Citation
Panama Canal Review

Material Information

Title:
Panama Canal Review
Creator:
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
Panama Canal Company
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights Republic of Panama
Publisher:
Panama Canal Commission
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : col. ill. ; 28-34 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
PANAMA CANAL ZONE ( unbist )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with v. 1 (May 1950).
Issuing Body:
Vols. for 19 -19 issued by Panama Canal Co.; <Oct. 1, 1980-> by Panama Canal Commission.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Official Panama Canal publication"--19 -19 .
General Note:
Description based on: Oct. 1, 1980.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
01774059 ( OCLC )
67057396 ( LCCN )
0031-0646 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Related Item:
Panama Canal review en espagñol

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Full Text

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2009 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1971pana

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W. p. Leber Governor-President R. S. Hartline Lieutenant Governor Frank A. Baldwin Panama Canal Information Officer mihi Official Panama Canal Publication Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer Publications Editors Louis R. Granger, Tomas A. Cupas Writers Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hernandez, Jose T. Tunon, Willie K. Friar, and Luis C. Noli Review articles may b reprinted wittiout furtlier clearance. Credit to ttie Review will be appreciated. Subscriptions: SI a year, airmail S2 a year,back copies (regular maih, 25 cents eacti. Published quarterly. Make postal money orders payable to the Panama Canal Company, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Editorral Offices are locoted in the Administrotion Building, Balboa Heights, C Z Printed at the Printing Plant Lo Boco C Z Contents Flowering Trees Their beautiful blossoms, strange fruit, and unusual habits fascinate nature lovers. The Bomberos The Panama Fire Department maintains prestige earned in almost a century of service. Peacock Bass A colorful game fish makes Gatun Lake a fisherman's paradise. History of the Compass An object of mystery and superstition, its invention opened the way to global exploration. Language of the Sea Many landlubbers' slang expressions were born aboard ships. Panama Birdcages Unusual designs are fashioned from cane. Anniversaries 11 12 15 18 20 22 Reefer Trade Linking the continents, fast new refrigerated ships carry bananas and other foods essential to modern life. Shipping Statistics 26 Cuhnary Capers 28 Each Latin American country gives its own touch to that zippy appetizer, seviche. History 31 """^il Our Covers FLAUNTING ITS golden beauty at the height of the dry season, the Tahehiiia guayacan is one of the most majestically beautiful of all the flowering tropical trees. This giant guayacan, which stands on Ancon Hill across from the Governor's residence, blends into the surrounding jungle during the rainy season and is little noticed. In March or April, however, after it has shed its leaves, as if touched by a magic wand, it suddenly bursts into bloom. The beautiful showy blossoms clothe the shapely tree in a robe of brilliant vellow. Then, in only a few days, as suddenly as they appeared, the blossoms shower to the ground like golden snowflakes leaving the gaunt skeletonlike limbs completely bare. Until scattered by the tradewinds, the petals lie like a plush yellow carpet beneath the tree. On the back cover is a tree known by manv names. The botanical name for this striking ornamental tree is Lagestroemja speciosa but it is called crepe myrtle, queen of flowers, pride of India, June rose, and a number of other names. Speciosa comes from the Latin meaning "pleasing to the eye," and when bedecked with its lacy lavender blossoms this lovely deciduous tree appears fittinglv named. It is valued not only for its ornamental beauty but also for its tough red timber. This outstandingly beautiful tree is located on Enterprise Place in Balboa. Both photographs by Arthur L. PoUack, Panama Canal Information Office photographer. February 1971

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Flowering Trees A spectacular display of color at the height of the dry season brightens the Isthmian landscape By WiUie K. Friar ID YOU know that water pistols grow on trees? They do in the tropics, and Canal Zone children learn at an early age where to get a supply. They are to be had, for the plucking, from the nearest African tulip tree, the unopened -buds of which squirt forth a stream of water when squeezed or pierced. Because of this peculiar characteristic, the tree is called the fountain tree. It is also known as the flame-of-theforest because of its fiery red blossoms. The African tulip is just one of the many unusual flowering trees growing on the Isthmus. Those who are acquainted with the ways of trees find the tropical flowering ones not only beautiful but their unusual characteristics and beha\dor fascinating. Their habits and fruits seem strangely different from those of trees found in the temf>erate zone. They exhibit little of the rigid behavior of the northern trees and often bloom whenever they feel like it, with little regard to the calendar. Blossoms Change Color Some change the color of their petals between morning and evening while others switch colors from day to day, or the blossoms exhibit one color on the tree but change color completely when they fall to the ground. Some bloom all over the branches or up and down the trunks instead of among the leaves. Some have blossoms that hang upside down and others bloom only after dark. Newcomers to the tropics often are amazed to discover that a plant that was a small shrub in their hometown in the United States is a giant tree in the tropics. Which brings up the question—where is the dividing line between a tree and a shrub? The blossom of the African tulip tree seems to cast a glow around the face of Miss Elaine Almstead, Canal Zone College student, as she admires its fiery beauty. This ever-blooming tree is often called flame-of-the-forest because of the profusion of brilliant red blossoms. The Panama Canal Review

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Typical of trees introduced on the Isthmus from the West Indies is the breadfruit tree, outstanding for its warty, yellow-green fruit. Captain Bligh carried breadfruit trees from Tahiti to the West Indies in 1793 after an earlier effort failed due to the mutiny on the H.M.S. "Bounty." A large impressive specimen of the tree is located on Gorgas Rd. near Gorgas Hospital. Environment is usually the determining factor in whether a certain plant will become tree-like or remain a shrub, and residents of a certain area generally call a plant a tree if it has that appearance when grown locally. In other words, a plant might be a shrub in Texas and a tree in Panama. Early Explorers The early explorers of Panama were so impressed by the strangely beautiful trees they found on the Isthmus that they went to great effort to collect specimens to take back to Europe. This was no easy task as the small trees had to be protected from the salt spray at sea and stQl be carried onto the deck daily for exposure to the sun. Few survived the trip and the change of climate but today there are tropical trees in herbariums in some European countries that were started in this way. Most people know of Capt. Bligh's experiences told in "Mutiny on the Bounty" when he attempted to transport breadfruit trees from the South Pacific islands to the West Indies. The mutiny caused the failure of his first efforts but 6 years later he succeeded in transporting not only the breadfruit trees but other valuable trees aboard the Providence and introducing them in the West Indies where they are found today. In this way, as well as by other means, many colorful trees seen on the Isthmus have been introduced from other countries. Some of the ornamental trees seen around Gorgas Hospital were brought here from the French West Indies by the Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul who were in charge of the hospital Enjoying the fragrance of the sweet smelling flowers of the cannonball tree is Miss Judy Tompkins, Balboa High School student. The flowers, which grow right out of the bark, have no connection with the foliage at the top of the tree. They are followed by the novel cannonball-Iike fruit that dangles from the branches. at the time of the French effort to dig a Canal. The sisters carefully tended their plants and small trees and protected them from the voracious leaf-cutting ants by placing ceramic rings filled with water around them. This saved the plants but unknowingly the sisters provided an excellent breeding place for the Aedes aegijpti mosquito which later research revealed was the carrier of N'ellow fever. There is, of course, no spring in the hopics as it is known in the temperate zone, only the change from the rainy to the dry season. But the array of blossoms, which suddenly appear on many tre^s, rivals the splendor of spring in the temperate zone. Rose van Hardevelt, author of "Make the Dirt Fly," expressed the feelings of many others when she wrote about the first dry season she experienced after coming to the Canal Zone with her husband who was working on the construction of the Canal. "Life, instead of being a succession of hours of rain and moments of frantically scraping off mold and trying to dry out, became liveable again. "On the hillsides eastward now appeared here and there single, tall, beautifully shaped trees that had not been noticeable before in the mass of dripping greenness that covered every inch of space on the slopes. And then, so suddenly that it was startling, these trees burst into bright yellow blossoms. Like huge, golden bouquets, they lifted their beauty to the blue sky. Then another color appeared among the blossoming trees, a deep purple, and then a glowing crimson." Memorable Experience Transiting the Canal at this time of the year is a memorable experience with brilliant spots of color brightening the jungle on both sides of the waterway. Some trees begin to flower in the middle of the dry season and some just before the dry season ends, but almost all the trees bloom for only a brief period. There are actually some trees in bloom in the Canal Zone throughout the year but the spectacular exhibitions come during the dry season. Someone has said that Washington's famed Japanese cherry trees would be completely overshadowed if some of the Isthmian flowering trees could be concentrated along one avenue or road. But the local tres are more or less "loners" and don't often grow close together. J 4 Februahy 1971

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However, one beautiful vista during the dry season is a long-range view of a portion of Gatun Lake from the Trans-Isthmian Highway about 15 miles from Cristobal. In this area, the green of the jungle is studded with bright yellow splashes of color produced by the blossoms of the tree known locally as the guayacan; their color visible from planes overhead as well as from the road. The tree, considered by many as the most outstandingly beautiful tree in the local forests, has large showy yellow blossoms which are bom in terminal clusters when the tree is leafless. Unfortunately the blossoms remain on the trees only a few days before they shower down like yellow snowflakes. Several of these trees are located on Ancon Hill and across from the Governor's house. Wassail Bowls The wood of this beautiful tree is much valued commercially. It is olivebrown, very hard, takes a high polish and is considered one of the best woods of Panama. It makes beautiful salad or nut bowls and is believed to be the wood that was used by the English in making their traditional Christmas Wassail bowls more than 4 centuries ago. Some of the beams of the cathedral of Old Panama are said to have been made of this wood and have remained sound although exposed to weather for 2.50 years. It also was once considered to have curative powers but is now little used as a medicine. Around 1700, it was thought to be the penicillin of that day. An Englishman in Jamaica at that time wrote of how the medicine was concocted and used. He said, "Take 12 ounces of shavings of wood and two of bark and five quarts water— boiling away one quarter part, strain." In some circles this remedy was considered dangerous unless taken 40 days in the dark, and with an exact diet of raisins and almonds with biscuits. The roble (a form of oak), is a close relative of the guayacan and is almost as beautiful. Near the end of the dry season, these trees are so densely covered with nearly white to rose-colored flowers that they form giant bouquets. In their shades of color they resemble Japanese cherry trees. Several of these trees grow in Ancon and there is a large one in the Old Corral area there. The Jacarandas Other conspicuous flowering trees of the dry season are two species of Floating in a finger bowl is the flower of the ilang-ilang, one of the most fragrant of the flowering tropical trees. Hostesses often place the flower in bowls and when a guest pinches the bud it gives forth a lovely scent. The ilang-ilang is also used in the making of perfume* jacaranda, the various species of cassias, royal poinciana, and the African tulip tree. The jacarandas are handsome trees with large blue, violet or purple flowers in showy clusters. A good specimen of jacaranda is growing in Balboa Heights at the intersection of Prospect Street and Heights Road. The flowers of all sj>ecies resemble Staging an impromptu water battle using African tulip buds are Lyn Bouzard, left, Julie Callin, and James Bouzard, The buds, when pressed or pierced, spurt forth a stream of water. When they open they form beautiful fiery red blossoms. The Panama Canal Review

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FloLuehng Trees little bluebells and look like a blue plush carpet under the tree when they fall to the ground. Curative powers have been attributed to the jacaranda and some of the Indians of Panama have used the bark to treat skin diseases. Both types of the jacaranda growing in the Canal Zone have purple blossoms. One type with flowers along its branches is usually found around local towns and the other, which has large terminal clusters of blossoms in a crown around the upper part of the tree, is found in the jungle. One of the former is located opposite the Governor's house at the comer of the road leading to Quarry Heights. The royal poinciana or flame tree, a native of Madagascar, is extensively planted in the Canal Zone as an ornamental tree. It is large and spreading and is not very attractive except when it flowers; then it becomes a mass of bright red blossoms. An exceptionally outstanding poinciana grows near the First Baptist Church in Balboa Heights. African Tulip Tree The African tulip tree, a native of tropical Africa, is tall with a narrow crown and has large dark-red flowers which grow in clusters like the common lilv-of-the-vallev. It is seen all over the Isthmus but some particularly good specimens may be found along Bamebey Street in Balboa and near the Cristobal Administration Building. Ilang-ilang is a flowering tree that disproves the often-heard statement that "in the tropics the flowers have no smell." Its fragrant perfume permeates the surrounding area and is usually recognized before the tree is seen. Not a conspicuous flowering tree, its droopy yellow blossoms with strap-shaped petals are strange in appearance. Isthmian hostesses sometimes place them in finger bowls and when the guests pinch the buds the fragrance fills the room. In Malaysia they are used to make a perfume base. Another fragrant flowering tree seen about the Isthmus is the frangipani. Some say that only the bloom of the jasmine, with which it is often confused, can compete in sweetness of scent. Yet perfume-makers have never profitably extracted the frangipani scent and the commercial frangipani perfume is still made by mixing oils to imitate the odor. Frangipani Perfume Interestingly, it appears that the tree was named for the perfume instead of the other way around. Frangipani perfume was created by a man of that name in Rome in the 12th century. It was a favorite scent of Italian rovaltv two centuries before the discoverv of the western hemisphere. That earlv European explorers thought the smell of the frangipani flowers resembled that of the perfume is one explanation of the origin of the name of the tree. Another is that the word comes from the French, "frangipanier," which means coagulated milk. The tree has a milky-latex-like stickv juice which exudes from the bark when cut. The large waxy flower of the frangipani is composed of five overlapping p>etals, which spread in star-fashion. There are both white and red frangipani in the Canal Zone which bloom the vear-round but bear the greatest number of flowers just before the rainy season. In Hawaii, these blossoms are popular for making leis. Toward the end of the dry season, in April, the cordia, another fragrant tree, which has white flowers, may be seen almost everywhere in Panama. Unfortunately the flowers soon turn brown and since they remain on the trees for several weeks present a rather dirty appearance. Showy Flowers At least 25 species of cassias are grown in the Canal Zone. Most have large showy flowers, but the most conspicuous are the golden shower along El Prado in Balboa; the pink and white shower, which has masses of pink and white blossoms along the branches; and the bronze shower with pendulant grape-like clusters of bronze flowers. In addition to the red or flame poinciana, there is the yellow poinciana tree. It has a long flowering period which usually begins in April. An especially beautiful vellow poinciana grows near the Civil Affairs Building on Gaillard Highway. A good look at a variety of flowenng and other interesting trees may be had by taking a trip through the Balboa area. One such trail starts at the Goethals Memorial Monument at the foot of the Administration Building hfll. passes the Balboa Railroad Station, cui"ves up the hill to the Administration Building, continues along Heights Road to the Governor's house and then continues left toward Gorgas Hospital to the Tivoli Guest House. Along this route may be seen the following trees; cuipo, star apple, pink and white shower, golden shower, yellow cassia, screw pine, Chinese banyan, sausage tree, guayacan, pride of India, African tulip tree, calabash, date palm, ilang-ilang, bamboo palm, coconut palm. Panama hat plant, breadfruit tree, and royal poinciana. These trees are all plainly marked so that the signs may be read if one drives by slowly. Summit Gardens A great deal of the beauty of the local scene, not only during the dry season but the year around, is the result of plantings from Summit Gardens, which was established to introduce plants from different parts of the tropical world and disseminate them in this immediate area. Plants have been received from such faraway places as Madagascar, the Philippines, Australia and New Zealand, Hawaii, China, and Burma, to name a few countries. Every Canal Zone townsite has been beautified by trees grown in the gardens. Walking tours of the gardens are conducted during the dry season by Roy Sharp, supervisor of grounds for the Pacific area of the Canal Zone, affording tourists as well as local residents a good opportunity to see the many flowering trees close-up in all their glory. The sudden shower of blossoms from a flowering tree provides "golden snowflakes" for Jeanne, 3!4-year-old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. Dale Bishop, of Los Rios, who finds them as much fun as the real thing. 6 Februahy 1971

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By Luis C. Noli PANAMA IS famous today for its baseball players and jockeys who have won acclaim outside the national borders. But long before them, its firemen, known to all Isthmian residents as bomberos, gave the countrv international renown. The Panama City Firemen Corps has long ranked as a model institution in these latitudes and sister organizations have looked to it over the vears for their own improvement. With scaroelv 17 years to go before attaining its first century, the Firemen Corps maintains the prestige earned through three generations of men who in placing service above self have made the highest sacrifice in the line of dutv. Today, Panama Citv works and sleeps practically unconcerned over the threat of fire, for it has placed its trust in the ability of its bomberos— most of them volunteers— to overcome any outbreak of fire. It is a trust forged by tragedy and heroism, 88 Volunteers For example: June 3, 1888-the Panama City Firemen Corps, composed of 88 volunteers in 2 companies, is barely 7 months old. A group of citizens, representing all ranks of the community, had founded it November 27, 1887, to protect the capital from the voracity of fire which razed entire sections with alarming frequency. Its main equipment consists of two hand-operated pumps that have to be hauled by men. Bugle calls and police whistles sound a fire alarm. The Roma Hotel, located at what is now Colon and East 14th Streets, is burning. The pumps are connected to the Santa Ana Plaza cistern, one of several installed in the citv to help fight A continuing training program keeps Panama's firemen up-to-date with latest fire-fighting methods. Here a heavily clothed bombero moves in to do battle with an oil blaze. blazes. After 5 hours of intense effort, the conflagration is extinguished. It has been the Panama firemen's baptism of fire. . The civil war which marked the beginning of the 20th Century in Panama disintegrated the recently formed Firemen Corps, for its members too, were prey to the political passions of the time. But with the conflict over, it was not long before old comrades found themselves side by side again, fighting the common foe— fire. And curiously enough, it was a blaze on Mav 24, 1903, that, among other circumstances, made possible the reorganization of the corps. In the words of the corps' historian: "At the call for help and the sounds of alarm, all those who had formed Company No. 1 prior to the war ran as if driven by an irresistible force for their fire pumps, their hatchets and their hoses, to report immediately to the scene of the fire." Reorganized Thus, when on November 3, 1903, Isthmians raised the torch of independence for all time, the Firemen Corps, already reorganized into four compaBomberos of Panama Alert and faithful to a difficult and dangerous job, Panama's firefighters have earned international acclaim as well as warm accolades from Isthmian residents. The Panama Canal Review

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Three leading fire department officials discuss recent improvements to fire stations. From left are: Lt. Col. Guillermo Leblanc, Jr., second commandant and chief of the Safety Office; Col. Segismundo Navarro, commandant of the Panama Firemen Corps and inspector general of all fire departments; and Maj. Gerardo Z. Typaldos, third commandant. 'A*L^ Training is intensive at Rodman Naval Station's firemen's school operated by the Canal Zone Fire Division. Capt. E. L. Hooper, in white hat, is the division's drillmaster and directs the training for bomberos at the school. Colon's musical firemen pass the reviewing stand during Fourth of July ceremonies at Mt. Hope. Other large bombero bands are at Panama City, David, and Chitri. nies, participated actively in the freedom movement and earned for itself authorization, by law, to displav the national colors. The Firemen Corps progressed as the capital city grew. In 1905, a hydrant svstem was completed to replace the cisterns of the preceding century; in 1909, the first company of professional firemen was commissioned for roundthe-clock duty; in 1912, the first motor pumper was placed in use, ending the era of hand-operated pumps, and in the following year a system of fire alarm boxes was installed. The accolade of glorx', however, was still to come. On Mav 5, 1914, in what was then the suburbs of the city, an old colonial fort served as a powder magazine. It was known as El Polvorin. Brush fires in the vicinity had led to warnings of the need to move the magazine farther away from the city. But on May 5, 1914, El Polvorin was still in use, foreboding disaster. Save The City TTie fire alarm sounded that morning at 2:. 50 a.m. The fact that the powder magazine was the scene of the fire did not daunt the firemen; on the contrary, it drove them to peaks of valor in a gallant attempt to save the city from the catastrophe thev feared. And when thev discovered that the first line of hose did not reach the site of the fire, the order was given to advance to the masonrv' building itself to wage the battle. The firemen stood ready, nozzles in hand, awaiting the rush of water, when in the darkness flames leaped through the roof of El Polvorin. The holocaust occurred in an instant. El Polvorin blew up— all 1,500 kegs and 300 cases of powder and 90 cases of dynamite. Si.x firemen in the vanguard perished. Ten were injured. Some survived miraculously. One of the survivors, the late Deputy Chief Dario Vallarino, summed up the firemen's memorable stand at El Polvorin with simple eloquence: "The possibility of a retreat— It would have been a humiliating flight from the danger threatening us— never crossed the minds of the chiefs of the corps. We knew what that danger was, we expected it, but we also felt the weight of the responsibility upon us which demanded that we stand firm in the face of any risk, to save the citv from the catastrophe which we sensed would be caused the day El Polvorin blew up. 8 February 1971

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There were those who called us foolhard\', but this does not applv to us. For in order to comprehend our stand it is necessars' to realize the fears we had long harbored with respect to El Polvorin and that, had we retreated and the cit\' been ruined bv the explosion, then we would have been branded as cowards, and rightly so. All of us who were there simplv tried to carry out our self-imposed duty." White Obelisk A marble marker not far from the intersection of Via Bolivar and National Avenue marks the site of El Polvorin, and a white obelisk at 5th of Mav Plaza, near the old railroad station in the verv heart of the citv, points to the sk\' in remembrance of the heroes of the Panama Firemen Corps. Today, a fire alarm in Panama City mobilizes up to 800 men— some 110 professional firemen in four stations and approximated 700 volunteers in 8 companies—and about 20 pieces of rolling equipment. The latter include three new American LaFrance pumpers, two "snorkel" t^pe pumpers each with a 65-foot water tower, and one John Beam high-pressure pumper. Everv piece of rolling equipment is provided with instruments and devices to face practically any fire situation. (The iniHal equipment at the time of the founding of the corps in 1887; 2 handoperated pumps, 2 hand-drawn carts each with 1,000 feet of hose, 1 ladder cart, 24 canvas tubes, 2 dozen longhandle hatchets, 2 dozen short-handle hatchets, 1 pick and 1 shovel.) The system of fire alarm boxes still is in use in the cit\', but it extends onlv to the section of La Carrasquilla. Other areas depend on the telephone to give the alarm. A fire siren summons volunteers and a radio network links all the fire stations and all the rolling equipment units, providing instant communications. 50 Silver Pesos As important as its primarv function of fighting fires is the corps' fireprevention activity' todav, carried out b\' its Safety Ofiice and its professional personnel. The scope of the corps' activities is indicated by the fact that its budget this year is $1.2 million. The funds come from a Panama Government subsidy plus the revenue from a 5 percent lev\' on the gross premiums of fire insurance policies and renewals. (In its initial years, the Firemen Corps relied on a monthlv municipal subsidy of 50 silver pesos ($25) and voluntarv contributions from merchants and real estate oumers averaging about 1,100 pesos monthly.) In command of the Panama Firemen Corps todav is Col. Segismundo Navarro, in private life secretary and suFanama City firemen practice using a modem "snorkel" type pumper truck with a 65-foot water tower. perintendent of Dillon Construction Co. Chief Navarro, a 31-year veteran of the corps, was elected to the post by an officers' assembly in September 1969. His first and second deputies, similarly Kept in running condition is this Knox Bretnick, the latest piece of equipment in 1911. It also was used in state funerals to carry the remains of presidents. Posing with the 60-year-old vehicle are permanent members of Ricardo Arango Station which is the headquarters of die Panama City Firemen Corps. Seated next to the driver is Capt. Lino C^sar Perez, chief of all the station's shifts. At the wheel is 2d Lt. Rolando Quintero. The Panama Canal Review 9

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Three bomberos pose with modem and old equipment At right is an 84-year-old pumper which was donated to the department by the Chinese community. elected, are Lt. Col. Guillermo Leblanc, Jr. and Maj. Gerardo Z. T)paldos, respectively. Under Chief Navarro, the corps' fire-fighting equipment has been augmented and improved and the Firemen's School program has been expanded. This is a training center for all fire-fighting personnel in the countrv; Venezuelan and Costa Rican bomberos also have been trained there. Improvements have been made in all fire stations; two new ones have been built and two more are going up this vear. Predecessors Chief Navarro is the eighth man to hold the post in the corps' 83-vear history. His predecessors are, in chronological order: Ricardo Aran go, who served from 1887 to 1889; Florencio Arosemena, 1889-1903; David H. Brandon, 1903; Jose Gabriel Duque, 1903-1912; Juan A. Guizado, 1912-1950; Raul Firemen, hidden by the truck, spray water on a building in the El Maran6n section of Panama City during a 1962 blaze. This area is near 5th of May Plaza where a monument is located dedicated to heroes of the Panama Firemen Corps. Arango. 1950-1964, and Luis C. Endara, 1964-1969. Unquestionably, the chief who left the deepest imprint on the corps was the late Juan A. Guizado. He not onl\helped found the corps in 1887 but took the lead in rescuing it from disintegration in 1889 and again in 1903. When he retired from active service in 1950, after exercising command of the corps for 38 \ears, he had devoted 63 \'ears of his life to fire-fighting. The Panama Firemen Corps has served as a pattern for other fire-fighting organizations in the countr\'. The second oldest is the Colon Firemen Corps, whose official founding date is Julv 20. 1897. Actually, there was a "Societv' for the Protection of the Commerce of Colon"— in effect a fire-fighting brigade— from 1888 to 1890. As in the case of the Panama City corps, the Colon organization began as an association of private persons, including nationals and foreigners. Today, the Colon Firemen Corps numbers 315 volunteers and 48 professional firemen. Its commanding oflicers are Col. Thomas J. Butler, Jr., a prominent Atlantic side businessman, and Lt. Col. Moises Mendez and Maj. Charles Ferret, Jr. Every Province There are approximatelv 30 otlier fire-fighting organizations in the interior of the country', most of them founded in the last 30 years. There is at least one in every province, ranging in size from corps to brigades. By law, the chief of the Panama Firemen Corps acts as inspector general of all the fire-fighting organizations in the Republic. The Panama corps also has helped organize fire-fighting units in Colombia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, and Costa Rica. In the time elapsed since November 27, 1887, there is one thing about the Panama Firemen Corps that remains unchanged. It is the bombero himself. Now as then, he is driven by an ideal of selfless service to his fellow being. Still appropriate today are the words of the survivor of the tragedv of El Polvorin quoted earlier: "AU of us who were there simply tried to carry out our self-imposed duty." This is the spirit that inspired the motto of the Panama Firemen Corps, "Discipline, Honor, and Abnegation," and has kept it alive from one generation to the next. 10 Februahy 1971

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eacoci kB, ass: Fun to Catch j^ Fine to Eat GATUN LAKE has become a fisherman's paradise. And all because of a bright goldenorange colored fish called Tucunare which was unknown to most Isthmians onlv 5 \ears ago. The Tucunare, known as "peacock bass" because of the eve marking on its tail similar to the "eye" on a peacock's tail, is currently a favorite catch in Gatun Lake. The natives, who also have put the fish on their most popular list, call the big mouth bass "sargento" because of the vertical stripes on its back. A fresh water fish, it is native to South American waters and appears to be most abundant in Venezuela and the Amazon River system. It averages 10 to 12 inches in length but mav grow much larger and weigh as much as 30 pounds. In South America it is called pavon, Spanish for peacock. It's considered a superb game fish and the meat is quite delicious. Prominent Hump Tucunare is the Portuguese word for this handsome fish. The male can be identified during spawning season by a fattv hump on the top of his head. This hump is reabsorbed during the nonmating season and reformed each year. A biologist with the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Vernon E. Ogilvie, who studied the peacock bass in Venezuela, said the hump apparently has no physical use but may attract the female. The adult is grey-green or purplish green on the back surface shading to golden yelloiw on the sides and dusky yellow on the belly. Peacock bass was first introduced into Canal Zone waters about 5 vears ago bv the late Louis Martinz, a Panama businessman, who imported eggs from A freshly caught peacock bass appears ready to fight on. Note the fatty hump on the top of its head, which identifies the male during mating season. Colombia and put them in the lake at Las Cumbres. The eggs hatched and the fish not only reproduced freely, but migrated to other parts of the Isthmus, traveling into the Gatuncillo River and from there to Gatun Lake, where local anglers are finding them in abundance. A strong swimmer that sometimes can be seen jumping into the air, the peacock bass is found mostly near the banks of the Canal from Gamboa to Gatun in places were the grass is most abundant. It seeks the grassy areas for protection and to feed on sardines. Plugs, Flies Ogilvie said "the sporting qualities of the peacock bass have been found to be excellent. They viciously strike a wide variety of artificial lures and take minnows readily. They also have been caught on tadpoles and earthworms. When hooked they fight a fast, hard fight, often punctuated by spectacular head-shaking jumps. They will not hesitate to use underwater obstructions to help them escape the hook." Charles Abemathy, who operates a sporting goods store in Panama, was one of the first local anglers to catch the new species in this area. He considers the meat, which is white to creamy colored, excellent for making seviche, even better than corbina which is the fish most commonly used for this typical dish of Panama. Abemathy recalls with nostalgia that onlv a few vears ago he could go to Gatun Lake near Frijoles, find a place to sit and wait for them to bite. "But now vou have to get up very early to find a place where other fishermen are not already trying to catch some bass," he said. Ross Anderson, supervisor of physical education and athletics for U.S. schools, is an enthusiastic fisherman who has the highest praise for the new breed of Isthmian fish, and says without hesitation, "Peacock bass is the best eating fish in South America." The Panama Canal Review 11

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AT WHAT date the compass and the mystery of the lodestone first became known to man has never been definitely determined. Lodestone's ability to attract iron was certainly known to the Greeks in the 7th Century B.C. Thales, who lived from 640 to 546 B.C., knew about it. The origin of the word "magnet" is not well established, but it may have come from the place where the lodestone was first found in the hills of Magnesia in Asia Minor. Some historians— on the basis of a passage in Homer's Odyssey— have credited the Greeks with the use of the lodestone to direct navigation at the time of the siege of Troy. But according to Bertelli, a careful examination of the writings of more than 70 Greek and Latin authors covering the period of the 6th century B.C. to the 10th century A.D., failed to disclose any mention of the directive property of the lodestone. A Legend There has been a persistent belief that the directive property of the magnet was known to the Chinese before the beginning of the Christian era. Some wTiters say that it was known as early as 26.34 B.C. A quaint legend tells that in the reign of Huang-ti the Emperor's troops attacked some rebels led by Tchi-yeon, on the plains of Tchoulou. Finding that he was getting the worst of the fight, Tchi-yeon raised a great smoke in order to throw the adversarx' into confusion. But Huang-ti had a chariot which "indicated the south" and thus was able to pursue the rebels. Some modem scholars consider this legend as clearly mythical. Huang-ti was probably the outstanding figure of Chinese antiquity, the legendary founder of the Chinese Empire, and it would not be surprising if knowledge and acts were ascribed to him which really belonged to a much later epoch. English Monk The earliest mention of the use of the compass in Europe occurs in a Latin treatise entitled "De Utensilibus," written about 1187 by an English monk, Alexander Neckam. In another book, "De Naturis Rerum," he writes: "Mariners at sea, when through cloudy weather in the day, which hides the siui, or tlrrough the darkness of the night they lose knowledge of the quarter of the world to which they are sailing, touch a needle with a magnet which will turn around until, on its own motion ceasing, its point will be directed toward the north." At the same time (1187), de Provins, minstrel at the French court, wrote a poem referring to the use bv sailors of the compass with the floating needle. References to the compass in Chinese literature are fairly well authenticated after the 11th or 12th centuries with some indication that the Arabian navigators were the first to use a compass in Chinese waters. It \x'as not until the This lodestone, on display at the Mariners' Museum in Newport News, Va., is 4\i inches long, 2% inches wide, and 1!4 inches deep. 12 February 1971

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end of the ISth century that we know the Chinese did use the compass. A primitive floating needle was in use in Chinese waters in the 16th century. Powers of Magnet Thus we might suppose: the Chinese did know of the directive powers of a magnet by 1093 A.D. (according to an 11th century manuscript), but made no use of that property until 200 years later; also the Arabs neither invented nor introduced its use to Europe, since their earliest mention is half a century after it was first mentioned in Europe; and, since the compass was in use in western Europe by 1187 A.D., the knowledge of its power must have been known earlier; and it originated independently here as early as, if not earlier than, in China. Perhaps the mystery can best be explained by the simple fact that the compass was so miraculous that men were simply loath to talk or write about it. The first compass must have been an object of amazement, even witchery. Many of the first to use it were probably too frightened to tell anyone of its incredible power and because he became a more skilled mariner and was more in demand, the more he was apt to keep its secret. Lodestone It is to Petrus Peregrinus that we owe what is probably the first European treatise on the magnet. He gave a clear picture of the magnet and its properties. He conceived and made use of a spherical lodestone. He devised methods for locating the axis of such a magnet, finding that at the axis poles a short piece of a needle would stand perpendicular to the surface of the stone. He must also be credited with discovering the fact that when a magnet is broken into a number of pieces each piece will be magnet, and with devising the methods of touch and rubbing for reversing the polarity of a needle. He had in his improved compass the features needed to ascertain whether or not the magnetic needle pointed precisely to the north. In a letter, Peregrinus tells us that the invention of a pivoted nautical compass took place no later than 1269. Once the instrument was put in service, its >ise in navigation must have spread rapidly, giving rise to many refinements. Entire Globe The most important thing about a compass is that it opened the way to explore the entire mysterious globe. In the Middle Ages, mariners clung to the coast and to the Mediterranean Sea where they could just about smell their way around the huge lake. They would have lost themselves if out of sight of land for several days on the Atlantic or Indian Ocean. They still followed the science of cataloging the stars as advocated by Ptolemy in 150 A.D. In any case, with the invention of the compass, sailors became bolder. In 1270 Malocello found the Canary Islands. Many others followed, but we'll never know how many since each captain jealously guarded the secret of his new discovery. (With the new found powers of a compass went many superstitions. A common belief for many centuries was that a magnet would lose its directive power if rubbed with garlic and mariners were charged not to eat onions or garlic lest the odor "deprive the stone of its \irtue by weakening it and prevent them from perceiving their correct course." Earlier the lodestone was believed to have all sorts of strange powers: it could cure gout, dropsy, toothache, convulsions and had the f)ower to discern the faithfulness of a wife if the stone were laid beneath her pillow. ) Wood or Straw The earliest mariners compass consisted of a magnetized needle thrust through a crossbar of wood or straw so it would float in a bowl of water. Then came the needle pivoted on a pin rising from the bottom of the bowl. Originally only North and South were indicated. Later a card with further points was inserted. The earliest reference to a compass being used in a specific ship was in 1345 in the British ship Ceorge. Some 200 years later the mariners were sHll complaining of the crudity of the instrument, even up to 1800. It was only after the time of Columbus that the history of the compass became more clear. But the actual construction of the compass was not much improved. The needles were carelessly magnetized, sometimes one side was more powerful than the other which led to grave errors. Often weak needles lost their magnetism and revolved like a merry-go-round in the middle of the vovage. Little wonder Magellan, on his trip around the world, carried 35 spare needles. Brass Boxes How to keep the needles level during stormy weather was also a problem vmtil This traverse board is a part of the collection of the Mariners* Museum. Its use is explained in, "The Admiral of the Ocean Sea": "In Columbus' day, the only means of determining longitude was by observing eclipses of the moon. This was useful on land but not of much use in day-to-day sailing, so they had to sail by dead reckoning. On a straight course this might serve, but when it came to tacking there was no way of telling how much had been made good. By pegging the traverse board in accordance with the tacking, the steersman kept account of the sailing and the mate could then from the traverse board make up the triangle from which he could see how much had been made good." The astrolabe was used to observe the positions of celestial bodies before the invention of the sextant. The Panama Canal Review 13

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MYSTERY OF THE COMPASS the method of gimballing (the compass bowl was hung by pivots in a ring, which itself hung by a second pair of pivots at right angles to the first pair) was installed in 1550. Later brass boxes replaced wooden boxes around the 17th century. Almost every scientist and philosopher of the ages worked and mused about the compass, its magic, its power, and how it might be improved. In 1745 Dr. Gowin Knight demonstrated to the Royal Society how to improve the magnetic strength, and therefore the reliabihty, of the compass. He would take a normal weak magnet into a closed room and bring it back stronger than they had ever seen a magnet. He kept his secret until he died, but we know now that he accomplished his feat by placing the needle between a pair of huge compound magnets made up of 240 fifteeninch. bars tied together, all of which had been magnetized by stroking with a lodestone. This power was transferred to the needle when exposed to it. In 1766 Dr. Knight took out the first patent for a compass which was immediately adopted by the Royal Navy. His device had a single bar with the cap for the pivot screwed into its center. Mystery Solved When the ship Dover was struck by lightning in 1749 and the compass suddenly didn't work, it was Dr. Knight who solved the mystery. It was suspected that the compass had been demagnetized by the lightning. But even new compasses didn't work. Further study showed that the iron spikes holding the table in place had been magnetized by the flash. Unnatural hazards were always an unrecognized menace to the delicate magic of a compass. As Sir Walter Scott said: "A rusty nail placed near the fateful compass, will sway it from the truth and wreck the argosy." This was a fact not clearly recognized until about 1850. Even Captain Bligh foolishly kept his pistols near the compass drawer to entertain a host of navigating errors. Even when the compass was strengthened and perfected there were deviations and variations that affected the instrument like pesky gremlins. This may be due, we think, to the shifting of the North Pole. It had long been assumed in many writings that Columbus was the first to discover variations in the compass since historians tell of his men "muttering when the compass no longer pointed to the 'Pole Star'." But we know now that his compass was constructed with a fault. We had known that variations existed by 1450 as seen in the construction of German sundials. Nevertheless, Columbus did contribute some knowledge to the phenomena in proving that the variations were different in different parts of the world. Magnetic Pole We had thought that the exact location of the North Magnetic Pole was first determined by the famous polar explorer, James Clark Ross, in 1831— at Longitude 96 40'W and Latitude 70 ION near Cape Adelaide Regina, Boothia. But our Air Force has found that the North Magnetic Pole consists of three separate poles situated in a diameter of 500 miles. The central pole, where the earth's magnetic pull is strongest, is on the Prince of Wales Island or in Melville Bay. Another pole is on Boothia Peninsula. The third is at Bathhurst. The Prince of Wales Island center is about 1000 miles south of the tiue geographic North Pole of the earth. The Carnegie Institution of Washington during 1909 to 1929 charted the earth's magnetic lines, showing how much the magnetic needle departed from the true north-south directions in any place. The Shackleton Expedition in 1909 found the South Magnetic Pole 800 to 1000 miles north of the Soudi Pole proper, far from opposite to the North Magnetic Pole. Guinea Coast During the last 80 years the change in the earth's magnetic pattern of the Guinea Coast has been such that were it to continue at the same rate, the South Magnetic Pole would shift to the middle of the Adantic Ocean in about 1000 years, according to Dr. John A. Fleming, former director of the Carnegie Institution. Yet the great mystery of the earth's magnetism which sways the compass still remains to be solved by science and explorations. We assume that something like 95 percent of the earth's magnetism is due to causes within the earth, but what they are, nobody yet knows. The remaining force is mostly due to radiations from the sun. Thus with the sunspot cycles and changes in the sun's corona, the positions of the earth's magnetic poles and other patterns are temporarily altered. It would take volumes to chronicle all the tales, theories, errors, and corrections that led to the almost perfect compass we have today because it entails all the science of navigation and effects of the mysterious planetary force to find the simple answer at a particular time to— "Where am I?" The cross-staff dates back to about 1300. It was used to observe the heavenly bodies so that latitude and time might be deduced. With the eye placed at one end of the graduated scale the observer adjusted the crosspiece and the heavenly body was sighted just over the end of it and the horizon just under the other end. This instrument is a reph'ca of an original in the British Museum. The above article is a reprint from the Port of Mobile (Ala.) magazine. All photographs are courtesy of The Mariners Museum, Newport News, Va. 14 February 1971

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/^ \, THE "LANGUAGE of the sea" may confuse and amaze some landlubbers not acquainted with the wavs of the sailor. It's a different language guarded smugly by watermen whether they are blue water (ocean) sailors or river rats (persons who spend their time on or near rivers). Sav "right" instead of "starboard" or "left" instead of "port" and even the newest of small boat sailors will fix vou with an icv stare and set )ou straight. But few sailors realize how many slang terms used ashore originated at sea. For example, ivafch, the timepiece \ ou wear on \'our wrist or carrv in vour pocket, originated as a word in 1772 when the English circumnavigator and explorer, Capt. James Cook, referred to the first chronometer used at sea as "our trust\' friend, the watch." Ship's Bell Clock The chronometer Captain Cook was speaking of was aboard his ship the Resolution and apparentlv was a ship's bell clock that could signal each watch bv the number of bells it sounded. A watch aboard ship is a portion of time during which a part of a ship's company is on duty. The watch can also be the portion of a ship's company required to be on dutv during a v\'atch. Thus, when the chronometer signaled each watch, it became known as the watch. That term still applies to a ship's chronometer, but bas been refined over the years to mean anv portable timepiece. Some obvious and some not so ob\'ious expressions landsmen borrowed from the sea include: We're all in the same boat. Here is one of the obvious expressions that came ashore meaning we're all in the same fix. Men-0*-War He showed his true colors. This dates from the days of the sailing men-o'-war when it was wise to flv the flag of Sea Language That Came Ashore another nation when approaching a strange vessel. But before going into battle the etiquette of the sea demanded that \ou hoist (raise) your own colors. When you're groggy you feel unstead\' and weak. That salt\' (smacking of the sea or nautical life, according to Webster's Dictionary) term started to get its meaning in the 18th century when English Adm. Edward Vernon (1684-1757) ordered that British sailors be given a daih' ration of rum. (This tradition continued until 1970). Because Admiral Vernon was in the habit of wearing a grogram cloak, his crew nicknamed him "Old Grog" and his ration of rum became knov\Ti as grog. (It was Admiral Vernon who, while a member in the House of Commons, clamoured for war with Spain. He said he could capture Portobelo on Panama's Atlantic coast (the Spanish Main) with a fleet of six ships. He was gi\'en command and captured Portobelo on November 22, 1739, with a loss of only seven men.) Prize Fighter The term groggy was later used to describe a prize fighter who took too much punishment. Ship.shapc, or all shipshape and Bristol fashion, in sailor's language means a good taut ship with everything clean, neat and in place. Bristol ships of sailing days were noted for being well kept and well run. So if your kitchen (galley) is not shipshape, you best get busy. Learn the ropes. Old sailing vessels were a jungle of ropes (lines) and all bearing a certain name. When you learned the ropes you learned your job. Although the British seem to have contributed most to the nautical language, the devil to pay is French. Pay is from an old French verb meaning to spread pitch (tar) and the devil was a seam near the keel, difficult to reach. Thus, when a French sailor had the devil to pay he had a difficult task and a trying time. Like A Hoe The term at loggerheads has mellowed over the years. Today two persons at loggerheads are in a state of quarrelsome disagreement. The word originated \\'ith a tool used aboard sailing ships called a loggerhead, a steel implement resembling a gardener's hoe at the end of a long wooden handle. It was used for paying pitch into deck seams— so seamen could pay the devil. Two men were usually employed at this tedious and nerve %vracking job, each working on adjoining seams. No tar could be wasted and none of the sticky substance left on the deck outside the seams. Often a race develop)ed between the two men as they worked their way up or down the deck, and raw nerves and rivalry sometimes led to vicious battles with swinging loggerheads that gave the phrase at loggerheads its meaning. The Panama Canal Review 15

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-^\xet i\o fOO^ to ,yi\nS ca^ He showed his true colors ^i^rin 3 oil On *^^^/eoO N*V>o2 OV e
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To di'SLiibc an honest and stiaiglitfoiwaid individual we say he is open and ahovcboard. This comes from the time when tall coastal vessels were open boats, not decked over. These vessels were often boarded by government inspectors looking for evidence of smuggling. The "board" part of the phrase comes from "borde" meaning the side of a ship or boat. So anything that was open and above board was readily available for inspection. In the davs when pirating was common, shipowners hoped their ship would come in. Today, the phrase tohen my ship comes in denotes sudden wealth, a meaning which was the same in the old days. But it had a literal meaning then as men watched the seaward horizon for sign of a familiar sail. When And If In the earlv da\s of seaborne trade, promoters often sent ships to distant lands with hopes of having them return laden with profitable cargoes. To finance such projects the promoter borrowed mone\, giving the lender a promissory note to repav the debt. But since no one could possiblv sav when the vessel and its hoped-for cargo would return, no date was set for repayment of the loan. Instead the promoter promised to pay "when my ship comes in." When— and if— his ship came in, the venture would almost certainly pay off handsomely. It was just such an arrangement that sent Columbus to America, except that Columbus did not just wait around for his ship to come in, but went along with it. An old Chinese legend is said by manv to be the origin of pouring oil on troubled waters. It tells of an ancient Chinese junk, caught in a terrible storm with a cargo of fish oil stowed below in compartments separated by bulkheads. When the storm was at its fiercest, and the vessel in imminent danger of going down, the sea around the junk ceased to break over the tiny ship and became calm. The captain and his crew were at a loss to explain the change, until they discovered that a seam had split below, allowing fish oil to escape into the boiling sea. Swinging Cat When someone wishes to convey the discomfort of being in tight quarters, he will often call upon the phrase there's no room to swing a cat. The cat was the cat-o'-nine tails used to flog nnrulv sailors. BLUt MONDAY When the captain decreed that a sailor rated a flogging, the place of punishment was usually the brig. It was the custom to have all the punishments that had been adjudged during a week at sea meted out to the unlucky members of the crew all at one time on bhie Monday (obvious meaning). If it happened that the brig was too crowded the first mate would report to the captain, "Sir, there is not room to swing a cat." The master would then order the flogging done on deck where the cato'-nine tails could be swung with the proper twist of the first mate's wrist. Having mentioned starboard and port, probably the first words a \oung novice leams along with fore and aft (front and back, respectively), we should not let these temis go without further explanation. In the early days of sailing, a ship did not have a rudder as we know it, but a steering oar on the right side, or "steerborde," of the vessel. Over the centiuies the "steerborde" became "starboard." Since the right side held the steering oar, the left side had to be placed against a pier or dock when the vessel was in port. Therefore, the port side (left) of the ship was opposite to that of the "steerborde." Opposite Side But we are getting somewhat ahead of ourselves. The old Anglo-Saxon word for loading was "lading" and thus the left side of a ship became known as the "lade-borde" side. It later became "larboard," the opposite from starboard. This expression was changed onh in the 19th century to port because of the confusion resulting from the two similar terms. In a raging storm with the hvill of the ship pounding the waves and the wind roaring through the rigging orders had to be shouted. If the captain .shouted "hard to starboard" to avoid jutting rocks or coral and the helmsman thought he said "larboard," the vessel would (juicklv end up on the rocks. But e\'en toda\\ larboard is still a term used b\ western river seamen.— L.R.G. Illustrations by Carlos Mendez. The Panama Canal Review 17

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. Cane Cages Come in Many Shapes By Jose T. Tunon ^^•^URNING waste materials into Im something attractive and sale^mJ^ able is the dream of every potential entrepreneur. That dream coupled with imagination has turned the hobby of making reedlike birdcages into a profitable home industry in Panama. A small group of Panamanian farmers near the highlands of El Valle de Anton spend much of their spare time collecting the raw materials and forming them into intricate birdcages of various sizes and designs— miniature houses, churches, fire stations, airplanes, helicopters, pagodas, and recently, one 7-foot model of the Thatcher Ferry Bridge was made. The cages are nul iii.ule of reed, but • ~-% -'from the stem of the sugarcane and from the hard center strip of coconut palm leaves. The farmers most active in this small industry are from El Copecito and El Espino, communities approximately 60 miles west of Panama Cits' near the entrance of El \'alle— the home of the rare golden colored frog and the strange tree with a square trunk. Oldest Industry (Growing sugarcane is perhaps the oldest and most widespread industry in the Republic of Panama and in the last 20 years it has grown into a major export industry. The farmers use every part of the cane. From it they make a sweet refreshing juice called guarapo. In the old days it was sometimes left to ferment and the usult was a fairly strong drink the native s called cimarron. Guarapo also is boiled until it has the consistency of molasses or until it sugars. This brown sugar is molded into blocks and used to make sweets and candies. Until recently, families in the Interior sweetened their coffee with sugarcane molasses or the brown sugar. As the industry grew additional refining was necessary to sell the sugar on the world market. Another industry which uses the sugarcane as raw material is the important rum industry of Panama. Although the rums are not widely exported, they are considered b\' many rum drinkers as among the best in the region. After the juice is extracted from the cane, the fibrous residue, or bagasse, is used for fuel. In some areas bagasse is Heriberto Sanchez shows the coconut leaf fiber used to join the pieces of sugarcane stem and to reinforce the birdcages. At top: Holding a helicopter, one of his more difficult designs, and surrounded by other cages which attest to his skill as an artesan, is Julio Torres of El Espino. Above: Heriberto Sanchez makes a star-shaped cage on the porch of his home in El Copecito. 18 February 1971

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made into wallboard. The leaves also are used, for cattle fodder. What is left is the slender stem, or viruli, of the sugarcane blossom which for many years has been used all over Panama for making kites and more recently the birdcages of El Valle. Consti-uction Viruli is easy to handle and is fairly strong. The pieces may be cut or broken at any desired length. Strips of coconut leaf fiber are used to join the pieces of stem to reinforce the bird cage construction. Though fragile looking, the cages are durable and withstand the weather even if hung outside for years. One of the manufacturers of the birdcages is Heriberto Sanchez. He is an expert and some of his creations are true works of art. His tools include a machete for cutting the coconut palm leaves, a well sharpened penknife for extracting the fibers from the leaves, and an awl for making holes in the stems to place the fibers. Most of the cages Sanchez makes are in the form of a house or a church. But his pride and joy is a model of the Thatcher Ferry Bridge. For the base he used two 7-foot lengths of white cane (of the same family as sugarcane) often used for building the rustic native huts of the Interior. He sold the bridge cage to Miss Marsha Collins of the Canal Zone. It was so big it had to be divided into three sections so it would fit in the car. According to Sanchez, the best time to cut vinili is in November when the sugar cane is in bloom. A 13-year-oId nephew, Enrique Quintero, helps him to cut the cane and to make the birdcages. The boy's real ambition, however, is to go to school in Panama City and leam to be an airplane mechanic. The money he earns goes toward his education. Filled With Cages Another artist at making birdcages is Julio Torres, an 18-year-old youth from El Espino. His father has a grocery stand on the side of the road. Torres has a bohio in front of his father's place and it is practically filled with cages of all kinds. His creations average about 2 feet in length and 1 foot in width. In the cages are little bars for the birds to perch on. He sells the simple cages for $1..50 to $2 and the more complicated ones foiS3. Others, depending on the work involved, cost a little more. It takes from 1 to 2 days to make a cage, depending on the size. .\ cage in the form of a house, pagoda, tower, or airplane takes about a day to make. A helicopter takes a little longer. Marsha Collins, center, of i:)iablo Heights, with the help of her sister, Cnstma, right, and Carmen Graciela Lee, displays the model of the Thatcher Ferry Bridge which she bought from Heriberto Sanchez. In the background is the real Thatcher Ferry Bridge which crosses the Panama Canal. A fishing boat with cranes and net throwers takes much longer to make and sells for $3.50. Torres, who has a grade school education, makes his living on the birdcages. Since business is not very good during the rainy season, he makes most of them in November and has a large supply ready when the dry season sets in and visitors go to the area. Heriberto Sanchez shows the intricate work involved in fashioning a star-type cage. k On some Sundays he earns as much as $35 selling birdcages. An efiEort is being made by the National Artesan and Small Industries Service (SENAPI), sponsored by the United Nations and the Panama Government, to find other markets for the cages. A building material with many uses, viruli is also used to make picture frames. Heriberto Sinchez cuts the fully developed slender sugarcane stem, the material from which the cages are made. The Panama Canal Review 19

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OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER John R. DeCnimmond, Jr. Supervisory Cashier MARINE BUREAU Thomas E. Semper Leader Seaman TRANSPORTATION AND TE BUREAU Leonard F. Wright Service Station Attendant Ervin D. Hicks Guard Supervisor Henry G. Fergus I. Supervisor>' Supply Clerk Astor N. Lewis Supply Technician ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Fide! C. Mackay Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Plant erator :endant HEALTH BUREAU andrade Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery) Arnold A. Grenion Pharmacy Assistant OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER TTieodore R. Jemmott Bookkeeping Machine Operator William A. Wichmann Systems Accountant Alice H. Roche Super\'isory Accounting Technician John J. Fallon Payroll Systems Officer PERSONNEL BUREAU Michael E. Charles Clerk-Typist ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION Cirilo Alexander Leader, Bindery and Finish Worker Albertina H. Vaz Bindery Worker MARINE BUREAU Joseph N. Springer Clerk Joseph Peters Clerk-Typist Bernard Serbinio Painter S. Villafranco Carpenter (Maintenance) Santiago Sanford Oiler Henry Peters Helper Lock Operator Ladislao Hernandez Helper Lock Operator Upton W. Naron Towing Locomotive Oper; Osmond N. Austin Towing Locomotive Oper; Alfred J. Sterling Motor Laimch Operator Earle Johnson Motor Laujich Operator Juan A. Henriquez Boatman (Locks) Albert Elliot Leader Seaman Willston N. KeUy Oiler (Floating Plant) Carlos B. Ledezma Leader Line Handler (Deckhand Boatswain) Jos^ Pereira Line Handler Pablo Segura Line Handler Benjamin Quinones Line Handler (Deckhand) Francis T. Young Marine Traffic Controller (Terminal) Ramon Gonzalez Oiler Manuel I. Alvarado Oiler Edward H. Womble Lock Operator (Iron WorkerWelder) Enrique Garcia Helper Lock Operator Marion B. Woodruff Towing Locomotive Operator (Locks) Prudencio Sianca Boatman (Locks) Alfred V. George Leader Seaman Harold Nf. Brathwaite Oiler (Floating Plant) Herman C. Lever Leader Line Handler (Deckhand Boatswain) Clarence F. Lewis Line Handler (Deckhand) Clarence L. Searles Line Handler (Deckhand) Edgardo U. Petit Marine Traffic Clerk Abraham Felixson Supervisor>' Supply Clerk Luis V^Uz Asphalt or Cement Worker Byron B. Bow en Carpenter Patricio Pinto Oiler Rufus L. Carey Control House Operator Eric A. Ollivierre Motor Launch Operator Pedro Morales Boatman (Locks) Duldy R. Robinson in-Charge, Towboat n-Charge, Towboat Plant) ATION AND TERMINALS BUREAU Allie W. Bruno Clerk Marcelino Rose Chauffeur Julio C. G6ngora Guard Joseph G. Reardon Administrative Services Assistant Massey Wall Messenger Ashton J. Pinnock Lead Foreman (Dock Stevedoring) Peter A. Tortorici Chief Foreman (Ship Stevedoring) Bruno Nazas Helper Heavy Duty Equippn'nt Mechanic Thomas N. Etchberger, Jr. Guard Levy Beckford Cargo Checker Benito Chiari Stevedore C. P. Carbones Laborer (Cleaner) WiUiam R. Dixon Genera! Foreman (Automotive Vehicle Operations) Samuel Ellis Cannan {Wood and Steel— Maintenance) 20 February 1971

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SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE BUREAU Lancelot L. Llewelyn Cafeteria Manager Earl W. Sears Housing Management Officer Curly McCree Sales Store Checker Ursil L. Glean Sales Store Clerk Rose E. Lewis Sales Store Checker Hortencio Aranda Laborer Nathaniel Failey Laborer Lessly G. Edwards Tree Trimmer Cleophas M. Lyder Laborer (Cleaner) James S. Raymond General Foreman (Grounds) Arturo Range) Cemeter>' Worker Sebastian Martinez Grounds Maintenance Equipment Operator Valentin Arias \\* a r ehous em an Tiburcio Gonzalez Stockman (Cold Storage) Rye Birs Leader Stockman Carmen I. Lugo Marker and Sorter Carlota Nichols Counterwoman Angelica de Joya Meat \\'rapper Roderick L. Hart Clerk Magdalena L. Bushell Super\isory Clerk Ruben H. Blanchett Supply Clerk Maurice L. Wilson Supply Clerk Vincent Sealey Snper\isor\ SiippK Clerk Naziana A. Cenac Sales Store Clerk Mandolin O. Gittens Sales Store Clerk Augusta Brown Sales Store Clerk Ema C. Spencer Sales Store Checker Hortense C. Thomas Sales Store Checker Alipio Galv^n Laborer (Heavy) Cilberto Jimenez High Lift Truck Operator (Cold Storage) Frances M. Jones Warehouseman A. Brathwaite Dr>' Cleaner Ralph H. Worme Ice Cream Maker Enid M. HaU Clerk Charles T. Mayers Snppl>' Clerk Dorothy A. Headley Supply Clerk Ceraldin L. Watson Supply Clerk Albert Smith Supply Clerk Cyrus A. Morris Supervisory Supply Clerk Virginia M. Orville Sales Store Clerk Luther E. Gray Leader Laborer (Heavy) Lanford Gittens Laborer G. G. Blandford Leader Carpenter Llewellyn O. Bowen Lead Foreman (Grounds) Julio Arauz R. Garbage Collector Nazario De Gracia Ground Maintenance Equipment Operator (Small) Honorio Magan Crane Hookman James Griffith Leader Spotter Samuel C. Turner Cook Silvia G. Wint Cook (Short Order) Wilford B. McQueen Lead Foreman (Meat Cutter) Alfred Coward Utility Worker ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION BUREAU Edwin J. Compton Super\isor\' Construction Inspector Jose D. P^rez Surveying Aid Joaquin Martinez Electrician (Lineman) Enrique A. Jaen Meter Repairman Ko r em aji^Pua rt er9 Prosperl Leader Asphalt or Concrete Mixing Plant Operator Hilario Rodriguez Boatman Gabriel Rivera Seaman Aquilino Castillo Seaman Martin Caceres Seaman Ivan Temple Leader Seaman Patrocinio Gonzalez Oiler (Floating Plant) Ray D. Wilson, Jr. Mechanical Ensineering Technician Alberto Arispe C. Surveying Aid Willard W. Huffman Leader Central Office Repairman Manuel M. Tello \\'inchman Louis E. Jarrett Painter (Maintenance) Venancio Arauz Seaman Walter W. Shan Leader (Deck Operations, Dredge) Alfonso Headley Oiler (Floating Plant) luan T. Flemings Oiler (Floating Plant) Wilfred N. Grant Cook (Floating Plant) Auguste J. Agnoly Helper (General) Thelma M. Sasso Secretary (Stenography) Charles S. Malsbury Meteorological Technician (General) Alva A, Nurse Helper Electrician Paulino Ruiz Electrician (Lineman) Everardo Asprilla Leader Painter (Maintenance) Jesus M. Medina Painter (Sign) Cleveland G. Davis Helper Pipefitter Charles W. Jarvis Carpenter (Maintenance) William C. Williford Chief Foreman (Building and Maintenance Shops) Rupert S. Brown Maintenanceman Alphonso A. Cox Residual Fuel Treatment Plant Operator Stephen J. Henry Industrial Tractor Operator Alberto Simpson Crane Hookman (Heavy) Gertrudis Rodriguez Seaman Juan D. Mor^n Seaman Jo$£ M. Anchundia Seaman Rupert A. Frank Chief Engineer, Towboal Hemin Arroyo Oiler (Floating Plant) Juan D. Colome Oiler (Floating Plant) CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU Juan A. Cazoria Liaison Agent Robert A. Wainio Super\isor\Customs Inspector Horace I.. Smith Customs Inspector Kenneth K. Coleman Fire Captain David W. Lowe, Jr. Fire Lieutenant Robert W. Lawyer Police Lieutenant Ethel L. Lucas Clerk-Typist Sylvia J. Stoute Teacher (Junior High-L. A. Schools) HEALTH BUREAU Alphonsine Almont Nursing Assistant Claren A. Boyce Nursing Assistant (Medicine and Surgery) Ephraim B. Campbell Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry) Vernon Edwards Nursing Assistant (Psychiatry) Ruth A. Fishboufih Medical Record Librarian Frederick H. Taylor Nursing Assistant (Operating Room) Mary B. Pitterson Clerk-Typist Luis Sampris Laborer (Heavy) Anniversaries are on the basis of total Federal service. The Panama Canal Review 21

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The Reefer Trade \\ Keeping It @@@|J' At lop: The new "E^arta," a modem United Fruit refrigerated ship, is loaded with bananas at the Almirante pier in the Republic of Panama. The bananas are shipped to the dock in railroad cars. Bottom: The ice delivery wagon sets out from the Cristobal Cold Storage Plant in 1910. Before the day of the reefer ship and frozen foods, the ice wagon was a common sight in the Canal Zone. By Eunice Richard /^WHERE WAS no cold storage I plant— so we bought most of our ^mir meat from a man who peddled it from a horse's back. He would come over from the slaughterhouse at Empire and peddle the meat through the streets of old Culebra and Rio Grande. It was far from tempting stuff but we were working hard and were hungr\'. Of course there was no ice and such butter as we had came tinned— vegetables rotted rapidly and we lived largelv out of cans." This was a stor\' told bv John J. Meehan, Panama Canal construction worker in early 1905, shortly after the United States started work on the Panama Canal. Meehan was soon to learn firsthand of the wonders of refrigerated and frozen food and the methods that were being worked out to transport it to the Isthmus. From the early days, when the Canal brought in a few tons of chilled meat, to today when hundreds of fast new refrigeration ships pass through the Canal carrying frozen and chilled cargo, the system of preserving and tiansporting food around the world has progressed from the stage of the horsedrawn cart to the jumbo jet. The Isthmian Canal Commission soon discovered that the vital problem of subsistence and the provision of a plentiful suppK' of fresh and healthful food for Canal workers was as important as the sanitation of the Canal Zone. 65 Years Ago It was in late 1905 that the commission, assuming full responsibility for feeding its employees and their dependents, decided to erect a cold storage plant, install refrigeration machinery in the Panama Railroad steamers for transportation of perishable supplies, and order refrigerator cars for the Panama Railroad. Bv 1907 the subsistence depot at Cristobal was the principal source of food supplv for the 50,000 people living in the Canal Zone. A train of 13 cars, 8 for cold storage and 5 for other supplies, loaded with foodstuffs and ice, left Cristobal every morning at 4:30 a.m. and delivered supplies at points along the construction line. Canal Zone housewives, fresh out of the temperate climates, where storage of food was never too much of a problem, had to be instructed by the Commissary Division on the purchasing and 22 February 1971

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keeping of cold storage meats and fowls in the tropics to insure their being kept "sweet and wholesome." The Canal Recoud in 1907 said there ivas an impression in the minds of some people in the Canal Zone that cold storage meats were not wholesome, an impression which was erroneous. The Reconi) reassured evervone: "In fact, there is vcr\ little meat used in the United States that is not put in cold storage, and it adds to the quality and wholesomeness of the meat to chill it prior to use. This applies to all varieties of meats and bv a little care on the part of those buN ing meats from the cold storage, the people on the Isthmus can have as good and wholesome meats as can be purchased in New York or elsewhere." Fresh Supplies Bv 1910, the Canal Record reported a movement of fresh supplies, many of which are still being brought into the Canal Zone b\' refrigerated ships from the United States, but most fresh fruits and vegetables now being consumed locally are grown in Panama. The Record said the first fresh fruits to be brought to the Isthmus in 1910 were 2,000 pounds of cherries and 1 ,000 pounds of plums arriving from New Orleans. Another ship from New Orleans brought blackberries, cherries and 2 tons of new tomatoes. Despite the fact that in the early days Canal officials were somewhat slow in supplying cold storage food to construction emploxees, the method of refrigerated transport bv sea was by that time more than 30 years old. According to a recent article in the American Bureau of Shipping quarterly magazine. Surveyor, general cargo vessels first carried some chilled commodities in special insulated compartments (including New England ice packed in straw and sawdust for shipment to tropical India ) Reefers Large scale shipping by refrigerated ships— nicknamed "reefers"— seems to have gotten started in the 1870's when auxiliarv steamers began carrying frozen beef carcasses from the United States and Australia to the United Kingdom. Freezing was maintained by recirculating air around blocks of ice. British ship operators, who first applied mechanical refrigeration to ocean transport, soon began adopting systems where brine was used as a secondar\ refrigerant; a primary refrigerant transThe "Santa Lucia" with 1.31,000 cubic feet of refrigerated cargo space is a good example of a general cargo ship with substantial reefer capacity. The 560-foot vessel was built by Sun Shipbuilding in 1966 for the Grace Line (now Prudential-Grace). The old 330-foot "Esparta" was one of the first ships built especially for the United Fruit Co.'s banana trade. It was delivered in 1904. A single-screw coal-burner, she carried 45,000 bunches of bananas and 18 passengers at 12!4 knots. t BANANAS 4 FRUIT (DCCIDOOUS) • ... FISH AND SHELLFISH a^^B B££F. SHEEP. BUTTER AND CHEESE Map shows major international reefer routes. Bananas from Africa to Italy are shipped overland to bypass the Suez Canal. The Panama Canal Review 23

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Assisted by the Panama Canal tug "Rousseau," a United Fruit ship moves through the Panama Canal on way to the east coast United States. mitted its cold to brine, which was piped to locations in each hold where air circulating fans blew across the cold brine coils. The United Fruit Co., formed in 1899 when an interest developed in tropical fruits, particularly bananas, for markets in North America and Europe, was one of the Canal's first and best customers. It was also one of the first companies to transport refrigerated supplies to the Canal construction workers. The banana ships brought supplies to the Canal and carried bananas north, an arrangement advantageous to all concerned. The banana boats were reallv the first refrigerated ships. The practice had been to carrv bananas under ventilation in specially constructed vessels making 9 knots, a good speed for their day. When the British idea of applying refrigeration to bananas was tried, no one knew what would happen to a large mass of banana bunches exposed to cold. It was tried with Costa Rican fruit in In the days before refrigerated ships, beef had to be transported on the hoof. Typical of the operation is this scene showing cattle being unloaded at Callao, Peru. an old wooden ship named the Venus, specially fitted for the experiment. After a series of tiial and error experiments, a carrying temperature of 53 was established for bananas and the true banana boat was bom. Diesel Power As time went by, capacities increased from an average of approximately 180,000 cubic feet in the earlv 1950's to the present average of about 300,000 cubic feet, with a dozen or more in the 400,000 cubic foot range. With the larger vessels came higher speeds and the 16-knot vessel of 15 vears ago has become the diesel powered 19to 22knot ship of todav. Three recenth' placed in service bv the United Fruit Co. which use the Panama Canal are the Mafina, Mafagua, and Movant, each with a capacity for 175,000 40-pound boxes of bananas and with a service speed of 22 knots. Today, hundreds of reefer ships pass through the Panama Canal, but United Fruit is still one of the largest operators of full refrigerated ships. E^ch month more than 40 pass through the Canal in both directions. Other reefer operations using the Canal are the Belgian Fruit Lines, and the Willi Bruns Fruitships which specialize in regular service delivering bananas in 14 days from Guayaquil, Ecuador to Antwerp, Belgium via Cork, Ireland. On the return voyage, the Belgian ships may carry automobiles, cardboard rolls, and general cargo. According to the Surveyor, the highest volume reefer trades are from New Zealand and Australia to North America and the United Kingdom. These routes were created to transport New Zealand and Australian beef, veal, mutton, lamb, cheese, butter, and fruit. In 1966, Australia's reefer trade handled about $400 million worth of produce, $240 million of which was accounted for by 285,500 tons of fresh, frozen, and chilled beef and veal. New Zealand's reefer exports totaled $505 million in 1966 most of which was butter and lamb. Beef Exports Most all of the New Zealand and Australian reefer ships enroute to the U.S. east coast and Europe use the Panama Canal, and between them thev account for 30 percent of the world's beef experts, which total about 1 million tons. The captive or companv-owned operation is best represented by the United Fruit Co.'s "Great White Fleet" which annually transports about 100 million boxes of bananas to North America and Europe. Sixty percent of the bananas originate from companv-owned or operated plantations in Panama, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Guatemala. The remaining bananas sold bv the companv are purchased from independent suppliers under contracts with the compan^, and on the open market. Much of the tramp reefer business originates from opposite seasons in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere when fruits harvested in South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand are shipped to Europe and North America from February through June. From September through December deciduous fruit is shipped from the northwestern United States to South America and Europe. Manv companies such as the Flota Mercante Grancolombiana S.A., another Canal customer, which operates a 40-ship fleet of 400,000 deadweight tons, carries reefer cargo when it is available, in small refrigerated compartments. Continued Demand The Surveyor says that it is a certainty that the demand for refrigerated cargo space will continue to rise, probably at an annual rate of 5 to 7 percent, and that new refrigerated ships will be built to meet this demand. But whether these new ships will be of the conventional break-bulk variety or container ships with hundreds of refrigerated containers each cooled in a reefer hold when below deck or by a clip-on unit when on deck, will be decided later. These methods are already being used by the Prudential Grace ships, general cargo vessels with reefer and container accommodations, which carry Panama shrimp to New York. The ships operated by Sea Land Service on an intercoastal trade also have refrigerated container accommodations. It is quite probable, the Surveyor article says, that in coming decades a considerable segment of the world's refrigerated cargo fleet will be containerized. Refrigerated routes from New Zealand and Australia to the United Kingdom and North America, many of which pass through the Canal, probably will be first to see large scale container operations. But, the Surveyor article concludes, regardless of the form reefer ship operations may assume in the years to come, the refrigerated ship will continue to thrive as an essential vehicle in feeding tens of millions of the world's population. 24 February 1971

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SHIPPING NOTES New Cruise Liner A NEW cruise ship named the Ocean Monarch will be placed in service this spring by the Shaw Savill Line, joining the popular Southern Cross and Northern Star, both regular Panama Canal customers during recent years. The Ocean Monarch, the former Empress of England, is being converted at Cammell Laird Ltd. of Birkenhead, England, into a one-class tourist ship capable of carrying 1,400 passengers. It is the biggest conversion undertaken in England in many years. The increased passenger accommodations will be provided by removal of cargo spaces, hatch squares, and trunks. Extensive work also is being undertaken in reconstruction and modernization of crew accommodations. The existing funnel deck, formerly unused by passengers, is to be fitted with screens and decked over to make an additional simdeck area. The plans call for construction of an entirely new lido area which incorporates a new swimming pool, paddling pool, and bar. According to an article in the Fairplay International SrappiNG Journal, the popular feature of both the Northern Star and Southern Cross is the Tavern. The Ocean Monarch is to have a Tavern, too. It is an additional room seating 250 j>ersons with bar and dance floor, opening on to a veranda deck which is to be constructed. Extensive alterations will be made to the Empress Room to enable live shows to be presented. The 200 seat cinema is to remain so it will be possible to accommodate more than half the passengers at one time for either a movie or a live show in the theater. Other innovations are a bank, shopping area, and a shore excursion office. The Ocean Monarch will enter the cruising scene in April when she will sail from Southampton on a Mediterranean cruise. The Shaw Savill Line will offer a total of 26 cruises in 1971. Pacific Ford is the agent at the Panama Canal. Underwater Tanker WITH OIL pollution paramount among the problems facing oil companies, a proposal by General Dynamics to transport oil by means of underwater tankers could start a revolutionary trend in shipping. The company already has plans to build 900-foot submarines to move oil from the Arctic to ice-free regions of the North Atlantic. Roger Lewis, president of General DvTiamics, said, "The Arctic submarine, operating submerged, enjoys a steady 28 degree temperature and protection from ice, wind, waves, and storms. In this constant and protected environment, the submarine is exposed to a minimum of environmental hazards." As proposed, the tanker will be capable of carrying 170,000 tons of oil in her rectangular-shaped hull. She would have a beam of 140 feet and a hull depth of 85 feet. Tvdn screws would give the submarine a speed of 18 knots. Lewis said studies showed "the submarine-tanker will achieve substantially lower costs than those attributed to projected pipeline systems." v ....... PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC STATISTICS FOR FIRST 6 MONTHS OF FISCAL YEAR 1971 TRANSrrS (Oceangoing Vessels) 1971 1970 Commercial 6,791 6,760 U.S. Government 311 635 Free 60 54 Total 7,162 7,449 TOLLS* Commercial.-$47,483,969 $47,037,608 U.S. Government-1,888.257 3,595,285 Total $49,370,226 $50,632,893 CARGO" Commercial 59,709.183 55,739,168 U.S. Government 1,345,737 2,359,144 Free 90,215 81,538 Total 61,145,135 58,179,850 •Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing and small. ••Cargo flsuies are In long tons. N U M B E R F T R A N S I T S 1,300

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SHIPPING New Cruise Service NORWEGIAN STEAMSHIP companies have formed a joint subsidiary to operate a new worldwide passenger cruise service. The new cruise company, Royal Viking Line, has signed a $70 million contract with a Helsinki shipyard for the construction of three luxury cruise liners. Each ship wiU be able to carry 520 passengers in 280 stateroom and have a gross tonnage of 21,500 with a service speed of 21.5 knots. The first liner is scheduled for delivery in June 1972 and the two sister ships in 1973. Warren S. Titus, former president of American President Line's passenger service subsidiary, was named president of the new company. Headquarters of Royal Viking is in San Francisco. Largest Transport GENERAL DYNAMICS Corp. at its shipyard in Quincy Mass., is constructing the world's largest cargo transport for the Lykes Bros. Steamship Co., Inc. Named the Doctor Lykes, the ship is among the new class of commercial cargo vessels known as Seabees— a type of barge carrier. Doctor Lykes, was designed to pass through the Panama Canal if necessary. She will be 875 feet long and will have a beam of 106 feet. The ship will have a power plant of 36,000 horsepower, the largest ever installed in a single-screw cargo vessel, and will be capable of producing speeds of 20 knots or better. The Seabee class has an advantage over conventional ships in that the vessels are not required to enter crowded ports. The ships can anchor in any protected offshore area and unload all their barges in as little as 13 hours. The Doctor Lykes will carry 38 barges containing 24,500 long tons of cargo. The cargo space can be used to carry 1,800 containers of standard size, roll-on/roll-off vehicles or unitized loads. The Seabees also can carry 15,000 tons of liquid cargo, giving the ships a cargo-handling flexibility unmatched by other vessels. CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF VESSELS

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PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL (All cargo figures in long tons) Pacific to Atlantic Commodity Ores, various Sugar Iron and steel plates, sheets and coils Boards and planks Petroleum and products Metals, various Fishmeal Pulpwood Food in refrigeration ( excluding bananas) Petroleum coke Bananas Plywood and veneers Iron and steel manufactures, miscellaneous Iron and steel wire, bars and rods Canned food products All others Total __First Half, Fiscal Year 1971

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CS\JLl.lCtSLT'-y 0£i>X>< 5ainne theme SEVICHE shrimp seviche, served with saltines, tops the list of fa\orite Panama hors d'oeuvres. Its fame also has spread to the United States where it is served at cocktail parties and dinners. By Fannie P. Hemdndez ONE OF the most popular and wellknown hors d'oeuvres in Panama is a raw fish dish that is becoming more and more popular at the most discriminating restaurants. Called seviche, this zippy Latin American appetizer also is sp>elled sebiche, cebiche, or ceviche— depending upon the locale. Basically, seviche is made of any good quality white fish, shrimp or scallops "cooked" in citrus juice. Several countries claim the origin of this ingenious way of serving fish not cooked in the customary manner. Peru, Ecuador, and Panama, all refer to it as their very own. Centuries ago, however, the Japanese were dipping raw sardines in soy sauce and popping them into their mouths, and Sashimi, fish marinated in soy sauce and lemon juice, has been a favorite Japanese dish for about 2,000 years. Sashimi could very well be the forerunner of seviche. Lemon juice for preserving fish was introduced into Japan from China or another area of Asia where citrus fruit had its origin. As Japan is surrounded by waters swarming with fish, this food has been an important item in the Japanese diet since ancient times. Spirited Appetizer Whoever first hit upon the idea of cooking by marinating in citrus juice : deserves credit for a favorite hors d'oeuvre being ofiFered at cocktail pari ties and dinners, not only in Latin America, but in many cities in the United States and other countries where hostesses have discovered the excellence 28 February 1971

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^\ of the tast)-, spirited appetizer. The idea has caught on and spread Hke the fire of the nippy hot peppers that enhance the flavor and aid the cooking process. From its probable humble source in Japan, to its enthusiastic acceptance in Peru, Ecuador, Mexico, and Panama, the respectability of the raw fish appetizer has extended to well-known restaurants in New York City. Immediate acceptance and continued popularity of seviche may be due to the fact that it is not only pleasing to the palate but also nutritious and simple to prepare. Any food which can be prepared ahead and served the following dav, or even da\s later, is bound to win the approval of today's busy hostess. The Marinade Variations in the flavor of seviche depend upon the particular citrus juice or combination of juices and the other ingredients used in the marinade. The marinade juice could be lemon, lime, or sour orange, or a combination of two, or even all three juices. The acid in the citrus juice and the action of salt called for in recipes prevent the growth of micro-organisms in the fish, softening the fibers as they penetrate. The enhancing ingredients— hot pepp>ers, green peppers, garlic, and onion— give seviche its pleasing gusto. Each Latin American country has given seviche its own touch of individuality by adding its own particular garnishes. In Peru, seviche is served with slices of cold sweet potatoes or com-on-the-cob, while in neighboring Ecuador, it is accompanied bv popcorn, potato chips, nuts, or the giant kernels of com native to that country. Panamanian hostesses serve seviche uith buttered saltine crackers or in dainty pastry shells. It is also served in a large crystal bowl with the guests helping themselves, either by spearing it with toothpicks or filling the pastry shells. In Mexico, seviche is accompanied by slices of raw onions and served on toasted tortillas. Favorite Recipes Following are a number of favorite recipes for making seviche. Depending on how it is served, 1 pound of fish is enougli for four to six servings. Here is a version of seviche which Japanese housewives were making hundreds of years ago. They call it sashimi and serve it with horseradish or very strong mustard. (Note the omission of hot pepper.) 2 pounds fish fillets 2 cups lemon juice Ji cup soy sauce a cup thinly sliced onions a teaspoon white pepper 1 teaspoon salt Remove the skin from fillets and slice Vs inch thick. Mix the other ingredients and pour over the fillets which have been placed in a glass bowl or platter. Let it marinate overnight. Peruvian Seviche The Peruvian cook cleans the fish and lets it soak in salt water for 10 minutes and then removes it and pats it dry. 1 pound fresh fillets of corhina, red snapper, or any good quality whitefish juice of three lemons juice of three sour oranges or limes one medium onion, thinly sliced salt and pepper to taste a pinch of cayenne pepper 1 clove garlic, minced 1 hot pepper, chopped fine 2 tablespoons chopped parsley 2 tablespoons chopped cdantro (coriander) Cut fish into pieces and place on a platter. Place the thinly sliced onions on the fish. Then add the remaining ingredients, covering with the juices. Place in refrigerator for at least 4 hours before serving. Serve on bed of lettuce and garnish with cold sweet potato or com-on-the-cob. Enjoying an appetizer of corbina seviche in the DeLesseps Room at Hotel El Panama are Mr. and Mrs. Stephen A. Bissell of Balboa. Corbina seviche is served at most hotels and restaurants throughout the Republic of Panama. The Panama Canal Review 29

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50 Years Ago J.S. NAVAL and aviation history was Tiade in 1921 as the major parts of the Atlantic and Pacific fleets gathered at he Panama Canal. Fourteen U.S. Navy seaplanes left San Diego for a 3,200nile journey to Panama in December 1920. Only 12 made it-stiU something if an event 50 years ago when U.S. aviadon was just in the infant stage. They irrived here in ]anuar\'. The ships came to the Canal From Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, passing through the Canal on January 20 and clearing January 24 for Callao, Peru. They returned February 18 and remained a week before returning to Guantanamo. The battleships Mississippi and New Mexico and the hospital ship Mercy anchored in the inner harbor on the Pacific side. The other vessels anchored in the bay east^vard of Naos Island and seaward of the anchorage of the seaplanes which arrived on January 15. There were approximately 50 warships in the armada. The seaplanes covered the 3,200 nautical miles in 17 days with 8 intermediate stops. Two failed to make the trip, one because of a storm and the other developed engine trouble. a o o The battleship New Mexico, flagship of the Pacific fleet was put into drydock in Balboa on January 19 for routine work. It was the largest ship (6.34 feet) to dr\dock at the Canal up to that time. The Chilean dreadnaught Almirante, just slightly smaller than the New Mexico, went into the same drydock on January 14. The handling of two such ships in a week was an historic event for the Balboa drvdock. CANAL HISTORY 25 Yzars Ago SHIPPING WAS beginning to resume regular schedules 25 years ago as the Canal Zone along with the rest of the uorld slowly returned to peacetime operations following the cessation of hostilities in the Pacific. The prevailing Pacific-bound traffic reversed in October 1945 as a large number of vessels began arriving for transit to Atlantic ports. On October 22 and 23, transits were restricted to Atlantic bound ships only in order to relieve the congestion which had occurred in Balboa. On those 2 days 68 ships passed through the waterway. o o o In December 1945, Balboa ceased to be the homeport for a fleet of oil tankers employed in carr\'ing cargoes to the Pacific war theater. During the year the Panama Line's three combination passenger-cargo ships, Panama, Cristobal, and Ancon, were returned to the Canal organization after serving several years in war service. The vessels suffered no major damage during the war. The SS Panama and SS Cristobal were operated by the U.S. Army as troop transf)orts while the SS Ancon, after being utilized as a troop transport for a short period, was con\erted by the U.S. Navy into a communications and command ship. The Governor's annual report said the return of the ships would bring long awaited relief to Canal employees who lacked adequate transportation the previous 5 years. U.S. Navy torpedo destroyers at Balboa, February 22, 1921. 10 Years Ago DECEMBER 1960 began with a deluge of rain that concentrated more on the Atlantic side than on the Pacific. Diu-ing the first 6 days of the month Cristobal reported 19.30 inches of rainfall during a 24-hour period. The John F. Wallace, first of the Panama Canal's three new and more {wwerful tugs, arrived in Cristobal early in January 1961. On the way to the Isthmus, the new vessel participated in a rescue mission involving a group of Cuban refugees off the coast of Florida. A contract for installation of air conditioning in four Panama Canal oflice buildings in Ancon and construction of a central chilled water plant to service the buildings was awarded to W. B. Uhlhom Construction Co. of Texas at a base bid of $224,500. Foundation tests with pressures up to 100 tons per square foot were used to test the strength of the rock on which the foundations of the new Gorgas Hospital annex was to be built. The tests were made in January 1961 by the Panama Canal Maintenance Division with pressure applied on a steel column sunk 50 to 60 feet into the earth. One Year Ago MORE THAN 5,500 Panama Canal employees received pay raises effective February 1, 1970, as a result of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage provisions. The new increases raised the minimum rate from $1.30 to $1.45 an hour. Installation of new rubber fendering, which is designed to minimize damage to ships should they strike the locks' walls, was started last January 18 in the east lane of Miraflores Locks. Similar rubber fendering had been installed in the other two sets of Panama Canal locks and was one of a series of projects carried out by the Marine Bureau to improve service and speed up ship transits. The Panama Canal Review 31

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