 3, 1 43, 1, 199, 18, 2, 7, 32, 82, 45, 11, 803.78 112.14 042 06 340.48 848. 62 719. 78 317.10 168.96 717.79 948. 36 695. 23 879. 27 276.57 641.01 404. 29 83.99 111.51 $35, 154. 73 12,180.00 61,178.86 34,886.00 16,027.61 61,088.39 40. 685. 06 232. 79 28,813.04 152,112.14 49,042.06 3,340.48 1,848.62 43,719.78 317.10 1,168.96 419,854.82 53, 090. 47 16,990.08 11,123.91 34,642.10 86,144.61 71, 698. 13 83.99 11,111.51 Total, maintenance and operation. 86372°— 18 15 889,950.05 1,246,5.35.23 ' Credit.

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212 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 17. — Capital additions — Continued.

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 213 Table No 19 — Detailed cost, Atlantic terminals, fiscal year 1918, and to June 30, 1918. COALING PLANT. Preliminary and general work. Foundations: Retainingwall construction. Caisson construction Total foundations. Backfilling Floors Superstructure: Stocking and reclaiming bridges. Unloader towers Reloader towers Conveyor system Total superstructure. Accessories Miscellaneous Boat landings Plant Total division cost, coaling plant . Dredging Total division cost, coaling plant, including dredging. Less Panama Railroad Co. 's proportion Net division cost, coaling plant FUEL-OIL HANDLING PLANT. Storage: United States tanks Nos. 1 and 2. United States tank No. 9 United States tank No. 43 Total storage. . Oilpump plant . Oil docks Pipe lines Tank farm Total division cost, oil-fuelstorage Gasoline storage: United States lank No. 27. Total division cost, fuel-oil handling plant. Dry dock Pier No. 6 Boathouse between Piers Nos. 7 and 8. Cristobal shops Cristobal roundhouse Total division cost, Atlantic terminals. 1 Credit Fiscal year 1918. '$4,001.30 35.94 5, .374. 45 729. 09 11,07.3.91 17,213.39 2, 842. 24 10, 073. 22 26, 127. 55 26, 127. 55 100, 000. 00 126, 127. 55 36,986.42 36,986.42 1,252.22 I 162. 32 3, 166. 86 41,24.3.18 41,24.3.18 5,317.59 553,117.53 58,024.91 17,225.77 805,057.83 To June 30, 1918. $177,963.68 110,376.98 647, 178. 27 757,555.25 32,518.20 472,804.06 495,636.85 373, 839. 83 237, 733. 92 608,596.77 1,715,807.37 7,452.29 140, 830. 75 10,073.22 1 11,431.76 3,303,573.06 719,565.48 4,023,138.54 '775,000.00 3, 248, 138. 54 51,928.55 23,054.16 36,986.42 111,969.13 73, 239. 31 243.15 43,295.13 3, 166. 86 231,913.58 12,704.07 244,617.65 72, 705. 01 1,042,959.64 99, 944. 61 145,201.13 45,441.89 4,903,009.77 Table No. 20.— Detailed test, Pacific terminals, fiscal year 1918 and to June 30, 1918. PREPARING SITES, GENERAL. Preliminary and general work... Preparing site Corundu River drainage culvert. Cofferdam constniction Cofferdam, dredging Plant Total division cost, preliminary work and preparing sit3 Dredging inner harbor— total division cost (Table No. 25) Reclaiming land, total division cost (Table No. 25) Entrance basin dry excavation, total division cost 1 Credit. Fiscal year 1918. '$6,528.84 55,445.81 '1,124.12 47, 792. 85 379,573.88 31, 255. 34 To June 30, 1918. $409,628.87 734,904.69 41,137.01 58,970.29 133,636.99 71,981.59 1,450,259.44 1,957,937.46 362,223.85 380,988.19

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214 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 20. — Detailed test, Pacific terminals, fiscal year 1918 and to June 30, i9i8— Continued. Fiscal year 1918. To June 30, 1918. MAIN DRY DOCK. Preliminary and general work. Dry excavation Preparing foundations Concrete masonry, mass Concrete masonry, reinforced.. Granite Pumping plant Miter gates, original cost of gates and operating machinery. Erection of gates Installation miter-gate machinery Miter-gate anchorage Back filling Miscellaneous Total division cost, maia^ry dock ENTRANCE PIER Preliminary and general work. Dry excavation Preparing foundation Concrete masonry, mass Concrete masonry, reinforced.. Back filling Miscellaneous Total division cost, entrance pier Total division cost, main dry dock and entrance pier. COALING PLANT. Preliminary and general work Coal-storage area: Dry excavation Preparing foundations Concrete masonry Back filling Grading floor Miscellaneous Total division cost, coal-storage area. Coal-handling plant: Foundations for stocking and reclaiming cranes. Erection of stocking and reclaiming cranes Unloader towers Heloader towers Conveyor system Miscellaneous Total division cost, coal-handling plant SEA WALL AND UNLOADER WHAfeF. Preliminary and general work. Dry excavation Preparing foundation Substructure Concrete masonry, mass Concrete masonry, reinforced.. Miscellaneous Total division cost, sea wall and unloader wharf. RELOADER WHARF. Preliminary and general work. Substructure Superstructure Filling . jupe •-imi , Miscellaneous. Total division cost, reloader wharf. Total division cost, coaling station. 1 Credit. 1S20.60 1 254. 10 1183.23 588. 15 '"45.'6o' 1,445.52 S142,902.05 585, 665. 96 89,861.29 584,853.62 292,083.05 36,069.35 179,823.35 132, 147. 15 111,142.25 5,437.06 337. 24 62,006.16 572,498.10 1,620.74 2,794,826.63 508. 18 15,588.54 72,544.90 22,764.84 80, 065. 00 23,972.10 127. 65 79,327.12 608. 18 294,390.15 2, 128. 92 3,089,216.78 46,667.64 116.50 144, 909. 98 7,674.40 61,362.86 24,856.39 11,017.13 3,636.52 116. 50 253,457.28 10, 327. 12 9,143.02 9,572.63 11,744.63 69,477.24 168, 798. 65 187,943.93 118, 438. 69 365,828.35 8, 568. 51 40,787.40 919,055.37 4, 296. 77 13,?23.03 121,465.23 15,943.43 4,865.55 95,871.57 26,351.23 110,104.17 4, 296. 77 388,324.21 74.07 481.74 6, 468. 93 65,266.08 157,907.82 131,650.47 16, 422. 17 105, 728. 89 7,024.74 476,975.43 52,225.41 i 2,084,479.93

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 215 Table No. 20. — Detailed test, Pariflc terminals, fiscal year 1918 and to June 30, iWS— Continued. Fiscal vear 1918. To June 30, 1918. PERMANENT SHOPS. Tool-storage house Miscellaneous Steel erection Machine and erection shop Forge shop Steel-storage shed Boiler and ship fitters' shop Paint shop Car shop Planing mill Galvanizing building Lumber and equipment shed Pattern-storage room Foundry Coke shed Boiler house Roundhouse Gas house Toilets Paint house Main office Sand house Lye house Compressor plant and pump house. Ice-storage house New pattern storage Shop tunnel Mechanical division charges I $594. 88 14,893.25 1 51.72 48.56 1,932.82 7,515.53 180,765.41 $637,614.99 34, 508. 77 687, 582. 13 224, 722. 28 116,342.69 235,314.09 57, 216. 79 101, 198. 70 194, 748. 13 77,349.11 116,925.79 57,983.65 263,091.05 10,208.63 26, 206. 65 173,593.06 39,360.37 86, 148. 21 10,753.73 200,413.92 12, 395. 81 2,592.65 170,273.77 656.80 4,747.17 163,865.07 180, 765. 41 Total division cost, permanent shops. 204,508.97 3,886,579.42 DOCKS. Quay wall, north of concrete dock Quay wall, south of concrete dock Bulkhead quay wall, between wharf and Pier No. 18. Pier No. 18 (old No. 1) Concrete kimber wharf Electrical installation Water mains Air mains Lot improvement Rat proofing 946. 62 810.97 257.05 4,663.39 4, 955. 75 46,673.89 444,984.91 533,147.78 228, 328. 18 1, 109, 806. 64 255,667.79 13,002.29 7, 162. 62 3,389.93 4,955.75 66,568.68 Total division cost, all docks . 58, 307. 67 2,667,014.57 FUEL-OIL HANDLING PLANT. Storage: "United States tanks Nos. 3 and 4 United States tank No. 5 United States tank No. 62 Tank farm 46,983.00 25,991.63 2,08.3.57 15,256.87 Total division cost, storage. 90,315.07 Oil -pump plant Oil docks Pipe lines Dredging berth for ships. 29,171.49 75,337.49 59,079.28 79,428.42 37,104.89 Total division cost, oil-fuel storage Gasoline storage: United States tank No. 31 Total division cost, fuel-oil handling plant. Total division cost. Pacific terminals'" 29,171.49 250,950.08 15,445.65 29,171.49 356, 710. 80 804,964.53 16,235,410.44 1 Credit. 2 General storehouse, Balboa, and Balboa terminal ofiace building not included in these totals.

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216 THE PANAMA CAJiTAL. Table 21. — Detailed cost, permanent townsites, to June 30, 191S. Item. Preliminary and general work Preliminary maintenance Road construction Drainage Waterworks Sewer system Walks/. Balboa nursery Lot improvements Street lighting Underground duct system Improvements, block A Division expense Total division cost. La Boca. $37,557.50 31,869.40 14, 842. 53 20, 779. 72 26,328.15 6,084.34 10,221.73 4,440.38 Balboa. Pedro Miguel. $176, 171. 18 $45, 884. 40 10,519.78 364,491.90 7,903.21 53,622.87 186,925.43 58,370.86 1,576.79 279,705.01 35,957.52 218, 560. 66 47,272.34 20, 777. 72 22,488.65 19,597.24 11, 572. 72 281.62 13,588.89 3,267.45 3,637.60 152,123.751,441,077.55,141,096.29 Red Tank. $11,515.41 2, 118. 70 2,059.46 3,285.71 Gatun. $1,330.09 1,823.32 3.75 498.20 5,064.72 16,938.88 1,588.86 109.10 22,889.66 23,446.54 Cristobal. $10,887.44 80,828.37 91,715.81 Colon Beach. $93,093.09 38,489.36 9, 582. 07 99, 522. 74 7,298.10 16,801.17 5.63 6,791.05 271,583.21 Table No. 22. — Detail of huildings, fiscal year 1918 and to June 30, 1918. Designing and preliminary expenses, new buildings (includes building division plant). . Administration building, Balboa Heights. .• — Administration building, Santa Rosa Paraiso shops, appraisal of old buildings Storehouses: General storehouse, Balboa Lumber storehouse, Balboa Paint storehouse, Balboa Oil storehouse, Balboa Forage storehouse, Balboa Explosives storehouse, Balboa Dredge parts storehouse Oil storehouse, Cristobal Electrical storehouse, Balboa Electrical storehouse, Gatun General storehouse, Cristobal Dynamite storehouse, Gam boa Fuse storehouse, Gamboa Appraisal of old buildings Hotels and mess halls: Hotel Aspinwall landing stage Cristobal restaurant Balboa restaurant Ancon restaurant Pedro Miguel restaurant Tivoli kitchen Gatun mess hall La Boca mess hall La Boca kitchen Camp Bierd mess hall and kitchen. Appraisal of old buildings Gold quarters: Four-family concrete quarters. Two-family concrete quarters. Bachelor concrete quarters New wooden quarters Reerected wooden quarters Appraisal of old bmldings Silver quarters: New wooden quarters Reerected wooden quarters Appraisal of old bmldings — Alterations and repairs of old buildings. Hospitals: Colon Hospital Ancon Hospital Dispensaries: Balboa Ancon Pedro Miguel . Gatun Fiscal rear 191S. 811, 172. 09 911.91 1 1, 952. 50 2,369.08 2, 136. 66 3,413.91 14, 010. 49 15,711.13 32,709.39 138,312.50 1 400. 00 75, 650. 45 4,751.18 1 33, 537. 50 36,046.89 44,960.00 13, 286. 90 35, 235. 01 738, 803. 16 1 2, 196. 74 13,961.31 34,490.17 836, 678. 09 12, 500. 58 29,669.08 46, 464. 13 94, 293. 79 774, 038. 17 46, 254. 74 Total to June 30, 1918. $294, 615. 32 127, 126. 03 27, 882. 85 31,067.22 6, 140. 66 461. 14 5, 053. 36 5, 800. 00 82,366.63 44, 712. 96 3, 938. 69 1,673.97 86,357.07 1,897.34 76, 264. 79 73, 428. 87 72, 346. 83 15,711.13 32, 709. 39 5, 876. 19 7,386.39 2, 606. 67 6, 440. 04 207, 130. 50 1,172,785.09 177, 536. 86 68,926.42 1,205,062.51 256, 078. 80 1,348,037.34 259, 970. 34 198, 653. 82 181, 797. 97 16, 085. 25 226,066.45 1,235,306.46 16, 677. 79 57, 142. 25 37, 295. 61 34,490.17 $68, 282. 49 932, 544. 28 128, 083. 99 717, 195. 90 501, 798. 14 4,228,427.02 656,507.38 1,461,372.91 145,605.82 1 Credit.

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EEPORT OF AUDITOE. 217 Table No. 22.— Detail of buildings, fiscal year 1918 and to June 30, 1918— ContA. Quarantine stations: Colon quarantine barracks. Balboa quarantine station. . Balboa quarantine landing. Asylums: Corozal asylum building. Dairy shed Dairy building Hog shed Gumea pig house Chicken house Compost pit Palo Seco building Fiscal year 1918. $6,338.11 Medical storehouse, Ancon Health department, miscellaneous: Garage, Colon hospital Kitchen, Colon quarantine station Dentists' and sanitary inspectors' offices and quarters Larvacide plant, Ancon Corozal cemetery Post offices: Corozal Appraisal of old buildings. Schoolhouses: Concrete white school , B alboa Manual training school, Balboa Concrete white school, Ancon Concrete white school, Pedro Miguel . Concrete white school, Gatun Concrete white school, Cristobol Addition to colored school, Paraiso. . . Industrial school, Balboa Colored school, Pedro Miguel Appraisal of old buildings 25.59 76.35 8,027.49 7,642.21 86,338.11 30, 165. 06 Courthouses, fire and police stations, etc.: La Boca fire station Balboa fire station Balboa police station Chinese detention camp, Balboa Appraisal of old buildings Fluviographs Terminal office building, Balboa . . Miscellaneous buildings: ClubhousesBalboa Balboa (addition) La Boca, silver employees. La Boca annex Pedro Miguel Paraiso Gatim, silver employees.. . Cristobal 13,519.31 14,021.45 12,869.51 14,878.87 1,438.73 1,085.55 15,771.64 131,790.00 10,101,38 Balboa motor-car houses Motor truck garage, Ancon corral. Garages: Ancon-Balboa district Pedro Miguel district G atun Cristobal Colon 1,966.64 837.51 56,188.48 10,101.38 9,085.15 78.10 Office and storeroom, Ancon Office and storeroom. Pedro Miguel Store and shon, district quartermaster, Pedro Miguel Office, store and shop, district quartermaster, Balboa Heights Fuel shed, district quartermaster, Balboa Heights Extension, corral building, Cristobal Toilet, corral build'ng, Cristobal Paraiso shop building Dredging division shop, Paraiso Electrical work and storehouse, Gatim 4,410.43 1,375.99 2,804.15 Total to June 30, 1918. 14,949.67 4,948.20 687.28 2,302.81 1,042.48 543.70 2,480.31 4,253.46 1,952.50 $6,338.11 3S, 756. 88 26, 078. 40 72,782.28 23, 562. 45 12, 546. 53 13,333.49 311.79 1,589.19 552. 22 45,396.19 6, 237. 60 742. 90 25,811.91 7, 642. 21 2,113.77 1,592.62 34,390.00 163,590.73 4,611.85 77,224.67 46,902.68 47,843.55 99,632.52 1,438.73 1,085.55 2,050.00 30,825.00 280. 22 18,335.31 11,190.59 10, 101. 38 60,635.44 17,481.20 1,966.64 3,989.62 3,500.00 19,695.77 16,839.08 1,500.00 16,000.00 37,284.78 4,898.66 2,411.85 5, 227. 61 2,943.58 $71,173.39 170,074.14 22,393.93 42,548.39 35,982.62 475, 205. 28 100,542.94 11,534.38 73,304.01 80,972.31 11,448.16 19,493.04 52,766.48 1,035.04 311.56 4,948.20 17,371.40 2,302.81 1,042.48 543. 70 2,480.31 4, 253. 46 1,952.50 1 Credit.

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218 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 22. — Detail of huildings, fiscal year 1918 and to June 30, 1918 — Contd. Fiscal year 1918. Total to June 30, 1918. Miscellaneous buildings — Continued. Alterations, old Ancon school Anemometer tower, Balboa Heights. Boathouses, marine division: Colon, piers 1 and 2 Balboa, Pier 18 $2, 194. 18 1 $1, 649. 61 Five small buildings La Boca lodge hall Three toilets, Gatun locks Incinerator, Gavilan Island Balboa shops, mess hall and pattern shop . Appraisal of old buildings Total, buildings 1 1, 649. 61 $237. 80 1,656.48 105,034.28 12,033.44 3,060.00 1,284,935.04 $2, 194. 18 1,747.69 1,894.28 845. 17 1,689.23 3,888.88 116,065.92 58,405.77 115, 267. 26 10,345,496.84 1 Credit. COST TO JUNE 30, 1918, OF QUARTERS COMPLETED DURING THE FISCAL YEAR 1918, One-family, type 17, frame: Cristobal Four-family, type 14, frame: Cristobal Sixteen-family, frame, silver: Pedro Miguel (Red Tank) . Twelve-family, frame, silver: Balboa Fifty-family, frame, silver: Pedro Miguel (Red Tank).... Total. Number. 25 27 1 1 1 Amount. $63, 236. 88 174,766.26 7, 709. 72 9,171.67 17,991.66 272,876.09 Unit cost. $2,529.47 6,472.82 7, 709. 72 9,171.57 17, 991. 66 Table No. 23. -Detailed cost power producing and transmitting system, fiscal year 1918 and to June 30, 1918. •

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 219 Table No. 24. — Dredging excavation — Detailed cost per unit of work, fiscal year 1918. GAILLARD CUT-CONSTRUCTION. Item. Operation, small ladder dredges Repairs, small ladder dredges Depreciation, small ladder dredges Operation, large dipper dredges Repairs, large dipper dredges Depreciation, large dipper dredges Operation, tugs, clapets, and scows Repairs, tugs, clapets, and scows Depreciation, tugs, clapets, and scows Operation, miscellaneous floating equipment Repairs, miscellaneous floating eqmpment Depreciation, miscellaneous floating equipment Channel lights Division expense Total division cost Rock excavated per cent. . Quantities. Cubic yards.

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220 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 25.-Dredging excavation — Detailed cost per unit of icork, fiscal year i5iS— Continued. Dredging inner harbor — Continued. Repairs, tugs, clapets, and scows Depreciation, tugs, clapets, and scows Operation, drill barges Repairs, drill barges Depreciation, drill barges Operation, miscellaneous floating equipment Repairs, miscellaneous floating equipment Depreciation, miscellaneous floatmg equipment Pipelines Dikes Division expense Total division cost Earth excavation per cent Rock excavation do . . Reclaiming land: Pipe 1 ines Dikes Operation, relay pumps Repairs, relay pumps Division expense Total division cost Quantities.

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11EI>0RT OF AUDITOR. 221 Table No. 26. — Dredging excavation — Detailed cost per unit of work, fiscal year iWS— Continued. Item. Depreciation, miscellaneous floating equipment Drilling Blasting Pipe lines Dikes Operation, relay pumps Repairs, relay pumps Channel lights Ditching Sluicing Division expense Total division cost Earth excavation per cent . Rock excavation do. . . Quantities.

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222 THE PANAMA CAKAL. 00 S>5 o "^ i O e o <3 d m e9 8 Eh >> « a p. o u a 3 a 5^ o ax3 3 CO 00 i-H »0 00 Tf _. . . OOCOO' woo "3 CO coo -00 .-I 05 o « -to oco cqoo 1-H 'f GO O . CO F-H ^ QIO t^ C5 • lO O CO O ^H t^ CO • "^ CO <£) o »o o f-H • o CO r^ f-« o cq • 05 Oi O lO • C^ (N O ^ CS M l-H O s ss Ca05 CO en »o . o o; en "5 _• o Oi ^rr CD o CO r^ CO C^ CO OOO ' CO OiO CO 'r^ ^ o w o -^ ^ o CS t^ lO OJ CO CO "^ c^ -oo 8 :8 OOOO t^ Tf OiO CO (NO w ^ .— t O COCO t-^ 05 00 CO OSO a 2 to tc C3 i wi Mto d ^^ Ma S-" c3 o If o ® P g-.9 c5 o ^
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EEPOET OF AUDITOR. 223 00 6 n < 00 t^ o a>coo •J^ CO o CO -oo o 'A o -rr Ti< o a 228 0500 OC CVJO CO u^ O ^ D CO -fi O CO 00 o CO CO CO t^ 00 O O CO ^ f-K 1-H CO CQ t^ COlO 1^ "^ C^ CO •rr i-H CO oi CO 00 OiiO O t^ 00 ^ COC^OrH Sf C^OCOCO CO 00 no cp r-* -^ C^ O Oi O I>05 ^C^ ^110 Tj* Ca CO Oi lO t— 40 C
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224 THE PANAMA CANAL. a a o 00 '-I 05 .0 s I: o 00 e S o Si, CO O 3 9 00 0" n o 10 rf c OHM <: en ot c •^ CO O -^ CO o to>oo CD rr O CO 00 cc cc o o CD CO CO "rr CD 06 00 rCO rr Q Oi o CO r* o^ »o 00 ^n' 55 ^,-.3J t'Cl 10 "O 06 I^ W CO I^ C0 CO c<» coq3t^ toco p. CO -^ O CI COO 00 100 o 03 C lO o CO CD o cncao CO r^ -r o o> lO f— I r-H »C OD CO 0 CO CO TT t-hOO c<»cot^ fss • i-HN COO Co" ^^^r-^ CO COCliO 0100 .-KM TJ* 1-H .-hO CD t01 CO >0 i-H CO M GC lO OS O (M C<) O >0 i-T^*"^"^" CO CD cot* GO coco 05 CO ^ IC CO 00 s ^rr 00 00 00 SS O -Tf 00 o o s o ca a> o a-"d it o o2rt 3 o o ;-< ft. >.. en c3 a c4 sg 00 73
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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 225 Table No. 29. -Panama Canal — Cost of ivater per 1,000 gallons, fiscal year 1918, Ancon-Balboa-Panama system. [Quantities exclude water used in city of Panama and north of Pedro Miguel.] 1917, July August September October November December 1918. January Febniary March April May June Total Quantity, 1,000 gallons. 118, 1,8.5 121,205 121,.S05 131.815 125, 862 134,376 146, 887 94,. 532 176, 703 142,529 (iS, S55 135, 858 1,518,612 Operation Gam boa pump station. $0. 0124 .0141 .0128 .0151 .0142 .0135 .0135 .0145 .0137 .0148 .0157 .0148 .0141 Operation Miraflores filtration plant. SO. 0227 .0253 .0263 .0278 .0288 .0204 .0171 .0214 .0146 .0207 .0259 .0203 .0223 Operation Balboa pump station. $0. 0107 .0112 .0105 .0131 .0132 .0139 .0122 .0157 .0111 .0137 .0174 .0126 .0127 Maintenance water mains. $0.0173 .0286 .0201 .0222 .0262 .0248 .0316 .0413 .0254 .0073 .0051 .0496 .0263 Total. .0631 .0792 .0697 .0782 .0824 .0726 .0744 .0929 .0648 .0565 .0641 .0973 .0754 Table No. 30. — Panama Canal — Cost of water per 1,000 gallons, fiscal year 1918, Colon-Cristobal system. [Quantities exclude water used in city of Colon.] 1917 July August September October November December 1918, January February , March April May June Total Quantity, 1,000 gallons. 75, 600 73,333 71,403 70, 173 70, 510 67, 545 73, 128 63,007 67, 937 68, 654 75, 457 74,319 851,066 Maintenance Brazos Brook reservoir. $0.0212 .0169 .0101 .0103 .0109 .0106 .0099 .0134 .0107 .0126 .0097 .0074 .0120 Operation Mount Hope filtration plant. $0. 0129 .0135 .0140 .0172 .0214 .0285 .0238 .0148 .0179 .0184 .0118 .0119 .0171 Operation Mount Hope pump station. .0147 .0154 . 01.51 .0204 .0171 .0170 .0200 .0190 .0182 .0183 .01,81 .0184 .0176 Maintenance water mains. $0. 0.532 . 0543 . 0320 .0322 .0506 .0456 .0506 .0325 .0265 .0324 .0484 .0675 .0404 Total. .1020 .1001 .0712 .0801 .1000 .1017 .1043 .0797 .0733 .0817 .0880 .1052 .0871 Table No. 31. -Panama Canal — Cost of ivater per 1,000 gallons, fiscal year 1918, Gatun system.

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226 THE PANAMA CANAL. o 0> p. a C3 3 e9 3 a > o •g d to OOOOOiOOC^OCO-— 'lOOiOiOs C^CSiOt^OCSiOCDOOOiX>iO OS I-". CO »0(N.-H t*CDC0iO01*-<.(©CSiC^rHCqi-HCO t^ rt< ,-1 t>lO C^ U5 1-1 F-H CC ^H iO ?OcOO':OiCOO"^-^OiOOfCOi'-i OSocoocc-^(£) .Is o o o .2 .i^ -Sf f* 9 « a w M w crt WQ " ; „ „ „ J o ^ aaa-'i'S g t: V O) 0) a g^ 5 m OT— M3 a .•S3 0,0) ?!-r; s > 3 o Eh •T3 0)

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EEPOET OF AUDITOR, 227 1-^ o

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228 THE PANAMA CANAL. 00 Oi C3 to ^ S I CO 6 H n > ft a C3 O C3 a PL, o 3 o > pti a (>. C3 ft w o E-t ft 3 O .a I 05 <— I Ol ^ 0> CO SQiO O 1-HOO 00 Oi t^cO CD "n< CO IQ CO O lO .-f o ^ CO '^i c5 t-f -^ O 1— I 00 lO CD I— ' <^ m Oi oT OCOOiOCS) lO Tt^ -^ COCO -^oo OCOOiO' Tt^ -^ coco •^ tr^ QO Oi Oi t>»o C) oi i-H OS t-^ t^ ^ X) ^ 6l -^ Oi 1-^ CD Tt* t* CO s s OJ 1-H t^ 00 Tj< o o c^ ooo t>-o 00 CDOO -^ OCO i^i-Tc^TcD'ccr (>r Ot-h CO -^coco lO lOCO ICCO CD i-H t^OOO OSiO r^ o ko o lO 00 . lO Oi CD OO -^ CO UOCD CD i-H ro) »o 00 T-H .— I 00 C) cD CD co"cD"rC^crotr Oi-HrHOCOC^ coco COCO coco "^ 00 00 CD O 1— ( toooioooooi W^ »j0005 to Tt< c^ »— ( -^oTco" --^ CM O O — I Tfi CO CO CO CO CO CO CO »-j r* (N oi lO CO QOi Qt-CM COOWOOQi-H CD to lO -^ CD CO CM CD r>. CD Tti 00 OS CD 00 1-H O i-H t^T-H CM O0S»0 ) to rj* lO to to OS to 1-H to Tf "<^ OS CO CO -^ OS to i-fOOOOOStco'o'i--'coq"cm" 1-1 00 00 to o to CD ^ to lOcO CO COCMO r* OS"— I CDOCM S'^00-^ 00 (N CDiOtO CM CO CM CM to 1-1 t-»co to OS OS 00 to tOiO ^CMOSOOO to i-l CM CO to -^ C*^ t*oocO'-. OS CM OS CO "^"^CNOOStO g' CO to 00 -^ CD OOOO to tO CM CM CM 00 t^ 00 oo"^co2'''^cm' '5^ H* CO OS CM »-) lO to to -"^ to »o OCOO toco OS COCM OCM ^O iC to to to to to g 00 OS o

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EEPORT OF AUDITOR. 229 <0 v'-d h3 ir^a (N CO COOi t^ O 1— < CD l> .— I 00 CJ lO t*< CCQO CO lO t-H OO CD 05 T-H lO CO cT co^t-^cToo" CO OOO b-CD T-HCO C^l T-i tH i-H i-H 1-t OcDcDOiCSC^ 03iOCO(M(MCO Oi C^ -^ T-H CO "-H Oi Oi I— I * CO o CO CD CO CD 1— I 00 !>•*(>» C^ CCH> cOiOiMOCO^ 00 CO o <— < o -^ COCC OD Oi C^ (N M*(MOiOCOcO r* CO -^ CD o lo CO Ol I> UO i-H CO CO O f-t --^ (M IM CO coo C^ -^ CN |^J o Oi iM CO 05 (N C^ »-H (N T-H rH COOb» 05C0O i-H CO CO N i-H iO lO C^ Tt* t^ OS OO Oi lO •— I Oi ooo lO to CO cDOI>. i-H T-H tH C^ W T-4 tic .g OCD ^ CO^^OO lo o c^ cr> »o (M •^ CO 1-H ^00 lO c^^oTiCcc cTqo" 00 OSCi-^ lOO CO 00 i^t^ coco r-< lO CO lO tH O -^ O ^• CO ^ OGOOOOOO !>• o 00 1— t CI "3 •5 P O 73 3 m o c « ^ 2 ^ o

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230 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 35. — Statement of collections repaid to appropriations and to individuals and comimnies and collections deposited to miscellaneous receipts during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918. Department and classification. DEPARTMENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE. Paymaster — various individuals and companies Lock operation Electrical Balboa shops Construction and repairs Shopwork Electric work Electric current Compressed air Train service and use of rolling equipment Tug service Service of other floating eqmpment . . Pilotage Wharfage Sales of water Operation and maintenance, Panama waterworks Repairs and maintenance of Panama pavement Handling lines at locks Steamship inspection Dredging Boiler inspection Minor services Dry dockage, Balboa Dry dockage, Cristobal Meals furnished Total, department of operation and maintenance SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. Subsistence: Commissary books honored by Panama Canal Meals furnished Hotel Tivoli Hotel Aspin wall Line hotels Messes Minor services Laborers' meal tickets Total, subsistence Quartermaster: Material from stock Rock, sand, gravel and screenings Printing and binding Corral Miscellaneous jobs Rental of gold quarters Rental of silver quarters Garage rental Ancon nursery Handling fuel oil Operation of stores Operation of quarters Minor services Fuel oil Second-hand furniture Containers in transit Cost of making sales Total, quartermaster Total, supply department CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT, PANAMA CANAL. Cristobal coaling station. Total fiscal year 1918. S40.00 56.25 1 12. 50 531. 05 1,535,228.18 1,S10,&55.99 232,568.09 60,884.01 500. 00 3,268.13 154^635.41 66,96.3.41 34,064.34 21,484.80 62,044.65 122,000.00 640.97 23,622.10 3, 240. 01 1,773.07 49.76 69,966.87 37,767.16 8, 148. 06 24,116.01 4,274,561.42 451,363.98 22, 190. 43 118,737.05 1, 192. 10 24,634.73 166. 28 19,209.46 101, 749. 46 739, 243. 49 1,139,810.33 16, 638. 05 17,968.67 52,907.78 52, 165. 65 2,616.43 103, 156. 60 5,817.85 4,747.22 30,517.92 49,500.00 77,500.00 29,614.39 747, 642. 56 3,965.98 200. 00 120,011.35 2,454,780.78 3,194,024.27 300,000.00 Department and classification. ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT. Lost metal checks Cablegrams Proportion of salaries. Accounting department Overpayments Lost property Service of employee obtaining bill of health Total, accounting department CIVIL GOVERNMENT. Schools. Police and prisons. School tuition Sale of school books Police service Minor services.. Postal service ^ Total, civil government EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. Proportion of salaries. Photographs and prints Motor-car service Minor services Canal Record Joint commission expenses General bureau, official photos, etc. Executive, miscellaneous Office engineer Auditor Total, executive department. MISCELLANEOUS. Land rental Building rental Land office expense Equipment rental Boathouse revenues Total, miscellaneous HEALTH DEPARTMENT. Ancon Hospital: Fees Mess Burials Miscellaneous Colon Hospital: Fees Mess Miscellaneous Pale Seco Leper Asylum Dispensaries Quarantine: Subsistence Other charges Sanitation: Panama Colon Canal Zone._ , Street cleaning: ' Panama Colon Corozal Hospital: Produce Pasturage Burials Insane asylum Sales from medical store Minor services Santo Tomas Hospital Overpayment Total, health department Total fiscal year 1918. 81,106.55 3, 302. 45 143,666.86 16, 679. 68 776. 88 772. 86 575.00 166, 880. 28 41.67 2.10 4,364.64 760. 72 24, 648. 40 4,215.16 550.00 34, 582. 69 72, 992. 25 295. 58 4,037.98 190. 62 68.95 .60 40.63 190. 50 .18 4,246.56 82,063.85 14,062.85 2, 598. 63 11,002.30 436. 79 117.50 28,218.07 143,115.29 20, 262. 73 3,172.03 1,307.14 18, 456. 61 3, 787. 39 261.20 2, 699. 75 1,954.75 10,849.52 9,267.75 8,765.87 10, 419. 28 7, 100. 48 10,081.85 4,698.92 20,915.88 62.00 227. 87 22, 532. 43 10, 533. 44 234. 09 643.21 61.11 311,410.59

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EEPORT OF AUDITOR. 231 Table No. 35.-Statement of coUecUons, etc. RECAPITULATION. -Continued. Department and classification.

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232 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 30. — Statement of transactions, etc. — Coutinued. RECAPITULATION.

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 233 Table No. 37. — Statement of audited pay rolls, etc. — Continued. Operation and maintenance — Continued. Supply department— Continued. Accounting — Auditor Paymaster Collector Total, accounting. Building Fortifications Injury and death — Old act New act Spedal service Total, operation and maintenance. Construction and equipment: Joint commission Special attorney and land office Total, construction and equipment. Civil government: Civil affairs Posts Police and prisons. Fire protection Schools District court District attorney . . Marshal Magistrate courts. . Special service Total. 8331,305.50 42,015.77 32,943.13 406,264:40 1,738,522.15 291,293.97 773.39 48,205.13 6, 104. 55 10,301,988.12 Total,' civil government. Sanitation: Office Medical store Ancon hospital Colon hospital Santo Tomas hospital. . Palo Seco leper asylum . Dispensaries Quarantine — Office Balboa Cristobal BocasdelToro. Corozalfarm Corozal asylum . Health office — Panama Colon Zone sanitation. Total, sanitation. Fortification Omitted time prior to Apr. 1, 1914. Grand total 41,849.69 16,304.76 58, 154. 45 31,397.07 86, 803. 24 222,258.99 63,587.22 88,211.65 16,448.48 7,400.00 6,891.34 12, 136. 43 23,028.29 Salaries. $330,741.17 42,015.77 32,943.13 405,700.07 380,300.80 103,479.14 1,032.75 5, 760. 33 3,057,895.86 558, 162. 71 6,713.66 9,563.55 246, 159. 45 33,356.99 11,704.21 11,234.67 32, 162. 51 1,037.00 18,002.82 19,311.17 1,600.00 39,950.99 16,898.83 31,057.61 89,242.50 61,797.88 88,694.00 678,536.85 51,882.47 149. 08 11,648,873.68 41,849.69 16,304.76 58,154.45 31,397.07 86,803 24 222,258.99 63,587 22 88,211.65 16,448.48 7,400.00 6,891.34 12, 136. 43 23,028.29 Wages. $564.33 564.33 1,358,221.35 187,814.83 773.39 47,172.38 344.22 7,244,092.26 558,162.71 6,713.66 9,086.04 206,937.44 29,733.79 11,704.21 6,220.75 31,594.55 1,037.00 12,549.46 16,336.21 1,600.00 31,522.67 5,402.53 24,920.92 32,275.56 25,648 48 18,994.70 440,755.30 13,538.95 4,128,507.27 477.51 39,222.01 3,623.20 5,013.92 567.96 5,453.36 2,974.96 8,428.32 11,496.30 6,136.69 56,966.94 36,149.40 69,699.30 237,781.55 38,343.52 149. 08 7,520,366.41

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234 THE PANAMA CANAL. 00 s 5>3 s 'I &5 o u u e e e 00 CO d n < Si ftc3 Oi(N Q lO Ol O iro 50 O >-< OS tH o; t^ 1-* Qo cc lo o'tN -*"V Co'qo" Oi vO »0 IM t-^ •*< t^Ci COOO lOOO coco O ^ Ol o M CO -— I •n' oi • Ol O O: tCC OcD (M CO p t-* I^ i-H CO CO * -^ rH -H CO co'dc'to^ccT co'cd" »o oi r^ .-( r^ r>IQ Tt< lO lO O -^ 00 00 1—1 CO CO c^ t>. r-( C^ lO CO CSI "* O"* OCOC4 OO t-CO CO lO CD Tj< "^ »0 u^ CO u^ >^ 8 a a ^ O O) .9-3 « i o > o q w P •pa a -^ o S»0 (M'*0O CO oi CD O lO CO CSOO 10 (M o o t^ C^ t^ CO »0 CO lO ;D CO CD lO lO i-t i-H O CO 00 Ci 1-H -* as CO Tt< r00 CO r^ CO CO ^ ir^ c<) 10 to --< o C^ ttiM (D CO -^t* t^ 1-1 CO (N C^ I>-00 Tt^ 10 CS CO * CO X' -^ i-H CO CO '^ CO "^ '^'cs'co' (N'r-TTt^* 00 00 00 t^OC T-H C^tMC^ OS 10 tP i-t O Oi CN OS 10 (N -^ OS 0:1 -^ fM CO 10 CD iC 10 lO O »0 CO t^ o »o"as'c. i-< 10 CO CM CO CM CO C^ -t* T X CO iC O CD uo OS CM «3 -^ CD t^ 't' CD t>. CO X) O CM CD lO CO OS CM C>1 CD OS t^ CO >0 O "O 1— I CO <:D uTt-TcTco^co^ "^ CO CD OS CO i-f 00 COI>-cD OS O i-( l-rT-Tr-TrH 5m" 1-cs .-I r^ CM 1-t 1-H I-10 CM CM O X r— t^x ox O'f OS ^ CO CO lO CM t^ CD OS CD X r* t^x osoo 1— I i-H )— t 1— I CM i-H ?-< iH 1-1 t-H tH i-l s CO o 00 00 00 M w VO .-I I 05 a|a| *2 ^ So; p3 p,c3 3 Hs ti( K^ <; Ki i-r> • c3 c o o *""

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REPORT OF AUDITOR.' 235 Table No. 39. — Commissary hooks and coupons and meal tickets. BOOKS ISSUED FOR PAY ROLL DEDUCTION.

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236 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 39. — Commissarij books and coupons and meal tickets — Continued. COUPONS HONORED AT COMMISSARIES, HOTELS, RESTAURANTS, NURSERY. DREDGES, AND CLUBHOUSES DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918. Month. July August September. October... November. December. January . . . February. . March April May June Total Clubhouses. $4, 296. 64 5, 838. 56 5, 610. 68 6, 032. 28 5,274.13 7, 124. 58 6, 974. 94 6,716.30 7, 138. 42 6, 999. 64 5, 832. 27 5, 5G0. 30 73,398.74 Nursery. $119. 23 198. 18 251. 03 287. 22 298. 99 239. 10 315. 27 198. 99 222. 24 253. 04 176. 18 224. 78 2, 784. 25 Hotels, restaurants, and dredges. $40,138.00 38, 861. 05 36, 796. 03 38,883.69 36, 670. 05 38, 424. 07 39, 527. 58 34,369.68 37, 093. 87 34, 945. 91 36, 558. 63 37, 259. 33 449, 527. 89 Commissary. $429, 117. 74 445, 084. 04 424,093.43 445,669.35 452,368.25 539, 344. 18 430, 746. 69 408,504.35 451,235.08 457, 145. 89 466, 599. 20 439, 869. 29 5, 389, 777. 49 Total value. 8473,671.61 489, 981. 83 466, 751. 17 490, 872. 54 494,611.42 585,131.93 477, 564. 48 449, 789. 32 495, 689. 61 499,344.48 509, 166. 28 482, 913. 70 5,915,488.37 STATEMENT OF MEAL TICKETS ISSUED TO SILVER EMPLOYEES FOR WHICH COLLECTIONS WERE MADE ON PAY ROLLS. Month. July August September. October. . . November. December. January... Febmary. . March A-pril May June Total 9-cent. Number. 37,626 25, 265 17, 087 13, 972 11,491 6,177 5,963 5,055 5,667 6,131 6,673 1, 731 142, 838 Value. $3,386.34 2, 273. 85 1, 537. 83 1, 257. 48 1, 149. 10 617.70 596. 30 505. 50 566. 70 613. 10 667.30 173. 10 13,344.30 27-cent. Number. Value. 6,697 6,421 6,906 7,716 6,689 5,518 6,329 5,597 5,862 5,556 5,551 1,959 70, 801 $1,808.19 1, 733. 67 1,864.62 2,083.32 2, 006. 70 1, 655. 40 1, 898. 70 1,679.10 1,758.60 1, 666. 80 1,665. .30 687. 70 20, 408. 10 40-cent. Number. Value 18, 152 19, 632 20,956 23, 459 24, 538 21, 759 23, 385 20, 408 20, 737 20, 957 21, 505 12,046 247, 534 $7, 260. 80 7, 8.52. 80 8,382.40 9,383.60 9, 815. 20 8,703.60 9,354.00 8, 163. 20 8, 294. 80 8,382.80 8, 602. 00 4,818.40 99, 013. 60 Total value. $12,455.33 11,860.32 11,784.85 12, 724. 40 12,971.00 10; 976. 70 11,849.00 10, 347. 80 10, 620. 10 10, 662. 70 10, 934. 60 5, 579. 20 132, 766. 00 Table No. 40. — Statement of balance of Canal Zone funds with collector, by appropriations, June 30, 1918. Miscellaneous and contingent $1 045 48 Public improvements and schools *>' 4''S 7H Postal receipts, 1915 I___III 2' 745 90 Postal savings funds ' 509 00 Money-order funds 870 419' 47 Trust funds q §7^' 7^ Clubhouse funds 01^' K'ro' ok Interest — __. J-.:::::::::::::::::::::::::::":::::::::::: i; lef: ft Total 945, 061. 95

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 237

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238 THE PANAMA CANAL. CO s 5a O a. O 00 .s CO goo o "^ o o 09 HO s 1 CQ «9 o d pq "2 '3 a o N "3 e o ft fl o N C3 ft* V a o em a 6S 53 'a 03 » O M S rt cS » 5fl ft-o o s ft §.S6 a 12; 1 t^iO O Q3 (N fH 1-1 1-H CO Oi •*** "M M rt ^H (N C4 l-H bO -^ (M i-H ( i^ CO r^ Tt< T-i c rH lo 00 r-o c 00 »-l -*< -^ -^-i CO OS Q (M -^ o r^ lOoococou:; M* t^OO -^ rH CO o IC CO '^ t-. ^ 1-H OS Oi 1— I iM lO iM • COO •C*JO S c^cc CO iC lO i-H Oi lO lo lo r^ 'n^ t-o '^ 05 O O Cl iO rH ^ '*J' Ql ift OS iC OS CO ^ 1-H to C3D CO lO OS O t-CO 00 -^ I^ O O i-( CO CO OS b» lO 1-1 00 t^ CD lO -^ icTio lo'" CO C^ OS O) C^ CD CO CO CO CC 1— ( Tf* CO CO 00 .— I r^ CO 9 o o o ft a •g 3 go o a) c3 3*_o Eh

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 239 Table No. 43. — Postal Service — Statement of audited revenues, fiscal years 1007 to 1918, inclusive.

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240 THE PA.NAMA CANAL. 00 Oi S S g a. o HO c X 6 n o a t^ >-. g^ cociaicocic-i»Oi-0 i-H CI lO -f O Oi hCI lO 00 cor-coa300Oi»oio rCI CO O CI lO CM rH • 1-CD »0 CI • o c^ ^ c3 o £ PQ lOO OCO »0 T-^ rJH »0 CO t^ O 't^ C-J CO t^ (M CO CO -^ (M 00 IC 00 OO O CO • O -i* O QO • CO -^ lO CD . ^ lO CO O coco— 1 •rtC^r--<1« C8 •-H CO O ^ OiCD ^ CO ai o ^ o (M CO 1^ — 1 CO ira t^ 1-1 • o •CO OC-HOlOCOCOX't^ . . .o 'coKoo 2S£i'°°"''"^'0 ' • • '00 lor-.ooo S2 '^"'^''^" : : '-''' M I I : ! ; I • "" ! ! I I I I 1 ; ' ' ' w ' . b^^ I ! ! fc' § g E a„^.S e g 3.a ^1 g-o ^-^ S ^.£frt5--:= S B § fe « g £ g S£ g StS o en

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 241

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242 THE PANAMA CANAL. 00 so I o — "-I ^^ -§• s o s e CO '^^ 00 CO \ CO d n <

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 243 Table No. 49. — Bureau of clubs and playgrounds, balance sheet, June 30, 1918. ASSETS. Cash on hand: Secretaries' balances $5, 035. 06 Deposited with collector. . 25, 573. 85 $30,608.91 Inventories: Sodafoimtain 3,801.04 Cigars and candy 2, 794. 12 Salable merchandise 5, 283. 45 Restaurant 54.15 11,932.76 Accounts receivable: Registered bills 5, 975. 63 Gatun soldiers 457.28 Balboa Yacht Club 189.50 Balboa Gun Club 1,440.09 8,062.50 Total 50,604.17 LIABILITIES. Surplus: To June 30, 1917 $6,570.32 Profit, current fiscal year . 18, 000. 04 Accounts payable: Audited vouchers 24, 027. 87 Panama Railroad Company(swimming pool).. 2,000.00 Suspense (undistributed credit) 5.94 $24,570.36 26,033.81 Total 50,604.17 Table No, 50. — Statement of amaunts paid under the act of May 30, 1908, to employees as compensation on account of deaths of employees injured in the course of employment and amounts paid under act of Feb. 24, 1909, for injuries lasting 15 days or less; amounts paid under Executive order of Feb. 26, 1913; amounts paid under Executive Order No. 1902, dated Mar. 20, 1914; and am-ounts paid under act of Sept. 7, 1916, covering period from Aug. 1, 1908, to June 30, 1918. Total payments, by fiscal years. Aug. July July July July July July July July 1, 1908, 1. 1909, 1. 1910, 1. 1911, 1. 1912, 1, 1913, 1, 1914, 1, 1915, 1, 1916, to June 30, 1909. toJimeSO, 1910.. to June 30, 1911. . to June 30, 1912.. to June 30, 1913.. to June 30, 1914.. to June 30, 1915.. to June 30, 1916.. to June 30, 1917.. Total Payments imder Executive order of Feb. 26, 1913 Payments under Executive order of Mar. 20, 1914: Apr. 1, 1914, to June 30, 1914 July 1, 1914, to June 30, 1915 July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916 July 1, 1916, to June 30, 1917 July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918 P^ments imder provisions of contracts between Panama Canal and contractors Payments under special acts of Congress Total Amounts paid to Panama R. R. employees: Apr. 1, 1914, to June 30, 1914 July 1, 1914, to June 30, 1915 July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916 July 1, 1916, to June 30, 1917 July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918 Payments made to Panama R. R. Co. for injuries incurred prior to Apr. 1, 1914 Payments under act of Congress of Sept. 7, 1916: Sept. 7, 1916, to June 30, 1917 July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918 Injuries. $32,355.71 96, 810. 33 168, 416. 23 166, 620. 21 150,943.79 111,240.75 17,703.40 168.00 744, 258. 42 4, 283. 82 41.871.91 32,341.85 9, 748. 10 334. 18 770. 61 10, 275. 45 9,056.66 3,146.70 185.98 Grand total. 15, 845. 04 42,396.54 Deaths. $3, 682. 79 21,053.22 35; 248. 39 37,534.68 23, 792. 02 41, 015. 34 14, 268. 97 1, 206. 00 545.40 178, 346. 81 43,017.71 33,321.07 11,400.95 740. 18 2, 300. 42 3,330.24 13,961.57 3,848.77 Under act of Feb. 24, 1909. $8, 225. 16 16,010.30 49,957.80 55, 838. 25 49,335.91 33, 704. 92 213, 072. 34 Total. $44, 263. 66 133, 873. 85 253, 622. 42 259,993.14 224, 071. 72 185,961.01 31,972.37 1, 374. 00 545.40 1, 135, 677. 57 13, 227. 62 4, 283. 82 84,889.62 65,662.92 21, 149. 05 740. 18 334. 18 39,418.37 1,365,383.33 770.61 12, 575. 87 12,386.90 3, 146. 70 185.98 614.60 29, 806. 61 46,245.31 1,471,115.91 86372°— 18-17

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244 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 51. — Statement of amounts paid under Executive Order No. 1902, dated Mar. 20, 1914, «« compensation to employees injured, and on account of deaths of employees injured, while directly engaged in actual xvork ivith The Panaina Canal and Panama Railroad Company from July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918, and statement of amounts paid under act of Sept. 7, 1916, as compensation to employees injured, and on account of deaths of employees injured while in the performance of duty inith The Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad Company from July 1, 1911, to June 30, 1918. Payments under act of Sept. 7, 1916. Injury. Death. Payments under Executive order of Mar. 20, 1914. Injury. Death. Mechanical Supply, quartermaster Supply, subsistence Building Fortifications Health Dredging Municipal engineering Police and fire protection Electrical Locks Marine Superintendent, Panama Railroad Transportation, Panama Railroad. Receiving and forwarding agency . Balboa agency Coaling plant Engineer of docks Commissary Pasture clearing Plantations Meteorology and hydrography Director of posts $11, 2, 110. 25 934. 30 64.02 798. 66 743. 26 193. 90 530. 64 239.34 346.61 302. 61 614. 60 215. 03 507. 10 032. 35 390.83 63.42 978. 13 60.41 807.49 327. 96 105.41 16.89 13.33 42,396.54 $308.33 720.71 '690.17 '466.'22 1,110.27 322.79 230.28 $740. 18 $185. 98 3, 848. 77 185. 98 740. 18 Table No. 52. — Claims for inju?-ies received during period from July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918, Panama Canal and Panama Railroad employees. Period of disability. Monthly rate of pay. Not more than $40. Not more than $75. Not more than $200. More than $200. Total. More than 3 to 30 days More than 30 to 90 days More than 90 days to 1 year More than 1 year Total 1,042 134 28 18 135 17 5 7 143 16 3 1 1,222 164 163 1,327 169 36 26 1,558

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EEPORT OF AUDITOR. 245 mox -joqedon lunoj^ •Stmiinooov •Sj£8Ajns •^Hsnpni 81:^^0 •j^JBSSITIITnOO •S5[oop JO jaamSaji t-H ^OCOCNIOCO CO i-< (M •;nBid SmiBoo Boqj-cg -joj pireSniAjaoey; a p V 'B o C3 •uoioo 'ifouaSB SutpjBM -JOJ pUG3inA]809}J poitBjjodsnBJX '^uapna^guadng •3Ai^noax5i •atnjEK •jind'Bi3o.ipXq pnB Xgpiojoa'jaK S3I001 ^ * CO (M ^H 00 O CO CO CO CO CO OO i-H •O IOCS (M (N (Ni-H •.-( •jBoupai;! •ojij puB aoilOcI Oi O^ CO tcO •Suijoon -iSno it!di-">rtmH ^ w ^ CV» (N <-l SmSpaJd T-t ^H-^o^iOCOCO 00 00 O CO (M 0)i-( iH •miTsan •suori'Baiji^joj; •sSnipiina; OCSI CO CO (N CO CO 05 00 i-H t^C^ CO rH i-H •aona -isisqns 'XjddTig •s.ja^SEin -jaijcnb '/tjddns •IBoniEqoajii CO -t< O OO f-H T O — < f-H CO rr C4 cq ft--' IS o 9< PI. o a ^ , g ft fl r3 ft-2 -a CO S w s ft-2 g o Eh S3

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246 THE PANAMA CANAL.

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EEPORT OP AUDITOR. 247 'a O a> CO 3 03 O

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248 THE PANAMA CANAL. O B c s e Oh s B B s B S B Oh OS •g. o e .o 6 PQ < p o •4-3 03

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BEPORT OF AUDITOR. 249

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250 THE PANAMA CANAL, o o m 2« o to CO CO lO coi-^QOOdcooor^oiO X5 P^ tf C3 CCCiOiOOOOM'eOcO'^'^OO €© i-H i-t fH i-H ^ i-H rH t-l COCOCO'^C^COOiOt^OCi— ICO c^iococ^c^woioC'-'C^iroco CDCO"^»C01iOO"^COn"C5cO '-tr-cO'— iQOoi'-'C^c^'^o-^oi O'-Hr--cir^C"-' -*-» 3 fe"© ^ 2 m C3. s a .3 o S .sa

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REPORT OF AUDITOR, 251 Table No. 58. — Comparative statement of store balance, July 1, 1917, and July 1, 1918. Quartermaster store (by comm.). Jul}' 1, 1917. July 1, 1918. Comm. 1. Air-brake material 2. Alcohol 3. Alum and other chemicals for filtering water 4 . Arms and ammunition 5. Asbestos and magnesia and compounds 6. Asphalt, petroleum residue and mineral tar, .pitch and rosin 7. Blocks, chain and tackle 8 . Boilers, steam 9. Bolts, nuts, rivets, and washers 10. Books, educational, library, and reference 11 . Bricks, building, fire and paving 12. Brooms, mops, dusters, and scrub brushes 13. Building material (not other\vise specified) 14. Buoys 15. Oars, hand, push, and insoectors', and velocipedes 16. (Hastings, rough — brass and copper 17. Castings, rough— iron and steel 18. Cement, Portland (including bags) 19. Chain 20. Cleanings and toilet supplies 21. Construction equipment, accessories and supplies 22 . Containers, nonexpendable (ex;cept cement bags) 23. Conveying and lifting equipment, accessories and parts 24. Diving outfits and parts 25. Drafting supplies 26. Drugs, chemicals, vaseline, naphtha, and benzine. ..\ 27. Educational supplies 28. Ejectors, injectors, lubricators, pop valves, blow-ofi cocks, water gauges and parts 29. Eleotricalequipment, accessories and parts (ex lock machinery) 31. Electricians' supplies (not otherwise specified) 32. Engines, steam, and parts 33. E xplosives and blasting batteries and parts 34. Farm, plantation, and sattle ranch implements, supplies and parts 35. Fire preventing and fire-flghting equipment, supplies and parts (not hose) 36. Fittings, pipe and valve 37. FlagSj (raih-oad excluded) 38. Floating equipment 39. Floating equipment, parts for 40. Forage, feed, and bedding 41. Fuel, coal, anthracite 42. Fuel, coal, bituminous 43. Fuel, crude oil. 44. FruTiace and foundry supnlies (e s.c6'ot pig iron) 45. Furniture and equipment (office) and parts 46. Furniture, other than office 47. Gasoline 48. Gauges, steam and vacuum 49. Glass, window, sash and ulate 50. Glue, gelatin, rubber, and asbestos cement 51 . Hair, feathers and moss 52. Hardware (except nails and spikes) 53. Harness, saddlers', and other corral equipment and suppUes 54. Hose 832,070.04 8,083.52 58.36 2.25 2,371.59 8,411.48 372. 55 155, 659. 91 11,303.99 5,703.12 36, 396. 67 366. 40 2,363.72 46, 793. 05 104,452.56 48, 316. 34 15, 754. 41 10,594.99 95,899.91 52,377.52 113, 189. 56 201.70 65,941.91 43,933.66 256, 272. 39 61. 73 3, 379. no 60, 144. 55 892. 68 994.93 140, 121. 29 376. 70 69 70 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 56. Instruments, equipment, and suppUes, surgical, medical and laboratory 57. Iron, in nigs , 58. Iron and steel.in bars and sheets (ex galvanized iron roofing) , 59. Iron and steel, reinforcing 60. Ladders and scafTolds 61. Laundry apparatus, accessories and parts 62. Lawn rnowers and rakes (other than hand-operated ) 63. Leather and belting 64. Lime, plaster, and clay 65. Live stock and poultry ' 66. Lumber, pine, fir, and redwood 67. Lumber, fancy Metals, in pigs (excepting iron) Metals, in sheets and bars (excepting iron) and steel Meters, current, and parts Meters, water, oil, and air Nails and spikes Office supplies and stationery Oilcloth and linoleum ". Oils, illuminating ' Oil, lubricating, and greases, graphite, welding and cutting compounds.! Packing, calking, and gaskets 79. Packing receptacles (expendable) and other packing supplies " 80. Paints and painter's supplies, putty, varnishes, shellacs, linseed dryer, filler, white and red lead , etc 707, 062. 89 3,725.62 6,239.68 > 37, 283. 65 107. 30 101,775.48 4,735.65 27, 319. 49 58,070.08 894. 99 9, 238. 75 1,998.89 42S. 60 154,151.91 5, 079. 47 37, 147. 50 I 7, 003. 43 1,433.59 639,471.81 162,401.48 312. 89 2.70 oils, 13,816.36 2, &34. 10 443,767.38 .59, 3?.i. 35 3. 636. 75 78,011.42 3,811.13 1,119.23 49, 569. 18 3, 825. 33 359. 98 '73,511.00 34, 937. 46 38,462.62 443. 18 190,842.46 $27,613.59 9,320.82 17.55 1 12.97 1, 127. 15 7, 184. 00 9, 675. 53 1,912.74 123,40.5.21 1 11.72 6, 170. 69 13,124.52 22,65.3.68 780. 70 1,628.29 47,334.48 87, 274. 82 40,988.02 21,964.48 29. 354. 60 95, 219. 91 75,412.08 112,099.39 1 1.30. 5^ 289. 39 68, 103. 94 ' 45. 35 48,026.42 283,800.81 1,168.92 6,44.3.15 24,634.92 8,466.06 2,966.12 149,957.38 1,948.74 1 92. 99 821,901.45 1 609 01 274. 63 5,670.45 11,700.99 55,420.42 4, 548. 48 16,261.01 101,077.15 1,042.55 15, 760. 37 8, .502. 39 2, 152. 85 245,016.30 6,823.38 79, 710. 40 1,797.36 29,416.11 715.916.26 30;843.78 429. 64 19.42 80.79 10, 233 46 6. a38. 22 1.65 4.53,853.92 65, 441. 69 10,981.94 117,008.85 4, 926. 85 902. 95 39, 803. 44 4, 198. 54 4, 7.56. 34 22, 366. 64 36. 656. 61 55,816.62 1 18. 38 289, 583. 89 1 Indicates credit balances caused by credit to storehouses for issues of these articles, the charges for which were not received until after closing of books for current fiscal year.

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252 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 58.— Comparative statement of store balance, July 1, 1917, and July 1, i9i8— Continued. Quartermaster store (by comm.). July 1, 1917. July 1, 1918. Comm. 81. Paper, packing 82. Paper, printing 83. Photographic supplies and parts. . , 84. Piling 85. Pipe and fitting (vitrified) 86. Piping and tubing (metal) 87. Plumbing material (not otherwise specified) 88. Police equipment (except arms and ammunition) 89. Polishing and abrading supplies 90. Printing plant equipment and supplies (not including paper). 91. Production equipment, accessories, and parts 92. Pumps and parts, including electric 93. Rails 94. Recreational equipment and parts 95. Refrigerating equipment, accessories, and parts 96. Refrigeration supplies EOLUNG STOCK, PARTS FOB. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 143. 144. 147. 148. 149. Locomotives Freight and passenger train cars. Motor cars , railroad Rot ope \ib\. Rubber products (except packing and belling and tires) Sashes, doors, blinds, molding, and capping, screening, strips, etc. Scales and parts Scientific equipment and parts (except surgicfe.1 and surveying). . . Screening, bronze and copper Searchlights and lighthouse equipment and supplies Signal material (automatic) Stone, sand, gravel, and slate Subsistence equipment Subsistence supplies Siu-veying instruments and supplies Tanks. Telegraph and telephone equipment, accessories and parts Tents and parts, flies and tarpaulins Thermometers and barometers Ties , cross and switch Tiles, building Tools, miscellaneous Tools, pneumatic and electric Track material (other than rails and ties) Trucks, warehouse, etc Tubes, boiler and condenser Vehicles, animal-drawn , accessories and parts Vehicles, motor-drawn bicycles, accessories and parts (railroad motor cars and fire equipment excluded) Waste Water cranes and standpipes Wearing apparel and sewing supplies. . Wire and wire cables Wire, covered and coated '. Woven products and fabrics Steel , structural Lock machinery and parts Obsolete material Fortifications equipment Native lumber Concrete blocks for breakwater repairs Oil, Diesel Total Quartermaster stores Miscellaneous district quartermasters' stores. Fuel-oil store ^, Medical store Stationery store Printing Plant Total, 1 S323. 60 1,212.71 6,514.82 178, 787. 90 35,039.41 7, 205. 04 306. 59 49, 336. 74 22,603.35 540. 78 663. 96 1, 109. 89 196. 64 65, 625. 93 216, 993. 33 4, 796. 42 72,988.12 457. 44 12, 263. 57 562. SO 1,419.01 18,834.91 614. SO 10, 817. 20 86.36 15,291.33 400. 34 1,041.11 1,4.50.00 13,877.54 1,393.93 610. 87 2,329.42 5, 3''6. 98 69,758.49 30,706.36 20, 570. 75 522. 40 40, 287. 68 3,093.37 30, 933. 47 12,446.05 1,236.09 130, 246. 45 110,784.09 11,344.50 107,101.39 164,007.82 50,973.42 1 54. 00 5,5*<',674.89 S, 006. 07 273,473.73 88,717.49 15, .53''. 35 80, 580. 17 6, 048, 984. 70 $1, 355. 62 1.35 1 16. 14 1, 608. 65 8, 831. 28 150, 803. 80 43, 243. 60 47.35 4,573.18 458.31 55, 498 24 22, ass. 40 13, 729. 76 640. 12 4,851.93 127.24 69,095.27 220, 706. 72 6, 825. 51 102, 863. 09 219. 15 17, 597. 53 659. 05 1,124.15 18,361.27 3,031.63 12,371.40 1 23. 65 22,686.07 1 115. 49 839.42 369.07 26, 785. 31 4,761.73 885. 86 15, 130. 69 14,105.97 82,954.62 33,359.91 28,545.65 571. 73 65, 686. 18 4, 530. 10 42,687.25 11,675.34 117. 50 2,277.75 140, 172. 54 180, 193. 77 129, 158. 88 3,607.68 1,682.98 42,099.01 6, 619. 28 40,498.34 226. 23 6,257,851.51 5, 862. 31 264,988.99 114,63.5.74 18,972.41 85, 377. 30 6, 747, 688. 26 1 Indicates credit balances caused by credit to storehouses for issues of these articles, the charges for which were not received until after closing of books for current fiscal year.

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REPORT OF AUDITOR. 253 Table No. 59.^ — Supply department, commissary branch, cost of material and supplies purchased and sold during the year ended June 30, 1918. Class. Groceries Hardware Dry goods Boots and shoes Cold storage Tobacco Eaw material. . Total On hand June 30, 1917. $946,811.46 126, 118. 23 905, 564. 80 265.118.95 167,651.31 52, 574. 18 244, 478. 02 2,708,316.95 Purchases.i $2,643,679.55 237,236.97 768. 349. 43 270.924.70 1, 347, 049. 31 302, 223. 34 2, 616, 746. 53 8, 186, 209. 83 On hand June 30, 1918. $827, 466. 66 127, 129. 56 720. 879. 68 214. 269. 80 114,702.98 33. 603. 46 357, 336. 33 2, 395, 388. 47 Sold. $2, 763, 024. 35 236, 225. 64 953,034.55 321,773.85 1, 399, 997. 64 321,194.06 2, 503, 888. 22 8, 499, 138. 31 1 Includes cattle, hogs, and poultry in amount of $1,738,854.65. PERCENTAGE OF SURCHARGE EARNED ON COST. Groceries Hardware Dry goods Boots and shoes . Cold storage Tobacco Raw material Class. Total. Sold. $2,763,024.35 236,225.64 953, 034. 55 321. 773. 85 1,399,997.64 321.194.06 2, 503, 888. 22 Earned surcharge. $334,020.59 48, 581. 30 347,629.65 65,605.47 453,783.45 163, 086. 83 8, 499, 138. 31 1,412,707.29 Percentage earned on cost. 12.09 20.57 36.48 20.39 32.41 50.77 23.56 LOCATION OF PURCHASES. United States $5, 429, 445. 74 Foreign 201,152.80 Local 571 . 661. 57 Central and South Amerix;a 1, 870. 999. 17 Panama Canal 112, 950. 55 Total 8,186,209.83 CLASSIFICATION BY COMMODITIES. Groceries $2,643,679.55 Dry goods 768 349.43 Hardware 237. 236. 97 Boots and shoes 270. 924. 70 Cold storage 1, 347. 049. 31 Tobacco 302. 223. 34 Raw material 2, 616, 746. 53 Total 8,186,209.83 Table No. 60. — ^upphj dcpurtinent, coiiDiiissary branch, statement showing distribution of sales and selling value for the year ended June 30, 1918.

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APPENDIX H. EEPORT OF THE EXECTJTIVE SECRETARY, EXECTTTIVE DEPARTMENT. Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, September 10^ 1918. Sir : This report covers the work of the executive department and includes, in addition, a statement of the business transacted by the Canal Zone courts, which, for administrative purposes only, are considered in the executive department. Organization. The organization has been continued without change from that of the last fiscal year ; and the work of the department handled with an average working force as follows, the 1917 report being included for purposes of comparison : Gold rollGeneral bureau Timekeeping bureau . . . Personnel bureau Record bureau Correspondence bureau Property bureau Bureau of statistics Bureau of clubhouses . . Motor cars Joint commission Special attorney Police and fire division. Division of civil affairs . Division of schools Courts Total The addition in force is mainly due to the establishment of a censorship bureau under the division of civil affairs, with an increase in the number of customs inspectors. In the division of schools, 13 more teachers were employed than last year. The greatest reduction in force was due to the withdrawing of the special police details at the locks, this work having been taken over by the Army. A large number of authorized positions within the department remain unfilled, largely due to inabilit}^ to secure the employees; this is particularly true of the classified civil service positions. The department, in common with all others of The Panama Canal, has been handicapped by employees entering the military service. 255

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256 the panama canal. Special Work. It had been for some time evident that the work of the bureau of clubs and phiygrounds could be improved with a special effort made to determine its most urgent requirements and adjust such points of local inefficiency as might bft found to exist. Accordingly, a special representative of this department was delegated to assume charge of all clubs and playgrounds with their allied activities and to report special conditions which needed improving. A summary of this investigation is included in the separate report of bureau of clubs and playgrounds. Adjustment of the wage scale has required more attention than ever because of the changes in the States. The more important adjustments have been: Mechanical trades, July 1, September 24, November 16, 1917, and May 1. 1918. Building trades, July 1, 1917. Railroad employees, January 1, 1918. Other employees such as clerks, foremen, draftsmen, etc., July 1, 1917. Routine adjustments due to changes in the work from time to time during the year. The work in this connection has been to obtain and compile data of wages in the United States for work comparable with that on the Isthmus, and to coordinate classes of positions in the canal service. Two general advances in the pay of silver employees were made, effective on October 1, 1917, and May 1, 1918, the hourly rate being increased one cent each time, and the monthly rate $2.50. These increases were the results of recommendations of boards on silver rates of pay appointed by the Governor to investigate and report upon the living conditions of silver employees, who had presented petitions for increases in pay to enable them to meet the increased cost of living. A large amount of data was collected and compiled for these wage adjustments. During the campaigns to promote the sale of first, second, and third Liberty loans, and the two drives to promote subscriptions to the Red Cross funds, an employee of this department spent most of his time on publicity work, such as preparation of news articles for publication, distribution of advertising matter, and work among the several subcommittees. Owing to the necessity for withholding information which might be useful to the enemy, much of the statistical matter, dealing with canal navigation and commodities, heretofore published or sent to correspondents, has been withheld. Publication of The Panama Canal Record was continued, but to save hcbor and paper, it is being conducted strictly as a bulletin for official announcements. Statistics of birth, disease, and death, have been kept and published. Commencing January, 1918, the publication of monthly reports of the chief health officer was discontinued and quarterly reports arc now issued instead. The records of vital statistics that have accumulated since 1904 are being compiled, indexed, and bound into volumes so that they will be easily available and not liable to loss. Statistics have been kept of the costs of certain standard articles of food sold in the Panama Railroad commissaries, as compared with

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REPORT OP EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 257 the cost of similar products in the United States, based upon the figures compiled by the bureau of hibor statistics of the United States Department of Labor. Statements of these costs have been published in The Panama Canal Record from time to time. A study was made of labor conditions at the Cristobal docks ; and after an investigation extending over five weeks a system of classification and registration of the dock laborers was devised which has resulted in (a) increasing the average earnings of the dock employees, (b) decreasing the number of names appearing on the pay rolls, (c) a system of positive identification of employees, and (d) insuring an equal chance for employment to registered employees, and preference over unregistered men. In the latter i:>art of June, 1917, arrangements were made with the State Department for the issuance by the executive office of identification certificates for canal employees and their families, and other civilians residing on the Isthmus, in lieu of regular passports for travelii g to the United States. Since that date over 4,000 such certificates have been issued. With the outbreak of war, admission to the various areas in the Canal Zone was restricted to employees and others having business therein, and a system of permits, with a photograph of the holder, was inaugurated. For the calendar year 1917 approximately 2,000 such permits were issued; and for 1918 to date about 2,500 permits have been issued. Arrangements are being completed for issuing photo-metal checks, similar to those used by munitions plants and navy yards, for all employees of the Government on the Isthmus, and outsiders having business within certain areas. These will take the place of restricted area permits, and provide a positive means of identification for all persons entering restricted areas. An experienced librarian has been secured from the United States and plans are being made to improve and coordinate all the library facilities on the Isthmus. The Panama Canal library, established for the official use of The Panama Canal in 191-1, will be used as the central library, and branches will be established in the various clubhouses. Working Force. Statements of the working force have heretofore been published in the annual report of the chief quartermaster; but are now published in this report because the time rolls and personnel work are all done in the executive office. Tables following give details of the force for the fiscal year, and comparison by years since 1906,

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258 THE PANAMA CANAL. 00 *-< 05 to S S o o o e to to o "A < EH

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REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 259 Table No. 2. — Force reports by months, fiscal year 1911-18. Year and month. 1917. July August September October November December 1918. January February March April May June The Panama Canal. Gold. 3,186 3,092 3,071 3,117 3,152 3,151 3,108 3,128 3,117 2,963 2,824 2,765 Silver. 17, 152 16, 407 16, 182 16,113 15,643 16,176 16,271 15, 597 15,258 14,270 13,513 13, 149 Panama R. R. Co. Gold. 369 369 364 359 360 360 355 362 360 356 335 343 Silver. Grand total. 4,276 3,396 3,789 4,236 2,197 2,900 3,431 2,925 2,392 2,900 2,655 3,008 24,983 23,274 23,406 23,825 21,352 22, 587 23, 165 22, 012 21, 127 20,939 19,327 19, 265 Table No. 3. — High and low force records, December, 1906, to June 30, 1918, by fiscal years. December. October. January. April November. October . January . March December . December. June January . August . August — December. January . June July. February. July September. January . June July. June. 1906. 1907. 1908. 1909. 1910. 1911. 1912. 1913. 1914. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. The Panama Canal. Gold. 3,881 4,992 4,033 4,950 4,161 4,376 4,295 4,553 4,705 4,420 4,292 4,332 4,122 4,087 3,744 3,944 3,790 4,198 3,088 3,208 3,129 3,552 3,229 3,186 2,763 Silver. 15,604 20,836 16, 987 21, 168 19, 803 23,411 20,583 26,284 24,383 25,439 21,795 25,818 24,860 30,918 23,209 23, 824 21, 499 22,846 17,023 17,982 17, 160 17,989 16,381 17, 152 12, 798 Total. 19,485 25, 828 21, 020 26,118 23,964 27, 787 24, 878 30,837 29,098 29,859 26,087 30, 150 28,982 35,005 26,953 27,768 25,289 27,044 20, 111 21,190 20,289 21,541 19,610 21,338 15,561 Panama R. R. Gold and silver. 4,416 6,139 4,796 7,052 5,863 7,618 6,393 7,829 6,044 7,967 6,603 8,024 5,855 4,957 5,195 5,502 4,343 6,314 2,978 5,349 2,447 4,453 3,368 4,645 3,067 Total Panama Canal and Panama R. R. 23,901 31,967 25,816 33, 170 29,827 35,495 31,271 38,676 35, 142 37, 826 32, 690 38, 174 34,837 39,962 32,148 33,270 29,632 32,358 23,089 26,539 22, 736 25,994 22,978 24,983 18, 628 Note.— Figures do not include contractor's forces. It taken into consideration, the greatest working force ever reported was 44,733, on Mar. 26, 1913. 86372°— 18-18

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260 the panama canal. Bureau ov Clubs and Playgrounds. The activities of this bureau were continued without material change. Clubs for gold employees were maintained at Cristobal, Gatun, Paraiso, Pedro Miguel, Ancon, and Balboa; and for silver employees at Cristobal, Gatun, and La Boca, with substantially an unchanged personnel. Athletic activities have been carried on as well as possible with the facilities at command. The stadium erected at the athletic field at Balboa last year has amply demonstrated its utility. Attendance at the ball games has been the largest in the history of baseball on the Isthmus. The field and stadium have been used by all the leagues, and other organizations identified with baseball; likewise for various patriotic demonstrations and Army maneuvers. At nearly all the ball games and other events here the Army and Navy have contributed greatly in spectators, participants, and with music furnished by regimental bands. The club houses have been the chief means of harmonizing civilian and military life on the Isthmus. Various social organizations which have had their inception in the clubhouses and have utilized them as their centers have continued this practice, not a few of them having this year utilized their efforts in support of war activities connected with the Red Cross and similar movements. Entertainments have been given by local companies and by a few professional entertainers who chanced to be en route to other places. Moving-picture exhibitions are held in all of the clubhouses several times a week, at Balboa and Gatun every night, at Cristobal, Ancon, and Pedro Miguel four times a week, and the service has been increased both in quality and number of films. All entertainments are open to the men of the Army and Navy, and in consequence the halls have frequently been inadequate for the crowds that wish to attend. The moving pictures have been used freely in arousing patriotic spirit, and in promoting Eed Cross and liberty loan subscriptions. The clubhouses are the social centers of the peculiar life of the Canal Zone, in which the ordinary political and social activities of American communities can not flourish. During construction days they were indispensable, although mainly designed for the use of the male members of the community. Changed conditions make it necessary to adapt them now to the use of men and women of the canal force and to the thousands of men in the military forces on the Isthmus. There is no substitute for the clubhouse. To meet the increased demand for schools adequate commissaries, etc., suitable structures have been provided. It is imperative that our clubhouses receive similar consideration. Since their construction practically the only physical changes made in the clubhouses have been the remodeling and enlargement of the old building at Ancon, and the reconstruction with slight architectural changes of the Balboa clubhouse. The buildings are old, of wood construction, inadequate in size, arrangement, and equipment for the handling of the number of people now dependent upon them. An order barring the military from both the cities of Colon and Panama has resulted in the clubhouses both at those points and along the line being greatly overtaxed and their inability to render either to the civil or

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REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 261 the military patrons the attention due them. The clubhouses have been in a large measure self-sustaining; they could, with suitable buildings and equipment, be made still more so. The estimate for 1919-20 includes the specific improvements thought necessary for immediate consideration. Table No. 48 of the auditor's report presents a summary of the financial transactions of the clubhouses for the fiscal year. Division of Civil Affairs. bureau of posts. The number of post offices in operation (16) remained unchanged during the year. Of this number 14 are money-order offices. Total receipts for the year were $142,741.41, an increase of $31,588.40 over the previous year's business. The excess of disbursements over receipts was $22,128.36, as compared with $46,753.02 for the last year. Increase in disbursements is largely due to added cost of transportation of mail and greater purchase of postage stamps. The increase of these two items, directly due to increased business, was $5,241.04. The 40 per cent subsidy to the Panaman Government on sales of postage stamps amounted to $34,007.76. Total revenues from the postal service, including box rents, payments from the Panama Railroad Company, from the Panaman Government for transportation of its mail between Panama and Colon, and from the United States Post Office Department for handling United States transit mails were $145,231.81, as compared with $110,741.41 for the preceding year. There were 167,504 money orders issued during the year, amounting to $3,372,973.55,' on which fees amounting to $11,918.35 were collected. A decrease of 5,971 orders exists in comparison with last year's business, with a decrease of $409,790.16 in the amount issued, and $452.93 in the fees collected. Many of these were deposit money orders on which no fee was collected. June 30 there was on deposit $1,097.15 in the form of unpaid money orders drawn on Canal Zone post offices in favor of remitters. Deposit money orders issued during the year totaled $1,244,335; payments on deposit money orders for the same period aggregated $1,441,225, leaving a balance of $499,490 on deposit June 30. Old postal savings accounts previously turned over to the auditor for direct pa^'ment have been reduced to an unpaid balance June 30 of $509. Deposits have been considerably reduced during the year, due to subscriptions by depositors to liberty bonds and war savings stamps. On June 30, 1917, these deposits amounted to $1,053,246.10, and on June 30, 1918, to $501,096.15. Interest on deposit money orders amounting to $8,440.71 was paid during the fiscal year, as compared with $1,813.93 for the previous year. The registry division of the post offices did a largely increased business this year as compared with last. A total of 266,867 parcels and letters were handled, 130,894 being dispatched and 135,973 received. Ancon and Cristobal, as exchange offices, handled 181,810 " registers," an increase of approximately 200 per cent over last year, this increase being largely due to the rerouting of mail through the Cristobal office intercepted on account of censorship.

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262 THE PANAMA CANAL. Fifteen thousand six hundred and twenty-nine parcels of mail matter containing inaterials imported to the Isthmus by employees of the United States Government were received, as compared with 13,938 for the previous year. Customs duties in the amount of $15,461.77 were collected by the Republic of Panama on mail parcels received for nonemployees and on dutiable articles received by employees. Similar duties for the preceding year amounted to $10,633.96. The office of the director of posts issued 1,308 duplicates of lost or stolen money orders, investigated 136 cases of losses and nondelivery of registered mail, undertook special investigations for the United States Post Office Department of mail in transit through the Canal Zone, made 18 inspections of post offices, and issued 72 numbered circulars of instructions to postmasters. Numerous arrests were made during the year for misuse of the mails, including the misuse of canceled postage stamps, false personation in attempt to cash money orders, fraudulent use of the mails in violation of section 1707, Postal Laws and Eegulations, sending obscene matter through the mails. Six arrests were made for rifling mail aboard United Fruit Co.'s steamers while in port at Cristobal. Five convictions were assured. Three convictions resulted from the prosecution of cases tried during the year on arrests made the previous year for similar offenses. Four violations of the Postal Laws and Regulations occurred by sending lottery matter through the mails. Six cases were reported of misuse of the official business penalty envelope, which practice is prevalent and difficult to stop unless drastic action is taken. During the latter part of June a change was effected in the handling of mail for ships in transit. Previously all mail for such ships had been delivered by the boarding officer of the customs service. At present such mail is gathered from the different steamship agencies, consulates, and the Colon and Panama post offices, forwarded to Gatun and Pedro Miguel post offices, and from these points delivered to the boarding inspectors or pilots on the ships as they are passing through the locks. An improved service is made possible in this manner; reports are received three times daily of the movements of the ships, and by the concentration of mail at one place there is little possibility of its missing connection with the ships. On account of the censoring of mail, the bureau of posts during December, 1917, took charge of the handling of mails entering and dispatched from the Canal Zone. Three countries of Central America and all countries of the west coast of South America maintain postal agencies in the city of Panama ; and although the mail is consigned to the respective agencies, their handling of it is symbolical only. The actual work is done by this bureau and all mail recorded on transit waybills. During the period ended June 30 approximately 11,000 sacks were handled, affording a much better service than previously existed, and much preferable to steamship lines conveying the mail to destination. It is considered a logical solution to establish one agency on the Isthmus, undoithe direction of this bureau for the receipt and dispatch of all mail coming into the Canal Zone.

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REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 263 BUREAU OF CUSTOMS. There has been a large increase in shipping at canal ports during the fiscal year. The total number of vessels entered was 4,447, the total number cleared, 4,443; as compared with 3,718 entered and 3,721 cleared the previous year. This increase in shipping has resulted in a considerable amount of extra work, further supplemented by the war restrictions prevailing. It has been possible to handle the business with the addition of but one inspector to the regular force. Only 447 prohibited aliens arrived on the Isthmus during the year, 255 at Balboa and 192 at Cristobal. Of this number, 223 were admitted to the Republic of Panama by authority of that Government; the others proceeded to their ultimate destination or were returned to the port of embarkation. The Governor's circular 714-1, issued April 25, 1917, charges this bureau with the exclusion of Chinese under the President's Executive order of February 6, 1917. In compliance with this regulation it is customary to check the number of Chinese members of crews before a ship leaves a Canal Zone port, and 207 crews were so checked during the year. Seven arrests were made during the year for attempted smuggling, resulting in six convictions and one acquittal. It is thought that attempts to smuggle opium through the Canal Zone into the Republic of Panama have been reduced to a minimum; as only two arrests were made for this offense this year, in spite of constant vigilance on the part of this bureau. A considerable quantity of opium was discovered among some incoming freight; but the name of the consignee was fictitious and the consignment was not called for. All confiscated drugs are delivered to the health department. Under the provisions by which employees of the United States Government are allowed the free entry of goods imported by freight or express for their own use, this bureau, for the executive secretary, approved 1,381 requests for the free entry of such shipments, as compared with 2,533 for the previous year. The work of household inspection of goods belonging to either Panama Canal employees or Army officers returning to the States has been exceptionally heavy this year; due to the large number of transfers of Army officers to the States as well as those employees of The Panama Canal who have resigned and returned to their homes, or entered the naval or military service. Certification by this bureau of invoices covering shipments from the Canal Zone to the States was in excess of last year in the amount of such invoices; collections for this service having been $1,167.50 covering 1,288 invoices as against 1,169 last year. Merchandise arriving at either of the canal ports for delivery within the Republic of Panama is released to the Panaman officials upon receipt of necessary papers showing the payment of duty on such merchandise. Permits for 5,690 such releases were granted at Cristobal during the year, and 10 releases at Balboa, where the greater part of such cargo is forwarded by railroad to Panama, at which point it is taken in charge by the Panaman customs officials. SHIPPING COMMISSIONER. The assistant chief of the division of civil affairs, acting as shipping commissioner, with the chief customs inspectors as deputy

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264 THE PANAMA CANAL. shipping commissioners, have in addition to their other duties, charge of signing on and discharging of American seamen, the settlement of disputes between the masters and members of such crews regarding wages, advances, fines, and general treatment. Frequent changes of routing, due to war conditions involving the changing of shipping articles have created a good deal of additional work. There were 2,638 seamen shipped on American vessels, and 2,549 discharged, as compared with 3,745 shipped and 3,430 discharged the previous year. The decrease is principally due to a change in policy of the United Fruit Co. at Cristobal, which formerly carried considerable numbers of laborers between Cristobal and their loading ports at Bocas del Toro and Port Limon. As these men were not passengers, it was necessary to sign them on as members of crews. The Fruit Co. has discontinued this practice and * now obtains its laborers at the ports where cargo is shipped. Seamen's wages were received for deposit at the port of Balboa during the year amounting to $5,293.31, of which all but $320.91 was disbursed. At Cristobal $13,300.55 were received and a balance of $1,009.23 remained on hand June 30. ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATES. A slight increase occurred this year as compared with last, in the number of estates referred to this bureau for settlement. There were 199 estates of deceased and insane employees of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad Company administered, and 35 in the course of settlement, June 30. Of the 199 estates settled, 112 were delivered to the consular or diplomatic representatives in the Republic of Panama or the United States, of the countries of which the deceased or insane persons was a citizen or subject; 60 estates were settled direct with the heirs; 5 settled with administrators or guardians ; 2 were repaid to persons who had recovered their sanitj^ ; and the net proceeds of 20 estates were used to settle claims against them. No estates were escheated during the year. The amount involved in the settlement of the 199 estates was $13,562.07, of which $12,533.16 belonged to the^ estates of deceased employees and $1,028.91 to the estates of insane persons. Licenses and Taxes. Two thousand eight hundred and seventy-three licenses were issued for motor vehicles and bicycles, as well as permits for hunting and the keeping and carrying of firearms and the peddling of foodstuffs. Of this number, 1,470 were for motor vehicles, as compared with 3,323 and 1,862, respectively, for last year. Seven thousand three hundred and fifty-nine dollars and fifteen cents were collected for license fees, as compared with $9,480.80 in the previous year. Police and Fire Division. Detailed statements of the work of the police and fire organizations and of the penal work of The Panama Canal will be found in tables Nos. 4 to 7, inclusive.

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BEPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 265 POLICE SECTION. On July 8, 1917, Mr. Guy Johannes was appointed chief, police and fire division, vice Capt. H. D. Mitchell, United States Army, relieved from duty with The Panama Canal. Wilji this exception, there has been but slight change in the general organization of this division during the fiscal year. A considerable amount of extra work has been handled by the police force, incident to the war, and in connection with the protection of The Panama Canal and the general interests of the United States on the Isthmus. During the year 52 first-class policemen and IC colored policemen were appointed, and 51 first-class policemen and 2 colored policemen left the service. No new buildings were constructed, and new penitentiary buildings are urgently required to replace the present frame structures. Arrests numbered 4,426, of which 4,125 were of males and 301 of females; a decrease of 455 as compared with the previous year. Three thousand nine hundred twenty-two arrests were made without warrants and 504 with warrants. A monthly average of 85.83 prisoners served sentences in the common jails during the year; and all those physically able were employed in the construction and repair of roads, others being employed on janitor and miscellaneous work at police or fire stations. The total value of such labor amounted to $14,199.80, figured at 10 cents an hour during the first three months, 13 cents an hour for the subsequent seven months, and 15 cents an hour for the balance of the year. Two homicides and six suicides occurred during the year. Of the homicides, William St. Clair, brown, native of St. Lucia, died on the Cristobal-Mount Hope Road as a result of having been struck by an automobile driven by Harvey Worthington, white, Jamaican, on December 14, 1917. Worthington was tried on the charge of manslaughter in district court and dismissed on January 3, 1918. Luis Filled Cano, white, coal handler, native of Spain, died in Colon Hospital on December 26, 1917, as a result of having been stabbed by Pedro Arias, another white Spaniard. Arias was arrested on the charge of murder, but was declared insane and committed to Corozal Hospital. Two of the six suicides committed were by white Americans, two by Jamaicans, one by a Martiniquan, one by a brown, Peruvian, all males. Two arrests were made for the offense of transporting or trafficking in opium within the Canal Zone during the year. One man was arrested for attempting to smuggle seven bottles of cocaine into the Canal Zone. He was charged with (1) violation of the opium act; (2) violation of customs regulations, and was dismissed on the first charge, found guilty on the second, and fined $100, from which he appealed to the United States District Court, New Orleans. On December 29, 1917, a Chinaman was arrested for violation of the opium act, found guilty, and sentenced to pa}^ a fine of $50. A continuous patrol of the harbors of Balboa and Cristobal was maintained principally for the enforcement of the navigation laws and prevention of smuggling and irregular traffic, also to assist in the enforcement of military regulations. A police launch was main-

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266 THE PANAMA CANAL. tained at Gamboa for patrol of the Chagres River and the canal in the vicinity of Gamboa. Another launch was maintained at Gatim for patrol and inspection of Gatun Lake and the 100 foot contour area. Two new launches, the El Vigia at Gamboa, and the Paja at Gatun, especially built for lake patrol service by the mechanical division, were placed in service on November T and December 6, 1917, respectively. The launch Goodwill was returned to the marine division on September 11, 1917, and the launch La Zona II was transferred from Cristobal to Balboa at the same time. The launch Barhacoas II was transferred from Gatun to Cristobal to replace La Zona II. The motorcycle patrol service for the enforcement of automobile and other vehicular regulations, and for special emergency police service; also a police guard service, in connection with military guards at the locks, were maintained. The detail of police at the locks has been reduced to a minimum, this work having been practically taken over by the Army. In connection with regular patrols of the interior sections of the Canal Zone, 25 arrests were made during the year for trespass on Zone lands, and 24 convictions were secured. A number of settlers were found close to the boundary lines in disputed territory, which cases were referred to the special attorney and some ejectments made after due notification. Eighty-four persons were deported from the Canal Zone during the year. Of these 47 were convicts who had completed terms of imprisonment, and 37 were persons who had been convicted of misdemeanor charges or were deemed undesirable persons to be permitted to remain on the Canal Zone. Plain clothes officers made 278 arrests on misdemeanor and felony charges. Investigations were conducted of 656 cases which did not require arrest, and many cases in which the defendants could not be found. A house-to-house canvas of the population of the Canal Zone was taken by the police force between June 20 and 30, 1918. This enumeration consisted of an accurate count of the entire civilian pojiulation for the information of local officials, giving number of males, females, and children, and whether employees of The Panama Canal or Panama Eailroad; but no detail data, which would have required too much extra work for the police. A copy of this repoit appears as table No. 4. Seventy-two convicts were received at the penitentiary during the year. Their aggregate sentences amounted to 48 3-12 years. Fiftytwo convicts completed imprisonment and were discharged, as compared with 54 discharged the previous year. The convicts discharged this year had earned two years, four months and 28^ days "good time." Discharged convicts were deported in all cases permissible by law. At the close of the year 54 convicts remained in custody, ."cS compared with 35 at the close of the previous year. Most of the convicts were employed on construction of tlie new Paraiso-Gamboa Eoad; a few on a small farm adjacent to the penitentiary, and for the maintenance of the buildings and ii:rounda, manufacture and repair of prison clothing and other maintenance labor. The total value of labor thus performed during the year at standard rates of pay amounted to $11,652.34, of which $10,248.28

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REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 267 represents work on the roads, $1,086.42 work on the farm, and $317.64 work inside the prison. The cost of subsisting and guard! i.g the convicts was $20,113.77, of which $4,900.35 was expended for subsistence of convicts, $1,319.32 for subsistence of guards, $8,902.38 for salaries of officers and guards at the penitentiary, and $4,991.72 for salaries of officers and guards employed to guard convicts on road work. Four convicts were pardoned, and parts of sentences were I'cmilted in seven cases by the Governor. Two convicts escaped from the penitentiary on June 23, 1918. One was recaptured on date of escape, and one was at large at the close of the vear, but was recaptured on July 4. Investigations were made by the coroner in 52 cases of death. Of these, 20 were due to accidental drowning and 21 to accidental traumatism. FIRE SECTION. The organization of the fire force remained without change. On July 1, 1917, and in accordance with Governor's Circular No. 669-7, increases in pay were granted members of the fire force, as follows: Captains, from $145 to $164 ; lieutenants, from $125 to $144 ; firemen, from $100 on appointment and $112.50 after one year's service, to $110 on appointment and $130 after one year's service. The pay of the motor-car inspector and the first inspector was also increased from $152,50 to $175, and from $225 to $250, respectively. Seventeen members of the fire force were appointed and 21 separated from the service during the year. A new motor combination pumping engine and hose wagon was installed at Balboa fire station on January 30. 1918. This has a pumping capacity of 750 gallons per minute at 120 pounds pressure, taking suction at 16-foot lift capacity for carrying 1,200 feet of fire hose, and is furnished with all necessary auxiliary equipment. This, with a converted hose car installed at Gatun fire station during the year, completes the substitution of horse-drawn apparatus in the department, the horses having been transferred to the quartermaster's department. A 40-gallon hand chemical cart was built by members of the fire force from old material on hand, and was installed at the supply department chicken farm. Summit, Canal Zone, where the water pressure is low. Periodical inspections of Government buildings, docks, storehouses, yards, etc, and inspection of, and necessary additions and changes made to, extinguishers, hose, and minor apparatus were maintained through the year. Sixty-nine fires and five false alarms were reported during the year. Of these, 39 fires occurred in property of The Panama Canal, 11 in Panama Eailroad property, 3 in United States Army property, 6 in private property, and 10 were fires in dry grass, rubbish, etc. Total fire losses amounted to $259,351.60, of which $230,000 represents loss due to a fire in the Panama Railroad steamship Panama. The fire in this vessel started at sea, probably from spontaneous combustion, and was extinguished by the fire department after her arrival at Cristobal. Table No. 7 accompanying this report details the work performed by this department for the fiscal year.

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268 the panama canal. Division of Schools. The opening of the school year was delayed somewhat by the late arrival of furniture for the equipment of the new buildings at Ancon, Balboa, Pedro Miguel, Gatun, and Cristobal. Regular session^v were begun October 8. The schools at other than these places opened October 1, with the exception of the La Boca school, where an epidemic of measles and whooping cough prevented regular sessions until October 8. The time lost for the week at the various schools was later made up on Saturdays. The average daily attendance for the school year was 1,963.2; 1,322.9 in the white schools, and 640.3 in the colored schools; compared with 1,709.2; 1,212.6 and 495.6, respectively, for the previous year. The total number of white teachers emploj^ed was 65, an increase of 13 over last year. The services of 10 teachers were terminated during the year, and on June 30, 62 teachers were employed. Thirteen additional teachers resigned on June 30. Fifteen colored teachers were employed, one more than during the preceding year. The following new positions were authorized for the school year: Supervisor of upper grades, $2,400 a year (recreated) ; instructor of apprentices, $2,100 a year; teacher of science and mathematics, 2 at $159.50 a month; teacher of Spanish and French, $104.50 a month; director of music, $175 a month ; manual training teacher, $159.50 a month; teacher, high school, $132 a month effective October 22, 1917; teacher, grade, $104.50 per month (7; 1 abolished and 1 high scliool position at $132 created October 22, 1917) . The entrance salary for grade teachers was increased from $95 to $104.50 a month, effective at the opening of the school year; highschool teachers from $120 to $132; and science and mathematic teachers from $145 to $159.50. The eleventh and twelfth gi-ades were added to the Cristobal high school, and the eighth grade to the Pedro Miguel white school. Results of physical examinations of the pupils in the white schools are shown in table No. 8 appended. Colored pupils were also examined and the necessary treatment recommended. With the new concrete buildings in service, the old buildings have been disposed of for different purposes. Seventeen buildings were used for school purposes during the year, 11 for white schools, including concrete house No. 759-B, at Balboa, for household arts work, 3 rooms in the old Washington House at Colon Beach, and an Army building at Empire, and 6 for colored schools, including an Army building at Empire. A 1-room addition to the Paraiso colored school was constructed during the summer vacation. The Paraiso white school was closed on January 21, and the pupils transferred to the Pedro Miguel white school. Manual training and household arts classes were maintained at Cristobal, for both Cristobal and Gatun pupils; rnd at Balboa for Balboa, Ancon, and Pedro Miguel pupils. The manual arts department was operated during the year with one female and two male instructors. Mechanical and architectural drawing instruction was instituted at the Cristobal high school, and an increase in the time of attendance of the Balboa high school woodworking boys from three to five times a week was permitted. Previously it has been the custom to offer industrial instruction after the regular school hours.

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REPORT OP EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 269 This lias proved generally unsatisfactory; and at the beginning of the school year this custom was changed at Balboa to permit the students attending the industrial classes during the morning session. The results of this change have been sufficiently satisfactory to warrant the same change being made at Cristobal. Much of the work of both the industrial training and household arts classes has been contributed to the junior Red Cross movement. With the addition of other instructors and much needed apparatus contemplated for the next year, it is thought that the work of both the manual training and household arts classes will be greatly improved both in the number of pupils in attendance and the quality and quantity of work accomplished. It is noteworthy that while the apprentice department has been subjected to three changes of instructors during the year, its efficiency has been promoted rather than impaired, largely due to the fact that it has been possible to secure the full time of an instructor for it. An excellent course of instruction is being developed and is serving 40 ambitious and appreciative boys. Two centers are in operation, one in the office building of the shops at Balboa, the other in a warehouse near the Cristobal shops. Each boy receives instruction for a period of four hours once each week. Teachers in the colored schools have manifested a gratifying interest in both the manual training and industrial arts classes. It is hoped that it will be possible to assist the colored pupils in both branches by supplying the schools with the necessary apparatus and instruction; for perhaps in no better way could they be aided in peparation for their life work. Physical training and athletics were continued in the white schools under the direction of a physical instructor. Arrangements were also made, in connection with the fire department, for the holding of fire drills in the schools. These drills have been a decided success. Night schools at the Balboa high school were started on February 19, the following subjects being taught: Shorthand, typewriting, bookkeeping, algebra, geometry, English and Spanish. Tuition was $4 a month for each pupil, and salaries of teachers $4 a night. Junior Red Cross work was carried on extensively in the white schools, an auxiliary being organized in each school, and did excellent work, raising $640 to be used for materials. Lessons in community^ and national life (prepared by the United States Bureau of Education and used in all grades above the third, including the high school), and thrift and war savings problems were incorporated in the work of the schools in such subjects as arithmetic, reading, history, English, geography, and current events. It was the aim to correlate these problems with the different subjects in the schools, the nature of which has inspired the pupils to better results. At the eighth annual commencement exercises held June 21 there were 28 graduates. Up to the present time 89 pupils have been graduated from the high school. The Courts. In the district courts 194 cases were pending at the beginning of the year; 930 cases were filed, 900 cases were settled, and 224 cases pending at the close of the fiscal year. Seventy-four of the 194 cases

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270 THE PANAMA CANAL. pending at the beginning of the 3'ear were civil causes. 94 probate, and 26 criminal. Of those settled, 116 were civil, 333 probate, and 481 criminal. There were 139 sessions of conrt. Marriage licenses issued totaled 790, and 17 deeds were recorded. Collections totaled $6,248.20, consisting of civil costs, fines, forfeitures, and various fees. The Balboa magistrate's court had seven cases pending at the beginning of the fiscal year, and the same number at the close of the year. A total of 1,863 cases were filed: 1,793 criminal and 70 civil. Of the criminal cases, 1,330 convictions were secured, 126 were acquitted, 314 committed to the district court, and 23 were dismissed. Total collections of fines, fees, and costs amounted to $8,086.15. The magistrate's court at Cristobal had two cases pending from last year, with three at the close of the year. There were 1,938 cases filed"; 1,913 criminal and 25 civil. Of the criminal cases, 1,374 convictions were secured, 263 acquitted, 26 suspended, 39 dismissed, and 209 committed to the district court. All civil cases before the court were settled. Total collections of fines, fees, and costs amounted to $5,667.03. SPECIAL ATTORNEY AND DISTRICT ATTORNEY. The reports of the special attorney and the district attorney are printed as appendices of the Governor's report. UNITED STATES MARSHAL FOR THE CANAL ZONE The office of the United States marshal for the Canal Zone received 659 writs of process in civil cases, 602 of which were served, 57 were not served, as the persons concerned could not be found. The marshal or his deputy attended 139 sessions of the district courts at Balboa and Cristobal. Witnesses attending court were paid $65.10 during the 3'ear. Collections of revenues from the service of court papers in civil cases amounted to $402.40, which were deposited with the collector. Trust funds to the amount of $7,740.69 were handled by the marshal or his deputy. Relations with Panama. Negotiations by correspondence or personal conference between the executive secretary of The Panama Canal and the secretary of foreign relations of the Republic of Panama included the following subjects in addition to routine matters: Installation of buoys to mark the restricted area in the Bay of Panama for the guidance of navigators, etc. Purchases at Canal Zone commissaries by unauthorized persons. Exportation of coin and bar silver of the Republic of Panama. New schedule of coach and automobile tariff in the districts of Panama and Colon and the Canal Zone. Desirability of not advertising departure of vessels in newspapers in connection with the closing of mails. Discontinuance of discharge of cargo at Balboa consigned to Panama by the South American Steamship Co. Preservation of neutrality of the Canal Zone and the Republic of Panama and treatment of vessels in the service of the Entente powers

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REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 271 arriving and departing from Canal Zone ports and passing through the canal. Extradition from the Republic of Panama to the Canal Zone of the former vice president of the Continental Banldng & Tiiist Co. Collection of customs duty on dutiable merchandise arriving at Canal Zone post offices. Police protection at Colon Beach. Delay in receiving money to the credit of a deceased employee in a bank in the city of Panama by the Administrator of Estates. Permits for the construction of wooden houses on Colon Beach for the United Fruit Co. Permission granted to Arraijan farmers to cross canal at Balboa without restriction as to time. Laying of underground cable from the Canal Zone to Santo Tomas Hospital, the American consulate, and the American legation in the city of Panama for the purpose of furnishing them with electric current. Preliminary survey for the extension of the Chiriqui Railroad in the Province of Chiriqui. Handling of transit cargo at Cristobal without filing of bond to cover customs duty with the Panaman Government. Construction of sanitariums for tuberculosis patients in the Republic of Panama. Construction of a slaughterhouse at Colon. Exemption of payment of taxes for Panama Railroad Company stables in cities of Panama and Colon. The newly reclaimed area of land belonging to the Panama Railroad Company on the shore of Panama Bay adjoining the old American pier. Furnishing of free medicine by the Santo Tomas Hospital to outpatients prescribed for by the Red Cross clinics. Refund of fine imposed on chauffeur of the mail car of the Ancon post office for a collision for which he was not responsible by the police in the city of. Panama. Release of parcels post packages addressed to an interned alien without payment of customs duties. Regulations to prevent the introduction of tuberculosis among domestic animals in the Canal Zone. Indebtedness o^ the Republic of Panam to The Panama Canal. Escape of prohibited aliens in transit through the Canal Zone. Violations of the defensive area act by Panamans in entering the restricted areas at the entrances of the canal. Alleged sales of second-hand furniture by employees and officials of The Panama Canal and members of the military forces on the Isthmus to residents of the Republic of Panama on which no customs duty was collected at the time of importation. Conservation of products native to Panama. Refusal to allow settlement and cultivation of strip of land between the water lever of Gatun Lake and the 100-foot contour line. Construction of a telegraph line by the Republic of Panama between Colon and Porto Bello, which is to pass through the Canal Zone. Anchorage of dynamite lighter in Panama Bay, and proposed construction of an explosive magazine for the Republic of Panama.

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272 THE PANAMA CANAL, Advisability of perinittinoremoval of sand from the beach between Pimta Paitilla and the sea wall in the city of Panama. Receiving andfiling bills of health from the incoming vessels at the port of Bocas del Toro. Outbreak of smallpox at Bocas del Toro and failure of Republic of Panama to provide necessary funds, etc., for subsisting and caring for quarantined persons. Installation of a fire alarm system in the city of Colon. Release and failure of Republic of Panama to prosecute certain persons arrested for gambling, and control of the gambling situation in the city of Colon. Proposed sanitary improvements in Las Sabanas and Pueblo Nuevo districts. Importation of fuel oil into the Canal Zone to be sold to seagoing vessels without the payment of consular fees to the Republic of Panama. Clandestine landing of passengers from small vessels arriving at Panama from Colombia and Ecuador before reporting to the quarantine authorities for inspection and entry. Censorship of mail. Construction of highways in the Republic of Panama. Counterfeiting in the city of Panama. Legislation. The various acts of Congress and Executive orders affecting The Panama Canal and the Canal Zone appears as an appendix to the Governor's report. Respectfully submitted. C. A. McIlvaine, Executive Secretary. Col. Chester Harding, United States Army, Governor^ The Panama Canal, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. Table No. 1. — Postal service. RECEIPTS.

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REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 273 Table No. 1. — Postal service — Continued. DISBURSEMENTS. 1917 1918 Salaries Transportation of mails Purchase of stamps Interest on paid deposit money orders Corral service Telephone service . Stationery , printing, etc Repairs to buildings Motor and other vehicle supplies Equipment: Furniture and fixtures Lock boxes (including building di^^sion charge for setting up). Automobile delivery truck Electric light and electrical repairs Miscellaneous Total. $83,121.23 25, 606. 49 30, 796. 91 1,813.93 1,157.33 2,842.83 240. 38 317. 75 6,485.77 3, 906. 42 705. 07 3,402.32 S84, 572. 15 27, 636. 68 34, 007. 76 8,440.71 478. 34 789. 78 3,598.86 2,685.02 776. 91 79.73 1,093.67 752. 05 2,448.51 160,396.43 167,360.17 Excess of disbursements over receipts, 1917. Excess of disbursements over receipts, 1918. $46, 753. 02 22, 128. 36 TOTAL CASH TRANSACTIONS OF CANAL ZONE POSTAL SYSTEM FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918. Total amount of money orders issued $3, 372, 973. 55 Total fees on money orders issued 11, 918. 35 Total amount of money orders paid and repaid 1, 909, 128. 31 Interest received on deposit money-order funds 32, 940. 22 Interest paid on deposit money orders 8, 440. 71 Total amoimt of postal receipts 145, 231. 81 Total amount of postal savings certificates and deposit money orders paid 1, 442, 485. 00 Grand total cash transactions 6, 923, 117. 95 LETTERS AND PARCELS REGISTERED, AND PARCELS INSURED, BY OFFICES, DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918. Name of jKet office. Domestic letters registered Domestic parcels registered. Domes tic parcels insured Foreign letters registered. Foreign parcels registered. Official registered free. Distribution registered free, T&tal. Ancon Balboa Balboa Heights Corozal Cristobal CuJebra Empire Fort Amador... Fort Randolph. Fort Sherman.. Gamboa Gatun Las Cascadas... Monte Lirio Paraiso Pedro Miguel. . . Total 6,687 2,233 1,174 776 8,498 942 551 719 83 488 1,875 1,002 2,539 82 247 581 28,477 662 423 121 85 784 93 306 247 14 158 20 185 646 5 37 87 371 220 100 89 479 87 90 117 49 134 4 107 362 15 71 6,487 1,141 171 129 9,786 121 244 5 2 19 110 209 187 37 271 266 1,222 105 18 7 589 3 36 1 1 2 25 5 1 39 14 3,858 3,290 40,999 983 11,860 505 562 313 58 222 3,595 777 55 2,543 2,351 3.873 2,295 19,185 2,068 71,971 663 1,437 68 154 46 198 203 109 147 3,025 19,950 8,849 42,651 2,069 31,996 1,751 1,943 1,402 252 1,220 2,011 5,123 4,719 180 3,261 3,517 130,894

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274 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 1. — Postal service — Continuecl. NUMBER OF INSURED AND C. O. D. PARCEL-POST PARCELS AND REGISTERED ARTICLES DELIVERED, BY OFFICES, DURING FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918. Name of post oflBce.

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REPORT OF EXECUrrVE SECRETARY. 275 Table No. 3. — Statement showing numier of estates received and settled, and amount of funds handled, during fiscal year ended June 30, 1918. Number

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276 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 4. — Police seciio/i— Continued. Number of separations of white American officers during year 51 Number of separations of colored officers during the year 2 Total 53 Eight white officers were fined during the year $105. 00 One colored officer was fined during the year $3. 00 Total $108.00 NUMBER OF ARRESTS, BY FISCAL YEARS, MADE ON CANAL ZONE SINCE ORGANIZATION. Period.

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REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 277 Table No. 4. — Police section — Continued. STATEMENT OF DISPOSITIONS OF PERSONS ARRESTED FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918. Dispositions. Tried in courts: Convicted Dismissed Continued on June 30, 1918 Otherwise disposed of on proper authority Total persons arrested Number. 3,005 557 40 3,602 824 4,426 Percent. 83.42 15.46 1.12 100.00 CHARGES AGAINST PERSONS ARRESTED DURING FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918. Offenses. Male. Female. Total. Alien enemies held pending internment Alien enemies held for investigation Alien enemies held for deportation Alien enemies held for military authorities Alien enemies interned, on parole AUen enemy suspects held while in transit across the Canal Zone . Alien enemies held while in transit across the Canal Zone Aiding the commission of a felony Aidinsr and abetting a misdemeanor Abduction Adultery '. Alighting from moving train Assault Assault and battery Assault with deadly weapon Attempted assault with deadly weapon Attempt to commit larceny Attempt to defraud Battery Boarding moving train Bringing liquor into Canal Zone Bringing stolen property into Canal Zone Burglary Carrying concealed weapons Carrying firearms without a permit Civil order of arrest Conspiracy Contempt of court Crime against nature Cruelty to animals Deportation Desertion from U. S. Army Desertion from British Army Desertion from merchant vessel Disorderly conduct Disturbing the peace Embezzlement Escaping from custody ExhiDiting obscene pictures and Uterature False representation False personation Fighting Forgery Fraud Fugitive from justice Gambling Grand larceny Held for investigation Held for immigration authorities Held for Panama authorities Held for Italian consul Held for British consul Held for Peruvian consul Held on order from military authorities Held for deportation Indecent e.xposure Interfering with an officer Intoxication Intoxication and disorderly Insanity .". 36 5 4 12 3 146 32 1 1 1 1 .58 11 150 20 1 9 11 70 26 18 11 18 15 5 1 3 35 1 27 3 4 2 8 661 21 15 2 1 1 3 111 18 11 12 44 76 14 38 9 1 5 1 1 11 2 117 77 19 120 11 17 37 5 4 12 3 146 34 1 1 1 1 58 16 167 20 1 9 12 87 26 18 14 18 16 5 1 3 44 1 27 3 4 2 8 781 32 15 2 2 1 3 128 18 11 12 44 78 14 38 10 1 5 1 1 12 2 1 117 80 20

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278 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 4. — Police section — Continued. CHARGES AGAINST PERSONS ARRESTED DURING FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918— Continued. Oflenses. Male. Female. Total. Lewd and lascivious cohabitation Loitering Malicious mischief Manslaughter Material witness Murder Mutiny Nonsupport Obscene and indecent language Obtaining money under false pretenses Perj ury Petit larceny Prohibited aliens in transit Rape Receiving stolen property Repatriation cases Returning to Canal Zone after deportation. Riding on platform of train Robbery Seduction Straggler from United States Army Straggler from British Army Threat Trespass Trespass on train Unauthorized riding on labor train Unlawful entry into Canal Zone Vagrancy Violation of: Bicycle regulations Building regulations Chauffeurs' regulations Customs regulations Defensive sea area act Dog regulations Immgration regulations Impounding regulations Espionage act License regulations Liquor regulations Motor-vehicle regulations •. Navigation regulations National-defense act (sec. 125) Hunting regulations , Opium act , Postal regulations Quarantine regulations Sanitary regulations Trading with enemy act , Traffic regulations '. Vehicle tariff regulations White-slave aet 8 372 84 1 3 1 21 13 2 2 1 387 125 1 1 1 7 1 3 3 1 3 1 68 14 72 Total. 72 1 22 7 21 1 227 2 6 18 26 281 136 23 3 2 13 8 91 14 9 64 1 4,272 8 29 2 2 19 307 16 401 86 1 3 1 21 13 2 2 1 389 144 1 1 1 7 1 3 3 1 3 1 68 14 72 3 77 8 1 23 7 21 1 227 3 6 23 29 285 136 23 3 2 13 8 91 21 9 68 1 4,579 NATIONALITY OF PERSONS ARRESTED DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918. Nationality.

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REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 279 Table No. 4. — Police section — Continued. NATIONALITY OF PERSONS ARRESTED DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918— Continued. Nationality. Great Britain and possessions — Contd. Britisli West Indies — Antigua Bahamas Barbados Bermuda Cayman Dominica Fortime Island Grenada Inagua Jamaica Montserrat Nassau Tortola Island Nevis Island St.Kitts St. Lucia St. Martin St. Vincent Trinidad Turks Island Greece Guatemala Haiti Holland Curacao Number. 43 3 733 1 2 4 20 49 2 851 21 16 1 5 8 68 1 30 64 4 25 5 12 25 6 Nationality. Honduras , Italy Japan Mexico Nicaragua Norway Panama Peru Portugal Russia Finland Poland Santo Domingo San Salvador Serbia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey , United States , Porto Rico Philippines , Virgin Islands Uruguay Venezuela Total (4,125 males, 301 females) Number. 4 14 6 32 12 28 526 129 4 35 6 1 1 6 1 109 32 12 9 446 23 5 6 1 8 4,426 OCCUPATION OF PERSONS ARRESTED DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30 1918. ' Occupation. Agents Army officers . . . Artists Attendants Bakers Barbers Bartenders Blacksmiths Boatmen Boiler makers... Bootblacks Brakemen Bricklayers Butchers Capitalists Carpenters Cartmen Charcoal burners Chaufleurs Checkers Chemists Clerks Coachmen Collectors Conductors Consuls Contractors Cooks Coppersmiths... Cranemen Domestics Dishwashers Dentists Draftsmen Distillers Dredgemen Dressmakers Drill men Electricians Engineers Farmers Firemen Fishermen Flagmen Foremen Number. 4 1 1 4 14 7 6 6 11 8 5 4 1 7 1 70 13 4 342 10 2 69 61 1 3 1 5 40 2 2 238 3 5 3 1 2 4 1 20 30 101 179 42 3 35 Occupation. Hatters Hostlers Interpreters Inspectors Ironworkers Janitors Jewelers Journalists Laborers Laundresses Laundrymen. Lawyers Magicians Machinists Managers Merchants Messengers Miners Ministers Molders Musicians Newsboys No occupation Nurses Oilers Opticians Operators Painters ^ Peddlers Physical directors. Physicians .Pilots Pipefitters Plasterers Policemen Postmasters Prisoners Prostitutes Quartermasters Riggers Riveters Sailmakers Sailors and seamen SalesmeiL Saddlers , Number. 2 1 1 5 2 13 1 2 1,480 4 3 2 1 41 4 111 23 3 2 1 3 24 351 2 51 2 32 24 40 1 4 1 6 3 8 1 3 18 18 5 1 1 376 29 1

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280 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 4. — Police section — Continued. OCCUPATION OF PERSONS ARRESTED DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918— Continued. Occupation.

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REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 281 Table No. 4. — Police section — Continued. HOUSE-TO-HOUSE CANVASS OF THE CIVIL POPULATION OF THE CANAL ZONE, TAKEN BETWEEN JUNE 20 AND 30, 1918, BY THE POLICE AND FIRE DIVISION. BALBOA DISTRICT.

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282 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 4. — Police section — Continued. cui.sTOBAL DISTRICT — Continued. HOUSE-TO-HOUSE CANVASS OF THE CIVIL POPULATION OF THE CAN AL ZONE— Contd.

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REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 283 Table No. 5.z-Warden section — Continued. CONVICTS DISCHARGED FROM PENITENTIARY DURING FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918. Month.

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284 T:t|E PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 5. — Warden section — Continued. NATIONALITY OF THE CONVICTS CONFINED IN THE PENITENTIARY ON JUNE 30, 1918. Native of—

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REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 285 Table No. 5. — Warden section — Coutiuued. COST OF SUBSISTENCE, GUARDING. AND CLOTHING CONVICTS CONFINED IN THE PENITENTIARY DURING FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918. Month. 1917 July August September October November December 1918 January February March April May June Total Subsistence. Convicts. S351. 42 352. 98 422. 67 410. 38 415.38 495. 39 434. 72 352. 73 460. 88 410.11 408. 56 385. 13 4, 900. 35 Guards. $92. 77 90.75 108. 60 111.60 108.00 111.60 112. 80 109.20 123.00 117. 30 119. 70 114.00 Salaries of officers and guards. Penitentiary. $737. 00 746. 00 662. 19 734.00 723.76 634. 08 636.00 660. 88 997. 50 733.97 891. 50 745. 50 Road work. .$382. 50 388. 03 404.25 433. 50 433. 50 432. 08 441.16 477. 58 438. 58 440. 50 366.67 353. 37 1,319.32 8,902.38 4,991.72 Total. $1,563.69 1,577.76 1,597.71 1,689.48 1,680.64 1,673.15 1,624.68 1,600.39 2,019.96 1, 701. 88 1,786.43 1,598.00 20, 113. 77 CONVICTS AND COMMON JAIL PRISONERS DEPORTED DURING FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1918. Deported to —

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286 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 7. — Fire section. FIRE PERSONNEL AS ON JUNE 30, 191S. Designation. Fire inspector... Captains Lieutenants Motorinspector. June 30, 1918.

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REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 287 Table No. 8. — School section. MONTHLY ENROLLMENT AND AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE. 1917. October November December 1918. January February March April May June White schools. Monthly enrollment. Gross. 1,557 1,715 1,794 1,943 2,026 2,077 2,122 2, 168 2,193 Net. 1,527 1,575 1,609 1,688 1,696 1,719 1,734 1,756 1,764 Average daily attendance. 1, 452. 6 1, 422. 1 1,437.1 1,396.1 1,399.0 1,433.0 1,436.7 1,373.3 1,351.5 Colored schools. Monthly enrollment. Gross 801 845 876 941 983 993 1,023 1,037 1,040 Net. 798 837 862 923 959 968 995 1,007 1,010 Average daily attendance. 671.5 623.8 63L0 659.1 682.0 663.3 637.3 610.2 636.3 ENROLLMENT BY THE YEAR— BY SCHOOLS.

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288 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 8. — School section — Continued. NUMBER OF TEACHERS EMPLOYED IN SCHOOLS. 1917. October November December . . .• 1918. January February March April May Jime White

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APPENDIX I. REPORT OF THE DISTRICT ATTORNEY FOR THE CANAL ZONE. Ancon, Canal Zone, July i, 1918. Sir : There is attached herewith a tabulated statement of all criminal prosecutions in the district court of the Canal Zone for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918. There was a total of 592 cases disposed of in the district court, 131 of which were appealed from the magistrates' courts. Of the entire number disposed of 409 resulted in convictions. Six defendants requested trial by jury, and of these two were convicted and four were acquitted. There have been no appeals in criminal cases to the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in New Orleans. At the end of the fiscal year no criminal cases were pending in the district court for the division of Cristobal. In the division of Balboa four cases of minor importance were pending at the end of the fiscal year. In addition to these, there was still pending in the division of Balboa the case of the Canal Zone v. E. F. Bataille, arising out of the failure of the Continental Banking & Trust Co., which was referred to at length in my last annual report. The Governor of New Jersey refused to honor the first requisition, but subsequently, having been authorized b}' you, I went to the United States and in person presented a second request. Warrants of extradition were granted by the Governors of New Jersey and of New York, but Bataille fled from his home and it was impossible to effect his arrest at that time. These warrants of arrest have been lodged with the Department of Justice at Washington, and request made that Bataille be apprehended. On account of the death of the Government's main witness, it is doubtful if a conviction could now be obtained in case Bataille should be apprehended and brought back here for trial. It will be noted that during this fiscal year there was a considerable increase in the number of cases disposed of and a very large increase in the number of appeals from the magistrates' courts. There have been no suits against the Governor of The Panama Canal for injuries to vessels wdiile passing through the locks, as provided for under the Panama Canal act. An important civil case referred to in my last annual report, that of Judge William H. Jackson, of the district court of the Canal Zone, against the auditor of The Panama Canal, has been disposed of by the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States. In this case the mandamus was upheld and it was decided that the auditor of The Panama Canal had no power to withhold any part of the salary of the district judge. 289

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290 THE PANAMA CANAL. While several important issues were raised in the case, these were not passed upon by the Supreme Court, that court having limited itself to the decision of the point above stated. In the case of The Panama Canal v. the Schooner Blanche Pendleton, Libel in Admiralty, for the sum of $1,413, an order of sale was obtained and the wreck of the schooner was sold for enough to cover the amount of the libel. However, shortly afterwards and before a confirmation of the sale could be obtained, all that remained of the schooner was completely wrecked and destroyed by a storm. The judge of the district court held that under these circumstances the purchaser could not be required to carry out his purchase nor to pay the money into court. The libelee had filed a counterclaim for large damages, but The Panama Canal has been allowed to withdraw its libel without prejudice, and the counter claim has been dismissed, so that this case is in the condition as if no libel had ever been filed. The claim of The Panama Canal in this libel was largely for services rendered by tugs which were then in the service of The Panama Canal, which attempted to pull the vessel from the beach where she was stranded. The loss to the owners, Pendleton Bros., of New York, on account of the storm and stranding of the schooner was a very great one. Although they filed in this case a counterclaim for large damages, the counterclaim has no merit, legal or otherwise; but on account of this exceedingly heavy loss and because of the fact that a very large part of the claim of The Panama Canal is for service of tugs of The Panama Canal, I recommend that no further steps be taken to recover the $1,413 from Pendleton Bros. There is still pending the case of Humber, administrator of McGregor, deceased, v. H. A. A. Smith, auditor, etal., for mandamus to compel the payment of an award by the Joint Land Commission. The special attorney of The Panama Canal, who represents the Government before the Joint Land Commission, has protested against the payment of this award to the Secretary of State of the United States on the ground that the Joint Land Commission exceeded its jurisdiction with regard to this award. On account of this protest the judge of the district court of the Canal Zone has ruled that no further steps can be taken in the case in the district court until this protest has finally been resolved by the Secretary of State. There was also still pending the mandamus case of R. P. Dixon, guardian of Francisco Ayala, an insane person, v. H. A. A. Smith, auditor of The Panama Canal, et al. In this case the court dismissed the mandamus as to the defendants, Frank Feuille, Acting Governor of The Panama Canal, and John H. McLean, paymaster of The Panama Canal, but retained the same as to the auditor. In this case different guardians had been appointed by the district court of the Canal Zone and by the circuit court of Panama where the insane person resided. But in this case steps have been taken looking to an amicable adjustment of the controversy, to be affected by both guardians giving to the auditor of The Panama Canal their receipt for the amount of the award. It is believed that settlement in this manner will be effected and the interests of The Panama Canal protected.

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REPORT OF DISTRICT ATTORNEY. 291 A considerable part of the increase in the number of prosecutions for this fiscal year has been due to violations of the defensive sea areas established around the terminal ports of the Canal Zone. Almost without exception these offenses were unintentional, and for the most part committed by ignorant fishermen. There have been a few prosecutions under the espionage act, so called. These prosecutions have all resulted in convictions, with one exception. The exception referred to was a prosecution against two defendants for failure to declare and obtain a license for the exportation of certain gold coin from the Canal Zone. The district court held that inasmuch as the coin in question had not formed a part of any gold upon the Canal Zone, but Avas simply gold in the possession of the defendants who were in transit from Ecuador to Colombia, that there had been no violation of the law. This ruling of the district judge was referred by the Governor of The Panama Canal to the Secretary of Treasury, and by the district attorney of the Canal Zone to the Department of Justice at Washington; and both of these authorities were of the opinion that the district judge was in error. In a subsequent prosecution in a case somewhat similar the district judge has announced that the court hereafter would be guided by the opinion of the Secretary of Treasury and of the Department of Justice. Eespectfully, Charles R. Williams, District Attorney. Col. Chester Harding, United States Army, Governor., The Panama Canal., Balboa Heights^ Canal Zone. Table No. 1. — Criminal proseciitions. IDIJ-IOIS.

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292 THE PANAMA CANAL. Table No. 1. — Criminal prosecuUoyis, 1917-1918 — Continued. o Disposed of otherwise. I Drunk and disorderly Embezzlement Espionage act, violation of False personation Fightmg Forgery Fraud Grand larceny Infamous crime against nature — Injuring a public jail _. . . . Lewd and lascivious cohabitation. Liquor regulations, violation of — Loitering Malicious mischief to railroad Manslaughter Murder Mutiny National defense act, violation of. . Navigation rules, violation of Nonsupport Obtaining money or property by false pretenses, etc. Opium act, violation of Perjury Petit larceny Postal laws, violation of Quarantine regulations, violation of. Rape Receiving stolen property Robbery Seduction Street car regulations, violation of Tradlng-with-the-enemy act, viotion of. Trespass. Unauthorized riding on train Unlawfully entering Canal Zone. Vagrancy White slave act, violation of Total 1 14 6 7 2 21 2 81 i' 1 1 22 13 2 1 1 4 21 18 2 2 2 1 17 15 4 1 1 2 1 1 19 3 2 2 2 1 692 409 26 115 1 withdrawn. 3 nol-pros 1 dismissed... 3 nol-pros 5 nol-pros 2 dismissed. 3 nol-pros... 3 dismissed , 1 dismissed. 15 petit larceny. 1 guilty attempt. 1 asylum insane. 1 dismissed. 2 dismissed. 1 dismissed; 1 dismissed; 1 nol-pros. 1 nol-pros. 1 grand larceny. 41. 1 to asylum. One application for writ of Iiabeas corpus denied.

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APPENDIX J. HEPOET OF SPECIAL ATTORNEY. Ancon, Canal, Zone, August 1, 1918. Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith my annual report as special attorney for The Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918, and I am including in this report the affairs of the counsel for the Panama Railroad Company on the Isthmus for the fiscal year. The report also includes a statement of the business transacted by the land office of The Panama Canal, and the realestate transactions of the Panama Railroad Company. The organization of this office for the fiscal year just ended consisted of the special attorney, who is also the counsel on the Isthmus for the Panama Railroad Company, the assistant to the special attorney and counsel, whose salary is paid from Panama Railroad funds, and who also is the land agent of The Panama Canal, and as such has charge of the land matters of the canal and the Panama Railroad, two land inspectors, two clerks on the gold roll, one clerk and a messenger on the silver roll. LAND CLAIMS. There were 37 claims settled by the land office during the fiscal year 1917-18, some of which were for improvements only. They aggregated the sum of $80,113.90. This makes a total of 4,418 claims settled and paid by the land office since the work of clearing the Canal Zone commenced under the President's depopulation order of December 5, 1912, aggregating the sum of $1,072,137.20. These settlements were made direct with the claimants, and no awards made by the Joint Commission or the umpire are included in the foregoing statement. The law department was authorized to adjust and settle claims under the Executive order of August 6, 1908. Since that date the law department, and afterwards the office of the special attorney, have settled directly with the claimants and paid 5,480 claims for damages for land and improvements claimed by private parties and taken over by the Government for canal and railroad purposes, aggregating the sum of $1,321,040.50. The Joint Commission disposed of 10 claims in 8 awards during the past fiscal year, 5 awards being for improvements and 5 for land. The aggregate sum involved in these awards was $125,190. The umpire for the Joint Commission, appointed by the Government of the United States and the Govermnent of Panama, under the provisions of Article XV of the Panama Canal treaty of November 18, 1903, disposed of 9 claims by 4 awards during the fiscal year. The 9 claims aggregate in amount the sum of $118,061.38. 293

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294 THE PANAMA CANAL. The total number of awards made by the Joint Commission and umpire, since the promulgation of the President's depopulation order of December 5, 1912, to the end of the fiscal year, was 869, covered by 176 awards, aggregating the sum of $1,090,754.02. The awards of the various Joint Commissions and umpires appointed under Articles XI and XV of the Panama Canal treaty prior to the President's depopulation order of December 5, 1912, amounted to 21, covered by 21 awards, aggregating the sum of $304,588. This gives a grand total of 890 claims settled and paid for under awards made by all of the commissions and umpires appointed under the treaty, making a total of $1,395,242.02 paid out under awards of the commissions and umpires. Hence the aggregate amount paid by the United States for lands and improvements through the law department and special attorney's office, and by virtue of awards of the Joint Commission and the umpires, to the end of the fiscal year, is $2,716,382.52, covering 6,270 claims. During the past fiscal year the Joint Commission dismissed the following claims: Nineteen, because the same had been adjusted by direct settlement between the Government and the claimant; 4, because of the nonappearance of the claimants; 1, for lack of sufficient evidence to support the claim ; 1, for the want of jurisdiction in the commission to try the claim ; and 4, because the improvements claimed were situated on lands held under revocable leases, either from the French Canal Companies, or its successor, the United States, making a total of 29 claims dismissed. During the fiscal year 2 claims were certified to the umpire by the Joint Commission. At the end of the fiscal year 1916-17 there were 9 claims before the umpire for his consideration, and he disposed of 9 claims by awards. He had 2 claims before him for his consideration at the end of the fiscal year, both of which are in the class known as land claims. There were no dismissals by the umpire during the fiscal year just ended. There were 139 claims, involving the sum of $8,005,408.90, appearing on the Joint Commission docket on June 30, 1918; but 48 of these claims are based on Panama Railroad leases, and have been withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the Joint Commission by section 2 of the appropriation act of Congress for sundry civil expenses of the Government, approved July 1, 1916. These claims aggregate the sum of $226,790.55. In addition, there are 9 claims for improvements on lands admittedly owned by the United States and held under revocable lease from the Government, which will be dismissed for want of jurisdiction, in accordance with previous rulings of the commission. They aggregate the sum of $24,264.50. Therefore there remain 82 claims for adjudication and settlement by the Joint Commission, involving the sum of $7,754,353.85. A total of 3,596 claims have been filed with the Joint Commission since February, 1913. Of this number 3,478 have been disposed of by the Joint Commission and the umpire. During the fiscal year 1913-14 the commission dismissed 602 claims and made awards in 629 claims, making a total of claims disposed of 1,231. A considerable majority of the 602 claims dismissed by the

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REPORT OF SPECIAL ATTORNEY. 295 commission were disposed of because the Government had made direct settlement with the claimants. During the year 1914-15 the commission dismissed 377 claims, a large majority of which were disposed of on account of payment having been made to the claimants by the Government, and awards were made in 85 claims, making a total of 462 claims disposed of during the year. During the fiscal year 1915-16 the commission dismissed 872 claims and made awards in 27 claims, besides which awards in 17 claims were made by the umpire, making a total of 916 claims. Most of the 872 claims were dismissed by the commission upon the Government's plea of payment. During the fiscal year 1916-17 the commission dismissed 727 claims and made awards in 85 claims, while the umpire dismissed 2 claims and made awards in 7 claims, making a total of 821 claims. Again, a large majority of the claims dismissed during the year were disposed of upon the Government's plea of payment. During the fiscal year 1917-18 the commission made awards in 10 claims and dismissed 29 claims, while the umpire made awards in 9 claims, making a total of 48 claims. According to the figures just given there remained 118 claims of all classes undisposed of before the commission and umpire at the end of the fiscal year. As a niatter of fact, there were 139 claims still pending on the commission's docket and before the umpire. This discrepancy of 21 claims can be explained by the fact that in many instances, especially in the early Gorgona trials, a part of the claim would be awarded, another part would be certified to the umpire; and in other instances awards were made for the improvements only, leaving the part of the claim for the land undisposed of. This will explain the seeming discrepancy. Owing to the death of Mr. Nicholas Cornet and the resignation of Mr. Clement L. Bouve, who was commissioned in the Army d*f the United States, two vacancies occurred in the membership of the Joint Commission. The vacancies were filled by the President of the United States by the appointment of Judge Burt New, of Indiana, and Judge George A. Connolly, of California, which appointments were made by Executive order of October 3, 1917. The two new commissioners arrived on the Isthmus soon after their appointment, and have been sitting at the sessions of the Joint Commission since their arrival. PANAMA CANAL LAND LICENSES IN EFFECT WITHIN THE CANAL ZONE AT THE END or THE FISCAL TEAR. On June 30, 1918, there were 51 lot licenses in effect in the Canal Zone, which had been issued by the land agent on behalf of The Panama Canal. Of this number 7 licenses were issued during the fiscal year 1917-18. The licenses were granted to various parties to erect oil tanks, steamship office buildings, churches, lodge halls, and residences for the employees of steamship companies and oil companies. The rents collected on these licenses for the fiscal year aggregated the sum of $15,042.02. No rental, however, is collected on lots occupied by churches and used for religious purposes.

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296 THE PANAMA CANAL, PANAMA RAILROAD MATTERS. I am submitting herewith a statement of leases and licenses from the Panama Railroad Company to various parties, in effect on July 1, 1918, as shown by the land office records : Statement of Panama Railroad leases and licenses in effect July 1, 1918.

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REPORT OF SPECIAL ATTORNEY. 297 An increase of approximately IT per cent is shown for the fiscal year 1917-18 in the amount of rentals collected for buildings, office rooms, and storerooms in Colon and Cristobal. All of the rooms in the Masonic Temple Building, Cristobal, except that used by the land agent as an office, and all of the rooms in the Panama Railroad Building in Colon, have been occupied during the entire year by lessees of the railroad company. The Masonic Temple property has been taken over by The Panama Canal, constructively at least, along with other privately owned real estate in the Canal Zone, by virtue of the President's depopulation order of December 5, 1912, but nevertheless the railroad company has continued to collect the rentals from the lessees occupying the Masonic Temple Building. In the Guachapali district, city of Panama, some ground was added to a lot held under a lease, Vhereupon an increased rental was put into effect on that particular lot. In another case in the same district a lodge organization was being charged only a nominal rental for the ground held under lease by them. Contrary to the provisions of the contract, the lodge sublet a part of the lot so held by them, whereupon the rental thereof was increased to the full commercial rate. These two changes account for the 'approximate rental increase for the year 1917-18. In the Panama Eailroad yard one short term lease on a lot was canceled, which accounts for the discrepancy in that item, as compared with the report of the preceding fiscal year. The total number of leases, licenses, and permits issued by the railroad company on lots in the cities of Panama and Colon, and in Cristobal, including licenses for the use of lots in Cristobal, issued by The Panama Canal in effect July 1, 1918, was 1,291, covering 1,365 lots, for which bills were issued in the amount of $132,511.01, as shown by the records of the land office, wdiich figures are $1,885.81 more than those shown by the corresponding item in the report for the fiscal year 1916-17. The total amount of money actually collected on account of the items in the preceding paragraph during the fiscal year just ended, as indicated by figures submitted to this office by the auditor, is $131,530.48, which represents an increase of $276.67 over the actual collections on account of the same items for the year 1916-17. The monthly reports of the land office to the New York office of the Panama Railroad Company show that 22 new leases were issued during the fiscal year 1917-18, which leases covered 22^ lots, all in the cities of Panama and Colon. The majority of the new leases covered by this item were renewals of* old leases. No fires, which affected property situated on Panama Railroad lots of sufficient importance to warrant any mention here, occurred during the fiscal year. As indicated in last year's report a part of Manzanillo Island was filled and placed in municipal order by The Panama Canal, and the land thus created was used as a site for quarters for Panama Canal and Panama Railroad employees. This district is situated in the northeast part of Manzanillo Island and is knowm as new Cristobal. The houses there erected are of the usual cottage and four-family type, and their number during the fiscal year 1917-18 has been increased to the total of 54,

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298 THE PANAMA CANAL. During the fiscal year just passed a fill was completed which covers approximately all of Blocks 55 and 66, and the west half of block 64, Manzanillo Island. This area was placed in municipal order and was used as a site for the proposed new Panama Railroad stables, the proposed new incinerator, and the slaughterhouse for the Municipality of Colon, which is now in the process of erection. As an incident of filling this area, a part of block 54, not fronting upon Broadway, will become available for building purposes with slightly more municipal work having to be done. It is proposed to condemn the present stables situated in the neighborhood of Ninth Street, Colony approximately in the area designated blocks 27 and 30. The leases held by various persons on stable lots in this vicinity have, as, a matter of fact, already been canceled. PANAMA RAELEOAD LITIGATION. The following Panama Railroad cases were disposed of either by judgment or compromise settlement during the fiscal year 1917-18 : district' coubt, division of baxboa. Mildred Garcia v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 198: This was a suit for damages in ttie sum of $2,500 for personal injuries. Complaint was filed on November 27, 1917. Trial was had on January 5, 1918, resulting in a judgment in favor of the Panama Railroad Company. RuJ)en Guevada v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 204-' This was a personal injury suit in which the plaintiff demanded the sum of $25,000. It was filed on December 12, 1917, and a compromise was effected with the plaintiff for the sum of $1,000, and the suit was dismissed on February 7, 1918. district court, division of cbistobai.. Alexander (or J) McKey v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 112 : This was a suit for $1,500 for personal injuries, filed on July 14, 1917. The claim was adjusted and payment made by the railroad company to the plaintiff of $350, and the suit was dismissed. Bruno Caicedo v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 177: This was a suit for the sum of $7,500 on account of personal injuries, resulting in the death of Ramon Caicedo, son of plaintiff. Suit was filed on July 14, 1917. A demurrer filed by counsel for the Panama Railroad Company was sustained and an order entered to dismiss the case within 15 days, unless an amended complaint was filed. On November 26, 1917, the plaintiff filed a motion requesting a reconsideration of the court's order of dismissal. On May 9, 1918, the plaintiff's motion was overruled and the demurrer was made final and the case dismissed. Abraham, Thorpe v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 200: This was a suit for damages in the sum of $1,000 on account of personal injuries. Complaint was filed January 11, 1918. Settlement was effected with the plaintiff by the payment to him of $500 by the railroad company, and the suit was dismissed. magistrate's court, division of BALBOA. James Asendo v. Panama Railroad Company, docket No. SS6: Suit for damages on account of escape of a horse from defendant's stables. Complaint was filed October 20, 1917. Trial was had on October 26, 1917, resulting in a judgment for the railroad company. Francisco Arias, P., v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 3^: Suit for damages in the sum of $250 on account of loss of baggage. Complaint was filed November 24, 1917. Case was tried December 5, 1917, and judgment rendered in favor of plaintiff for $100 and costs. James Valentine v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 351: Suit for damages in the sum of $75, on account of loss of freight. Suit was in-

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REPORT OF SPECIAL ATTORNEY. 299 stituted on February 1, 1918, a trial was had February 5, 1918, and judgment was rendered in favor of the railroad company. magistrate's court, division of CRISTOBAL. James Roberts v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 365: Suit was instituted against the railroad company in which the sum of $300 damages was claimed, upon a charge of false arrest and malicious prosecution against the company. Trial was had October 6, 1917, which resulted in a judgment in favor of the railroad company. Mury Moore v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 377: Being a suit for damages in the sum of $300, on account of breach of contract to carry baggage. Case was filed November 2, 1917. Judgment was obtained against the railroad company on December 15, 1917, for the sum of $71.15. B. Rosenberg & Sons v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 3^3: Suit was instituted on February 19, 1917. for damages in the sum of $288.70, on account of injury to a shipment of tobacco. The defendant company filed a motion for security of costs. Thereupon the plaintiff dismissed his case. The following Panama Eailroad cases were pending at the end of the fiscal year 1917-18 : DISTRICT COURT, DIVISION OF BALBOA. N. K. Ovalle and R. J. Calvo v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 239: This suit was filed June 11, 1918, and the plaintiffs seek damages in the sum of $2,000 on account of loss of and damage to a shipment of freight. Joseph Ldscomb v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 237: This suit was filed on May 25. 1918, and the plaintiff is demanding damages in the sum of $5,500, on account of a breach of contract of carriage. The defendant company has filed a plea to the jurisdiction, which had not been acted upon by the court at the end of the fiscal year. Evelina Robert v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 219: This suit was instituted on February 21, 1918. for the sum of $20,000, on account of personal injuries. The case was not tried during the past fiscal year, but was tried on the 26th of July, 1918, and the plaintiff recovered a judgment of $2,500 against the Panama Railroad Company. A motion for a new trial is to be presented in due course by counsel for the railroad company. The injuries complained of by the plaintiff in this case resulted from a collision with one of the delivery wagons of one of the commissaries. The contention of counsel for the Panama Railroad Company was that the Panama Railroad Company is not liable for the reason, among others, that the commissaries are being operated by The Panama Canal and not the Panama Railroad Company. George 8. Robb v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket. No. 23^: This .suit was instituted on May 16. 1918, and the plaintiff sought to obtain damages in the sum of $451.25, on account of the demolition of an automobile by one of the Panama Railroad engines. The case was not disposed of during the last fiscal year, but on the 12th of July, 1918, the case was tried and a judgment obtained in behalf of the Panama Railroad Company. DISTRICT COURT, DIVISION OF CRISTOBAL. The Muller Company, Sucrs., a Corporation, v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 188: This is a suit instituted November 6, 1917, wherein the plaintiffs claim damages in the sum of $497.46, on account of the loss of goods by carrier. Answer has been filed by the railroad company and the case will be tried and disposed of in the near future. James Daley v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 70: This suit was filed on January 30, 1915. The plaintiff claims damages for $440.80, on account of an alleged breach of contract for the furnishing of ties for the railroad company. The case has been delayed due to the absence of witnesses. T. A. Green v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 197: This case was filed on July 3, 1915, and the plaintiff seeks damages in the sum of $1,000 on account of injuries to a horse, resulting in its death. The plaintiff died since the filing of the suit, and the trial of the cause was delayed awaiting the •

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300 . THE PANAMA CANAL. appointment of an administrator to represent the plaintiff's interest. The regularity of the administrator's appointment is questioned by one of the interested parties, and this has resulted in delaying a final disposition of the case. B. Barnett v. Panama Railroad Company;, civil docket No. 181: This is a suit for damages in the sum of $G59, on account of an alleged breach of contract. It was filed August 15, 1917. Answer has been filed by the Panama Railroad Company, and it is expected that the suit will be disposed of in the very near future. Mateo TJgalde v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 235: This suit was filed May 24, 1918, and the plaintiff seeks damages in the sum of $7,500 for personal injuries. Plea to the court's jurisdiction was filed by the defendant company on June 11, 1918, and had not been acted upon by the court at the end of the fiscal year. John Payne v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 167: This suit was filed April 12, 1917, for the sum of $2,000 damages on account of personal injuries. Motion for security of costs was filed by the defendant company, and the plaintiff ordered to secure the costs, which was not done ; and motion was made by counsel for the railroad for the dismissal of the case. The motion has not yet been acted upon by the court. Arnold Valencia v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 168: This is a suit for damages in the sum of $2,000, on account of failure to transport baggage. It was filed on April 18, 1917. Answer has been filed by the railroad company and the case has been continued from time to time by the plaintiff. Panama Railroad Company v. Eufracio C. de Villalobos and Porfirio Melendez: This suit was instituted by the Panama Railroad Company for recovery of lands. Petition was filed March 1, 1912. After the suit was filed an adjustment of the issues between the railroad company and Porfirio Melendez was had. The land involved in the suit was taken over by the United States by virtue of the President's depopulation order of December 5, 1912. The fact that the land was taken over by the United States was called to the court's attention and the railroad company asked for a dismissal of the case without prejudice. The railroad company's motion was opposed by counsel for Villalobos, and was thereupon denied by the court. Hugh Ranee v. Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 199: This is was filed January 11, 1918, and damages in the sum of $5,000 are claimed on account of personal injuries. Demurrer to complaint was filed on behalf of the Panama Railroad Company and argued on April 25, 1918. The matter was taken under advisement by the court and an order was entered on July 5, 1918, overruling the defendant's demurrer. Pedro C. Cerezo v. Eusebio piaz et al., Panama Railroad Company, intervenors: This is an action brought to establish title to real property. Petition was filed on June 24, 1909. No action was taken in this case prior to the President's depopulation order of December 5, 1912, and no action can be taken on it by the court at this time, except to dismiss the case, inasmuch as the land involved in the controversy has been taken over by the United States. Our efforts to have the case dismissed have not been successful owing to the plaintiff's objection. Panama Railroad Company v. A. S. Mendez ct al.: This is a suit brought for the recovery of land. Petition was filed March 6, 1912. Some time after the President's depopulation order of December 5, 1912, the Panama Railroad Company asked for the dismissal of this case without prejudice, upon the ground that the United States had taken over the property, and that the defendants had filed their claims before the Joint Commission for damages on account of the Government having taken over the land. The motion was denied by the court. The claim of A. S. Mendez and others was tried by the Joint Commission and was dismissed for the want of merit in the claim by the commission under ruling made on the 2d day of July, 1918. The ruling of the commission will be brought to the attention of the district court and the railroad company's motion to dismiss will be renewed. Tomas Reina v. Beatrice Braclio et al. and the Panama Railroad Company, civil docket No. 139: This was a suit for the partition of lands known as Rio Indio and Mindi. It was filed May 29, 1916, sometime after the land had been taken over by the United States \mder the depopulation order of the President of December 5, 1912. A suggestion was filed by the district attorney on behalf of the United States that the lands had passed to the United States, and pleas

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REPORT OF SPECIAL ATTORNEY. 301 in bar were filed by several of tbe defendants, including the Panama Railroad Company. The pleas were sustained and the case was dismissed on April 24, 1918, and notice of appeal has been given by the plaintiff. The following Panama Railroad Company suits were pending on writ of error from the Supreme Court of the United States and the United States Circuit Court of Appeals at New Orleans at the end of the fiscal year 1918 : Theodore Bosse v. Panama Railroad Company, ciinl docket No. 119: This was a suit for $10,000 damages on account of personal injuries. It was file
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302 THE PANAMA CANAL. Supreme Court of tlie Canal Zone has been sustained by the United States Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans, which court has in several instances held that the principles of common law are applicable in the Canal Zone. The case of Theodore Bosse v. The Panama Railroad Co., and the case of Joseph T. Toppin v. The Panama Railroad Co., now pending in the Supreme Court of the United States, present the issue clearly for the determination of that court whether or not the courts of the Canal Zone are to follow common-law principles or the laws and jurisprudence of Colombia. Hence, the two cases are of extreme importance, inasmuch as a ruling favorable to the railroad will be far reaching in its effect and of considerable benefit to the company. During the last fiscal year this office has rendered services of an advisory character to the Governor and the various department heads, and in some instances to the commanding officer of the military forces ; and also to the American Minister in Panama. The various activities of our Government on the Isthmus, not connected directly with the canal, but due to the present war, have presented numerous legal questions which have been submitted to this office for an opinion thereon, thus increasing the advisory work of the office over that done at any time since the change of the canal organization from a construction system to that of operation. LEGISLATION. No congressional l